Memory and Cognition- Semester Notes
Memory and Cognition- Semester Notes EXP4507
UWF - Pensacola
Popular in Memory and Cognition
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 72 page Bundle was uploaded by Alii on Saturday November 28, 2015. The Bundle belongs to EXP4507 at University of West Florida - Pensacola taught by Jarvis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Memory and Cognition in Psychlogy at University of West Florida - Pensacola.
Reviews for Memory and Cognition- Semester Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/28/15
Chapter 1 Introduction to Cognitive Psychology. The complexity of cognition. o Cognition is a mental process. Is what the mind does. o Cognition involves: The mind creates and controls mental functions such as: Perception. o Looking at something and seeing all aspects of it. Ex: size, coloring, etc. Paying attention. Remembering. o Memory. o Something from the past. Distinguishing items in a category. o Ex: weighing options. Visualizing. o Picturing something. Understanding and production of language. Problem solving. Reasoning and decisionmaking. All of these include “hidden” processes of which we may not be aware. o The mind is a system that creates representations of the world so that we can act within it to achieve our goals. Reflects mind’s importance for functioning and survival o Cognitive psychology. The branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mind. Cognition refers to the mental processes, such as perception, attention, and memory, that are what the mind does. Ask how does the mind do all it does. Looks at how the mind achieves what it does. Originally believed the mind couldn’t be studied because it couldn’t be seen. The first cognitive psychologist. o Franciscus Donders. 1868. Asked how long it takes to make a decision. Reaction time (RT) experiment. Reaction time is: o How long it takes to respond to the presentation of a stimulus. Measured interval between stimulus presentation and person’s response to stimulus. Simple reaction time test. o Participant pushes a button quickly after a light appears. Choice reaction time task. o Participant pushes one button if light is on right side, another if light is on left side. o Have to make choice of which button to press. More complex decision. Choice RT – Simple RT = Time to make a decision. th o Choice RT = 1th0 of a second longer than Simple RT. o Takes 1/10 of a second to make a decision. Mental responses cannot be measures directly but can be inferred from the participant’s behavior. o Wilhelm Wundt. 1897. Founded the first psychology laboratory. Approach: Structuralism. o Our overall experience is determined by combining basic elements of experience called sensations. o Experience determined by all sensations. o Tried creating periodic table of the mind. Like chemistry having periodic table of the elements which combine to create molecules. Would include all the basic sensations involved in creating experience. Ex: creating table of all the sensations to experience love. Method. Analytic introspection. o Participants trained to describe experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli. o Was method used to created table. o Hermann Ebbinghaus. 1885/1913. Interested in determining the nature of memory and forgetting. Looked at how rapidly information that is learned was lost over time. Read list of nonsense syllables aloud to determine number of repetitions necessary to repeat list without errors. After some time, he relearned the list. Short intervals = fewer repetitions to relearn. Savings = Original time to learn the list – Time to relearn the list after a delay. o Determined how much was forgotten after delay. o Smaller savings meant more forgetting. Longer delays result in smaller savings. Short intervals between relearning the easier to relearn. After 6 days savings (recall) remained about the same. Forgetting happens rapidly after the first 2 days of learning. o All 3 originals set the stage for cognitive psychology. o William James’s Principles of Psychology James was an early American psychologist who taught the first psychology course at Harvard University. Observations based on the functions of his own mind, not experiments. Realized that paying attention to one thing withdrawals attention from other things. Considered many topics in cognition, including thinking, consciousness, attention, memory, perception, imagination, and reasoning. o John Watson noted two problems with the method of analytic introspection. 1. Extremely variable results from person to person. 2. Results difficult to verify. Invisible inner mental processes. The rise of behaviorism. o John Watson proposed a new approach called behaviorism. Eliminate the mind as a topic of study. Instead, studied directly observable behavior. Cared about how paring one stimulus with another affected behavior. o Watson and Rayner “Little Albert” experiment. 1920. Classical condition of fear. 9monthold became frightened by a rat after a loud noise was paired with every presentation of the rat. Classical conditioning. Pair a neutral event with an event that naturally produces some outcome. After many pairings the “neutral” event also produces the outcome. Ex: Pavlov’s dogs. o B.F. Skinner. 1940s through 1960s. Interested in determining the relationship between stimuli and response. Operant conditioning. Shape behavior by rewards or punishments. Focused on how behavior is strengthened by the presentation of reinforcements. Behavior that is rewarded is more likely to be repeated. Behavior that is punished is less likely to be repeated. The reemergence of the mind in psychology. o Tolman. 1938. Trained rats to find food in a fourarmed maze. Two competing interpretations: Behaviorism predicts that the rats learned to “turn right to find food.” Tolman believed that the rats had created a cognitive map of the maze’s layout and were navigating to a specific arm. The rats navigated to the specific arm where they previously found food. Supported Tolman’s interpretation. Did not support behaviorism interpretation. The decline of behaviorism. o A controversy over language acquisition. o Skinner. 1957. Verbal behavior. Argued children learn language through operant condition. o Children imitate speech they hear. o Repeat correct speech because it is rewarded. Chomsky. o 1959. o Argued children did not only learn language through imitation and reinforcement. Children say things they have never heard and cannot be imitating. Children sometimes say words they have not heard before. o Make them up. Children say things that are incorrect and that they have not been rewarded for. o Language must be determined by inborn biological program. Studying the mind. o To understand complex cognitive behaviors: Measure observable behavior. Make inferences about underlying cognitive activity. Consider what this behavior says about how the mind works. Cognitive revolution. o Shift from behaviorist’s stimulusresponse relationships to an approach that attempts to explain behavior in terms of the mind. o Informationprocessing approach. A way to study the mind created from insights associated with the digital computer. New way to conceptualize the mind. o Early computers. 1950s. Processed information in stages. How much information can the mind absorb? Attend to just some of the incoming information? Proposed informationprocessing approach to studying the mind. o Thought the operation of the mind can be described as occurring in a number of stages. o Led to asking new questions and to frame answers to their questions in new ways. o Cherry. 1953. Expanded on multitasking/attention. “Dichotic” listening. Present message A in left ear. Present message B in right ear. To ensure attention, shadow one message. o Shadow = repeat. Participants were able to focus only on the message they were shadowing. Brought on flow diagram of the mind. o Ex: input is the sounds of both the attended and unattended messages, filter is what you attend to (what you want to repeat back) and filters out the unattended message, detector records the information that gets through the filter. o Provided a way to analyze the operation of the mind in terms of sequence of processing stages. Artificial intelligence and information theory. o From computer came artificial intelligence. Wondered if it was possible to program computers to mimic operation of the human mind. o Artificial intelligence. “Making a machine behave in ways that would be called intelligent if a human were so behaving” Newell and Simon created the logic theorist program that could apply rudimentary logic to creating mathematical theorems. Modern research in cognitive psychology. o How research progresses from question to question. Start with what is known. Ask questions. Design experiments. Obtain and interpret results. Use results as the basis for new research questions, experiments, and results. o The roles of models in cognitive psychology. Models are representation of structures of processes that help us visualize of explain the structure or process. There are two kinds of models to be aware of: Structural models. o Representations of a physical structure. Structures in the brain that are involved in specific functions o Mimic the form or appearance of a given object. Simplifications of the real thing that contain important information about the structure being represented. o Help visualize the layout of a system. Process models. o Illustrate how a process operates. o Represent the processes that are involved in cognitive mechanisms, with the boxes usually representing specific processes and arrows indicating connections between processes. o Process is not necessarily located in a particular place, so the boxes do not necessarily represent specific structures. Chapter 2 Cognitive neuroscience. Cognitive neuroscience. o What is it? The study of the physiological basis of cognition. Involves an understanding of both the nervous system as well as the individual unity that compromise that system. Studying the mind involves both behavioral experiments and physiological experiments. Levels of analysis. o Idea that topic can be studied in a number of different ways, with each approach contributing its own dimensions to our understanding. o We do not examine topics of interest from a single perspective, but rather we look at them from a multiple angles and different points of view. o Each “viewpoint” can add small amounts of information which, when considered together, leads to greater understanding. Building blocks of the nervous system. o Neurons. Create and transmit information about what we experience and know. Cells specialized to create, receive, and transmit information in the nervous system. Each neuron has a cell body, an axon, and dendrites. Nerve nets. o Network of neuron in brain tissue. o The interconnections of neurons create a nerve net, which is like a continuous network that is similar to a highway. One street connects to another but without stop signs. This allows for almost nonstop, continuous communication of signals throughout the network. Provides a complex pathway for conducting signals uninterrupted through the network. o Contradicted by the neuron doctrine. Ramon y Cajal. Nerve net was not continuous, but was instead made up of individual units connected together. Individual units of neurons were basic building blocks of the brain. Called neuron doctrine. Individual nerve cells transmit signals, and are not continuous with other cells. Building blocks of the nervous system. o Cell body. Metabolic center of the neuron. Contains mechanisms to keep cells alive. o Dendrites. Branch out from the cell body to receive signals from other neurons. Multiple branches reaching from the cell body, which receives information from other neurons. o Axon. Aka nerve fibers. Long tubes that transmit signals to other neurons. Tube filled with fluid that transmits electrical signal to other neurons. o Neural circuits. Neurons are not connected to all other neurons, but to specific ones. Group of interconnected neurons. o Receptors. Neurons in the eye, ear, and skin. How neurons communicate. o Action potential. Neuron receives signal from environment. Information travels down the axon of that neuron to the dendrites of another neuron. Receives signal. Ex: touch on hand. o Measuring action potentials. Microelectrodes pick up electrical signal. Placed near axon. Active of ~1 second. The size is not measured; size remains consistent. The rate of firing is measured. Electric signals represent the intensity of a stimulus. Low intensities. o Slow firing. High intensities. o Fast firing. o Intense sensation. The more pressure there is the faster the firing rate is. o Synapse. Small gap between axon of one neuron and dendrites or cell body of another neuron. o When the action potential reaches the end of the axon, synaptic vesicles open and release chemical neurotransmitters. o Neurotransmitters. Chemicals that affect the electrical signal of the receiving neuron, cross the synapse and bind with the receiving dendrites. Makes it possible for signal to be transmitted across synapse gap that separates the end of the axon from the dendrite or cell body of another neuron. Representation in the brain. o Everything a person experiences is based not on direct contact with stimuli, but on representations in the person’s nervous system. o Hubel & Wiesel. 1960s. Feature detectors. Neurons that respond to specific features in stimulus. o Ex: orientation, movement, length. Hierarchical processing. o When we perceive different objects, we do so in a specific order that moves from lower to higher areas of the brain. Start in visual cortex for simple stimuli and then move on to temporal lobe to have more complex detail added in. o The ascension from lower to higher areas of the brain corresponds to perceiving objects that move from lower (simple) to higher levels of complexity. Neurons in visual cortex responded to simple stimuli, and temporal lobe responded to complex neurons (faces, hands, etc.). Representation in the brain. o Theories: o Specificity coding. Representation of a specific stimulus by firing of specifically tuned neurons specialized to just respond to a specific stimulus. Idea that object could be represented by the firing of a specialized neuron that responds only to that object. Ex: neuron only responds to face of one person and no other. o Population coding. Representation of a particular object by the pattern of firing of a large number of neurons. Ex: person’s face might be represented by the firing of a pattern of neurons. Large pattern with lots of neurons firing. o Sparse coding. When a particular object is represented by a pattern of firing of only a small group of neurons, with the majority of neurons remaining silent. Ex: person’s face is represented by firing pattern of a few neurons. Allows for overlap of some neurons being used in pattern. Allows neurons to respond to more than one stimulus, but still allows individual patterns. Localization of function. o Localization of function. Specific functions are served by specific areas of the brain. o Cognitive functioning breaks down in specific ways when areas of the brain are damaged. o Cerebral cortex contains mechanisms responsible for most of our cognitive functions. 3mm thick layer that covers the brain o Language. Language production is impaired by damage to Broca’s area. Is specialized for speech. Frontal lobe. o Language comprehension is impaired by damage to Wernicke’s area. Temporal lobe. Lobes of the cerebral cortex. o Frontal lobe. Responds to all of the sense and is involved in higher cognitive functioning. Thinking and problem solving. Receives signals from all the sense and is responsible for coordination of the sense o Temporal lobe. Auditory cortex responsible for hearing found here. o Spinal lobe. o Occipital lobe. Responsible for vision o Parietal lobe. Somatosensory cortex which receives signals from the skin. Responsible for perception of touch, pressure, and pain. Organization o Brain imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging. MRI. Allows creation of images of structures within the brain. Does not indicate neural activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging. fMRI. Shows how various types of cognition activate different areas of the brain. Evidence for localization of function. Fusiform face area responds specifically to faces. o FFA o Faces activate area in the brain. o Temporal lobe o Damage to this area causes prosopagnosia. Inability to recognize faces. Parahippocampal place area. o PPA. o Responds specifically to places (indoor/outdoor scenes). Perceives pictures representing indoor and outdoor scenes. o In temporal lobe. Extrastriate body area. o EBA. o Responds specifically to pictures of bodies and parts of bodies, but not faces. Distributed representation in the brain. o Distributed representation is the idea that specific cognitive functions activate many areas of the brain. Ex: faces strongly activate FFA and other areas as well. Other neurons also respond to reactions to a face. o In addition to localization of function, specific functions are processed by many different areas of the brain, called the distributed representation. o Many different areas may contribute to a function. o This may appear to contradict the notion of localization of function, but the two concepts are actually complementary. o Ex: just as a symphony is created by different instruments all working together, cognitive processes are created by many specialized brain areas to create a full picture. Ex: different brain areas of the brain process a moving red ball. One for color, movement, shape, depth, location, etc. Neural networks. o Groups of neurons or structures that are connected together. o How brain works together can be examined by using diffusion tensor imaging. DTI. Depends on water to find. Final thoughts. o Description of cognitive neuroscience has taken us from firing of single neurons to more complex cognitions. o Necessary to know how neurons work (at least at a basic level) so we can determining how neurons and brain structures determine cognition. o Purpose of this class (and cognitive psychology) is to explain behaviors related to cognition by conducting both behavioral and physiological experiments. Chapter 3 Perception. Perception is… o Experience resulting from stimulation of the sense. o Basic concepts. Perceptions can change based on added information. Ex: thinking you see a piece of driftwood, but realizing it’s an umbrella as you get closer. Involves a process similar to problem solving. o Is it possible that true human perception processes are unique to humans? o Attempts to create artificial forms of perception (machines) have been met with limited success, and each time have had problems that could not be solved. Why is it so difficult to design a perceiving machine? o Aka what is true human perception that computers struggle at. o 1. Inverse projection problem. The stimulus on the receptors is ambiguous. Retina only sees objects as 2d, making seeing shape and orientation a problem. The task of determining the object responsible for a particular image on the retina. Involves starting with the retinal image and then extending outward to the source of that image. Object is ambiguous. The retinal image created by a rectangular page in a book could have been created by a number of other objects. Computers have difficult time with this. Ex: see camera lid and call it a tennis ball. o 2. Objects can be hidden or blurred. People can often identify objects that are obscured and therefore incomplete, or in some cases objects that are blurry. Sometimes objects are obscured by another object. Still people easily understand that the part of an object that is covered continues to exist. They are able to use their knowledge of the environment to determine what is likely to be present. o 3. Viewpoint invariance. Objects look different from different viewpoints. Objects are often viewed from various angles. Image of objects are continually changing depending on the angle from which they are viewed. Viewpoint invariance is the ability to recognize an object seen from different viewpoints. The complexity of perception. o There are two types of information used by the human perceptual system. o Bottomup processing. Starts at the “bottom”/beginning of the system when environmental energy stimulates the receptors. Perception may start with the sense. Incoming raw data. Environmental energy registering on receptors. Sequence of stimulus. Stimulus eye brain. o Topdown processing. Perception may start with the brain. Involves person’s knowledge of the environment, experience, and expectations people bring to the perceptual situation. Starts with the brain. Processing that originates in the brain. Ex: image may be more difficult to identify. Context clues and extra knowledge allow us to see what it is. o Normally work together to create full picture. o Perceiving objects. Topdown is involved in perceiving objects. Objects in pictures may be identical blobs, but are perceived differently depending and orientation and context. Context clues. o Hearing words in a sentence. Speech segmentation. The ability to tell when one word ends and another begins. Each listener’s experience with language (or lack of it) is influencing his or her perception. The continuous sound signals enter the ears and signals are sent to speech areas of the brain. Bottom up. If you understand the language that knowledge creates the perception of individual words. Topdown. o Experiencing pain. Direct pathway model. An early model that explained pain. Said pain occurred when receptors in the skin (nociceptors) are stimulated and send their signals in a direct pathway from the skin to the brain. o A bottomup processing model. Depends on stimulation of the receptors first. A more recent model has found that what a person expects, how the person directs their attention, and the type of distracting stimulus that is present can affect how we experience pain. o Topdown processing. o Influenced by what people expect. o Ex: the placebo effect. Approaches to understanding perception. o Look at how we perceive objects. o 1. Helmholtz’s theory of unconscious inference. Asked how the perceptual system “decide” that the pattern on the retina is created by a specific object. Topdown theory. Some of our perceptions are results of unconscious assumptions we make about the environment. We use knowledge to inform our perceptions. Likelihood principle. We perceive the world in a way that is “most likely” based on our past experiences. We perceive the object that is most likely to have caused the pattern of stimuli. Judgement of what is most likely occurs by a process called unconscious inference. Where our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions/inferences that we make about the environment. We infer shapes and objects because of experiences we had with similar situations in the past. o Ex: red and blue rectangle overlapping, we infer it is a rectangle covering another rectangle. Not two different shapes. Largely unconscious thoughts. o 2. Gestalt principles of organization. Old view. Structuralism. Perception is made up of adding up sensations. New view. Gestalt psychologist. Rejected idea that perceptions were formed by adding up sensations. o Due to apparent movement. When movement is perceived, but nothing is actually moving. Ex: moving billboard ads, movies, etc. The mind groups patterns according to laws of perceptual organization. Law of good continuation. Lines ted to be seen as following the smoothest path and continuous. o Ex: coiled rope. Law of pragnanz. Simplicity or good figure. Every stimulus pattern is seen so the resulting structure is as simple as possible. Ex: Olympic rings are seen as 5 different rings, not 9 different objects. Law of similarity. Similar things appear grouped together. o Ex: rows of dots. Gestalt laws often provide accurate information about properties of the environment. Reflect experience. Experience is important but does not overcome perceptual principles. o Person’s experience can influence perception, but the role of experience is minor compared to the perceptual principles. Perception is determined by specific organizing principles. o Not just patterns of light and dark on the retina. Gestalt laws are intrinsic. o 3. Regularities in the environment. Taking regularities of the environment into account. Perception is influence by our knowledge of regularities in the environment. Characteristics of the environment that occur frequently. o Ex: blue is associated with open sky, green with landscapes, etc. Two kinds: Physical regularities. o Regularly occurring physical properties of the environment. o Ex: there are more vertical and horizontal orientations in the environment than oblique (angled) ones. o Oblique effect. People can perceive verticals and horizontals more easily than other orientations. o Lightfromabove assumption. Assume that light is coming from above. Is usually the case in the environment. We perceive shadows as specific information about depth and distance. Semantic regularities. o The meaning of the scene. What happens within a scene. o Characteristics associated with the functions carried out in different types of scenes. o Are the characteristics associated with the functions carried out in different types of scenes? o A scene schema is the knowledge of what a given scene ordinarily contains. Ex: if you think of a professor’s office, what would you expect to see/find there? o 4. Bayesian inference. Thomas Bayes. Our estimate of the probability of a given outcome is influenced by two factors: The prior probability. o Our initial belief about the probability of an outcome. The likelihood of a given outcome. o Extent the available evidence is consistent with the outcome. The factors set up an equation. Priors + likelihood = conclusion. Comparing all four approaches. o Helmholtz’s unconscious inference. o Gestalt laws of organization. o Regularities in the environment. o Bayesian inference. o Which one is different from the other three? Gestalt. Follows laws. Unlike others it doesn’t use topdown processing. o Builtin principles can override experience thereby making it bottomup processing. Based on rules and doesn’t care about past experiences. Neurons and the environment. o Evidence that experiencing certain stimuli over and over can shape the way neurons respond in perceptual systems. Connected to Gestalt principles. o Some neurons respond best to things that occur regularly in the environment. Neurons that respond to horizontals and verticals. There are more neurons in the visual cortex that respond horizontal and vertical orientations than to oblique orientations. Horizontals and verticals. Experiencedependent plasticity. o The structure of the brain is changed due to experience in order to perceive the environment more efficiently. Movement facilitates perception. o Movement helps us perceive things in our environment more accurately than static, still images. Reveals aspects of object that are not apparent from a single viewpoint. Ex: a horse in the distance standing still may be more difficult to discern than the horse walking across the field. Walking around the same horse to see it from difference angles will provide additional information and also facilitate accurate perception. The interaction of perception and action. o Connection between perceiving objects and interacting with them. o Our actions within or upon the environment around us involve a constant stream of updating perceptions and recognition of very subtle changes. o What and where. What stream. Identifying/perceiving an object. In temporal lobe. o Damage to removes ability to identify an object. Object discrimination problem. o Involved with perception of object. o Experiment to look at this: Monkey is shown an object. Ex: rectangular solid. Then presented with two choice task. Ex: “target” object and other object were placed on food wells. If monkey pushed aside target object it was rewarded. Reward given for detecting the target. Where stream. Identifying the object’s location. Locating and taking action toward object. Landmark discrimination problem. o Monkey is trained to pick the food well next to a cylinder. Colors. o Red has large wavelength. o Green has medium wavelength. o Blue has short wavelength. o Positive colors. Yellows/reds. Leads to positive emotions. o Negative colors. Blue/reds. Leads to restlessness, anxiousness, coldness. Chapter 4 Attention. The ability to focus on specific stimuli or locations in our environment. o Selective attention. Attending to one thing while ignoring others. Focusing attention on a particular object or event. Whatever is being attended to receives enhanced processing. Attending to one thing while ignoring others. The ability to focus on one message and ignore all others. We do not attend to a large fraction of the information in the environment. We filter out some information and promote other information for further processing. Ex: ignoring phone going off in class and paying attention to lecture We do things to minimize disturbances. Research on. Cherry’s Dichotic listening. o One message is presented to the left ear and another to the right ear. o Participant “shadows” one message to ensure he is attending to that message. Shadowing is repeating back. o Participants could not report the content of the message in unattended ear. Knew that there was a message. Knew the gender of the speaker. o Cocktail party effect. The ability to focus on one stimulus while filter out other stimuli. When we don’t know the content of unattended conversations around us. Neville Moray. Repeated word 35 times in unattended ear. Still could not shadow word. o Divided attention. Paying attention to more than one thing at a time. Multitasking. Ex: texting and driving. Not as effective and doesn’t work well. Broadbent’s filter model. o Explains how it is possible to focus on one message and why information isn’t taken from the other message. o Message sensory memory filter detector to memory. Sensory memory. Holds all incoming information for a fraction of a second. Transfers all information to next stage. o Filter. Filter. Identifies attended messaged based on physical characteristics. o Tone of voice, pitch, speed of talking, accent. Only attended message is passed on to the next stage. All other messages filtered out. Detector. Processes all information to determine higherlevel characteristics of the message. o Meaning. Meaning of the message. Shortterm memory. Output of detector sent to shortterm memory. Holds information for about 1015 seconds and may transfer it to longterm memory. o Allornothing on receiving message. o Earlyselection model. Filter eliminates the unattended information right at beginning. Filters message before incoming information is analyzed for meaning. Filter operates at an early stage. o Broadbent’s model could not explain why… Participant’s name gets through. Cocktail party phenomenon. Participants can shadow meaningful messages that switch from one ear to another. Dear Aunt Jane. o Meaning of words were taking into account. Treisman’s attenuation theory. o Message attenuator dictionary unit to memory. o Attenuator. Analyzes incoming message in terms of: A. physical characteristics. o Ex: high pitched or low pitches. B. language. C. meaning. “Attended to” message is let through the attenuator at full strength. Unattended message is let through at a much weaker strength. Leaky filter model. o Dictionary unit. Contains words, each of which have threshold for being activated. Words that are common or important have low thresholds. Filter through easier. Are heard more easily. Easier noticed. Paid attention to more easily. Uncommon words have high thresholds. More difficult to be paid attention to. o Earlyselection model. Attended message can be separated from unattended message early in the informationprocessing system. Selection can also occur later. Late selection model. o Selection of stimuli for final processing does not occur until after information has been analyzed. o Messages can be selected at later stage of processing based primarily on their meaning. o McKay. In attending ear, participants heard ambiguous sentences. “They were throwing stones at the bank.” In unattended ear, participants heard either: River or money. In test, participants had to choose which was closest to the meaning of attended to message: They threw stones toward the side of the river yester. They threw stones at the savings and loan association yesterday. The meaning of the biasing word affected participant’s choice. Participants were unaware of the presentation of the biasing words. Processing capacity and perceptual load. o How do we ignore distracting stimuli when we are trying to focus attention on a task? o Load theory of attention. Processing capacity. How much information a person can handle at any given moment. Sets a limit on their ability to process incoming information. Amount of time person can focus on information. Perceptual load. The difficulty of a given task. o Highload (difficult) task use higher amounts of processing capacity. o Lowload (easy) tasks use lower amounts of processing capacity. Leaves more processing capacity, causing there to be more resources available to process task irrelevant stimulus. Ex: playing on phone and hearing conversations around you better than when you were focusing on homework. o The Stroop test. Stroop effect. Name of the word interferes with the ability to name the ink color. Cannot avoid paying attention to the meanings of the words. Attention as selection. o Overt attention. Shifting attention from one place to another by moving the eyes. Eye moments, attention, and perception. Saccades. o Rapid movements of the eyes from one place to another. Fixations. o Short pauses on points of interest. Studied by using an eye tracker. Bottomup determinants of eye movement. o Based primarily on physical appearance of stimulus. o Stimulus salience. Physical property of stimulus. Areas that stand out and capture attention. o Bottomup process. Depends on characteristics of the stimulus. Color, contrast, and movement are highly salient. Topdown determinants of eye movements. o Based on cognitive factors such as the observer’s knowledge about scenes and past experience with specific stimuli. o Scene schema. Knowledge about what is contained in a typical scene. Help guide fixations from one area of a scene to another. What isn’t consistent with a scene schema will draw more attention. o Eye movements are determined by the task. Eye movements preceded motor actions by a fraction of a second. Just in time strategy. o Covert attention. Shifting attention without eye movements. Direct our attention while keeping eyes stationary. Shift attention away from task but don’t move our eyes. Divided attention. o Depends on practice and difficulty of task. o Practice enables people to simultaneously do two things that were difficult at first. o Schneider and Shiffrin. Divide attention between remembering target and monitoring rapidly presented stimuli. Memory set. o 14 target characters. Test frames. o Could contain random dot patterns, a target, or distractors. After 600 trials the test became automatic. o Automatic processing occurs without intention and only uses some of a person’s cognitive resources. o Becomes more difficult when task get harder. Even if practiced. o Distractions while driving. 100car naturalistic driving study. Video recorders placed in cars. Risk of accident is four times higher when using a cell phone. o Not just texting, but also talking. o Strayer and Johnston. Stimulated driving task. Participants on cell phone missed twice as many red lights and took longer to apply the brakes. Same result using “handsfree” cell phone. What happens when we don’t attend? o Inattentional blindness. A stimulus that is not attended is not perceived, even though a person might be looking directly at it. Subjects can be unaware of clearly visible stimuli if they aren’t directing their attention to them. Ex: missing exit on highway. o Change detection. Change blindness. If shown two versions of a picture, differences between them are not immediately apparent. o Task to identify differences requires concentrated attention and search. o Ex: continuity errors in movies. Attention and experiencing a coherent world. o Binding. The process by which features such as color, form, motion, and location are combined to create our perception of a coherent object. o Treisman’s feature integration theory. FIT. Looks at how we perceive individual features as part of the same object by proposing a twostage process. Object preattentive stage focused attention stage perception. Preattentive stage. o Look at objet features and notice each separately. Ex: color, shape of object, etc. o Automatic. o No effort or attention. o Unaware of process. o Object analyzed into features. Color, shape, and movement. Focused attention stage. o Attention plays key role. o Features are combined, then we perceive the object. We have perception of object. Attentional capture is an immediate shift. o A rapid shifting of attention, usually caused by a loud noise. o Ex: shifting attention from test quickly to door slamming. ______________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 5 Shortterm and working memory. What is memory? o Memory. Processes involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer present. Active any time some past experience has an impact on how you think or behave now or in the future. Has to do with past affecting the present. There are many different kinds of memory. Modal model of memory. o Atkinson and Shiffrin. Control processes. Dynamic processes associated with the structural features that can be controlled by the person and may differ from one task to another. o Ex: rehearsal A process that is used to store a number in long term memory. Active processes that can be controlled by the person. o More examples: Rehearsal. Strategies used to make a stimulus more memorable. Strategies of attention that help you focus on specific stimuli. Proposed three different types of memory. Sensory memory shortterm memory longterm memory. o Structural features. Sensory memory. o Brief persistence of an image.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'