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Final Review Packet

by: Madison Parker

Final Review Packet ANTH 1010-1

Madison Parker
Humankind in Context
Lawrence Conyers

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About this Document

This set of notes goes from the beginning of agriculture to modern day with marriage and religion. The set also has extensions from the professor on top of the notes that were given.
Humankind in Context
Lawrence Conyers
Anthropology, agriculture, marriage, religion, Linguistics, social structures, Archaeology
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Date Created: 11/19/15
Lesson 6 Wednesday November 18 2015 803 PM Homo sapiens what makes our species different than those before us 0 Neanderthals and remnant Homo Erectus went extinct why 0 Perhaps we thought differently but how is this shown in the archaeological record 0 Did evolution choose for us to have more complex thoughts to survive changes in the environment 0 Ex figured out new ways to find and collect food I Mating both males and females were trying to find mates to make them more successful Intelligence Similarity I Communication our species probably sat around and talked and had more time to do so I Tool making I Dealing with and exploiting plants domestication and beginning of agriculture I Flexible ways of dealing with problems III Able to move on to other areas in times of drought or such III Solutions are easily passed down because of language 0 Language 0 Written 0 Art 0 Verbal Possible songs stories legends andor religion 0 Modern people use 40000 words a day I Equivalent to 46 hours of speech I Men use 12 of words per day than women do 0 Interesting study done at University of Liverpool in England I Studied what people talked about I Only 14 was about academics I Moves of it was quottrivialquot I This is done to build relationships I Conclusion was that are an intelligent social species III Convey and infinite number of complex thoughts I All people can benefit from strokes of genius accidental discoveries and trial and error wisdom 0 Interesting group I Family in Turkey are not bipedal only walk on all fours III Possible skeletal abnormality III Farther out center of gravity 0 We are the product of pleistocene complex environmental change selected for traits we still have 0 Ex agriculture 9000 years ago is something new that were a dependent upon 0 Writing 7000 years ago 0 Mass production of written materials 500 years ago 0 Items like clothing cell phones makeup haircuts just conceal the African apes style 0 Only recent adaptations things that are changing 0 Skin pigment 0 Ability to ingest and metabolize foods such as milk grains processed foods I Largely due to the domestication of animals 0 By in large everything else we do is adapted for the plains of Africa In Class Notes Page 1 Lesson 7 Tuesday October 27 2015 801 AM Changes at the end of the Palestic Era 0 Origins of domestication 0 During the last 15000 years humans have physically changed very little 0 From this change we shifted in culture due to subsistence Moved from hunters and gathers to sedentary agricultural people Ecosystem changes 0 Paleoithic big game hunters cave art 0 Mesolithic hunting smaller animals seafood This had to be done because the large Ice Age animals went extinct ex mammoth 0 Neolithic agriculture domestication of animals 0 Changes can be seen archeologically 0 animal bones are smaller 0 Tools become smaller 0 In some places this change from hunters and gathers to agricultural occurs rapidly a few hundred years but other parts take 45000 years Some places like Australia never learned until they were taught by the British 0 At 10000 BP all 10000000 people were hunters and gathers 0 Today there are a few minor exceptions where people live on agricultural products 0 Effects of agriculture Low to high population density Low to high group size number of people that one person ran into their whole life Whole life revolved around family and occasionally others Social organization was were small to complex people Simple technology everything we needed could be fit into a backpack to complex technology Little disease or conflict little evidence of some of the diseases that reside in bones to war famine pollution disease most diseases came from animals domesticated animals to use Mobility of people smaller populations of people allowed for more mobility to sedentary people Population stability population was around the place where it was only replacing those who died After agriculture population exploded once people became more agricultural Average number of children was much higher Not just preplacement rate people would have 710 children Birth spacing decreased and reproductive years increased Low energy requirements to increased energy needs General equilibrium of people with environment to system disequilibrium El People on Baltic had to progressively move closer and closer to the bigger landmass because sea levels were rising First agricultural people in the world shows how quickly people had to change 0 Natufians 0 Along the Jordan River in Israel about 125102 ka 0 Archaeological evidence of the Natufians O No written language but the people have archeological evidence from stone villages The people planned to stay there Superstructure made out of wood and tops of grass Planned buildings open areas between buildings All have similar sizes and orientation Built circular pit houses El Put stone around hole and pave the bottoms El Gave some form of insulation Permanente villages People lived there for up to hundreds of years Buried dead in holes under the house El Skeletons show evidence of tools that they were farmers ex sickles clay pots pottery El Teeth were worn to roots in some cases 9 Consumed lots of gritty material like brad and gruel 0 Grains were ground on stone so sand would get into food El People had cavities and teeth would often fall out No evidence of tooth brushes 9 Life expectancy goes down from 5039s to the late 3039s Seen everywhere in the world that once agriculture beings health declines Stratification of society some burials had more goods jewelry shell headbands etc El Wealth was measured in agricultural products like vegetables and animals El Class organization wealthy to a middle class to a lower class 9 Lower class probably had less to eat and little to no access to land 9 Beginning of conflict because of disparages in wealth Food El Primarily grain products wheat rye barley at first wild cereal grains 9 Probably started with porridge type things because there is no evidence of things to bake with El People would take some to eat and then some to plant 9 Plant during winter to utilize the rain 9 Only harvest seed that had not fallen to the ground 0 Selected for bigger seeds and ones that stayed attached to the stalk 9 Old vegetables and such were no longer there because of climate change so the people had to start harvesting wheat Artifacts El Studying wheat seeds that were left over El Produced sickles for harvesting 9 Originally made out of antlers with a blade embedded in it El Grinding stones 9 Lots of effort was put into these 9 Found in houses probably used every day El Bone chemistry studies 9 Record of diet in our bones 9 Study chemistry to find out what they ate In Class Notes Page 2 0 Isotopes tell that they ate a diet of cereal crops I Archaeological Evidence El Bones in nearby areas 9 Began hunting more cows goats and sheep El Storage pits used to store wheat El Population density increases 9 Part of the function of agriculture El Some kinds of activity has evidence from around South Turkey to Western ran later El Ceramic pottery baked clay with little to no decoration O Utilitarian type pots El Walls and towers come later possibly to protect from invaders 9 Possible gates that may not have preserved Must have been marauders to steal wealth People moved out of open air Naturitian areas One of the most famous being Jericho fortified village oldest one during this time 0 All huts were the same circular with mud roofs and were clustered inside the walls 0 Strange burials buried heads cut the faces off and then put clay masks on top 0 Catal Huyuk Turkey around 9000 years ago lived there for 1000 years first city had no defensive walls 0 Real city built around the edge of a lake Constructed apartment buildings Squarerectangular shared walls flat roofs used for working areas no doors used ladders and holes in roofs Made with mud bricks roof beams and terrace patios About the size of DU with several thousand people 815 thousand Murals of cattle sheep goats inside the buildings Definitely had domesticated animals and agriculture Bones of wild animals still occasionally hunted Religious shrines cult of bulls I Clay figures that were put on walls I Possible shrine in home 0 Possible female rulers goddess of some sort I Statue of one sitting on a throne about 3 feet tall well fed goats on sides and arm rests O Crowded town with trading areas I Near the edge of a lake had great soil El Knew what types of soil were west for each crop type Supported the large population 0 Domesticated crops and animals I First are sheep and goats then cows El Smaller dumb docile woolangora milk sheep are easy to herd bleeding El All that were killed were lambs and males 9 Females can reproduce and be milked Theories on how and why plants were domesticated timeline 0 People know about resources but didn t exploit because it was difficult I They were migratory people 0 Collected nonbrittle grains 0 Some seeds moved on to different environments 0 People stayed to protect new fields 0 As climate stabilized needed to store more food for summers 0 As people settle down population increases 0 Some degree of inactivity and fat reserves to be able to reproduce 0 More adult foods for children faster in settled life style 0 Agricultural people wanted more kids to do chores and such 0 Birth spacing decreased from 5 years to 2 or less years 0 3 times more children than hunters and gathers 0 People have more mouths to feed have to change the technology in order to intensify production 0 The Middle East had plants that could be exploited wild grasses 0 Double the population every 2030 years even with high infant mortality 0 This is also the same for animal domestication 0 They can eat things humans can39t I Planting takes a lot of work but end up with year round food supply and wealth 0 Begin to breed and select for animals with more fat 0 First people to domesticate plants may have used to make beer Made easily by brewing this with water in a clay pot O Wealthy people giving parties and feasts to show off wealth Upside of domestication 0 Ready supply of food 0 Able to eat seeds milk a goat 0 Then can make stews and soup later on bread Down sides 0 Takes a lot of work to grind the seeds and culture the right things 0 People who had more access to the land could control it better then other people wanted it so warfare started 0 People start settling down and controlling land 0 Prehistoric people did not really understand well balanced diet 0 Those who tried only eating grains had bad health Or any sort of bad diet I By the time especially women got into their early 205 they already had severe arthritis and bone disease Women more so because they had babies and used up lots of iron and calcium El The back bones would start to mold together and loose disks Then heads would become spongy and die a few months later 0 3040 of children died under the age of five Died because they stopped drinking mom39s milk and drank water that was polluted I Water was polluted by people who eliminated waste in the water and they did not understand what would happen 0 Lots of the men had broken arm bones in conflict Put arm up to block an attack 0 Those with bad health also had bad bones so they were brittle 000 0000000 In Class Notes Page 3 Conclusion 0 There was a transition from hunting and gathering to domestication of animals and plant Did not occur right away lowest amount of time was a few hundred years The most was around 100 thousand years 0 People who began to experiment with domestication they began to realize that they could become wealthy 0 Old ways of hunting and gathering became more and more difficult with the change in the environment so people began to becom e farmers O Took these technologies and moved them to other places 0 Began in the middle east because that was where the traditional wheat came from 0 Human population had the ability to grow at a very rapid rate especially in sedentary culture 0 Humans are ingenious we can figure out ways to survive better than those before us Before the environmental chance there was no good reason to settle down About this same time people all over the world were beginning to settle down other than Australia 0 In many centers of the world people began to settle down Dogs were originally domesticated by hunting and gathering people 0 China began with rice soy beans cabbage 0 Mesoamerica started with maize corn beans squash turkeys avocados 0 South America began with peanuts potatoes guinea pigs llamas alpacas tomatoes cotton 0 Africa was yams millet and watermelon 0 North America only had sunflowers 0 Europe had only had flax and had to import everything else in MAJ i 39 Dog quotNoquot A 17 39 Dog quotquot r 39 13 if IL L g Hquot 7 Dog oatquot nomaer 6 Lint 117 A98quot 908 quotA my u Bu uo gt9 39 39 Kidney guy 7 75 I no o m ml 39 l Asian goat 09 Dog Pimento mg 7 I i 39 I 0 4 sm knmam Vlk 0 1 1 l In l quotquot I Y Q1gx r xV Tum I I I l l 39 8m I39U mw 39 39 0600c Bum quot quot i 1 i l hee I V 39 9 mlewu 5 All 39 U m Came 6mquot i 39quot Guinea lg YUP 0 a 391 If A Kidney Buns mm sawsquot Abyszznan Pimento as f Pomos P 7 c quotU Hi 0 By around 9000 years ago food became an industry people fought over it traded it In Class Notes Page 4 Lesson 8 Tuesday October 27 2015 916 AM The Beginnings of Archaeology Antiquarians looking for art treasures First archaeologists primarily for North America and Europe Found interesting things and started to excavate Crude excavation methods just dig holes in the ground and try to find interesting things mostly artifacts 0 People began to go to museums to find stuff Average person still thinks that archaeologists do 0 Nat Geo tends to be all about things and maybe bones 0 Examples of this include Stonehenge Pompeii Biblical Sites I Pompeii had people dig a hole for a water well they found beautiful pieces of cut stone and take it III Was cutting into the tops of Roman buildings then found the town underneath So well preserved that the bodies can still be seen I Biblical Sites in the Middle East trying to find meaningful Bible passages and then took it to the museums especially the Louve and British museums People were essentially collectors looters wanted to put stuff in museums Christian Thomsen Danish scientist who began to adapt for modern archaeology 0 Wanted people to bring in artifacts and tell him where they found it context 0 Opened the Museum of Artifacts o Came to the conclusion that there was an interesting change in artifacts I The deepest ones were artifacts made out of stone then after this bronze tin and cooper lastly iron I This is known as the three age system 1860 must have been at least 3 stages of people making tools out of different materials and he and others could use these materials to determine how old something is How long have humans been on the Earth Archbishop Ussher calculated that Earth came to be on Oct 23 4004 BC from what the Bible says Charles Darwin biological explanation evolution of species 18405 Suggested that with the diversity of species that there must have been a change to create these different species Interesting Early Archaeological Discoveries Thomas Jefferson 1805 had a mound on his lawn that people called an Indian Mounds in Virginia It was composed of layers with human skeletons Proposed that ancestors of Native Americans must have had a long history in North American but did not know how long ago Champollion brought the Rosetta Stone in Egypt 1822 Realized that the stone had 3 different types of writing on it Aramaic Greek and Egyptian hieroglyphics Realized that it was someone39s attempt to translate something important Also realized that the monuments were super old and started translating hieroglyphics with important people and important dates Stephens and Catherwood 1839 period when European powers were obtaining power Americans went to Central America to help us determine what we needed to steal from Spain to get their own colonies Discovered ruins of Mayan Sites of Copan Honduras and Tikal Guatemala Documented and drew pictures of the sites Unlikely spot to have huge cities because the land seemed very inhabitable Neander Valley 1857 Germany Skull of human ancestor Pushing ancestors into very ancient times Mesopotamia Excavations 18705 found ancient writing by Sumerians that was drawn into clay tablets and then hardened cumieriform Discussed mundane information tax rolls who owed what 0 Showed that as soon as people could write what they thought was important Heinrich Schliemann 1876 German Very interested in Homer39s Odyssey of the Iliad Wanted to find Troy Set out with load of money from his family and wanted to find Troy found it on the coast of Turkey Started excavating in a very crude way hire a bunch of people to dig Found large amount of gold and became rich and famous 0 Gold ended up in museum of Berlin until the Soviets invaded in 1945 Then it disappeared Then during the collapse of the Soviet Union 1996 then a person of the museum in Leningrad admitted that they had it Scientists came in and realized that most of the gold was actually fake Alfred Kidder 1915 Harvard Wanted to work in the South West Arizona New Mexico a little in Colorado As he was excavating Pecos Pueblo New Mexico he found an ancient village dated around 900 AD Found many layers and found pieces of broken pots that were painted Kidder realized that each piece was decorated differently so he determined how people39s styles of pottery changed over time Put together a style classification with styles of pottery and how broken pieces changed over time still used and known as the Pecos39s classification Took Thompson39s ideas and expanded on them used all over the world In Class Notes Page 5 0 AD and BC used with in the last 2000 years 0 Older stuff than that is usually BP present by definition is 1950 Lesson 9 Thursday ctoloer 29 2015 Time 828 AM How long ago did things happen What happened first What happened later What cultural activity led to another 0 Everyone was worried about when things happened so they tried to date them Do it based upon the items let behind Historical Records used mostly by historical archaeologists 0 5000 BP in Near East 0 750 BC in Italy 0 55 BC in England with the Romans 0 About 500 BC in Mesoamerica the Mayans use hieroglyphs only people in north or south America that wrote things down 0 1500 BC in China 0 AD 1520 in the rest of the New World when Spanish Conquerors started writing things 0 Archaeology is the only thing that we can use to tell what was going on what the history was for 99 of human history Absolute Dating Methods 0 Can approximately tell the year when something happened 0 Dedrochronology tree ring dating if one can find a piece of wood near the site that is dry or waterlogged in a swamp then one can count the tree rings each ring is one year This can also show what the weather and climate was like during the growing season 0 Started in 192039s by A E Douglass in Flagstaff Arizona He was interested in sunspots and the correlation of them to the past climates He later realized that growth rings in trees could tell him about the weather Drilled out a piece of wood and counted tree rings and then determined what the climate was like Soon ran out of trees and went to people39s homes to get older wood Then would look for the same seque nce ofthick and then thin to push his age dating back I Then went to archaeological sites and looked a preserved wood beams Today there is a tree ring date that goes back around 10000 years Knew to the year when a tree was cut down in archaeological sites 0 Radiocarbon Dating Carbon 14 from about AD 1600 to 40000 BP may go back to 4647000 years ago always in BP 0 O Invented by Willard Libby in 1949 Was part of the Manhattan project during WWII Won Nobel prize for it in 1956 If there any materials in a site with any living materials human hair wood charcoal beer residue etc they can date it using this method Studying sewage in Milwaukie and found out that it was slightly radioactive Then studied this and realized that there were two isotopes in the evidence I Carbon 14 and Carbon 12 were the isotopes Figured out that these two were different depending on how old the evidence was Then would measure radioactive carbon and regular carbon to determine how old something is III How it works anything that was living has carbon in it In the Earth39s atmosphere there is a large percent of nitrogen As cosmic rays enter the Earth from the Sun and outer space then they intersect with nitrogen and transformed into Carbon 14 Then this bec omes bound to oxygen and carbon dioxide and is taken up by plants Then the animals eat the plants and the carbon is taken by th e animals As long as animals and plants are alive then Carbon 14 and Carbon 12 have the same ratios As soon as the organism dies the n the ratio changes and Carbon 14 begins to decay Has a half life of 5570 years so 12 of Carbon 14 will decay will decay to Car bon 12 every 5570 years Measure relative percentages of the two isotopes 0 AMS dating small sample as small as a poppy seed 0 Potassium Argon Dating 50000 BP to 14 billion years BP 0 O 0 Potassium K is very abundant in volcanic rocks and is slightly radioactive K decays very gradually to argon AR an inert gas with no radioactivity Must have something that originally came from a volcano lava volcanic ash etc This material is very hot and as soon as it cools it forms crystals that are made of K If ratio is measured then one can determine how long since a volcano has erupted and cooled This is helpful in dating hominids and is a proxy measurement of what happened EX KBS tuff Lake Turkana Kenya Turkana boy found right under a volcanic tuff So they could age date the volcano then they knew that the KBS tuff was 19 my BP So the Turkana Boy could not be younger than 19 my BP However this has a lot of error associated with it After this one has to use geological dating which is even more room for error In Class Notes Page 6 Lesson 11 Tuesday November 3 2 15 8631 AM Archaeology of the American Southwest 0 Primarily in the four corners 0 Story of agricultural people that grew corn in a very hospitable environment Environment 0 Vegetation and rainfall patterns change from year to year frosts as last as May or as early as September 0 People recognized that they needed to supplement their farming with hunting and gathering O Pinon nuts Yucca seeds roots fibers Rabbhs Antelope Insects Rates Prairie dogs 0 Foxes 0 Much of the study of these people is revolved around ancient adaptation to their environment 0 Rainfall pattern changes 0 Arroyo cutting lowering the ground water 0 Soil moisture and vegetation changes Douglass tree guy 0 He found in this area that there were periods of time around 1 generation when the weather patterns were very good but there were also periods of drought another 2030 years 0 One specific time known as The Great Drought 12751300 AD tree rings were very tiny The more work that people did the more correlation between this activity As more evidence came in it showed that this is why people abandoned their cliff dwellings 0 Most other archaeologist discarded this idea in the 3039s because this happened every 30 years or so One of the big archaeological questions 0 How do these climate changes relate to human behavior and adapt to their environment When times were good vs when times were bad OOOOOO Culture of the Southwest 0 Basketmaker People 200 AD 0 There were people here prior to this time but they are almost archaeologically invisible 0 These people lived in villages and were sedentary people made pit houses I All over the world when people first settle down they built pit type houses Dig a hole take the dirt out make a ceiling put the old dirt back on top for insulation Probably a house suitable for one family I People clearly did chores in these house III Abundant grinding stones III Baskets for transport of goods and storage in pits and houses III Pottery for cooking and more storage progression of pottery by Kitter is done here 0 Villages were small and nucleated I Low population density around 5060 people in the village all houses were the same size all people have the same amount of wealth little social stratification no classes In Class Notes Page 7 that can be defined by the materials left behind I People knew who their neighbors were they spoke the same language visited with each other and traded with each other from other villages I Over time the population begins to grow and as the society grows the society becomes more complex El El El El Village leaders Shamans type of religious leader that had the ability to talk to gods and such Priests Craft specialists professional pottery makers etc 0 Pueblo People begins around 700 AD 0 These people are called the Anasazi people now not politically correct or Ancestral Puebloans 0 Population density has increased 0 People who used to live in Pit houses they also began to live in above ground quotapartmentquot buildings I Were made with stone with plaster on the inside and were fairly simple I Circular dwellings near the house are known as kivas El Made out of stone with central fire places with little niches like shelves artifacts in them suggest ritual activity Ex pigments little bags with bird feathers crystals I Why did people stop living in pit houses El El Possibly for more room for people or storage One thing that is known is that population is increasing but there is a strange amount of decreases when droughts happen or that people move around 0 Pueblo Period 8001000 AD 0 People are living in above ground pueblos O Sophisticated crop growing corn beans squash with large fields I Used little seed beds to start plants protected them from wind with water nearby for irrigation I Mulching used in dry areas rocks and pebbles around the plants to keep the water from evaporating and during rains to keep the seeds down 0 People also moved around a lot reasons I Soil depletion I Tree and brush cutting leads to soil erosion El Soil erosion causes arroyo formation that leads to ground water drop 0 Pueblo Period 10001150 AD 0 This dramatic change during this period is what makes people super interested o Beginnings of Chaco Culture an integration of thought all over the American Southwest I During this time the little four and six room buildings went away They started building pueblos that have 500 rooms and were 5 stories tall known as Greathouses El D All of these buildings were in a D shape All had walls around them made to exclude people In the middle there were large open plazas Many kivas in the greathouses Burials of people in floors of pueblos Many of the skeletons have deformed heads that were bound when they were infants to that their foreheads flattened so when their heads grew they basically had cone heads Front teeth were also carved into fangs or teeth were drilled out and jade or obsidian were put there instead This was probably a way for people to known as special All of the buildings were over engineered EX instead of putting a door or window in a wall they put them in corners Doing this because they could 0 These structures were planned and took up to 100 years to build 0 Also build tshaped doorways In Class Notes Page 8 I All of the buildings are built around Chaco canyon 0 Also known as the center of their universe as the biggest pueblos are here Estimated at most out of all of the springs there would only be 23 gallons a day 0 Little to no evidence of agriculture 0 One of the most inhospitable places to live III Built 9 of these greathouses and needed trees for stability 0 Timbers were carried by hand from at least 60 miles away 0 Huge labor force was needed to do this 0 Rooms were larger than needed and were often used for storage and not living areas 0 Enclosing walls to exclude some people from what was going on inside III In around 1979 a friend from Boulder noticed a lot of straight lines that lead towards Chaco 0 Found out that these were roads and that they are not contoured with the land 0 Lots of buildings that people did not live there year round 0 Build stairways instead of going around the canyon 0 All of the buildings connected to Chaco imitated Chaco III Roads also lead to large pueblos on bluffs overlooking the canyon 0 Come into a huge D shaped pueblo that sits up high Pueblo Alto 0 Evidence of huge activities 0 Garbage pile that is two stories tall that is nothing but broken pottery 0 Massive amounts of food consumption 0 Evidence of long distance transport of things including items like headdresses feathers from tropical birds that come from Mexico pots that specifically held chocolate drinks with coco beans III Villages on peripheral edge of Chaco 0 People that went to Chaco and helped to build it there is evidence of cannibalism People that lived there were captured killed and put together in giant pots for consumption Whole villages were killed 0 Bones show evidence of cut marks in the same way that one would cut a deen 0 Possible explanation powerful people with cone heads who coerced others to carry stuff to Chaco and then went down into the canyon after the feast If people would not do this then the powerful people sent their bad guys up to the village and killed and intimidated those who did not play the game III Every building at Chaco is dated with tree rings 0 Beginning around the year 1000 Chaco is building all the time until around 1100 By 1150 all building stopped 0 Possible reasons for the stop could be gt A major drought gt People are done preforming the rituals III Around 1150 a mini Chaco is built in Aztec New Mexico 0 Similar buildings that have water and food nearby 0 Abandoned in 1290 AD III Around 1290 a 3rd Chaco begins in Casas Grandes Mexico 0 Lasted about another 150 years 0 Pueblo Period 11501300 0 Chaco way of life continues but Chaco is no longer the center 0 People begin moving into cliff dwellings or built walled villages with guard towers In Class Notes Page 9 I No decrease in cannibalism or warfare If they did not live in these protective sites for the view they lived there to survive from the scary people 0 Water sources for drinking mostly are very important 0 Health of people is decreasing I Average life span is 2530 years I Bones are brittle I Females are subject to worse malnutrition than the males I High infant mortality 0 At 1275 when the Great Drought hit people left I Everything that the people couldn39t carry they abandoned it I They may have thought that they might come back because some storage is seen I People went to Rio Grande valley and down south to Las Cruses or to South Arizona I Theories on abandonment III Possible Push factors 0 Warfare 0 Agricultural collapse Soil depletion 0 Large amounts of malnutrition lack of protein in the diet 0 Lack of drinking water III Pull factors 0 People drawn to areas where there was dependable water 0 People already lived there and accepted them 0 New religion the kachina cult gt was this a spiritual revitalization Revival meeting 0 People joined family members that had already moved III Trigger that set off the abandonment 0 Crops failed for too long 0 Leaders failed to hold others together 0 Ceremonies that brought rain and good harvest failed 0 An epidemic O In Class Notes Page 10 Lesson 13 Thursday November 5 2 15 82 AM Analyzing Modern Cultures 0 How do we study humans If one were to do it completely scientifically then it would we done by looking at a culture as a quotsystemquot of many factors that work together First kind of work done in cultural anthropology 0 Bronislaw Malinowski in 1910 0 Polish by birth 0 Studied economics 0 Was caught in Australia when WWI broke out because of his Polish passport I Made a deal with authorities to stay out ofjail and was sent to a tropical island Trobriand Islands I From this he did the first ethnographic field work Ethnographic Field Work 0 Informants people told him what they were doing 0 Interviews once one learned the language he asked people about their lives 0 Participant observations integrate themselves into the community and take a large amount of notes on the culture v Keep in mind that Malinowski did not start as an anthropologist so he looked at the culture39s function 0 Treated the culture like an organism that has I Customs and institutions for dealing with needs I All aspects of society were interdependent and interconnected o Began date analysis that was very quantitative the first quotscientific approach to anthropologyquot Malinowski39s most classic study 0 The Kula Ring 0 The people on this island were agricultural raised sweet potatoes pigs coconuts etc 0 When the islanders traded agricultural products and tools they would get in their canoes to trade With the goods they took they wore armbands and necklaces made of shells Kula shellsbeads I The white shells are mwali and there are also red shells 0 As people would move from island to island they would take the shells with them and in the process of trading with people on the other islands they would trade with the shells I Initially thought that the shells were a form of currency but realized that people would take the red shells to go clockwise Then they would collect white armbands The people would exchange the shells for the other color type 0 Soulava are the red necklaces and move clockwise 0 People did not have a reason for why they trade shells with the agriculture I It was almost always men who went on the trading expeditions and the first thing that they would do with the shells was a ceremony where the men who had brought the necklaces armbands where they would give a speech The speech told the name of the necklace the time that they had it who owned the item before Then someone from the island would repeat the process III Then the men would get with trading partners friends and exchange the armbands and necklaces After this is done they would trade for agricultural products III Malinowski asked about the trading process and the people did not own the necklacearmband they had possession of it 0 He inferred that there was prestige about the items And that fathers In Class Notes Page 11 would teach the sons about the trade The women would be involved by helping to memorize the name story of the necklace 0 People did not assess the monetary value of the shells III As soon as the shell process was done there was a large amount of haggling about the agricultural products III As it was studied more only one island did not get involved These people had to make shells to trade for food 0 Interesting notes on the Kula 0 During WWII the Japanese occupied the islands and they made all interisland trade illegal Once this period ended there was a huge flurry of activity sometimes there was no agricultural trade 0 An Australian anthropologist went there and started collecting the Kula shells and hoarding them Then he was thrown off of the island 0 Today the Kula trade is continued they use ferry boats and it is scheduled trade Other than that it is exactly the same as it was 0 After the islands were integrated to Papua New Guinea in the 196039s they tried to become and a democracy The Australians tried to teach them how to do this When the Kula people tried to join the democracy they would tell people about their Kula beads to try and get elected This was their way of trying to get into the political office 0 Malinowski decided that this was balanced reciprocity the exchange of goods or services at an agreed price over an agreed time period a social contract 0 Also known as winwin situations 0 As soon as one party tried to take advantage of another group then this is frowned upon In Class Notes Page 12 Lesson 12 Thursday November 5 2 15 92 AM Anthropological Linguistics 0 Examining the way languages to see more about the way we and the way other cultures think How homo sapiens utilize the ways to understand cultures that cannot be understood in other ways Example 0 Aboriginal group do not use the term left and right even though they speak English Instead they use cardinal directions quotThere is a scorpion on your north legquot 0 For these people they spend a large amount of time in the Outback and are very aware to what direction they are facing because their lives depend on it I By describing something with cardinal directions it reflects their culture and need of directions Interesting study 0 When people in different cultures arrange things in temporal order 0 American do it from left to right the way we right 0 Hebrew speakers do this from right to left same reason 0 Aborigines from east to west tracking the sun across the sky 0 Aymara speakers South America from in front to behind they look at the past is behind them and the future is in front 0 Mandarin speakers from above top to below possibly with gravity how they write 0 In American English we say things like quot John broke the vasequot and even if it was an accident it is his fault I In Japanese French and Spanish it is said quotthe vase broke itselfquot This says that the person is not to blame Language Aspects 0 All languages have parts of speech and most have different tenses 0 Is this suprising that languages have the same type of words 0 Not really because we are a young species and as we came out of Africa we just mutated and the language went with it 0 The evidence from this comes from children 0 By the age of 5 all children have learned to basics of their native language 0 Throughout the rest of their lives they seldom confuse the syntax that they learned by that age Study was performed with the Hopi people in the American Southwest 0 A comparison was made between the morphology and syntax of English and Hopi 0 English has past present and future I I came home past I I am coming home present I I will come home future 0 Hopi has no tenses I I come home 0 Hopi sees the past present and the future as one thing The way they see time is in between past and future 0 In English 0 Time has length 0 There is a point in time that can be important 0 We can save time by doing something 0 We waste time In Class Notes Page 13 0 We spend time on doing things 0 What we did in the past has large implication about the future 0 Where we are in time continuum is very important culturally 0 Based on how we assign cultural value on time 0 To the Hopi everything is done based on the cycles of nature they agricultural people 0 Time doesn t pass so much as it continues to advance they are always in the present 0 The past is what they learn from and the future is what they know will come and are prepared for O This world view can be very upsetting for Hopi with Western culture In most cultures language is a mirror of culture it allows people to communicate things that are important to them in complex ways 0 The different ways of talking about cattle ox heifer calf steer bull 0 Farmers have needs to discuss these subdivisions because it is part of their life and culture In American culture there are cultures that are like secret societies 0 Doctors 0 Bureaucrats 0 Lawyers 0 Professors 0 Artists Alan Sokol from NYU in 1996 0 Submitted a paper called Transgressing the Boundaries Toward a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity I Contained nothing but quotfawning references grandiose quotations and outright nonsensequot All over the world people use language to assign culture 0 France has a National Language Academy and some words that have been banned I Le sex appeal I Le weekend I Email 0 Notice how most of these are English and it shows how English is dominating so much of the culture through the world Politically incorrect or genderinsensitive or just feminist usages in language in our society that have been seen lately 0 Man is the only animal with language 0 There are maneating sharks in the ocean 0 Dear Sirs I All of these imply men and women but the culture has lumped them all together I People may take offence to these terms because of gender identity and changes in society 0 The discussion of this type of language has symbolic value towards some symbolic values Other interesting forms of communication 0 Kinesics body motion and gestures 0 Different cultures have different gestures that can mean very different things I V for victory eff off I Smiles can be an insult in Germany for example it means that you are flirting I Okay sign means that you are work zero in France Belgium and Turkey 0 Prior communication was probably a lot of noise with most communication actually coming from body language tone and eye contact 0 There are similarities across cultures we can tell who is faking an expression across cultures 0 Proxemics study of how different societies perceive personal space and shared space O In our culture quotintimacyquot is 18 inches but this can lead to some misunderstandings and in other cultures it means different things In Class Notes Page 14 Lesson 14 Tuesday November 1Q 2 15 Social Structures 755 AM Societies are not random They have structure There are norms values and behaviors that make up the pattern and organization of a society There is a drive by people to achieve certain components of a social structure 0 Status a position that someone occupies in society 0 Even in egalitarian cultures people strive for status 0 Types of status I Socioeconomic how a position is related to the division of labor Status that is applied to you because of yourjob Look at your status in society based on the job you have Examples of high include CEOPresident of a large corporation surgeons etc Examples of low include fast food worker raccoon catcher maids sewer cleaner etc I Ascribed status status that one gets from birth how you were born based on your family or sex Possibly wealth ex Kardashian The British Royal Family Paris Hilton I Achieved Status based on one39s voluntary actions and how hard one works Examples of people who have high achieved status but low socioeconomic Gandhi Mother Theresa Tesla etc 0 Ways that status is played out in other parts of the world I South Pacific Islands El DUDE El Chiefs control political power which is used to manipulate the economics of each island Political power is based through hereditary positions Every person is assigned a position in society that is very stratified Elaborate rituals know as the work of the gods Chiefs have control over the productive lands others work the land for the good of all Chiefs must give the people what they want by periodically having feasts with lots of eating dancing and ritual activity I Potlatch in the Pacific Northwest El El El El El In the late 18005 these rituals still went on People had every fierce competitions for status among individuals and groups different villages To show that they have more status than another group then they would invite the other group to the potlatch to show that they have enough resources to host the feast The lived in an area of abundant resources Status was achieved by giving away possessions at the potlatches Once the Europeans arrived the chiefs would burn and chop up blankets as ways of showing off I In Peru El It was done with chicha parties In Class Notes Page 15 Lesson 16 Tuesday November 10 2 15 937 AM Marriage in Different Cultures What is the definition of marriage Some in the US want to pass an amendment that marriage is only between a man and a woman Americans believe that love is the basis of marriage 0 In many other societies love is considered a poor basis for marriage and also discouraged 0 Only around the last 200300 years the concept or marrying of love came about in Europe and North America 0 Prior to this time marriage was only for functional reasons 0 After they were married then love would come 0 Marriages were arranged 0 88 of the world39s societies have signs of romantic love EX love songs love depicted in folklore accounts of personal longing etc 0 So if love is essential universal then what other things do other societies have around the world that are common in marriage 0 If a couple gets married then they will move in with one or the other39s family It is not usually economically feasible for the new couple to live on their own 0 Then there is a division of labor in the merging of households to keep the household going Why should there be such a thing as marriage There are certain aspects of humanity that are universal and important 1 Females of the species are sexually receptive regardless of the ovulation cycle 2 Children are dependent on adults primarily females for a long period of time Adult parents are actively involved in teaching and taking care of children One of the ways that humans are interesting is that they do this for an extraordinary long period of time a Some evidence suggests that Neanderthals reach sexual maturity much faster than us 3 Most cultures have a rigid division of labor based upon gender Sexual division of labor 4 There is a common ban on incest mating between people who are closely related How do these relate to marriage 1 Because females are effectively sexually receptive all the time males will attempt to gain access to females at any time especially if females are receptive If a female is impregnated then a male can easily leave so marriage is a way for a female to make sure that a male is going to stay and help raise the children Marriage is also a way for females to choose partners who will mate and stay with them to help her and the offspring This also cuts down on sexual competition Without marriage the males will want to mate with the females and could have conflicts the get females 2 Human children are raised by both parents and if there is both a male or female that takes care of the child then they are going to learn more and be more psychologically and culturally healthy 3 In many cultures the division of labor is important and marriage is a way to specifically define tasks for each gender These are established during marriage 4 It is in the genetic best interest of humans not to mate with close relative Rights and obligations of marriage 0 Usually a way to regulate the division of labor 0 Property rights are defined with respect of goods wealth land houses and wealth made later 0 Specified inheritance rights for the survivor or children upon the death of a marriage partner This is also true for parents of married couples 0 Marriage also creates a union between the families of marriage partners The birth of children in marriage insures the continuity of one or both of the family lines in malefemale marriages 0 Often in many societies the lack of children in a marriage in a specific period of time then that is valid means for divorce In Class Notes Page 16 Why have marriage 0 It allows for continuity of familiesclanstribes 0 Families are the basic working group around the world 0 Socialization of children Types of marriage 0 Monogamy a man and a woman joined as husband and wife This is the most common type of marriage in terms of total number of people This is often true because it traditionally takes one man and one woman to have offspring This also often makes since because the population is roughly 5050 ratio of males to females 0 Serial monogamy persons are permitted to have more than one spouse during their lifetimes but only one at a time 0 Polygamy People than can have more than one spouse If you count cultures then you will find that 85 have polygamous cultures 0 Polygyny a man can take multiple wives Occurs where warfare are common in the past and men are in short supply Also found in cultures where population growth is considered important women get married at a young age and have a ton of children In parts of the world like the middle east this is very common just a given I Men in many of these societies the idea of wealth and power is related to how many wives he can havesupport O Polyandry where a woman takes on multiple husbands simultaneously I It is common in about 5 of the world I Usually a woman is married to brothers I For many of the cultures the men travel around a lot and the people in general have a limited amount of land and wealth 0 Group marriage when several males are married to several females simultaneously not very common It was tried in the US with little success 0 Homosexual marriage is actually fairly common around the world 0 Arguments for hospital visitation benefits inheritance health insurance etc 0 One parent families these are very prevalent O In the 1960s about 9 of the families were oneparent In the 1980s it had increased to 24 O In western societies 90 of those families are headed by women 0 Ideas of division of labor dependency etc have changed Other aspects of marriage related to economics 0 Marriage alliances making a marriage a way to have alliances between people that otherwise might be in conflict Maintains power and prestige 0 Marriage within your class is still very important Marriage Exchanges In our culture it is mostly gifts at the wedding providing for the new couple to start an independent household 0 In other cultures it have different reasons 0 Bridewealth a man and his relatives must transfer goods to the bride39s family This is true in around 50 of cultures in the world I The price of the bride is decided in advance and it done as a deal I Part of the arrangement is if the bride is barren or troublesome then the male can get a refund I The contract also often has escape clauses for the bride if the male is abusive o Brideservice the husband must spend time working for the family of the bride I A way for the wife39s family to see what kind of provider he is I Sometimes used alongside the bridewealth to help defray the costs I Common in about 15 of the world 0 Dowry family of the bride must transfer wealth to the couple upon their marriage I In only about 5 of societies in the world In Class Notes Page 17 I Really common in agricultural societies where there is a lot of stored wealth 0 Notice how economics is the dominate factor in the marriage In Class Notes Page 18 Lesson 17 Tuesday November 17 2 15 8632 AM Religion in Culture Australian Dreamtime 0 Have a religion that have many sacred sites places where they believe there are totem beings other religions may be spirits can39t see but know they live there 0 Ayers Rock classic example of these type of sacred sites The north side is the clan of the wallabies The south side is the clan of the carpet boas I There are different clans of Aboriginal people and everyone know which clan they are in They look at these areas and believe that the land they have has different totem beings that live there 0 Pockmarks caves outcrops special places on the rock that represent physical signs of the totem beings 0 All of the totemic beings are a form of animism a form of religion where there are many beingsspirits reside and are part of the religion I Some archaeologists believe that rooms that only have one animal were practicing an ancient form of animism 0 All of the sacred sites are connected by pathways that are known as Dreaming Paths These are spiritual pathways that are unmarked to people who are not part of the religion I People may go on walkabouts for a few months to follow the sacred path I Many of the sacred sites are covered with rock painting They may paint some but they often do meditation trances singing and dancing They will often also paint themselves in their clan colors The spots also have spots that are also very segregated by gender III Knowledge of these rituals and chants are passed down from generation to generation and are also segregated by gender I When one moves from sacred spot to another sacred spot if it is on the land of another clan then permission must be asked from the elders andor the totems This involves a long time of singing and dancing 0 What is the function of this 0 A way to maintain solidarity between the clan People in the clan know their past 0 A way for people to take possession of areas rights to certain territories without taking possession with real estate 0 A way to place order in the world 0 A way to regulate access to resources A functional way to keep people out and from over using the resources 0 Many rituals are mnemonic devices a holdover from ancient times a way that the information about the clan was passed down Amazonian Religions 0 People who have animistic beliefs much like Dreamtime 0 Have beliefs on creation death gender roles natural environment and culture 0 There are no priests or full time religious professionals However certain people do have more power than others 0 Spirits have superhuman powers that enter the humans Many people want this to happen so that they can talk to the spirits O Often drug induced and this is done through shoving a powder through the nose with a other person blowing down the end of a tube The people then start going into trances and have hallucinations This goes on for days Once the people are in hallucination states they believe that they are communicating with spirits I Often souls of ancestors come back as these spirits The people may also go to sacred In Class Notes Page 19 sites during these times 0 People believe that during these times they can cure illness deal with catastrophes enforce many aspects of social life and ways to regulate complexity of the world Religion in general 0 Often these societies went through transformations from animistic religions to polytheistic religions and monotheistic religions O The theory is that as people settled down on the landscape it was more difficult for people to visit many different sacred sites Then these beings would transform into different gods where they live in your home but they also still travel to special spots 0 All religions have 0 A set of sings that have meaning classic sign in Christianity is the cross 0 Important images and rituals books of important information 0 Historical events that tell stories about creation human roles in the world and the meaning of right and wrong 0 Monotheistic religions appear to have been developed at a time of increasing control by kings 0 Some suggest that science in today39s world is the new religion Healing Powers 0 All religions have some element of healing powers 0 Many herbal remedies related to ceremonies are drugs that cure ailments Many of these plants actually do have scientific benefits 0 Psychotherapeutic techniques 0 Power of suggestion 0 However when people do religious activities singing dancing chants prayer with people who one is comfortable with there is a therapeutic effect 0 Religions can effectively alter selfperceptions 0 Remove guilt and repression O Gain control over one39s feelings 0 Control fear of death and reproduction and transform it into positive energy 0 Promote community well being 0 Helps people deal with uncertainties that are beyond the limits of their technical capabilities How does religion change with technological change 0 Around 600 BC Indian culture moved from animalism to Hindu O A time of invasion of the Aryan people from the north and they brought the ndoEuropean language 0 As these people moved into India they built fortified villages 0 Brought in coins fancy beads and religious sculptures are common in the archaeological record 0 Irrigation agriculture becomes widespread in river valleys as soon as this happened wealth was created 0 It appears that a state society with maharajahs princes and kings came in place on the people who were already there 0 Beginning of armies police forces warfare from competing kings and secret agents I Wars become common as powerful people compete Large population increases Taxes in the form of labor grain and animals Required to give to the maharajahs Regulated commercial activities Power is controlled by the king and political ministers Laws are formulated and written in Sancrit to maintain power of the state Beginnings of monumental buildings Specialized professions State religions a religion that was theocratic and dictated by the kings Became Hinduism and caste system was formed Hindu religion 0 Based on a caste system where everyone knows what caste they are in One is born into a specific OOOOOOOO In Class Notes Page 20 caste 0000 O O 0 When one is born into a family of a high caste they have high social standing This is an ascribed status Detailed rules of separation between castes Dictated by the state and the religion Division of labor based on the caste Marriage can only be within a caste To break any of the above is impure even considering to marry someone of another caste Levels of the Castes Brahmin the highest ranked caste the priests and were closest to Gods Historically most of the maharajahs were of this class but now it is mostly high business people Kshatriya warriors nobles and landowners Now this is the entrepreneurs Historically these are the people that invaded Vaisya and Sudra commoners the servants farmers laborers Today they are taxi and truck drivers Untouchables have no rank whatsoever They perform the polluted tasks such as tanning hides working leather and removing human waste Tend to be beggars work in sewers butchers Make up 25 of the population 0 Today there is a lot of violence between castes 0 The way people regulate people is through caste system 0 o O O O 0000 Allows those in power to have security Sacred Cows Cannot be killed capital offense People give a certain percentage of their salary to take care of the cows Cows can be milked for butter for urine use their dung and the ability to do work but not killed As the caste system was developed cattle became treated as deities Templelike homes are maintained for aged or abandoned cows Cow dung is used for cooking fuel and the rest for fertilizer Cows pulling plows to produce and transport grain that supplies about 80 of calories that Indian people consume Why was making cows scared a good thing I People should not slaughter them as that would threaten the agricultural system I A religious law started by Aryans to secure a surplus of wealth grain as a way to gain their power In Class Notes Page 21


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