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Date Created: 03/31/16
MGT 235 Arts and Entertainment Management MGT 235 Arts & Entertainment Management Lubin School of Business Professor Shinwon Noh Spring 2016 Week 1 (1/28/16): Why do we care about arts management? – because artistic often happens though an organization. ORGANIZATION- COLLECTION OF PEOPLE WORKING TOGETHER TO ACHIEVE A COMMON PURPOSE Managers- directly support, supervise and help activate the work efforts and performances accomplishment of others. Case Analysis- enhance analytical skills/managerial judgement by Broader exposure to many industries/organization for you Hypothetical on-the-job experience for you Preparing for a class 1. Skim the case quickly 2. Read the case again 3. Review all info presented in tables/exhibits 4. Apply the concepts of management you been studying 5. Check out conflict opinions 6. Support your diagnosis with reason and evidence Written case analysis 1. problem identification 2. analysis/ evaluation offer evidence to back up your argument and use the course concept in your report 3. Recommendation Week 2 (2/4/16): Level of Management: 1. Strategic level overall operation 2. Managerial (middle) level management bridge between the two 3. Operation- level management day to day Types of Management: General (top) Manager managing director Functional Manager production manager Frontline Manager wardrobe master—master carpenter--- head sound technician Non-Managerial employee dresser--laundry---fly rail motion control---live mixer Four Function of Management 1. Planning: deciding what is 3. Leading: motivating and to be done encouraging workers to -setting a goal and achieve the goal deciding how to achieve 4. Controlling: deciding if it is the goal. or isn’t getting done and 2. Organizing: deciding how what to do if it isn’t it is to be done and who is monitoring the progress to do it of the project -converting plans into a course of action Basic Function of Art Managers Planning/ development Marketing/ public relation Personnel management and labor relations Fiscal relations Board relations Government relations What skill are needed? 1. Leadership 2. Budgeting 3. Team Building 4. Fund-raising 5. Communication skill/writing 6. Marketing/ audience development 7. Financial/ management 8. Aesthetic/ artistic sense Evolution of Arts Managers Ancient: Middle Age: Renaissance organize organize : backstage events sales operation 21 century: 17 -19 th th century: 20 century: traditional role formalize operate + changing role structure and faculties and due to fast- structure evolve systems technology Creative an Arts Organization For Profit Business Legal types Sole proprietorship Partnership Limited liability corporation (LLC) Non-Profit Business Not pursuing profit beyond reasonable compensation for services Shareholder= the public Arts organization are typically 501©3 -tax exempt -mission: “to increase appreciation and awareness of” -may be taxed on unrelated business income Non-profit Arts Organization Incorporation Incorporation is a body, legal “person” in the eyes of the law Why do you need to incorporate your business? –to protect the people in your business and the business doesn’t have to end only to one individual name but it’s infinite. How do you incorporate your business? - Certificate (article of incorporate) - Bylaw - Board of directors (they have the power) Non-profit Arts Organization Business Plan Business plan: a road map towards your business Business plan is needed because it’s a start up and help convince investors, banks, family your plan is doable and how to much money the business will make Missions, Vision, Value 1. Mission: the without purpose of the organization 2. Vision: the outcome of pursuing the mission 3. Values: what the organization holds most important in the process of pursuing it mission and vision. Week 3 (2/11/16): Creative Product Experience goods Quality is in the eye of the beholder Demand is difficult to predict Adaptation & Survival Why do arts organizations need to adapt to change? To survive Competitive Adaption Open System External Environments Arts Organizations Output Information Sources Environments: 1. Economic Environment: interest rates, tax legislation, exchange rate, inflation, terrorist attack, natural disaster, etc… What happened after the following events? Recession of 2008/2009 = Lesson: have a disaster plan 9/11 2. Political and Legal Environment: changes in law and regulations may affects arts organization budget Subscribe to service organization Could be expensive (p.113) How to proactively affect political and legal environment? Lobbying for the arts -501©3 not allowed to lobby Mobilizing the public for the arts 3. Cultural and Social Environment: Belief, attitudes, and value of our society Balancing organizational mission, artists and the community value Emerging forms of household and families 4. Demographic Environment: profile of vital statistic of society Example: population, ethnicity, age 5. Education Environment Level of education arts attendance The role of universities in the arts: Performance arts venue Art museums and galleries Artistic-in-residence positon 6. Technological Environment Digital download and live streaming Metropolitan opera, NY City Ballet Berlin Philharmoniker’s Digital Concert Hall Week 4 (2/18/16): Information Sources: Audience Other Arts groups Board/Staff member Media Professional associations Consultants Plan- Why Is Planning So Important? Overall direction Funding application Volatile environment YOUR PLAN MUST ANSWER THE QUESTION: MUST ANSWER WHY YOUR QUESTION TO SUPPORT YOUR MISSION OF THE ORGANIZATION (STARTING POINT) WHY, WHERE, WHEN, WHO, WHAT, HOW Exercise: “To fulfill our mission of bring new music to the community, we have set a goal of attracting more patrons to our events. To achieve the goal, we have set a specific object for our marketing and sale staff to expand our subscription audience by 7% for next year’s concert series in New Hall. To meet this objective, the marketing and sale will contract local business leaders and corporate human resource department and offer groups discount to their staff and employees. The methods they will use will include phone and face to face contracting of business owners and cooperate human resource promoting group sale discount plans.” The plan: to fulfill our mission attracting more patrons to expand our subscription audience by 7% next year the marketing and sale staff phone and face to face contacting of business owner and corporate human resources promoting group sale discount plans Planning Terminology Strategic planning A handful of decision for organizational success in the next few years (long term) Operational planning Focused on details and short term activities that support the strategic plan Strategic plans and Operational plans are directly connected to each other E.g., Cirque du Solell Strategic plans: growing the company Single-use plan Plans for unique events that do not recur E.g., relocating the office Standing-use plan Plans for events that do recur frequently called rerun plan E.g., scheduling of rehearsals Self-analysis formulate strategies develop goods, objectives and action goods 1-Self-Analysis Use tools Mission analysis Resource analysis Situation analysis Good mission statement 1. Statement of purpose: what are we here to do? 2. Statement of ambition: where are we heading? 3. Statement of values: what values do we hold dear? Resource Analysis Do we have people with necessary skills? Do we have the facilities, money, and other resources needed to make our plans work? Do we have the ability to monitor progress and make corrections as we proceed? Situation SWOT Analysis Internal Factors: Strengths/ Weakness Human Resources Physical Resources Financial Resources Reputation Activities and Program External Factors: Opportunities/ Threats Economy Potential external funding sources Demographics Legislation Local, regional, international events 2-Formulate Strategies 1. Stability strategy 2. Growth strategy 3. Retrenchment strategy (elimination) or Combination strategy This defines the direction in which the whole organization intend to move 3-Goals, Objective, and Action plans Strategy goals E.g., growth strategy Object: specific methods stating how to fulfill the goals Actions plan: concrete steps in allocation of human, financial, and equipment resources to meet the object Evaluation systems Week 5 (2/26/16): Organization A collection of people working to achieve a common purpose Organizing Process of assigning tasks, allocating resources, and coordinating the activities of individuals and group to accomplish goals Woodward’s Organizing Small-batch technology - Art work, construction projects Large-batch technology - Automobile plants, consumer electronics plants Continuous technology - Chemical plants, oil refineries Burns & Stalker’s Organizing: Mechanistic form: Stable environment Individual specialization Centralization Standardization Much written communication Organic form: changing environment Joint specialization Decentralization Mutual adjustment Much verbal communication Division of Labor “Divide and Conquer” Benefits Saves time Enhances expertise Cannot be Divided by: Nature of task Purpose of task - When the productivity or efficiency is not a goal Bureaucracy (Dr. Strangelove) Creativity Adaptation to unanticipated events Bottom-up communication Arts Organizations Mechanistic vs. Organic Some arts organization are in mechanistic form-why? Most arts organization have subunits that require mechanistic form Like sales Payroll Organizational chart 1. Division of work 2. Sub-units 3. Supervisory relations 4. Lines of communications 5. Level of management Work Breakdown Structure How to develop WBS Top-down approach Brainstorming approach Organization-chart format Indented-outline format Bubble-chart format Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Defines and shares team roles and responsibilities Week 6 (3/3/16): Midterm-Review Week 7 (3/10/16): Midterm Week 8 (3/17/16): Human Resources and the Arts 1. Job Analysis Work activities Work tools Job context Standards Qualifications 2. Job Qualifications General description Responsibilities Requirements (qualifications) Compensation Application method 3. Recruitment Internal hiring Save on hiring costs Save on compensation Save on training costs Motivate employees External hiring External job posting (online services, own websites, print media, etc.) Professional recruitment firm (head-hunter) Hiring process Formal application Screening Interview (Amy Cuddy: Your body language shapes who you are Test Reference check Hiring 4. Orientation and Training On-the-job training (OJT) Job rotation Coaching Board of Directors Ultimate responsibilities for non-profit organization Oversight Hiring key management staff Approving budget Approving financial report Supporting the organization with donations and/or in-kind gift “To Join the Met’s Board, Have a Checkbook Handy” New York Times, April 2010 1. Reasons people join boards of trustees Social status, personal satisfaction of doing good, the chance to network with power people, influence in setting the intellectual course of the nation 2. Organizations’ criteria for selecting trustees Money, passion for the arts, artistic/legal expertise 3. Responsibilities of trustees Give, Get, or Get off – financial expectations Time, talent, treasure Week 9 (3/31/16): Controlling and the Arts What factors affect control system? 1. Clarity of goals and objectives SMART approach Specific: “increase revenue” vs. “increase revenue by 5% within six months” Measurable: establish concrete criteria and milestones for measuring progress Assignable: specify who will do what Realistic: a goal that you are both willing and able to work toward Time-specific: grounded within a specific time frame 2. Uncertainty More uncertain -> tighter control (e.g., contingency plans, crisis plans) Crisis Planning Plans for dealing with a crisis (e.g., death of a founder) Control System 3. Complexity Control system needs to be updated according to the increased complexity in an organization 4. Human limitations More limitations -> tighter control 5. Centralization More decentralized -> tighter control Operational control process STEP 1 Establish performance objectives and targets Increase sales by 8% by the end of season STEP 2 Measure actual performance against targets Sales increased by 4% at the end of season STEP 3 Assess causes for difference in performance 1. Lack of marketing resources? 2. Poorly trained staff? 3. Any other reasons? STEP 4 Take action to improve performance 1. Increase marketing budget 2. Improve the quality of training 3. Take other actions as needed Budget a plan that commits resources for a specific time period to activities, projects, or programs Fiscal Year (FY) Any designated 12-month period of revenue and expense activities Budget centers Revenue center Earned income (e.g., ticket sales, merchandise sales) Unearned income (e.g., private donations, government funding) Expense center Types of Budget Fixed budget allocations are based on the estimated costs from a fixed base of resources (e.g... budget for general manager’s salary) Flexible budget allocations are based on the activity levels (e.g., budget for museum security guards) Capital budget Used for a large-scale investment purpose (“payback period” method) Project budget Used for an event that has a start and end time
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