Social Psychology: Personality
Social Psychology: Personality Psych 210
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
Ann Carter Herbert
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Ann Carter Herbert on Friday November 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Psych 210 at Clemson University taught by Professor Chris Pagano, PhD in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
Reviews for Social Psychology: Personality
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/20/15
Personality: The relativity consistent pattern of thought, feeling, and behavior that characterizes • Psychodynamic Theories: o Personality and behavior are determined by unconscious mental forces that are § In conflict with each other § Shaped by childhood experiences o Sigmund Freud (1900-‐1930s): § The unconscious mind is motivated by sex and aggression • This is the source of our personalities • The main source is the sex drive: Libido § The unconscious mind consists of three parts that are in conflict; Id, Ego, and Superego • Your psychological mind is way below consciousness (iceberg example) o Id: § The original source of all mental energy § Inborn § Consists of all basic drives; libido § Largest part of your consciousness • Hunger, thirst, sleep, etc § Driven by the pleasure principle § Seeks immediate gratification § Has no concept of right or wrong, it wants what it wants o Ego: § Develops early in life, not born with it • Childhood experiences are key in how you form your ego § Driven by the reality principle, understands reality § Doesn’t really care about right or wrong, but if you do something now you think about how it will effect you tomorrow • Doesn’t want you to feel pain at some point in the future • Example: stop you from having sex or eating a whole bag of chips § Plans ahead to fulfill as many of Id’s drives as possible, while increasing overall pleasure and decreases pain § Has little regard for right or wrong, no morals o Superego: § Develops during childhood • Not everyone develops this, childhood experiences key § Understands society’s morals § Not everyone fully develops a superego § Opposes drives of the Id, and keeps the Ego from fulfilling them all • What can this really do to the ego to keep it in check?: it creates pain and guilt; creates massive conflict for the Ego o The Id; primary source of all mental energy; libido and aggression: drives cause anxiety o The Ego must rectify the Id’s drives with reality § Reality causes anxiety § Painful childhood memories cause anxiety o The superego creates guilt and mental pain to keep the ego from acting out all of the Id’s drives. -‐anxiety o The Ego tries to resolve these conflicts to lessen pain § Uses defense mechanisms to protect consciousness from too much anxiety • Defense Mechanisms: o Ways of dealing with too much anxiety § 1) Repression: anxiety producing desires and memories are pushed into the unconscious • repressed memories: you cannot bring them forth without some serious effort § 2) Displacement: • A drive is too strong to be stopped so it is directed towards something else o Example: your frustrations out on someone/something • Sublimation: (means displacement): direct energy towards good things § 3) Reaction formation: The drive is directed towards its target, but it is turned into its opposite § 4) Projection: the drive is perceived as someone else’s § 5) Rationalization: • you make up a reason why the drive is ok o Childhood development: determines the relative strength of the Id, Ego, and Superego and how they resolve their conflicts § Personality is determined by childhood experiences, o Freud’s Psychosexual stages in book** chart § Oral § Anal § Phallic § Latency § Genital o Oedipal crisis o Penis envy § Children resolve these crises (hopefully) by identifying with the similar sex parent and tries to be like them while still liking the other parent • Otherwise fixation occurs • While few still believe the Id, Ego, and Superego, or the psychosexual stages, Freud made some lasting contributions: o The role of: § The unconscious § Defense Mechanisms § Childhood experiences o Freud didn’t believe women were being abused; memories were from their own unconscious desires. § Used insight instead of science to arrive at “truth” • Underscores the need to do science • Shows some of the nonsense you can come up with when not using science • Psychodynamic Theories: o Therapy is aimed at making conscious the unconscious (conflicts, wished, memories, defense mechanisms) § Routes to the unconscious • Dreams • Free associations • Mistakes (Freudian slips) § Take what is unconscious and make it conscious, bring them to light for the patient o Therapy is aimed at making conscious the unconscious (conflicts, wishes, memories, defense mechs.) § Problems: therapists thought they understood patient’s memories and problems better than the patients did § Therapists often disbelieve claims of abuse, attributing them instead to fantasies and drives • Repression and false memories are possible, but science wasn’t used to telling the difference § Humanistic Psychology: • (1960s-‐present) • A reaction to Freud and behaviorism • Presented a more positive view of human nature: o Actualizing tendency: § An inborn drive to be creative, contribute to family and society, to be satisfied with oneself and reach one’s full potential • Problems arise when this is blocked • Therapy helps people acquire a positive self-‐concept • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: o Lower needs must be met first § Physiological needs § Safety needs § Belongingness needs § Esteem needs § Self-‐actualization needs o This is the opposite of Freud: § The main driving force comes from the top, not the bottom • Humanistic Psychology: The person is in control of themselves; Behavior is guided by conscious desires and perceptions o But, these are based upon the person’s phenomenological understanding, which may not correspond to reality o The self concept is an important aspect of the ph. World that can stray from reality § You think people don’t like you so you don’t socialize o Therapy: get people back on track when their ph. World strays too far from reality § Carl Roger’s Person-‐Centered Therapy: • Focus on conscious understanding • Uncover the self-‐concept • Adjust the self-‐concept for better functioning § Use Empathy and Unconditional Positive Regard to help the client explore and adjust their self concept without feeling criticized § Social Cognitive Theories: • Thought Freud’s approach overly pessimistic, and the humanistic approach overly romantic o Did not try to find one overall source of motivation o Its theories are tested scientifically § Its experimental psych applied to personality • Also a reaction against behaviorism o Behavior is not only due to environmental stimuli, but is also things inside the black box: § Goals § Values § Expectancies (beliefs about what will happen if one acts in certain ways) o Reactions are not produced directly by events, but by cognition • Emphasized the roles of beliefs and habits of thought acquired through experiences in our social environment o Example: Locus of Control as a personality trait § Internal: tend to believe their behavior determines how things turn out for them § External: Tend to believe that how things turn out is determined by external factors • People with internal locus of control are more likely to: o Try to control their own fates o Take preventative health measures o Less anxious and more content with life § Locus of control predicts behavior o Uses of scientific methodologies: § Correlational studies: • Example: measure locus of control: (self report questionnaire) & test how it is related to behavior § Experiments to get a locus of control: • Langer and Rodin nursing home study: o What effect does it have to feel in control of your life o Randomly divided the residences in to two groups o Control group: did the same things as always o Experimental group: given more responsibility in making their choices, what movie would play, what game would be played, etc • Findings: o After 18 months, the experimental group felt happier o Were more active o Showed better heath o Fewer died § Cognitive Therapy: • People disturb themselves through habitual ways of thinking • Therapy then is about uncovering people’s ways of thought and replacement o Focuses onconscious thought, the therapist is like a teacher • Four Perspectives on Personality: o Psychodynamic o Humanistic o Social-‐Cognitive o Trait Theory § Focuses on personality traits § Trait: A stable disposition to behave in a certain way § It’s goal: account for the greatest amount of variation between people with a minimum number of traits (correlational) • Example: Cattell’s “chemistry of personality” identified 16 traits (don’t need to memorize these*) • Example: Eysenck (1952) accounted for many differences between individuals with just true traits: o Introversion versus Extroversion o Stable versus Unstable o This was perhaps way too simplistic • The Five Factor or “Big Five” model: * leading theory today* o Neuroticism o Extroversion o Openness o Agreeableness o Conscientiousness § Industrial organizational Psychologists • Often use traits for personnel selection o N&C are predictive for most jobs o E is very predictive for some, and not at all for others § Personality Traits predict Behavior § Cultural Influences: • Asian cultures tend to be collective, and Americans Individualistic (less so in the deep south) o Summary: § Psychodynamic • Personality arises from unconscious mental forces (Freud) § Humanistic: • Personality arises from an actualizing tendency § Social-‐Cognitive • Personality arises from learned belief § Trait Theory: • People poses stable dispositions to behave in certain ways • Personality theories can be Contrasted with o Behavioral Therapy: § Uses techniques from behaviorism to change behavior • Not concerned with unconscious motives, patterns of thought, or personality traits, just treats specific behaviors § Systematic Desensitization
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'