Lecture 1-4 Notes
Lecture 1-4 Notes MUSIC 2252
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Melanie Adelstein on Tuesday November 24, 2015. The Bundle belongs to MUSIC 2252 at Ohio State University taught by Dana Plank-Blasko in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see History of Rock and Roll in Music at Ohio State University.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 11/24/15
History of Rock and Roll Notes Lecture 1 Rock is full of variety and there are sometimescontradictory ideas about what rock is and what it should do Some de ne it as a type of popular music with a strong beat usually played with electric guitars and drums Need to understand the blues to understand the Rolling Stones disco punk Rocksubset of popular music and popular music is different than classical musical because it is mostly passed in oral transmissions John Lennon and Paul McCartney could not read or write music Pop artists don t need to write down or publish their music because they are typically the composers as well as the performers Rock vs pop rock is looked at as harder more aggressive usually made up of entire bands just as much about instruments as it is about singers and lyrics often associated with particular subcultures with the idea of protest an antimainstream Pop usually mainstream designed to have an instant appeal usually individual personalities and often disposable and about romantic love Approach rock and roll through critical listening music and identity music and technology the music industry and margins and the mainstream Critical listening 0 Sound printthe unique qualities that distinguish one performer style or genre from another Timbre tone color the characteristic sound of an instrument or voice as determined by its frequency and overtone components Ex High virtually inaudible secondary tones that accompany any musical pitch Dark or bright pure or dirty smooth or rough Instrumentation acoustic vs electric or noting the presence of unusual instruments in a rock context such as ute or marimba Texture the interaction or different layers of sound Simple blocks vs complex woven textures Dynamic levels volume soft loud in between ln ection notetonote shaping of a musical line o Harmonythe simultaneous occurrence of 2 or more musical pitches and how those note sets are arranged and deployed o Melodythe main sung line the horizontal aspect of the music 0 Rhythm how music moves through time 0 Form the organization of music its structure its basic building blocks and the ways in which they are combined 0 Text the words or lyrics of a song Music involves concepts of identity lntertwined with the developing technologies Major record labels vs the indies smaller independents Variety of subcultures Deep emotional connections to music from ages 1224 because of oxytocin Lecture 2 Rhythm the articulation of music in time Each sound has a beginning middle and end we call the attack sustain and decay Rhythm is made up of cycles and variable patterns Patterns can be regular and repetitive or variable and irregular Rhythmcyclical in that patterns repeat and linearin that music unfolds over time Rhythmic gridframework of basic interlocking patterns on different levels Clapping lines with x xxx vs x Duple Grid every level relates to the others based on 21 relationships Meter another term for duple grid Duple triple and quadruple Rhythmic grid is made out of cycles We tend to hear music coming back home at regular intervals Meters are steady square regular or balances as opposed to unstable or lilting Music relies on grid but fools around with grid ex One way is to use silence can still feel grid in pauses can use silence can use triple meter not common cause sounds lilting and lyrical Compound meters beyond quadruple meter everything sounds like a compound of 2 or 3 Pulseregularly recurring attack Beat level of the pulse the level you tap or nod to Measurethe grouping of beats into larger clearly perceptible units of time Downbeat the pulse that marks the rst beat of each measure usually felt as a strong point of regular emphasis Offbeatany beat that is not a downbeat Meterorganization of rhythm tells us how many beats there are in a measure Backbeatsecondary point of emphasis on an offbeat born in the USA Timbre the speci c unique quality of sound made by any voice instrument or combination of instruments Distinguishes one guitar from another a piano from a gong the same guitar played in a different space etc the quotacoustic fingerprint of music Good descriptions of timbre are enough to convey a strong sense of how different songs are stylistically Ex of timbre voice sounds like sandpaper wailing etc Be creative when describing timbre Melodythe organization of a series of individual note in to a single uni ed line Like a strand of pearls every pearl is a note played or sung Spring of notes created by the voice for example Harmony several different notes sounding together simultaneously Chord a chunk of notes sounded together Notesindividual units of sound Pitch higher or lower placement of a note along a melodic spectrum Faster vibrations higher pitches Fixed pitchpiano notes where you cannot slide or bend the notes to get the inbetween Variable pitch human voice ute violin Can vary pitch by adding embellishments little swoops slides dips skips turns or curlicues to melodic line never hitting a note the same way twice jimi Hendrix guitar lndeterminate when pitch becomes variable enough Auto tune irons out voices to xed pitches Capture a melody on a gridSCALE notes go up and down When you double the rate of vibration note sounds like the same note just at a higher level This is called and octave Diatonic scalesmajor and minor scales Major associated with strength and happiness Minorassociated with sadness or suffering Faster sounds angry Many songs do not remain in either major or minor Chromatic scales use 12 notes instead of the 8 in a diatonic major scale They use every single key on the piano in a single octave Add color expressive touches Raise a note sharping it Lower a note atting it Chromatic in ectionsnotes outside a major or minor diatonic scale Heavy chromaticism is used to convey intense emotion often used to represent emotional or psychological disturbance Rhythms seem to want to quotcome homequot to regular points of emphasis and melodies have a tendency to center a single pitch Home notetonic Tonic is the note where melody tends to begin and end and the entire tune seems oriented to it as an anchor or reference pointname it according to degrees tonic as 1 and octave as 8 or 1 again Keywhenever cords accompany a melody quot3Dquot version of the scale if the scale is just the framework Key suggests a larger harmonic system in which we not only write melodies using a particular scale we esh them out with typical patterns for accompaniment Chords used to harmonize and accompany melodies harmonic units made from 2 or more notes sounded together built using the numbered scale degrees In key of C cord built on tonic note C is called a C cord next note is D which is called a ll cord use roman numerals Modal scales using sharps and ats arranging notes Mixolydian scalemode major scale with 7th scale degree atted Pentatonic scales scales built on 5 notes instead of the 8 used in diatonic scales and modes Major pentatonic built on scale degrees 12356 Hymns and folk tunes Minor pentatonic built on scale degrees 1 at3 45 and at 7 Often associated with the blues Blue notes chromatic in ections that become associated with the blues When performers use atted third fth or seventh scale degrees in an otherwise diatonic context SCALE TYPES NOTES Degree of scale I II III etc n ection of degree Mmajor mminor Pperfect 1 Diatonic Scalesmajor and minor Major most common basic scale type 0 Minorseveral Natural harmonic and melodic minor Depends on the particular in ection of the 6th and 7th scale degrees Minor scale has lowered atted third sixth and seventh degrees e at a at and b at if tonic note is C 2 Diatonic quotModesquot modafolk musicy A Mixolydian Mode the Gdiatonic scale almost identical to major scale but has lowered 7th degree If tonic degreeC uses B at instead of Bnatural Can also obtain this scale without any sharps or ats only play white keys if you use G as the tonic note instead of C B Lydian Mode the Fdiatonic scale has a raised 4th degree Used very rarely Ex Use Fsharp instead of Fnatural when tonic degree is C Can also obtains this scale without any sharps or ats only play white keys if you use F as the tonic note instead of C C Dorain mode the Ddiatonic scale Similar to natural minor scale Raised 6th degree Anatural instead of A sharp Can also obtain this scale without any sharps or ats only play white keys if you use D as the tonic note instead of C D Phrygian Mode the Ediatonic scalesimiar to natural minor scale but has a different sound from either major or minor quotMiddle Easternquot sound having a lowered 2nCI degree Uses D at instead of Dnatural when tonic degree is located on C Can also obtain this scale without any sharps or ats only play white keys if you use E as the tonic note instead of C 3 Pentatonic Modes or Scalesonly have 5 pitches within the octave Simpler to form and is the musical foundation in cultures around the world Major and Minor 0 Major Pentatonic Scalesimilar to major diatonic scale but lacks the diatonic 4th and 7th degrees F and B in the scale of C 12356 CDEGA Minor Pentatonic Scale similar to minor diatonic scale but lacks the diatonic 2nCI and 6th degrees D and A in the scale of C leaving 13457 CE atFGB at The Blues Pentatonic Mode based on the minor pentatonic scale but shows exible treatment or pitch space around the 3rd 5th and 7th degrees Blues notes have their own ways of being varied 4 The Chromatic Scale the background scale for all the scales discussed except the blues pentatonic It is the background because it includes all of the chromatic sharp and at in ections Has 12 scales within the octave versus the diatonic 7 pitches It combines the 7 white and 5 black keys on the piano LECTURE 3 The Blues Rock wouldn t be here without the blues Blues predominantly black American folk music of the 20th century roots reaching back to mid18005 Blues simultaneously a genre of music a musical form and a style of singing Also a state of mind ex Someone has the blues WC Handy discovered the style in the south around 1900 Called quotFather of the Bluesquot 2 things to note about the blues 1 Starting with their origins in rural AfricanAmerican work songs they have expressed suffering of many kinds 2 Lyrics tend to speak in code which in the case of erotic love involves doubleentendres double understanding or words or phrases with 2 meanings 0 Example he s a deep sea diver with a stroke that can t go wrong Sometimes explicit and very sexual 12bar Blues Form form takes place across 12 measures and encompasses 3 main elements 0 1 Harmonic a standard pattern using 3 different chords 0 2 Poeticlyrical three lines of text which the rst line repeated to make a text pattern of aab o 2 Three call and response patterns with an instrument answering the vocalist Poeticlyrical each line encompasses 4 bars or 4 beats each and a twobar vocal call followed by a 2bar instrumental response Blues lyrics tend to be more about romance heartbreak loneliness and other troubles but they are very straightforward intimate and deeply expressive Harmonic uses chords built on the 15f 4t and 5th scale degrees Usually the 3 chords used are the tonicthe home chord for a key the subdominant a IV chord and the dominant a V chord H lVl V Two main early types of blues country blues and classiccity blues Classiccity blues came after country blues was recorded and popularized primarily by AfricanAmerican women Songs were composed by professional songwriters Bessie Smithempress of the blues St Louis Blues Syncopation catchy rhythmic displacements where stresses occur where you don t expect them between beats or on what should be weak beats Strophic the same music is repeated for each new stanza of text Country bluesrougher folksier sound and recordings Usually male singer accompanying himself on guitar harmonica or banjo and performing his own compositions Earliest known country blues musician Charley Patton Blues notes expressive in ected notes that blues singers would habitually lower or bend downward by a halfstep of less from the expected pitch in major scale The 3rd 5th and 7th scale degrees in a blues song are treated as variable uid and inherently unstable The emphasis on these notes evokes primal human vocal expression crying moaning wailing sobbing laughing talking or even praying Bottleneck technique the sawedoff crosssection of a bottle was slipped over the middle ngers of the left hand allowing a player to make an evocatively brittle sound and also enabling him to slide between pitches or chords Standards songs that are designed to be performed by many different singers and musicians Often have sophisticated jazz harmonies that make it easy to change up the arrangement and style without losing the essence of the song In rock the essence is often inseparable from its original recording LECTURE 4 Alan FreedCle DJ who noticed more of his young white listeners were requesting songs by black rhythm and blues artists these records were then referred to as quotrock and rollquot music Rock and roll suggested something new and exciting In the early 505 record company executives were under the assumption that white record buyers had no real interest in blues and jazz but they were wrong Division between white and black markets had appeared The term quotrace recordsquot was used to describe recordings made for the AfricanAmerican market 28 years later RampB was the new name for race records The genre of RampB is bluesbased forms with added emphasis on exciting rhythmic elements The blues was usually performed with guitar or a small combo of instruments Rhythm entailed the support of rhythmkeeping instruments such as piano drums and acoustic bass RampB is a broad style of rock and roll and entails blues with a more important role for backing instruments The rhythm that was added was swinging and active aka dance music Growing audience Americans now had an unprecedented amount of discretionary income money that could be spent on nonnecessities including entertainment and recordings Audience interest had dwindled in bigband swing a style that had held its place in public taste for 25 years Young people were looking for something new Independent indie labels were now actively looking out for new styles in a way impossible for the larger record labels Record companies were more attentive to the tastes of young people noticing that their buying habits and discretionary income made them an important market for recorded music
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