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Social Psychology: Personality

by: Ann Carter Herbert

Social Psychology: Personality Psych 210

Marketplace > Clemson University > Psychlogy > Psych 210 > Social Psychology Personality
Ann Carter Herbert

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About this Document

Introduction to Psychology
Professor Chris Pagano, PhD
personality, Psychology
75 ?




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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Ann Carter Herbert on Friday November 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Psych 210 at Clemson University taught by Professor Chris Pagano, PhD in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 11/20/15
Personality:     The  relativity  consistent  pattern  of  thought,  feeling,  and  behavior  that   characterizes     • Psychodynamic  Theories:   o Personality  and  behavior  are  determined  by  unconscious  mental   forces  that  are   § In  conflict  with  each  other     § Shaped  by  childhood  experiences     o Sigmund  Freud  (1900-­‐1930s):   § The  unconscious  mind  is  motivated  by  sex  and  aggression     • This  is  the  source  of  our  personalities     • The  main  source  is  the  sex  drive:  Libido     § The  unconscious  mind  consists  of  three  parts  that  are  in   conflict;  Id,  Ego,  and  Superego   • Your  psychological  mind  is  way  below  consciousness   (iceberg  example)   o Id:   § The  original  source  of  all  mental  energy   § Inborn   § Consists  of  all  basic  drives;  libido     § Largest  part  of  your  consciousness   • Hunger,  thirst,  sleep,  etc   § Driven  by  the  pleasure  principle     § Seeks  immediate  gratification     § Has  no  concept  of  right  or  wrong,  it  wants   what  it  wants     o Ego:   § Develops  early  in  life,  not  born  with  it     • Childhood  experiences  are  key  in   how  you  form  your  ego   § Driven  by  the  reality  principle,   understands  reality     § Doesn’t  really  care  about  right  or  wrong,   but  if  you  do  something  now  you  think   about  how  it  will  effect  you  tomorrow   • Doesn’t  want  you  to  feel  pain  at   some  point  in  the  future     • Example:  stop  you  from  having  sex   or  eating  a  whole  bag  of  chips     § Plans  ahead  to  fulfill  as  many  of  Id’s   drives  as  possible,  while  increasing   overall  pleasure  and  decreases  pain     § Has  little  regard  for  right  or  wrong,  no   morals   o Superego:   § Develops  during  childhood       • Not  everyone  develops  this,   childhood  experiences  key   § Understands  society’s  morals     § Not  everyone  fully  develops  a  superego     § Opposes  drives  of  the  Id,  and  keeps  the   Ego  from  fulfilling  them  all   • What  can  this  really  do  to  the  ego   to  keep  it  in  check?:  it  creates  pain   and  guilt;  creates  massive  conflict   for  the  Ego     o The  Id;  primary  source  of  all  mental  energy;   libido  and  aggression:  drives  cause  anxiety     o The  Ego  must  rectify  the  Id’s  drives  with  reality     § Reality  causes  anxiety   § Painful  childhood  memories  cause  anxiety     o The  superego  creates  guilt  and  mental  pain  to   keep  the  ego  from  acting  out  all  of  the  Id’s  drives.   -­‐anxiety     o The  Ego  tries  to  resolve  these  conflicts  to  lessen   pain   § Uses  defense  mechanisms  to  protect   consciousness  from  too  much  anxiety     • Defense  Mechanisms:     o Ways  of  dealing  with  too  much  anxiety   § 1)  Repression:  anxiety  producing  desires   and  memories  are  pushed  into  the   unconscious     • repressed  memories:  you  cannot   bring  them  forth  without  some   serious  effort     § 2)  Displacement:   • A  drive  is  too  strong  to  be  stopped   so  it  is  directed  towards  something   else     o Example:  your  frustrations   out  on  someone/something   • Sublimation:  (means   displacement):  direct  energy   towards  good  things     § 3)  Reaction  formation:  The  drive  is   directed  towards  its  target,  but  it  is   turned  into  its  opposite     § 4)  Projection:  the  drive  is  perceived  as   someone  else’s     § 5)  Rationalization:   • you  make  up  a  reason  why  the   drive  is  ok   o Childhood  development:  determines  the  relative   strength  of  the  Id,  Ego,  and  Superego  and  how   they  resolve  their  conflicts   § Personality  is  determined  by  childhood   experiences,   o Freud’s  Psychosexual  stages  in  book**  chart   § Oral   § Anal   § Phallic   § Latency   § Genital   o Oedipal  crisis   o Penis  envy   § Children  resolve  these  crises  (hopefully)   by  identifying  with  the  similar  sex  parent   and  tries  to  be  like  them  while  still  liking   the  other  parent   • Otherwise  fixation  occurs   • While  few  still  believe  the  Id,  Ego,  and  Superego,  or  the   psychosexual  stages,  Freud  made  some  lasting   contributions:   o The  role  of:   § The  unconscious   § Defense  Mechanisms     § Childhood  experiences   o Freud  didn’t  believe  women  were  being  abused;   memories  were  from  their  own  unconscious   desires.   § Used  insight  instead  of  science  to  arrive  at   “truth”   • Underscores  the  need  to  do   science     • Shows  some  of  the  nonsense  you   can  come  up  with  when  not  using   science     • Psychodynamic  Theories:   o Therapy  is  aimed  at  making  conscious  the   unconscious  (conflicts,  wished,  memories,   defense  mechanisms)     § Routes  to  the  unconscious     • Dreams   • Free  associations   • Mistakes  (Freudian  slips)     § Take  what  is  unconscious  and  make  it   conscious,  bring  them  to  light  for  the   patient     o Therapy  is  aimed  at  making  conscious  the   unconscious  (conflicts,  wishes,  memories,   defense  mechs.)     § Problems:  therapists  thought  they   understood  patient’s  memories  and   problems  better  than  the  patients  did     § Therapists  often  disbelieve  claims  of   abuse,  attributing  them  instead  to   fantasies  and  drives   • Repression  and  false  memories  are   possible,  but  science  wasn’t  used   to  telling  the  difference   § Humanistic  Psychology:   • (1960s-­‐present)   • A  reaction  to  Freud  and  behaviorism     • Presented  a  more  positive  view  of  human  nature:   o Actualizing  tendency:     § An  inborn  drive  to  be  creative,  contribute   to  family  and  society,  to  be  satisfied  with   oneself  and  reach  one’s  full  potential     • Problems  arise  when  this  is   blocked   • Therapy  helps  people  acquire  a   positive  self-­‐concept     • Maslow’s  Hierarchy  of  Needs:   o Lower  needs  must  be  met  first   § Physiological  needs     § Safety  needs   § Belongingness  needs     § Esteem  needs   § Self-­‐actualization  needs   o This  is  the  opposite  of  Freud:     § The  main  driving  force  comes  from  the   top,  not  the  bottom   • Humanistic  Psychology:  The  person  is  in  control  of   themselves;  Behavior  is  guided  by  conscious  desires   and  perceptions     o But,  these  are  based  upon  the  person’s   phenomenological  understanding,  which  may   not  correspond  to  reality     o The  self  concept  is  an  important  aspect  of  the  ph.   World  that  can  stray  from  reality   § You  think  people  don’t  like  you  so  you   don’t  socialize   o Therapy:  get  people  back  on  track  when  their  ph.   World  strays  too  far  from  reality   § Carl  Roger’s  Person-­‐Centered  Therapy:   • Focus  on  conscious  understanding   • Uncover  the  self-­‐concept   • Adjust  the  self-­‐concept  for  better   functioning   § Use  Empathy  and  Unconditional  Positive   Regard  to  help  the  client  explore  and   adjust  their  self  concept  without  feeling   criticized   § Social  Cognitive  Theories:   • Thought  Freud’s  approach  overly  pessimistic,  and  the   humanistic  approach  overly  romantic   o Did  not  try  to  find  one  overall  source  of   motivation   o Its  theories  are  tested  scientifically     § Its  experimental  psych  applied  to   personality     • Also  a  reaction  against  behaviorism     o Behavior  is  not  only  due  to  environmental   stimuli,  but  is  also  things  inside  the  black  box:   § Goals   § Values   § Expectancies  (beliefs  about  what  will   happen  if  one  acts  in  certain  ways)   o Reactions  are  not  produced  directly  by  events,   but  by  cognition   • Emphasized  the  roles  of  beliefs  and  habits  of  thought   acquired  through  experiences  in  our  social  environment     o Example:  Locus  of  Control  as  a  personality  trait   § Internal:  tend  to  believe  their  behavior   determines  how  things  turn  out  for  them     § External:  Tend  to  believe  that  how  things   turn  out  is  determined  by  external  factors     • People  with  internal  locus  of   control  are  more  likely  to:   o Try  to  control  their  own   fates   o Take  preventative  health   measures   o Less  anxious  and  more   content  with  life   § Locus  of  control   predicts  behavior   o Uses  of  scientific  methodologies:   § Correlational  studies:   • Example:  measure  locus  of  control:   (self  report  questionnaire)  &  test   how  it  is  related  to  behavior   § Experiments  to  get  a  locus  of  control:   • Langer  and  Rodin  nursing  home   study:   o What  effect  does  it  have  to   feel  in  control  of  your  life   o Randomly  divided  the   residences  in  to  two  groups   o Control  group:  did  the  same   things  as  always   o Experimental  group:  given   more  responsibility  in   making  their  choices,  what   movie  would  play,  what   game  would  be  played,  etc   • Findings:     o After  18  months,  the   experimental  group  felt   happier     o Were  more  active   o Showed  better  heath   o Fewer  died     § Cognitive  Therapy:     • People  disturb  themselves  through   habitual  ways  of  thinking     • Therapy  then  is  about  uncovering   people’s  ways  of  thought  and   replacement     o Focuses  onconscious   thought,  the  therapist  is  like   a  teacher     • Four  Perspectives  on  Personality:   o Psychodynamic     o Humanistic     o Social-­‐Cognitive   o Trait  Theory   § Focuses  on  personality  traits     § Trait:  A  stable  disposition  to  behave  in  a   certain  way   § It’s  goal:  account  for  the  greatest  amount   of  variation  between  people  with  a   minimum  number  of  traits  (correlational)   • Example:  Cattell’s  “chemistry  of   personality”  identified  16  traits   (don’t  need  to  memorize  these*)   • Example:  Eysenck  (1952)  accounted  for  many   differences  between  individuals  with  just  true  traits:     o Introversion  versus  Extroversion   o Stable  versus  Unstable     o This  was  perhaps  way  too  simplistic     • The  Five  Factor  or  “Big  Five”  model:  *  leading  theory   today*   o Neuroticism     o Extroversion     o Openness   o Agreeableness     o Conscientiousness   § Industrial  organizational  Psychologists     • Often  use  traits  for  personnel  selection     o N&C  are  predictive  for  most  jobs   o E  is  very  predictive  for  some,  and  not  at  all  for   others     § Personality  Traits  predict  Behavior   § Cultural  Influences:   • Asian  cultures  tend  to  be  collective,  and  Americans   Individualistic  (less  so  in  the  deep  south)   o Summary:   § Psychodynamic     • Personality  arises  from  unconscious  mental  forces   (Freud)   § Humanistic:   • Personality  arises  from  an  actualizing  tendency   § Social-­‐Cognitive     • Personality  arises  from  learned  belief     § Trait  Theory:   • People  poses  stable  dispositions  to  behave  in  certain   ways       • Personality  theories  can  be  Contrasted  with     o Behavioral  Therapy:   § Uses  techniques  from  behaviorism  to  change  behavior     • Not  concerned  with  unconscious  motives,  patterns  of   thought,  or  personality  traits,  just  treats  specific   behaviors     § Systematic  Desensitization        


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