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OCD, Trauma, & Substance Use

by: Lana Rose Betts

OCD, Trauma, & Substance Use CLP4143

Marketplace > Florida State University > Psychlogy > CLP4143 > OCD Trauma Substance Use
Lana Rose Betts
GPA 4.0
Abnormal Psychology
Casey Strickland

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About this Document

Hello, here are my notes for the 3 units covered after Test 3. Due to technical difficulties, I could not upload just one unit. Therefore, here are the past 2 weeks of notes. They include presen...
Abnormal Psychology
Casey Strickland
75 ?




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This 0 page Bundle was uploaded by Lana Rose Betts on Friday November 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CLP4143 at Florida State University taught by Casey Strickland in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 11/20/15
CLP41 43 Unit 4 OCD OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER OCD used to be categorized in the DSM as a type of anxiety disorder because OCD amp GAD are often hard to distinguish It was until the most recent revision DSM V that it became its own standalone disorder Symptoms Obsessions andor compulsions An understanding that the behavior is unreasonable this requirement is not necessary for kids Distressing amp timeconsuming engaging in OCD behavior for gt1 hour per day Obsessions o Intrusive unwanted recurrent thoughts images or impulses 0 Cause a lot of anxiety 0 Attempts to ignore suppress or neutralize w a different thought or action 0 Ex dirt amp contamination that dust will give me cancer aggressive impulses I really could punch my friend right now unwanted usually immoral sexual thoughts I keep thinking about having sex with my parents immoral behavior smoking or drinking 0 Not simply GAD If Alicia has GAD she may intensely worry about whether she locked her car or not and may check it If Alicia has OCD she may check her car multiple times Compulsions o Repetitive behavior or mental acts aimed at reducing distress or preventing a dreaded event or situation 0 Often linked with an obsession but there is often no causal link between the obsession and the compulsion This is known as For example in the clip we watched a girl believed that if she didn t tap everything in her house her family would die What OCD isn t People commonly say quotyou re so OCD when their friends like to organize But enjoying organization does not equal OCD Many people enjoy colorcoding their MampMs but they do not fear a dreaded outcome if they do not Prevalence amp Course 0 13 over life course 0 No gender difference Onset before 30 but men tend to get it earlier than women ex John gets OCD at 22 while Rose gets it at 29 If someone develops 00D at a later age they should see a neurologist it might be a sign of another disease 0 Chronic 12 of sufferers are unemployed or underemployed Commonly comorbid w MDD other anxiety disorders or eating disorders Biological Theories Genetics 00D is substantially heritable more than any anxiety disorder is involved in higher level thinking speci cally the receives amp Structure o The o The processes the strongest thoughts amp impulses it acts as a gatekeeper o The strongest impulses are then sent to the and then people behave in a way to ease the impulse a PET scans amp fMRIs show that people with 0CD have a dysfunction in this ow so that their impulses continue after their behavior Biological Treatment Antidepressants that target serotonin SSRIs decrease 00D symptoms by 5080 00 Cognitive Theories Why can t sufferers of 00D just quotturn off their thoughts 0 People with 00D are more likely to have rigid moralistic thinking 8 feelings of responsibility 0 These lead to overprediction of consequences 0 When people have high morals they may overreact when they have an immoral thought remember examples of unwanted sexual behavior and try not to think about it again In reality the more you try to control your thoughts the more you are unable to For example if you tell someone quotdon t think of a horse they are going to think of a horse Behavioral Theories As with the all the anxiety disorders we ve learned so far the key is operant conditioning amp negative reinforcement Sufferers do their compulsions to decrease their distressease their obsession CB Treatment therapists place patients in a situation to heighten their obsession anxiety and prevent them from doing their compulsion ex have a patient with dirty hands be unable to wash their hands for a while 0 6090 effective 00 0 2030 minutes the time it takes for OCD anxiety to naturally wash out without compulsion TRAUMA DISORDER Traumatic Stressors suddenunexpected events that involve actual or threatened harm or death Features of a disorder in order to be diagnosed with PTSD you must exhibit these symptoms for at least 1 month Reexperiencing intrusive thoughtsmemories nightmares related to the event ashbacks acting as if the event were occurring again Flashbacks are more of a feeling like feeling the weight of a rapist on top of you Acting as if the event were happening would be like running away from a pedestrian because you thought he was your rapist 0 Avoidance 0 External avoiding places people objects amp situations ex not driving a car because you were involved in an accident 0 Internal avoiding thoughts memories feelings Change change in belief about self amp world ex quotthere s something bad about me that caused my victimization persistent negative emotion anhedonia Excessive physiological arousal sleep problems irritabilityanger difficulty concentrating hypervigilance consistent alertness exaggerated startle response includes all of the above symptoms but for 28 days or less This diagnosis is helpful for people who need therapy or medication but have not met the 1 month requirement for PTSD Generally however clinicians wait before making a diagnosis because the above symptoms are natural reactions to stressors Prevalence amp Course 0 6070 of people witness or experience traumatic events but only 10 12 develop PTSD Lifetime prevalence rate of 7 Men have a higher risk of exposure to traumatic stressors but women have a 2x risk of developing PTSD Vulnerability o Sociocultural severity of the event Did I break my ankle or both of my legs in a car crash duration of the event How long did the crash occur from impact time to arrival at the hospital proximity of the event Was I in the crash Did I drive by the crash Did I see it on the news Did I know a victim social support Who is helping me through this o Psychological belief in the people amp fate are inherently good preexisting distress ex GAD harmful coping styles drugs isolation 0 Biological physiological hyperactivity especially in the amygdala higher hippocampus functioning this region is involved in memory and PTSD symptoms involve remembering the event chronically low baseline cortisol levels although stress is high during PTSD episodes it is low in general situations genetics one study that examined Vietnam War veterans showed that if one identical twin developed PTSD the other was more likely to also CBT Treatment recount trauma in detail Invivo exposure real life exposure They do not put patients in the same traumatic event but rather the situations they avoid For example a therapist might take a man to the apartment complex where he was raped a combination of the two above this therapy uses videogames amp headsets to place the patient in the traumatic event For example soldiers may stand on a shakey shakey board wear headphones that block out all other sound and wear a headset that places them in a combat videogame 4060 improvement rate 00 Medications drugs do not have nearly as beneficial an effect as CBT SSRIs have a slight but statistically significant improvement over placebos relapse is common after patients stop taking them Benzodiazepines do not work at all SUBSTANCE USE Substance any naturalsynthesized product that has psychoactive effects Demographics Roughly half of US citizens have tried an illegal substance men more than women Use is highest amongst Native Americans Whites use drugs more than Blacks do Those who are 26 amp older use the least amount of drugs they have more responsibilities those who are 1217 use more perhaps due to peer pressure and those who are 1826 use the most they are autonomous for the rst time in their lives Impulse control isn t fully developed until the late 20s Cohort Effects Substance use increased in the 60s 80s but has decreased in the 80s 2000 Marijuana is the most common drug that people have ever tried but alcohol is the most frequently used Intoxication V Withdrawal Intoxication direct effects of substance Withdrawal effects that occur after use is discontinued especially when the use was heavy amp frequent these effects tend to be the opposite of intoxication 0 Some substances only cause effects depending on the amount you take ex alcohol while others cause effects no matter how much you take ex ecstasy Substance Use Disorder Impaired control over use Socialwork impairment Risky use ex driving while intoxicated Tolerance or withdrawal this symptom is not required but is a sign of dependence Substances Alcohol amp Depressants barbiturates amp benzodiazepines 0 Low doses of intoxication con dence relaxation disinhibition High doses motor problems dizziness impaired sexual performance depressed mood o 3 Stages of Withdrawal 1 28 hours after intoxication hangover tremors quotthe shakes nausea perspiration 2 13 days convulsive seizures 3 more than 3 days delirium tremens DTs hallucinations fever irregular heartbeat delusions 0 Less than 15 of alcoholics experience DT amp it is fatal in 10 of cases 0 Most common substance use disorder 0 Most have their rst episode in their late 30s 0 20 achieve longterm sobriety wo treatment Stimulants cocaine amphetamines Adderal amp Ritalin nicotine coffee 0 Activate the CNS 0 Low doses competence energy alertness euphoria High doses grandiosity impulsiveness compulsive behavior agitation panic amp paranoia cardiac failure 0 Withdrawal exhaustion amp depression Hallucinogens Opiates Cannabis


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