Continue Nerve Tissue to Reproduction
Continue Nerve Tissue to Reproduction BIOL 240
Popular in Fundamentals of Human Anatomy
Popular in Biology
This page Bundle was uploaded by Logan Lim on Sunday November 29, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 240 at San Francisco State University taught by N/A in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Human Anatomy in Biology at San Francisco State University.
Reviews for Continue Nerve Tissue to Reproduction
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/29/15
What is this Embryonic spider Bean and spaghetti soup Something found in your nose Lymph node d Lymph node Lymphatic System Overview Consists of two semiindependent parts A network of lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs scattered throughout the body Returns interstitial fluid and leaked plasma proteins back to the blood Critical for immune response Lymph interstitial fluid after it has entered lymphatic vessels Venous system Large veins capac ance vessels Arterial system Elastic arteries conduc ng vessels Muscular arteries distributing vessels Small veins capac ance vessels Arterioles resistance vessels Terminal arteriole Metarteriole Postcapillary venule Capillaries exchange vessels Ifquot I Tissue cell Blood Lymphafk J capill les 1 capillaries A a a Structural relationship between a capillary bed of the blood vascular system and lymphatic capillaries The Lymphatic System Venous system Arterial system m Heart 7 g Lymphatic vessels collect lymph from loose connective Hssue Carry fluid to great I veins in the neck Fluid flows only toward the heart Lymphatic system Lymph duct Lymph trunk Lymph node Lymphatic collecting vessels 39 wrth valves 4 st 15 ll 39 439 llt Ml 39 u Lymphatic capillary i 39 A Lymphatic Capillaries Filaments anchored I to connective tissue H 4 39 Endothelial cell Flaplike minivalve Fibroblast in loose connective tissue 5 b Lymphatic capillaries are blindded tubes in which adjacent endothelial cells overlap each other forming flaplike minivalves Orders of Lymphatic Vessels Lymph capillaries smallest first receive lymph Lymphatic collecting vessels collect from lymph capillaries Lymph nodes scattered along collecting vessels 9 Lymph trunks collect lymph from coecting vessels Lymph ducts empty into veins of the neck Entrance of right lymphatic duct into vein Entrance of thoracic duct into vein Thoracic duct I Cisterna chyli Aort Lymphatic I V collecting vessels D Drained by the right it l all lymphatic duct 1 A E if E I quot El Drained by the y z thoracic duct a General distribution of lymphatic collecting vessels and regional lymph nodes Functions of Lymphatic Vessels Collect excess tissue fluid and blood proteins Return tissue fluid and blood proteins to bloodstream Lymphatic Capillaries During inflammation lymph capillaries can absorb Cell debris Pathogens Cancer cells Immune cells in the lymph nodes cleanse and examine this debris Lymph Nodes Regional lymph nodes Cervical nodes Axillary nodes i J l l u 1 lx i 3 39 239 Lymphoid Cells Lymphocytes are the main cells involved in the immune response Two main varieties Todb l O Bodb A4 T Cell Lymphocytes T cells and B cells protect the body against antigens Antigen anything the body perceives as foreign Bacteria and their toxins viruses Mismatched RBCs or cancer cells Lymphocytes T cells Manage the immune response Attack and destroy foreign cells i B cells Produce plasma cells which secrete antibodies Antibodies immobilize antigens A v A quot Typical recognition markers for lymphocytes CLASS F TION PHENOTYPIC MARKERS NK cells Lysns of vurally cted cells and CD16 CD56 but not CD3 tumour cells Hel er T Release cytokines and gro 2 factors that regulate other imm TCRGB CD3 and CD4 HIV cells Cvtotoxic T Lysis of virally infected cells tumour Lust cells and allografts GB and D8 v6 T cells Immunoregulation and cytotoxicity TCRyo and CD B cells Secretion of antibodies MHC class II CD19 and CD21 Other Lymphoid Cell 1 6 T ii a L H Macrophages Phagocytize foreign e substances and help activate T cells 39 Dendritic cells spinylooking cells with functions similar to macrophages Other Lymphoid Cells Dendritic cells spinylooking cells with functions similar to macrophages And what is another name for these Something from the integument chapter Langerhan s cells Cells of the Epidermis Epidermal dendritics Epidermal dendritic cell Lymph Nodes 7 Two basic functions Filtration macrophages destroy microorganisms and debris Immune system activation monitor for antigens and mount an attack against them Nodes are bean shaped and surrounded by a fibrous capsule a Trabeculae extended inward from the capsule and divide the node into compartments Structure of a Lymph Node Nodes have two histologicallx distinct reg i0 ns x a cortex quot and a medulla Cortex contains follicles with germinal centers heavy with dividing B cells Dendritic cells nearly encapsulate the follicles Deep cortex houses T cells in transit T cells circulate continuously among the blood lymph nodes and lymphatic stream Medullary cords extend from the cortex and contain B cells T cells and plasma cells Macrophages reside on these fibers and phagocytize foreign matter Cortex Lymphoid follicle l center ma Germ Medullary cord Medullary smus Trabeculae Capsule la Follicles Trabecula Capsule Medullar cords Y r f hw gmv 39 a 39 l 5 quot739quot u I vh 39 39 1 39 quot s 39 A CA o 39 l 39 V o S g O 39 in I39r l q r 2quot 39 hip0quot quot I quot quot V vquot P w u r w I A A A rigquot 39 Q osvln 39H A Circulation in the Lymph Nodes Lymph enters via afferent lymphatic vessels It then enters a large subcapsular sinus and travels into smaller sinuses It meanders through these sinuses and exits the node at the hilus via efferent vessels Because there are fewer efferent vessels lymph stagnates somewhat in the node This allows lymphocytes and macrophages time to carry out protective functions a Afferent lymphatic vessels Capsule Subcapsul ar sinus Efferent lymphatic vessels Trabeculae 5 1f w N39 7391 a we quot39 quotHF 39 39O39Q 2 y 3quot s L quotI quot 1 I 39 p3 f1 39A E a 39 t r 39 7 Iquot i quotWu 1 V v a O C I 39 u I 5quotquot e agquot39 390 lquot r o 1quotquot 39rquot quot WWWquot mwi quot 3 wv or b h h 2 u 13 4 039quot f a t39 Lg Ch ofquot I 0quot I 390 39 fos 5 VOW t 4 I r I N L O 1 aw w39u w s l Trabecula Medullary sinuses Subcapsular smus Other Lymphoid Organs Tonsils in pharyngeal region Thymus in thorax most active during youth Spleen curves around left side of stomach Peyer s patches in intestine Appendix Other Lymphoid Organs The spleen thymus gland and tonsils Peyer s patches and bits of lymphatic tissue scattered in connective tissue All are composed of reticular connective tissue filled in with immune cells All help protect the body Only lymph nodes filter lymph Spleen curves around left side of stomach Spleen curves around left side of stomach Largest lymphoid organ located on the left side of the abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragm It is served by the splenic artery and vein which enter and exit at the hilus Structure of the Spleen Splenic artery Splenic vein a Spleen Spleen curves around left side of stomach Func ons Site of lymphocyte proliferation Immune surveillance and response Cleanses the blood Surrounded by a fibrous capsule it contains lymphocytes macrophages and huge numbers of erythrocytes Two distinct areas White pulp containing mostly lymphocytes suspended on reticular fibers and involved in immune functions Red pulp remaining splenic tissue concerned with disposing of wornout RBCs and bloodborne pathogens Structure of the Spleen 39 l x I f 7 f f I l A 39 C p I o K a su e l l Iquot l f v II J 1 quot 39i 1 Trabecula S lenic cords quot Venous smuses quot V I 39v Red pulp 39 f quot White pulp Arterioles and capillaries b Splenic artery Central artery Splenic vein Splenic artery Splenic vein Central artery White pulp Red pulp I o s 0 II l i e u Thymus Thymus in thorax most active during youth Thymus A bilobed organ that secretes hormones thymosin and thymopoietin that cause T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent Size of the thymus varies with age It increases in size and is most active during childhood It stops growing during adolescence and then gradually atrophies Internal Anatomy of the Thymus Thymic lobes contain an outer cortex and inner medulla Cortex contains densely packed lymphocytes and scattered macrophages Medulla contains fewer lymphocytes and thymic Hassall s corpuscles dead scar tissue function unknown J n quot o p 39t v ll v39 T amp I i Thymic x Hassall s r 2 21quot w 39 corpuscle Medulla r O 0 v9 I O h I I Q g9 39 39 g hagr 3 39 gsfgxzk 39 3 I I Cortex cfx39ffl 39 v J 1 39 r39 Tonsils Tonsils in pharyngeal region Tonsils Looa on Palatine tonsils either side of the posterior end of the oral cavity Lingual tonsils lie at the base of the tongue Pharyngeal tonsil posterior wall of the nasopharynx Tubal tonsils surround the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx Tonsils Tonsils in pharyngeal region Tonsils Lymphoid tissue of tonsils contains follicles with germinal centers Tonsil masses are not fully encapsulated Epithelial tissue overlying tonsil masses invaginates forming blindended crypts Crypts trap and destroy bacteria and particulate matter Tonsil e lal ll 3939 Tonsillar crypt Germinal centers in lymphoid follicles e quot quot 99 quotL I39fv 3 quot 39 u lll39q c39 I l 39 0 HuP I 3 I 39 39 quot 1 9397 1 3 sz quot I f 39 v 39 s 39v39 l M 2 39c Amfr Peyer s patches Peyer s patches in intestine Aggregates of Lymphoid Follicles Peyer s patches isolated clusters of lymphoid tissue similar to tonsils Found in the wall of the distal portion of the small intestine Similar structures are found in the appendix Destroy bacteria preventing them from breaching the intestinal wall Generate memory lymphocytes for longterm immunity Peyer s patches 139 491 2quot If u 5 939 I saga t3 5 Lymphoid nodules follicles of Peyer s patch 0 39 39 y u a 34 Muf p I 2 a 39 39 Smooth muscle in the intestinal wall MALT MALT mucosaassociated lymphatic ssue Peyer s patches tonsils and the appendix digestive tract Lymphoid nodules in the walls of the bronchi respiratory tract MALT protects the digestive and respiratory systems from foreign matter The Lymphatic Trunks x Le iugulartnnk Right jugular trunk Right lylmhatic duct 39 Internal Jugulat veins Right m WM 1 Right subdavtan voln J WWW Right bronchomadiasmal 39 39 Loft swciavian vein trunk 39 Loft bronchomodlasthal trunk Supodo vena cava Entrance 0 thoracic duct Azygos vein Into loft subclavian voln Cistoma chy nght lumbar trunk Rbs Tlmcicdua Len lumbar trunk IMes nal tank a The Swimfatic Trunks The Swimfatic Trunks amquot an L4 a 1 39 r 39 0 7quot 7 C u 39 54 W quot f 4r 4 I v 0 u 39439 39 gt I 39 1393939gt 39 Vquot N r r l Vquot 1 quotx 39 w I quot rv 39 39 39 X 39 tj Y39J f r rv H 39 map A I J 39 vK r39quotquot39quot quot 5S 5 39 t urn 1 39 39ulquot The Swimfatic Trunks m 953 gs Am m m 6mlt 6 m3 A 44 g La 0 Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Cardiovascular System Blood Vessels 1 Part A Blood Vessels Blood is carried in a closed system of vessels that begins and ends at the heart Arteries carry blood away from the heart Veins carry blood toward the heart Capillaries contact tissue cells and directly serve cellular needs gas and nutrient Venous system Arterial system Large veins capacitance vessels Elastic arteries conduc ng vessels Muscular arteries distributing vessels Small veins capac ance vessels Arterioles resistance vessels Terminal arteriole Metarteriole Postcapillary venule Capillaries exchange vessels Venous system Large veins capacitance 39 vessels 39 Small veins capac ance vessels Postcapillary venule Capillaries exchange vessels Arterial system Elastic arteries conduc ng vessels Muscular arteries distributing vessels Arterioles resistance vessels Terminal arteriole Metarteriole Venous system Arterial system Large veins capac ance vessels Elastlc arterles conduc ng vessels Muscular arteries distributing vessels Small veins capac ance vessels I 39 Q k Arterioles resistance vessels Terminal arteriole Metarteriole Postcapillary venule Capillaries exchange vessels Generalized Structure of Blood Vessels I Arteries and veins are composed of three tunies gttunica interna gttunica media gttunica externa I Lumen central bloodcontaining space surrounded by tunios I Capillaries are composed of endothelium with sparse basal lamina f the 4th cantury found at the Thorsbsrg moor ic tumc 0 Garman l rfdkmqq LIN C A C p 39 4 y l p H i ni tquot 3939quot x Generalized Structure of Blood Vessels Tunica intima Endothelium Subendothelial layer Internal elastic lamina Tunica media quotI smooth muscle and elastic fibers External elastic lamina Tunica externa collagen fibers v0 y N ll l 3 I h 0 v1 4 I I at 3quot I 3 V K trig mar 1 I d x A O Q 039 39 73gt 25 39 n a mh 1 fi 7 39 A A lr O 0 00 C O O C 0 r O t l39 quot V 39 d 39D e l A Lumen xK Capillary Lumen Artery network vem a Basement membrane 39 Endothelial cells b apil lr Tunics I T unica interna tunica intima I Endothelial layer that lines the lumen of all vessels I Simple squamous I Slick tight layer minimizes friction I In vessels larger than 1 mm a subendothelial connective tissue basement membrane is present Generalized Structure of Blood Vessels Tunica intimalinterna Endothelium Subendothelial layer Internal elastic lamina 39 26 r I V wquot 9 AA 1 I 1 w s O o a a o q O 0 f o 9 39 C I Tunics I T unica media I Smooth muscle and elastic fiber layer regulated by sympathetic nervous system I Control vasodilationvasoconstriction I Critical in regulating circulation Generalized Structure of Blood Vessels t 1 g i O l O I 39 Tunica media smooth muscle and elastic fibers External elastic lamina taquot 0 o I o 1 l o I I c o i I O o 3 fr 4 m w w v1 b Tunics I T uniea externa tuniea adventitia I Collagen fibers that protect and reinforce vessels I Larger vessels contain vasa vasorum a system of blood vessels for the blood vessel Generalized Structure of Blood Vessels LL 0 Tunica externa collagen fibers 0 quot quot35 v s a v9 V A a o 0 Q a p o 39 q 0 39 00 13 39 d r I e v l 39 quot 39ww V19 quotewe I wxui V O 3 n m quot 39 Lumen Artery Ve39 b Three Groups of Arteries I Elastic Elastic Conducting Arteries I T hickwalled arteries near the heart the aorta and its major branches I Large lumen allow lowresistance condion of blood W I 1 25 cm diameter I Contain elastin in all three tunics I More elastin than any other vessel type I Srnooths out the cardiac pressure wave I Maintains a more continuous blood ow Blood pressure mm H9 amp m A 039 on O o o O O O O I 1 xsnystolic pressure Mean pressure Elastic Conducting Arteries I Contains elastic lamina holey sheets of elastin which resemble swiss Cheese a m m Ia C uquot S Ia e Ia n r e t m External elastic lamina Muscular Distributing Arteries and Arterioles I Muscular arteries distal to elastic arteries deliver blood to body organs I Most of the named arteries in the lab I 03 mm 1 cm diameter I Have thick tunica media with more smooth muscle and less elastic tissue I Active in vasoconstriction Arterioles I Arterioles smallest arteries lead to capillary beds i I 10 03 um mm M Larger arterioles have three tunics 39 I Mostly smooth muscle little elastic I Smaller have one layer of smooth muscle and the endothelium Arterial system w l f Elastic arteries conduc ng vessels Muscular arteries distributing vessels Arterioles resistance vessels Terminal arteriole Metarteriole Capillaries I Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels I Walls consisting of a thin tunica interna one cell thick I Allow only a single RBC to pass at a time I Pericytes on the outer surface stabilize their walls Pericyte Red blood cell in lumen Intercellular cleft Endothelial cell Capillaries I There are three structural types of capillaries I Continuous I Fenestrated I Sinusoids Continuous Capillaries I Continuous capillaries are abundant in the skin and muscles and have I Endothelial cells that provide an uninterrupted lining I Adjacent cells that are held together with tight junc ons I Intercellular clefts of unj oined membranes that allow the passage of uids Continuous Capillaries I Continuous capillaries of the brain I Have tight junctions completely around the endothelium I Constitute the bloodbrain barrier Continuous Capillaries Pericyte Red blood cell in lumen a Intercellular cleft Endothelial cell Basement membrane Tight iunctiO J Pinocytotic Endothelial vesicles nucleus a Continuous capillary Least permeable and most common eg skin muscle Fenestrated Capillaries I Found Wherever active capillary absorption or filtrate formation occurs e g small intestines endocrine glands and kidneys I Characterized by I An endothelium riddled With pores fenestrations I Greater permeability to solutes and uids than other capillaries Fenestrated Capillaries Pinocytotic vesicles Red blood cell in lumen of Fenestratlons e pores O o K Endothelial lntercellular nucleus cleft Basement membrane Tight junction EndOthehal cell b Fenestrated capillary Large fenestrations pores increase permeability Occurs in special locations eg kidney small intestine Sinusoids I Highly modified leaky fenestrated capillaries with large lumens I Found in the liver bone marrow lymphoid tissue and in some endocrine organs I Allow large molecules proteins and blood cells to pass between the blood and surrounding tissues Sinusoids Endothelial av cell Red blood quot cell in lumen Large intercellular cleft Tight junction Incomplete Nucleus of basement endothelial membrane can c Sinusoidal capillary Most permeable Occurs in special locations eg liver bone marrow spleen Capillary Beds I A microcirculation of interwoven networks of capillaries consisting of I Vascular shunts metarteriole thoroughfare channel connecting an arteriole directly with a postcapillary yenule I True capillaries 10 to 100 per capillary bed capillaries branch off the metarteriole and return to the thoroughfare channel at the distal end of the bed I Controlled by a precapillary sphincter Blood Flow Through Capillary Beds I Precapillary sphincter I Cuff of smooth muscle that surrounds each true capillary I Regulates blood ow into the capillary I Blood ow is regulated by vasomotor nerves and local chemical conditions Capillary Beds Vascular shunt l r l Pf capmafy sph m a39s Metartarlole Thoroughfare 39 channel 39239 I A 74 399 l v 39 d te capillaries Terminal Pas tcapillary arteriole venule a Sphincter open Capillary Beds Terminal 0 Postcapillary arteriole venule b Sphincter closed Why close precap sphincters To control blood supply 39 39 Large ve 1quotquot capacitance e 1 vessels Small veins capac ance vessels i m Postcapillary venule Venous System Venules I Venules are formed when capillary beds unite I 8100 um I Allow uids and WBCs to pass from the bloodstream to tissues I Postcapillary venules smallest venules composed of endothelium and a few perieytes Venous System Venules I Large venules have one or two layers of smooth muscle tuniea media Generalized Structure of Blood Vessels Tunica media smooth muscle and elastic fibers 0 I O o 0 9 Ir tw M Wu 239 run new Vein Venous System Veins I Veins are formed When venules converge I Composed of three tunics with a thin tunica media and a thick tunica externa consisting of collagen fibers and elastic networks I Capacitance vessels blood reservoirs that contain 60 of the blood supply Generalized Structure of Blood Vessels Tunica intima Endothelium Subendothelial layer 39 i t K 399 39t quot 39 r 3quot a 5 Q cit0 J quot395 quot 39 Tunica media smooth muscle and elastic fibers K 0 394 an 0 Tunica externa collagen fibers Pulmonary blood vessels 12 Systemic arteries and arterioles 15 Heart 8 Capillaries 5 Systemic veins and venules 60 i Venous System Veins I Veins have much lower blood pressure and thinner walls than arteries I T 0 return blood to the heart veins have special adaptations I Largediameter lurnens which offer little resistance to ow I Valves resembling semilunar heart valves which prevent back cw of blood m Itquot w 9 U i J p p M p 1 s It Ls 1 Lquot 1393 Ci I niall ll39uldi 39r IIIOO 039 lo 0 o t 0 Ian I f Valve Generalized Structure of Blood Vessels Valve open Contracted skeletal muscle Valve closed Vein j 112 D u TILL U f m Cf D 1 W 3 if 7151 f U U 7497 Monitoring Circulatory Efficiency I Efficiency of the circulation can be assessed by taking pulse and blood pressure measurements I Vital signs pulse and blood pressure along With respiratory rate and body temperature I Pulse pressure wave caused by the expansion and recoil of elastic arteries I Radial pulse taken on the radial artery at the wrist is routinely used I Varies With health body position and activity Palpated PulsePressure Points Superficial temporal artery Facial artery Common carotid artery Brachial artery Radial artery Femoral artery Popliteal artery Posterior tibial artery Dorsalis pedis artery Circulatory Pathways Common carotld am to had and wbchvian armada to upper limb Circulatory Pathways Pulmonary Pulmonary capillaries R pulmonary L pulmonary Pulmonary capillaries of the R lung artery artery of the L lung Pulmonary To circulation T T R pulmon I 39 ary veins lt L pulmonary veins From gt systemic RA circulation RV LV a Schematic flowchart Circulatory Pathways Systemic Common Capillary beds of carotid arteries head and to head and upper imbs subclavian arteries to Superior Upper limbs vena cava UH 1H M 39 x J I x J I Azygos Thoracic T system aorta i Venous Arterial drainage blood Inferior vena Capillary beds of cava mediastinal structures and thorax walls Abdominal aorta Capillary beds of Interior digestive viscera vena spleen pancreas cava kidneys Capillary beds of gonads pelvis and lower limbs Circulatory Pathways I The vascular system has two distinct circulations I Pulmonary circulation short loop that runs from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart I Systemic circulation routes blood through a long loop to all parts of the body and returns to the heart Differences Between Arteries and Veins Arteries Veins Blood pumped into single Blood returns Via superior and Delivery inferior venae cayae and the systennc artery the aorta coronary s1nus Location DCCP and promoted by Both deep and superficial t1ssue Pathways Fair clear and defined Convergent interconnections Supplydrainage Predictable supply Dural s1nuses and hepat1c portal circulation Developmental Aspects I The endothelial lining of blood vessels arises from mesodermal cells which collect in blood islands I Blood islands form rudimentary vascular tubes through which the heart pumps blood by the fourth week of development I Fetal shunts foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus bypass nonfunctional lungs I The ductus venosus bypasses the liver I The umbilical vein and arteries circulate blood to and from the placenta Fetal Circulation Ductus Arteriosus Aorta Placenta I Foramen Ovale 39 l l Lung Pulmonary Artery Ductus Venosus Liver Umbilical Cord Lung l v I Left Kidney Umbilical Vein I Oxygenrich mood Umbilical Arteries I Oxygenpoor Blood I Mixed Blood Placenta Amniotic cavity Uterine vein and artery Gland in endometrium Endometrium Myometrium Branch of umbilical artery and vein Umbilical vein to fetus Umbilical arteries from fetus Umbilical cord to fetus Main stem of chorionic villus Chorionic villi Chorion Pool of maternal blood Heart Cross Section with Patent Ductus Arterlosus PDA Sipenor Vena Cava Aorta Pulmonaty Artery Loquot Pulmonary Vams Right Pulmonary Vegas 4 Luquot Amum Hugh Atrium Aomc Valve Mural Vglve Trlcuspud Valve Lequot Ventricte Raghl Vonmclo Interior Vena Cava Haiewn m if EW f39y mm Developmental Aspects I Blood vessels are troublefree during youth I Vessel formation occurs I As needed to support body growth I For wound healing I To rebuild vessels lost during menstrual cycles I With aging varicose veins atherosclerosis and increased blood pressure may arise 9 oh alum oh dump dd MPH TOO BAD DESMOND HAD NEVER LEARNED TO RECOGNIZE THE EARLY WARNING SIGNS OF A HEART ATTACK Pulmonary Circulation Pulmonary capillaries R pulmonary L pulmonary Pulmonary capillaries of the R lung artery artery of the L lung Pulmonary To circulation T T R pulmon I 39 ary veins lt L pulmonary veins From gt systemic RA circulation RV LV a Schematic flowchart Pulmonary Circulation Airfilled Left pulmonary artery Aortic arch Pulmonary trunk Right pulmonary artery Three lobar arteries to right lung Pulmonary Pulmonary Gas exchange capillary vems Two lobar arteries to left lung Pulmonar R39ght veins y atrium Right Left atrIum ventricle ventricle b Illustration The pulmonary arterial system is shown in blue to indicate that the blood carried is oxygenpoor The pulmonary venous drainage is shown in red to indicate that the blood transported is oxygenrich Systemic Circulation Common Capillary beds of carotid arteries head and to head and upper imbs subclavian arteries to Superior Upper limbs vena cava Thoracic system aorta Venous Arterial drainage blood Inferior vena cava Capillary beds of mediastinal structures and thorax walls v Abdominal aorta Capillary beds of digestive viscera spleen pancreas kidneys Inferior vena cava Capillary beds of gonads pelvis and lower limbs Systemic Circulation Only 22 slides to go hang in there R external R internal L external L internal carotid artery carotid artery carotid artery carotid artery if R common carotid L common carotid right side of head and neck left side of head and neck L vertebral R vertebral L subclavian neck and L Brachiocephalic headneckand R subclavian neck and L axillary R axillary R upper limb R upper limb upper limb Arteries of Arteries Of R AscendIng aorta L upper upper L ventrIcle to sternal angle lmb IImb L and R coronary Thoracic aorta T5 T12 diaphragml rteries lL ventricle of heart I Visceral branches Parietal branches Mediastinal Esophageal Bronchial Pericardial Posterior intercostals Superior phrenics posterior esophagus lungs and pericardium intercostal muscles spinal posterior and superior media bronchi cord vertebrae pleurae skin diaphragm stinum Abdominal aorta T12 diaphragm L4 Parietal branches Visceral branches Gonadal Suprarenal Superior Celiac trunk Inferior phrenics Lumbars Median sacral testes or adrenal and inferior liver interior diaphragm posterior sacrum ovaries glands mesenterics gallbladder abdominal coccyx and small spleen wall Renal intestine stomach kidneys colon esophagus duodenum R common iliac L common iliac pelvis and R lower limb pelvis and L lower limb Arteries of L lower limb ArterIes of R lower limb a Schematic owchart Yes you just have to memorize them starting now Repeat after me Aorta and Major Arteries I state your name do solemnly swear to diligently study each and every artery vein sinus and anastamosis present in this text I further vow to be fully prepared for the next test in a way that Will make your head spin I will do this by devoting massive numbers of sleepless nights to memorizing self testing self correcting and rememorizing all this S o o otuff Aorta and Major Arteries and again use this guide Arteries of the head and trunk M Internal carotid artery External carotid artery Common carotid arteries Vertebral artery Subclavian artery Brachiocephalic trunk Aortic arch Ascending aorta Coronary artery Thoracic aorta above diaphragm Celiac trunk Abdominal aorta Superior mesenteric artery Renal artery Gonadal artery Common iliac artery Inferior mesenteric artery Internal iliac artery 439 4 W b Illustration anterior View Arteries that suppl the upper limb y Subclavian artery Axillary artery Brachial artery Radial artery Ulnar artery Deep palmar arch Superficial palmar arch Digital arteries Arteries that su I the lower limb pp y External iliac artery Femoral artery Popliteal artery Anterior tibial artery Posterior tibial artery Arcuate artery Arteries of Ruppe limb R external carotid R vertebral R internal carotid artery R common carotid right side of head and neck L external carotid L internal carotid artery L common carotid left side of head and neck L vertebral L and R coro arteries Brachioceph a headneck RupperH Ascending aorta L ventricle to stem L ventricle of eart gt You are here Thoracic aorta T5 T12 di phragm Arteries Lupper limb of Visceral branches Parietal branches Mediastinal Esophageal posterior esophagus media stinum Bronchial lungs and bronchi Pericardial pericardium Visceral branches Posterior intercostals intercostal muscles spinal cord vertebrae pleurae skin Superior phrenics posterior and superior diaphragm Abdominal aorta T12 diaphragm L4 Gonadal Suprarenal testes or adrenal ovaries glands and Renal kidneys Supe or and interior mesenterics small intestine colon Arteries of R lower limb Celiac trunk liver gallbladder spleen stomach esophagus duodenum R common iliac pelvis and R lower limb a Schematic flowchart Parietal branches Interior phrenics Lumbars Median sacral interior diaphragm posterior sacrum abdominal coccyx wall L common iliac pelvis and L lower limb Arteries of L lower limb Arteries of the Head and Neck a guide Ophtha 39 artery Branches of the external carotid artery M 39 ficial tempor rtery W Occipital arte Vertebral artery Internal carotid artery External carotid artery Facial artery Common 39 ual artery carotid artery Superl roid vical r 39 artery trunk I 7 trunk g t 39 Subclavian Kl g art ry quot Brachiocephalic Axullary trunk artery t al thoracic artery b Arteries of the head and neck right aspect Arteries of the Brain a guide Anterior 3 Cerebral arterial circle circle of Willis Frontal lobe Optic chiasma W erior b com atlng cere ra artery artery ior Internal cerebra carotid sterior artery com 39Cating artery erior cerebr ery Basilar artery Vertebral artery Posterior d Major arteries serving the brain inferior view right side of cerebellum and part of right temporal lobe removed Arteries of the Upper Limbs and Thorax guide Vertebral artery Common carotid 39 arteries ThyW SuWery Left subclavian artery Cos 39 trunk Right subclavian artery Thorac 39 artery Brachiocephalic trunk 39 intercostal arteries Wat artery Wy Descending aorta W Axillary artery Posterior circumflex humeral artery Anterior circumflex humeral artery Subscapular artery Brachial artery Radial artery Ulnar artery Deep palmar arch Superficial palmar arch Digital arteries I I b Illustration anterior View Arteries of the Abdomen guide Celiac trunk Liver cut Diaphragm Inferior vena cava mm Esophagus Common hepatic 5 Left gastric artery artery Hepatic artery StomaCh proper Splenic artery WOdenal eft artery gas 39Ioic Right gastric artery artery Gallbladder Speen Pancreas Right marotportlon hes W posterior to stomach artery Duodenum Superior Abdominal aorta mesenter39c artery b The celiac trunk and its major branches The left half of the liver has been removed Arteries of the Abdomen guide Median sacral Hiatus opening for inferior vena cava Hiatus opening 395 i foresophagus Ad renal suprarenal gland z Kidney 3 quot 0 P a r k Celiac trunk 41 Abdominal aorta F w W A Ureter V I I A k c Major branches of the abdominal aorta artery a Diaphragm rior phrenic Middle I v f I artery Renal artery Superior mesenteric artery Gonadal testicular or ovarian artery Inferior mesenteric artery Common iliac artery Arteries of the Abdomen guide Transverse colon Celiac trunk Aorta l Superior mesenteric artery Branches of the superior mesenteric artery lnferior mesenteric artery Branches of the inferior 39 e colic artery mesenteric lntestin eries 3quot ery Right colic ar arter W artery Sigmoida a yquot o rior rectal Ascending colon artery Rightcommoniliac 39 f x artery A lleum fgy Descending colon Cecum Sigmoid colon Appendix t u l w W Rectum d Distribution of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries The transverse colon has been pulled superiorly Arteries of the Lower Limbs guide Common iliac artery Internal iliac artery Superior gluteal artery External iliac artery Deep artery of thigh Lateral circumflex femoral artery Medial circumflex femoral artery Obturator artery Femoral artery Adductor hiatus Popliteal artery Anterior tibial artery Posterior tibial artery Fibular artery Dorsalis pedis artery Arcuate artery Dorsal metatarsal arteries b Anterior View Arteries of the Lower Limbs Popmeal artery 9 6 39 5 e Posterior tibial artery i l Anterior tibial artery Fibular artery Lateral plantar Dorsalis pedis artery artery f rom to of foot Medlal plantar p artery w Plantar arch amp c Posterior View Veins of Systemic Circulation your guide Veins that drain the upper limb Veins of the head and trunk Dural venous sinuses External jugular vein Vertebral vein Internal jugular vein Right and left brachiocephalic veins Superior vena cava Great cardiac vein Subclavian vein Axillary vein Cephalic vein Brachial vein Basilic vein Median cubital vein Ulnar vein Hepatic velns Radial veIn Splenlc veIn Hepatic portal vein D39g39tal vems Veins that drain Renal ve39n the lower limb Superior mesenteric External IIIaC veIn veIn Inferior vena cava Femora39 ve39quot Inferior mesenteric vein Great saphenous VGin Common iliac vein Internal iliac vein Popliteal vein Posterior tibial vein Anterior tibial vein b Illustration anterior view The vessels of the pulmonary circulation are not shown Small saphenous vein Dorsal venous arch Dorsal metatarsal veins Veins of the Head and Neck SWaI vein p veIn 0C 0 2 rior FacIal veIn auricular ve External jugular vein Vertebral vein Internal jugular vein Wand middle thyroid veins Brachiocephalic vein Subclavian vein Superior i vena cava r b Veins of the head and neck right superficial aspect Veins of the Brain guide Superior sagittal sinus Falx cerebri Inferior sagittal sinus Cavernous sinus Straight sinus Confluence 2 Of Sinuses 3 3 x Transverse sinuses Sigmoid sinus Jugular foramen Right internal jugular vein c Dural venous sinuses of the brain Veins of the Upper Limbs and Thorax guide Internal jugular vein External jugular vein Left subclavian vein Superior vena cava Azygos vein Accessory hemiazygos vein Hemiazygos vein Brachiocephalic veins Right subclavian vein Axillary vein 39 Brachial vein 39 Cephalic vein Basilic vein Median cubital vein Inferior vena cava Median antebrachial vein Cephalic vein BaSIIIC Vem Ulnar vein Deep palmar venous arch Superficial palmar venous arch Digital veins b Anterior View Radial vein Veins of the Abdomen guide Hepatic veins Inferior vena cava Right suprarenal vein Left suprarenal vein Renal veins Right gonadal vein Left gonadal vein Common iliac vein Internal iliac vein External iliac vein b Tributaries of the inferior vena cava Venous drainage of abdominal organs not drained by the hepatic portal vein Veins of the Abdomen Hepatic Portal System Inferior vena cava not part of hepatic portal system Hepatlc veIns spleen Inferior vena cava Liver Splenic vein Hepatic portal vein Inferior mesenteric vein Superior mesenteric vein Small Intestine Large intestine Rectum c The hepatic portal circulation Veins of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs Common iliac vein Internal iliac vein External iliac vein lnguinal ligament Femoral vein Great saphenous vein superficial Popliteal vein l Small saphenous vein l Fibular vein 4 Anterior tibial vein l Dorsalis pedis vein i Dorsal venous arch K Dorsal metatarsal I veIns b Anterior View 0quot Veins of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs c Posterior view 39 Great saphenous vein Popliteal vein Anterior tibial vein Fibular vein Small saphenous vein superficial Posterior tibial vein Plantar veins Deep plantar arch Digital veins The End Superior rectal artery Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum The Reproductive System 2 Part A Reproductive System Overview I Primary seX organs gonads testes in males ovaries in females I Gonads produce seX cells called gametes and secrete seX hormones I Accessory reproductive organs ducts glands and external genitalia I SeX hormones androgens males and estrogens and progesterone females Male Reproductive System I The male gonads testes produce serm and lie Within the scrotum I Sperm are delivered to the exterior through a system of ducts epididymis ductus deferens ejaculatory duct and the urethra I Accessory seX glands I Empty their secretions into the ducts during ejaculation I Include the seminal vesicles prostate gland and bulbourethral glands Male Reproductive System Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Spongy Prostate urethra Bulbourethral Epididymis gland TeStiS X I External Ductus vas Scrotum urethral deferens orifice The Scrotum I Sac of skin and superficial fascia that hangs outside the abdorninopelVic cavity at the root of the penis I Contains paired testicles separated by a midline septurn I Its external positioning keeps the testes 3 C lower than core body temperature Why The Scrotum Middle septum of scrotum External spermatic fascia Superficial fascia containing dartos muscle Skin Scrotum The Testes I Each testis is surrounded by two tunies I The tunica vaginalis derived from peritoneum I The tunica albuginea the fibrous capsule of the testis The Scrotum Tunica Vaginalis from peritoneum Tunica albuginea of testis The Testes W Tunlca albuglnea if lA Tunica vaginalis Cavity of tunica vaginalis The Testes Septa divide the testis into 250300 lobules each containing 14 serniniferous tubules Serniniferous tubules I Produce the sperm I Converge to form the tubulus rectus The straight tubule tubulus rectus conveys sperm to the rete testis on to the efferent ductile and finally to the epididyrnis Surrounding the serniniferous tubules are interstitial cells that produce androgens The Testes Head of epididymis Efferent ductule Seminiferous tubule Lobule Septum Rete testis Straight tubule quot7 039quot I 95 39 quot17 quot 31 w 39 3 quot v 39 39 39 s39gtLquot 39 a 39L I 39139 g 9 eh 4 E u 139 cr T39 quot ls lquotl u v v39 L quot o 39 t quot39 4k 339 at v I f quot 39 221 127 331 quot4 7 3 lquot quotquotquot er 39 z I 3 f 39 39 n e w 1 v v L x 3 I 39 e l 4 1 l A u I 39 t e 39 4 I A I 39 quotf g 39 w 39 v 39 a x U v1 an n l g I u 39 AIM inhcnvgb 19 0 a 39l 39 quot quotquotquotquot I x 39 41 39 39 w V H f v J 39 r 3939 i quot I u 39 J 3939 1 39 I 039 t a A 1quot q ll 3 a K 39 39 o I quot I 39 39 39 r oquot g39u k r v tqu v I gt39 quot I h J A V 39z r 7 an 3 9 Q U I quotquot I r 39 I I I quotx 39 I 7 395 1 w 253 S w tv g gt 3 39 I quot x l 39 w 3 39 I 35949 K s 2quot f we quot I quot a e 39g a 9 5 39f 39 g a 1 a Nun v 4 d 39 ta 7 Q W a l 0 r quot 1 a If V S I y39af g 4 vii 5 quot 39rx39 39 39 quot39 r39 v quot I tubule 39 Interstitial cells Spermatogenic cells in tubule epithelium Sperm The Testes I Testicular arteries branch from the abdominal aorta and supply the testes I Testicular veins arise from the parnpinifcrrn plexus I Sperrnatic ccrd enclcses nerve fibers blood vessels and lymphatics that supply the testes The Testes Spermatic cord Blood vessels and nerves Ductus vas deferens Epididymis The head joins the efferent ductules and caps the superior aspect of the testis The duct of the epididymis has stereocilia that I Absorb testicular uid I Pass nutrients to the sperm Nonmotile sperm enter pass through its tubes and become motile Upon ejaculation the epididymis contracts expelling sperm into the ductus vas deferens Spermatic cord Ductus vas deferens Head of epididymis Seminiferous tubule Body of epididymis Duct of epididymis Tail of epididymis Ductus Deferens and Ejaculatory Duct I Runs from the epididymis through the inguinal canal into the pelvic cavity I Its terminus expands to form the ampulla and then joins the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct I Propels sperm from the epididymis to the urethra I Vasectomy cutting and ligating the ductus deferens which is a nearly 100 effective form of birth control of ductus deferens Ejaculatory duct Ductus vas deferens A Vas withdrawn for prclmedure Epididymis Anastomosis Vas deferens A StO 39IOSiS Epididymis Testicle Vasovasostomy Urethra I Conveys both urine and semen at different times I Consists of three regions I Prostatic portion surrounded by the prostate I Membranous lies in the urogenital diaphragm I Spongy or penile runs through the penis and opens to the outside at the external urethral orifice Prostatic urethra Membranous urethra Ejaculatory duct spongy urethra External Ductus vas urethral deferens orifice Accessory Glands Seminal Vesicles I Lie on the posterior wall of the bladder and secrete 60 of the volume of semen I Semen Viscous alkaline uid containing fructose ascorbic acid coagulating enzyme vesiculase and prostaglandins I Join the ductus deferens to form the ejaculatory duct I Sperm and seminal uid miX in the ejaculatory duct and enter the prostatic urethra during ejaculation Prostatic urethra Membranous 4 urethra Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Spongy urethra External urethral orifice Ductus vas deferens Accessory Glands Prostate Gland I Doughnutshaped gland that encircles part of the urethra inferior to the bladder I Its milky slightly acid uid Which contains citrate enzymes and prostatespecific antigen PSA accounts for onethird of the semen volume I Plays a role in the activation of sperm I Enters the prostatic urethra during ejaculation Prostatic urethra Membranous urethra Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Spongy urethra Epididymis Prostate Ductus vas deferens Accessory Glands Bulbourethral Glands Cowper s Glands I Peasized glands inferior to the prostate I Produce thick clear mucus prior to ej aculaticn that neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra Prostatic urethra 3 Membranous urethra Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct S on Prostate Fang ulbourethral gland Ductus vas deferens The Penis I A copulatory organ designed to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract I Consists of an attached root crus and a free shaft that ends in the glans penis I Prepuce or foreskin cuff of skin covering the distal end of the penis I Circumcision surgical removal of the foreskin after birth The P enis Root of penis Shaft body of penis i v lt V IV V 7 25 V v A I v a w 5 M Essa393 339 Z 7 35 1 L lt A 7 A 1 jiwwudm39utapgggg ggp f m g y I f A 4 A x w gerf Equottz 4 gwfgw m farizsihffiiiii iim is ixim I k a V u 9 m n 396 D E n Crus of penis Prepuce foreskin The Penis Natural penis Circumciscd penis The Penis I Internal penis the urethra and three cylindrical bodies of erectile tissue I Erectile tissue spongy network of connective tissue and smooth muscle riddled With vascular spaces I Corpus spongiosurn surrounds the urethra and expands to form the glans and bulb of the penis I Corpora cavernosa paired dorsal erectile bodies bound by fibrous tunica albuginea Deep arteries Corpus spongiosum Corpora cavernosa Corpus spongiosum Corpora cavernosa The P ems The Penis The Penis Vasodilation leads to vascular engorgement of the corpora and creates an erection Semen I Milky White sticky mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions mm quot39 J I Only 25 ml of semen are ejaculated but it contains 50130 million spermml I Provides a transport medium and nutrients fructose protects and activates sperm and facilitates their movement I Prostaglandins in semen I Decrease the viscosity of mucus in the cerviX I Stimulate reverse peristalsis in the uterus I Facilitate the movement of sperm through the female reproductive tract Spermatog enesis a Spermatogoniu stem cell Mitosis Growth Enters A meiosisl 92 c0 0 I o z 2 g Menosnsl a completed Q m 2 9 5 3 V Meiosis ll 5 1 m 8 2 a i E E I 0 O m Spermiogenesis latle spermatogenesis b Daugh precursor cell a Daughter cell type B spermatogonium Moves to adluminal V compartment Primary spermatocyte Secondary spermatocytes Early spermatids Wspum atozoa s V spermatogonium remains at basal lamina as a Late spermatids Tight junction between sustentacular cells Cytoplasm of adjacent Sustentacular sustentacular cells cell nucleus Spermatogonium stem cell Basal lamina Cytoplasmic b dge Lumen of seminiferous tubule l Basal compartment 1 Adluminal compartment c Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spermatogenesis I The sequence of events that produces sperm in the seminiferous tubules of the testes I Each cell has two sets of chromosomes one maternal one paternal and is said to be diploid 2n chromosomal number I Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes I Gametes only have 23 chromosomes and are said to be haploid n chromosomal number I Gamete formation is by meiosis in Which the number of chromosomes is halved from 2n to n Haploid gametes n 23 m 39 Fertilization Diploid zygote Multicellular 2 46 diploid aduns 2n 46 Mitosis and development Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mitosis Your DNA O E Green Mom s eontr1butlon to your DNA 39 Purple Dad s contribution to your DNA 39 f r red hair allele from Mom r B Black hair allele from Dad During S DNA replication now two r s and two B s 45 quot I Chromosomes augn at the metaphase plate Sister chromatids separate during anaphase quot 39x I t c39 39 I O O I I o I 2n of mitosis 71 Daughter cells 1quot a O I 5 I It 2n Meiosis I Two nuclear divisions meiosis I and meiosis II halve the number of chromosomes in the four daughter cells I Chromosomes replicate prior to meiosis I v Basal lamina Spermatogonium Daughter celltype A 39 stem ceu spermatogomum remains at basal lamina as a M39tos39s precursor cell Daughter cell type B Growth spermatogonium A Enters Moves to adluminal S me39os39s I V compartment 3 Primary 5 spermatocyte 9 8 Meiosisl 3 E completed A A A Spermaltogenesis Meiosis early spermatog Spermmgenesus late spermatogenesis b Meiosis I completed Secondary Meiosis quot spermatocytes Ear39y spermatids Late spermatids Spermatozoa Spermatogenesis Spermatogonium Cytoplasm of Tight junction between stem cell sustentacular cells sustentacular cells Basal lamina 39w v Sustentacular cell nucleus Spmatogon l1 039th celltype A l 2 stem cgquot f spermatogontum femalns at g Mitosis basal lamma as a precursor cell a Growth Daughter cell type B E A 39 O 3 Enters spermatogomum 2 0 meiosis I Moves to adlumlna39 39 3 C compartment a a n 9 E Meiosis I Primary 0 a l t d 9 o s comp 3 e spermatocyte V 5 g 39 8 2 3 Meiosis ll secomary 3 spermatocytes 3 E 3 Early spermatids 25 g 2 l 5 a E 392 Late spermatids a a 3 3 39 5 L 3 5 3 E 32 39 39l 39 CytOplasmic g g a I bridge a a g quot 1 Lumen of lt 0 93 aeminifarous g Spermatozoa J mmquot gift 7 rquot x 39 E l 39 pk bl Meiosis l I In meiosis I homologous pairs of chromosomes undergo synapsis and form tetrads With their homologous partners I They sort independently I Crossover the exchange of genetic material among tetrads occurs during synapsis Prophase l Synapsis of two homologous chromosomes to form a tetrad Crossover Centromere Sister chromatids fragments late in prophase l Crossover Meiosis l I T etrads line up at the spindle equator during metaphase I Tetrad Tetrad Metaphase I Metaphase I Meiosis l I In anaphase I homologous chromosomes still composed of joined sister chromatids are distributed to opposite ends of the cell I At the end of meiosis I each daughter cell has I Two copies of either a maternal or paternal chromosome I A 2n amount of DNA and haploid number of chromosomes Anaphase l Re s lt of oiTMK w 39quot Anaphase l Anaphase I Anaphase I Meiosis l I In telophase I I The nuclear membranes reform around the chromosomal masses I The spindle breaks down I The chromatin reappears forming two daughter cells lnterphase cell Centriole pairs Chromatin Nuclear envelope lnterphase events As in mitosis meiosis is preceded by events occurring during interphase that lead to DNA replication and other preparations needed for the cell division process Just before meiosis begins the replicated chromatids held together by centromeres are ready and waiting Prophase l Synapsis of two homologous chromosomes to form a tetrad Crossover Spindle Nuclear Metaphase l Anaphase I Telophase I Chromosomes uncoH Nuclear enveIOpe Centromere envelopes Cleavage fragments late furrow 39 39 39 reform in prophasel Sister chromatids Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Meiosis ll I Mirrors mitosis except that chromosomes are not replicated before it begins I Meiosis accomplishes two tasks I It reduces the chromosome number by half 2n to n I It introduces genetic variability Meiotic Cell Division Meiosis ll Prophase ll Metaphase ll Anaphase ll Telophase II and cytokinesis s f 5 w m 4 7 I s s v o xquot 39 x 1 i Meiotic Cell Division Meiosis ll Metaphase ll 1 x a 5 I I I 39 I a a l V Metaphase ll Anaphase ll Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis other cell hmmgsgma e I n n Tetrad formed by synapsrs at4 heme ca 0 39A oi replicated homologous Prop lquotfI39 m39rosis quot39 MEIOSIS quot39 quot 5 39 s Replicated Chromosome replication Chromosome replication Prom I chromosome 1quot quot V 2n 4 Tetrads align at the x Chromosomes align metaphase mate M ha 39quot at the meta hase late 0 SP 50 Metaphase NE P P Homologous i i Smquot Chroma chromosomes separate 577 5quot in Daughter 8eParate dunng but sister chromatids 3 Iquot cans 039 anaphase remain together during x meiosis39 anaphaso quot 11 35 41 liilj i i panama ccquot quot1 i No iurther chromosomal in mitosis replication sister i139quotquot zquotquot2n quotiii2n cmomat39ds 93mm Meiosis il during anaphase ii 15239 i 5 l 39 39 a 5w i quot3x 3913 3 tiquot quoton 55 j 3913 515quot n n quot n quot n Daughter cells of meiosis II usually gametes Event anal illeiosis Number oi divisions One consisting oi prophase metaphase Two each consisting oi prophase metaphase anaphase and anaphase and telephase telophase DNA replication does not occur between the two nuclear divisions an event unique to meiosis is that during meiosis I the homologous chromosomes synapse join along their length forming tetrads groups oi tour chromatids Number oi daughter cells TWO each diploid 2n and identical to Four each containing half as many chromosomes as the mother and genetic composition the mother cell cell hence haploid or n nonidenticai to mother cell importance in the body Development oi multiceilular adult irom To produce cells ior reproduction gametes introduces genetic zygote to produce cells for growth and variability in the gametes and reduces chromosomal number by halt tissue repair ensures constancy of so that when fertilization occurs the normal diploid chromosomal genetic makeup oi all body cells number is restored in humans 2n 46 Spermatogenesis I Cells making up the walls of seminiferous tubules are in various stages of cell division I These spermatogenio cells give rise to sperm in a series of events I Mitosis of spermatogonia forming spermatocytes I Meiosis forms spermatids from spermatocytes I Spermiogenesis spermatids form sperm W 4 2e 5wwa Tight junction between sustentacular cells Spermatogonium Cytoplasm of adjacent Sustentacular a stem cell sustentacular cells cell nucleus Basal lamina Spermatogoniu Daughtequot Gequot type A stem Gequot spermatogonium remains at basal lamina as a Mitosis precursor cell Daughter cell type B Growth spermatogonium lint939 Moves to adluminal mems39s 39 V compartment l39l llll l y spermatocyte Meiosis I completed Secondary spermatocytes Meiosis ll Meiosis early spermatogenesis Early spermatids Spermatilsgenesis Late spermatids Cytoplasmic b dge Lumen of A seminiferous r tubule Spermatozoa v 1 b 0 Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spermlogenesis Iatle spermatogenesis Basal compartment 1 Adluminal compartment Spermatocytes to Spermatids Spermatogonium Cytoplasm of Tight junction between stem cell sustentacular cells sustentacular cells Basal lamina j Sustentacular cell nucleus Spermatogonium Q I I 1 Daughter celltype A 1 39 E stem can spermatogonium remains at E basal lamina as a precursor cell g Mnos39s KegZ Dau hter cell t B F Q Growth 9 VPe g E Enters spermatogonium 0 8 meiosis MOVES t0 adluminal a 5 wartment a a 9 3 Meiosis l Primary 0 3 3 g4 comple ed l I spermatocyte 3 5 3 M ll Secondary 8 g 83909 spennatocytes 2 no No 0amp E c39 as a arly spermatrds g 3 iYW g 8 a Late Spermatids a m g l g 0 L4 IL no 01 39 I 3 g o Z v 39 x i E 8 E l k6 f 39 139 Cytoplasmic g g a R K I bridge a 3 quot Lumenot lt m g sominitorous g Spermatozoa J huh 7 f f a 6 I 39 C quot lb Spermiogenesis Spermatids to Sperm I Sperm have three major regions I Head contains DNA and has a helmetlike acrosome containing hydrolytic enzymes that allow the sperm to penetrate and enter the egg I Midpiece contains mitochondria spiraled around the tail filaments I Tail a typical agellum produced by a centriole Spermiogenesis Spermatids to Sperm Golgi apparatus Acrosomal vesicle Mitochondria Acrosome Nucleus Spermatid Centrioles nucleus Midpiece Head 39 Excess cytoplasm a 1 Tail Male Reproductive System d 39 End The Reproductive System 2 Part B Female Reproductive Anatomy Ovaries are the primary female reproductive organs I Make female gametes ova I Secrete female seX hormones estrogen and progesterone Accessory ducts include uterine tubes uterus and vagina Internal genitalia ovaries and the internal ducts External genitalia external seX organs Female Reproductive Anatomy Uterine tube Ovary r Flmbrlae I Uterus 39 A L Mons pubis KR quot Clltorls Vagma n quot Labium minus Labium majus The Ovaries I Paired organs on each side of the uterus held in place by several ligaments I Ovarian lig anchors the ovary medially to the uterus I Suspensory anchors the ovary laterally to the pelvic wall I Mesovarium suspends the ovary in between I Broad ligament contains the suspensory ligament and the mesovarium I Blood supply ovarian arteries and the ovarian branch of the uterine artery The Ovaries Suspensory ligament of ova y Ovarian blood vessels Mesosal o 39 i x Broad Mesovariuv ligament MesometW Ovaries I Have a cortex and medulla I They are surrounded by a fibrous tunica albuginea which is covered by a layer of epithelial cells called the germinal epithelium I Embedded in the ovary corteX are ovarian follicles Ovaries Tunica albuginea Cortex e Germinal epithelium Primary follicles Medulla Ovaries I Each follicle consists of an immature egg called an oocyte I Cells around the oocyte are called I Follicle cells one cell layer thick I Granulosa cells when more than one layer develops as the follicle matures Ovaries oocyte Granulosa cells Primary follicles Ovaries Primordial follicle one layer of squamous like follicle cells surrounds the oocyte Primary follicle two or more layers of cuboidal granulosa cells enclose the oocyte Secondary follicle has a uidfilled space between granulosa cells that coalesces to form a central antrum Tertiary vesicular or Graafian follicle secondary follicle at its most mature stage that bulges from the surface of the ovary Ovaries Granulosa cells Late secondary follicle Oocyte Vesicular Graafian Primary I follicle follicles Antrum Regnier de Graaf De Graaf is famous for having realised the function of the ovarian follicle Which is named Graafian follicle in his honour although others including Fallopius had noticed the follicles previously described the anatomy of the testicles and collected secretions of the gall bladder and the pancreas Ovaries I Zona pellucida required for sperm binding I T heca folliculi granulosa layer that secretes estrogen I Corona radiata follicular cells ovulated With the oocyte I Ovulation ejection of the oocyte from the ripening follicle I Corpus luteurn ruptured follicle after ovulation Ovaries Degenerating corpus luteum corpus albicans quot 39 v quot Vesicular Graafian follicle Oocyte Zona pellucida Theca folliculi Ovulated w oocyte Corpus luteum Developing Corona corpus luteum radiata Antrum Zona pellucida Corona radiata Oocyte Theca folliculi with blood vessels Events of Oogenesis Meiotic events Follicle development Before birth m ovary Oogonium stem cell Follicle cells MitOSH Oocyte gt Primordial follicle J Primary oocyte Growth j l Infancy and 1 gt 9 PrImordIal follicle Primary oocyte ch dhood ovary inactive I arrested in prophase I present at birth Each month from 1 puberty to menopause Primary follicle PrImary oocyte still arrested in l prophase I Secondary follicle Vesicular Graafian 2 3 follicle Meiosis I completed by one primary oocyte each month in response Secondary oocyte to LH sur e 9 A arrested in metaphasell I First polar body 0 Ovulated secondary rOvulation Meiosis ll of polar Sperm oocyte body may or may 5 Meiosis II completed ruptured follicle only if 0 becomes a corpus y h if sperm luteum and ultimately Polar bodles J J J penetration degenerates all polar bodies second ovum OCCUI S Degenating degenerate pOIar b dy corpus luteum Uterine Tubes Fallopian Tubes and Oviducts I Receive the ovulated oocyte and provide a site for fertilization I Empty into the superolateral region of the uterus via the isthmus I Expand distally around the ovary forming the ampulla I The ampulla ends in the funnelshaped ciliated infundibulurn containing fingerlike projections called firnbriae Uterine Tubes Fallopian Tubes and Oviducts I h Uterine fallopian tube St mus Uterine Q tube Ampulla J x g lnfundibulum 65401 Fimbriae it A I a Fertilization I Fertilization of sea urchin egg With formation of fertilization envelope at 59 sec I Fertilization of human egg With cortical reaction Uterus I Hollow thickwalled organ located in the pelvis anterior to the rectum and posterosuperior to the bladder I Body major portion of the uterus I Fundus rounded region superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes I Isthrnus narrowed region between the body and oerViX Uterus I Cervix narrow neck which prcj ects into the vagina infericrly I Cervical canal cavity of the cervix that communicates With I The vagina via the external OS I The uterine body via the internal OS I Cervical glands secrete mucus that covers the external es and blocks sperm entry except during midcycle Uterus Fundus Lumen cavity of uterus 0f Uterus Body of uterus Internal os Cervical canal External os Isthmus Vagina Cervix Supports of the Uterus I Broad ligament mesometrium mesovarium and mesosalpinX that supports the uterus laterally I Lateral cervical ligaments extend from the cerViX and superior part of the vagina to the lateral walls of the pelVis I Uterosacral ligaments paired ligaments that secure the uterus to the sacrum I Round ligaments bind the anterior wall to the labia maj ora Uterus Suspensory ligament of ovary Mesosalpinx 7 Mesovarium a 1 I A 39 Broad 4 v 4 if 459 ligament 39 1 39 Mesometrum Tquot 39 Round ligament of uterus Ovarian ligament Uterosacral ligament Lateral cervical cardinal ligament Fimbriae of uterine tube Left ovary 39 Fundus of Mesosalpinx uterus Mesovarium Uterine tube Round ligament of uterus BOdY 0f uterus Internal vaginal surface vaginal groad wall is cut and ligament reflected Cervix superiorly Uterine Wall I Composed of three layers I Perimetrium outermost serous layer the Visceral peritoneum I Myometrium middle layer interlacing layers of smooth muscle I Endometrium mucosal lining of the uterine cavity Uterus 2 Endometrium li Myometrium Wall of uterus I Perimetrium Endometrium I Has numerous uterine glands that change in length as the endometrial thickness changes I Stratum functionalis I Undergoes cyclic changes in response to ovarian hormones I Is shed during menstruation I Stratum basalis I Forms a new functionalis after menstruation ends I Does not respond to ovarian hormones Lumen of uterus Epithelium Uterine glands Stratum functionalis of the endometrium Stratum basalis of the endometrium Smooth muscle fibers Radial artery Portion of the myometrium Uterine Wall Lumen of uterus Epithelium Capillaries Uterine glands Venous sinusoids Spiral coiled artery Straight artery Endometrial vein Smooth muscle fibers Radial artery EI39IHJILEEIJIEIW EHHJILE39EIII 313M EHD HJIL EEIEIEHEI T I J LHGIIJIL E JILJWI HDIJILI39HI39IJILH EM I llIIILquotEquotL EEIElI HDIJIWJILHVMHI H llllLW 39 EI39IHJIL EEI HJILECl 39 d EI39IIILEEII39 IquotE39r r 393 i 399 E 1 E E I 1 313M 39 l C l 39 39w 6 6199119 9 Vagina I T hinwalled tube lying between the bladder and the rectum extending from the cervix to the exterior of the body I The urethra is embedded in the anterior wall I Provides a passageway for birth menstrual flow and is the organ of copulation Vagina I Wall consists of three coats fibroelastic adventitia smooth muscle muscularis and a stratified squamous mucosa I Mucosa near the vaginal orifice forms an incomplete partition called the hymen I Vaginal forniX upper end of the vagina surrounding the cerViX Uterus Cervical canal External os Lateral fornix Vagina Cervix External Genitalia Vulva Pudendum Lies external to the vagina and includes the mons pubis labia clitoris and vestibular structures Mons pubis round fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis Labia maj ora elongated haircovered fatty skin folds homologous to the male scroturn Labia minora hairfree skin folds lying Within the labia maj ora Clitoris homologous to the penis External Genitalia Vulva Pudendum Mo ns pu bis P repuce Iquot i of cl ito ri s i Clitoris I if glans 49 2 gt1 g 9 j Labia majora Labia minora External Genitalia Deep I Vaginal orifice I Hymen I Greater vestibular glands I Peasize glands anking the vagina I Homologous to the bulbourethral glands I Keep the vestibule moist and lubricated External Genitalia Deep ruptured Vaginal orifice Opening of the duct of the greater vestibular gland External Genitalia Deep Body of clitoris containing corpora cavernosa I 5 R 239 c M y l w t I 1 1551 g f o Clitoris glans Crus of clitoris Vaginal orifice Greater vestibular gland Fetal sexual development Mesonephros Mesonephric Gonadal ridge Wolffian duct Metanephros Paramesonephric kidney Mullerlan duct Cloaca 5 to 6week embryo sexually indifferent stage Fetal sexual development a Inai erent if i Genital Urethral fold x v w tubercle Labioscrotal K 39 Anus swelling Urethral groove f Urogenital sinus folds Labioscro 39 I if Urethral swelling swellings scrotum labia maj 3 f folds labia l minora Glans clitoris Labia majora W i Labia b Male development Mammary Glands I Modified sweat glands consisting of 1525 lobes that radiate around and open at the nipple I Areola pigmented skin surrounding the nipple I Suspensory ligaments attach the breast to underlying muscle fascia I Lobes contain glandular alveoli that produce milk in lactating women I Compound alveolar glands pass milk to lactiferous ducts Which open to the outside Structure of Lactating Mammary Glands Suspensory ligament Adipose tissue Lobe Areola Nipple Opening of lactiferous duct Lactiferous duct Lobule containing alveoli End almost I ve got lots of classes to teach and close to 200 students We have systems for me to report and for you to find grades I will report them in a timely manner using those systems So DON T EMAIL ME ASKING FOR YOUR GRADE I WILL IGNORE YOUR EMAIL WAIT FOR THEM TO APPEAR ON LINE If you have a concern about a particular grade set up an appointment for next semester That is all End for real except for that little test thingy a u39 039 1 39 o CLEMEN S 3quot39f39 QEPAWE LL 1quot Q quot quot CCJJPAI vc mum ranmo u mooum I m w I I F 39 The Urinary System 2 Part A Urinary System Organs I Kidneys filter blood to produce urine I Paired ureters transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder I Urinary bladder provides a temporary storage reservoir for urine I Urethra transports urine from the bladder out of the body Urinary System Organs Kidney Ureter U ri nary bladder Urethra Urinary System Organs 39 4 5quot g as I l a V i Kidney 9 Renal pelvis w t M Ureter 0 11 9 9 j Urinary bladder Kidney Location and External Anatomy I The beanshaped kidneys lie in a retroperitoneal position in the superior lumbar region and extend from the twelfth thoracic to the third lumbar vertebrae I The right kidney is lower than the left because it is crowded by the liver I The lateral surface is convex and the medial surface is concave with a vertical cleft called the renal hilus leading to the renal sinus I Ureters renal blood vessels lymphatics and nerves enter and eXit at the hilus Urinary System Organs Renal artery Renal hilum Renal vein Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder in Urethra Urinary System Organs Layers of Tissue Supporting the Kidney I Renal capsule fibrous capsule that prevents kidney infection I Adipose capsule fatty mass that cushions the kidney and helps attach it to the body wall I Renal fascia outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidney Kidney Location and External Anatomy Anterior Supportive tissue layers Renal fascia anteriqr posterior Perirenal fat capsule Fibrous capsule I Posterior Internal Anatomy I A frontal section shows three distinct regions I Cortex the light colored granular superficial region I Medulla exhibits coneshaped medullary renal pyramids I Pyramids are made up of parallel bundles of urine collecting tubules I Renal columns are inward extensions of cortical tissue that separate the pyramids I The medullary pyramid and its surrounding capsule constitute a lobe I Renal pelVis at funnelshaped tube lateral to the hilus Within the renal sinus Renal cortex 3 Renal medulla J 3 A quot S K Renal pyramid in renal medulla Renal column Fibrous capsule Renal cortex Renal medulla Renal Renal elvis p hIlum Ureter Renal pyramid in renal medulla Renal column Fibrous capsule Internal Anatomy I Are we paying attention Ureter Renal pyramid in renal medulla Renal column 7 Renal cortex 9 Renal medulla 339 Renal hquotqu Renal pelvis Ureter Renal pyramid in renal medulla Renal column 9 Fibrous capsule Ureter Renal pyramid in renal medulla Renal column 7 Renal cortex 9 Renal medulla 339 Renal hquotqu Renal pelvis Ureter Renal pyramid in renal medulla Renal column 9 Fibrous capsule Internal Anatomy I Maj cr calyces large branches of the renal pelvis I Collect urine draining from papillae I Empty urine into the pelvis I Minor calyX small branches of renal pelVis I Urine ows through the pelVis and ureters to the bladder Major calyx Papilla of pyramid Renal pelvis Minor calyx Ureter Major calyx Renal pelvis Minor calyx Ureter Fibrous capsule Papilla of iiramid Minor calyx Ureter Major calyx Papilla of pyramid VRenal pelvis Minor calyx Ureter Blood and Nerve Supply I Approximately onefourth 1200 ml of systemic cardiac output flows through the kidneys each minute I Arterial flow into and venous ow out of the kidneys follow sirnilar paths I The nerve supply is Via the renal plexus Blood and Nerve Supply AIrta Inferior vena cava Renal irtery Renal vein Segmental artery Interlobai vein Interlobar artery ArcuateTvein gt Cortical radiate Arcuate artery vein 4 j r Peritubqlar Cortical radiate artery caplllarles l J and vasa recta I I I l Afferent arteriole Efferent arteriole l I l l E L Glomerulus capillaries 1 Nephronassociated blood vessels see Figure 25 7 Cortical radiate artery 5 Arcuate artery 4 lnterlobar artery 3 Segmental arteries 2 Renal artery 1 Cortical radiate vein 9 395 Cortical radiate artery 5 I Afferent arteriole 6 5 7 Efferent arteriole 8 10 Arcuate vein 4 Arcuate artery Cortical radiate vein 9 Arcuate vein 10 lnterlobar vein 11 Renal vein 12 The Nephron The Nephron I Nephrons are the structural and functional units that form urine consisting of I Glomerulus a tuft of capillaries associated With a renal tubule I Glomerular Bowman s capsule blind cup shaped end of a renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus Glomerulus Glomerular capsule V The Nephron I Renal corpuscle the glomerulus and its glomerularB owman 5 capsule Renal corpuscle s 3quot s 3 U Glomerular capsular A Glomerulus A 1 Q 4 quot p v 1 V Fquot 53 i I 39 L I a r 39 c O I 3 39 1 39 x V 39 W 9 a gt 2 39 O39 391 39 u r D 39 0 quot v Afferent arteriole Gomeruus Efferent arteriole Peritubular capillary bed Anatomy of the Glomerular Capsule I The external parietal layer is a structural layer I The Visceral layer consists of modified branching epithelial podocytes I Extensions of the octopuslike podocytes terminate in foot processes I Filtration slits openings between the foot processes that allow filtrate to pass into the capsular space I Glomerular endothelium fenestrated epithelium that allows soluterich Virtually proteinfree filtrate to pass from the blood into the glomerular capsule Renal corpuscle Glomerular capsul Glomerulus r 391 l K v l n k 393 O q a W Glomerular capsule parietal layer Basement membrane Podocyte Fenestrated endothelium of the glomerulus Glomerular capsule visceral layer What s a fenestrated capillary Filtration Membrane Glomerular capsular space Efferent t arteriole Proximal convoluted tubule Afferent arteriole Cytoplasmic extensions of podocytes Glomerular capillary 1 Filtration slits covered by podocyte Parietal layer containing visceral of glomerular v1 layer of glomerular capsule Podocyte capsule cell body Fenestrations v pores Glomerular capillary endothelium podocyt covering and basement Foot membrane removed processes of podocyte Filtration Membrane I Filter that lies between the blood and the interior of the glomerular capsule I It is composed of three layers I Fenestrated endothelium of the glomerular capillaries I Visceral membrane of the glomerular capsule podocytes I Basement membrane composed of fused basal laminae 0f the other layers Filtration slits Podocyte cell body 5 e S S e C O r p Filtration membrane Capillary endothelium Capillary 39 Basement membrane Foot processes of podocyte of glomerular capsule Filtration slit Slit Plasma diaphragm gt Foot processes FeneStratlon 39 of podocyte pore Afferent arteriole Glomerular capillaries Q Efferent arteriole Cortical radiate artery 1 513 Glomerular capsule Rest of renal tubule containing filtrate Peritubular capillary Three major renal processes I H I n 39 I I 0 gt G39Omer ar 39quotat39O To cortIcal radiate veIn Urine Now moving on to the Distal and the gmguted and the and thG Proximal convoluted tubule l f Q3 Thick segment T Thin segment i Loop of Henle l Descending limb oAscendIng llmb I duct Collecting Proximal Convoluted Tubule I Proximal convoluted tubule PCT composed of cuboidal cells with numerous microVilli and mitochondria I Reabsorbs water and solutes from filtrate and secretes substances into it 9 Downhill Na entry at the luminal membrane Filtrate N quotS in tubule Interstitial fluid lumen TUbUIe c Reabsorption of organic nutrients and certain ions by Na cotransport at the luminal membrane Glucose L1 Reabsorption of water by Aalg39igg 4quot osmosis Water reabsorption Some increases the concentration of ions Vitamins the solutes that are left behind These solutes can n be reabsorbed as the ove down their concen ion gradients 9 H20 3 i LlpldSOIUbIe I substances L d lpl so e Cl39 Ca2 K substances dif b the and Other Ti ht 39unction Paraceumarb y Ions urea 9 l route transcellular route gt Primary active transport L Transport protein C and other anions 5 quot 39 quot secondary active transport 6 Ion channel or aquaporin KJ and urea diffuse the gt Passive transport diffusion paracellular route Loop of Henle I Loop of Henle a hairpinshaped loop of the renal tubule I Proximal part is similar to the proximal convoluted tubule I Proximal part is followed by the thin segment simple squamous cells and the thick segment cuboidal to columnar cells Osmolality of interstitial 100 fluid mOsm 300 39 Filtrate entering the vgt Active tranSport 0f Henle 395 h Cortex 2 grist 133w quot 53 40 a e 39 pe ea 9 cortical int 39tial fluid The descending limb l 600 Outer Permeable to H20 medulla Impermeable to NaCl As filtrate flows it becomes increasingly concentrated as H20 leaves the tubule by osmosis The filtrate osmolality increases from 300 to 1200 mOsm 900 Inner 1 medulla Loop of Henle The ascending limb a Countercurrent multiplier mpermeabe to H20 The long loops of Henle of the o Permeable to NaCl juxtamedullary nephrons Filtrate becomes increasingly dilute as NaCl leaves eventually becoming create the medullary hypoosmotic to blood at 100 mOsm in the cortex NaCl leaving the osmotic gradient ascending limb increases the osmolality of the medullary interstitial fluid Distal Convoluted Tubule I Distal convoluted tubule DCT cuboidal cells Without microVilli that function more in secretion than reabsorption a H20 and Milliosmols Cortex ose many ions eg A Cquota d K 300 So drugs 5 quotCO3 NH4 I 600 i I Blood pH regulation a Proximal convoluted tubule 2 65 of filtrate volume reabsorbed Na glucose amino acids and other nutrients actively transported H20 and many ions follow passively H and NH4 secretion and HCO3 reabsorption to gt Active transp Hm I I maintain blood pH see Chapter 26 icofdzrz Some drugs are secreted gtPassive transport Collecting Duct I Collecting duct runs from the DCT down through the pyramid in the medulla to the apex and finally drips formed and processed urine into the minor calyx regulated by Regulated b aldosterone Na K Blood pH regulation L H HCO3 NH4 Urea increased byADH e Collecting duct Milliosmols Cortex a 300 la new b 600 1200 H20 reabsorption through aquaporins regulated by ADH Na reabsorption and K secretion regulated by aldosterone H and HCO3 reabsorption or secretion to maintain blood pH see Chapter 26 Urea reabsorption increased by ADH Outer d e gtActive transport primary or secondary gtPassive transport 2 Nephron types I Cortical nephrons 85 of nephrons located in the cortex I Juxtarnedullary nephrons I Are located at the cortex medulla junction I Have loops of Henle that deeply invade the medulla I Have extensive thin segments I Are involved in the production of concentrated urine Cortical v Juxtamedullary Nephrons Cortical nephron Has short loop of Henle and glomerulus further from the corticomedullary junction Efferent arteriole supplies peritubular Juxtamedullary nephron capillaries I I Has long loop of Henle and glomerulus closer to the corticomedullary junc on Efferent arteriole supplies vasa Corticomedullary Arcuate vein junction Arcuate artery renal medulla renal cortex Nephrow Capillary Beds of the Nephron I Every nephron has two capillary beds I Glomerulus I Peritubular capillaries I Each glomerulus is I Fed by an afferent arteriole I Drained by an efferent arteriole Capillary Beds of the Nephron I Blood pressure in the glornerulus is high because I Arterioles are high resistance vessels I Afferent arterioles have larger diameters than efferent arterioles I Fluids and solutes are forced out of the blood throughout the entire length of the glornerulus Smaller Efferent Efferent arteriole Afferent arteriole Larger Afferent Capillary Beds I Peritubular beds are lowpressure porous capillaries adapted for absorption that I Arise from efferent arterioles I Cling to adjacent renal tubules I Empty into the renal venous system I Vasa reota long straight efferent arterioles of juxtarnedullary nephrons only the juxtamed nephs Capillary Beds Glomerular capillaries glomerulus Vasa recta I AI I D UI uquotII u39I39IIIIIII v i l 1 Ala Peritubular capillaries III ill Iii AI il kqvhllx I m n 1 H I39l39llli lln 39p39 v ammlf ll quotquotIV I t n a s 39 What the Capillary Beds Ili39n vv39 vja i llu ll ll 1 IV IV 1 l Vasa recta 7 u d 9 J H n an m by J O by m pl H 9 S Capillary Beds Juxtaglomerular Apparatus JGA I Where the distal convoluted tubule lies against the afferent sometimes efferent arteriole I Arteriole walls have juxtaglomerular granular cells I Enlarged smooth muscle cells I Have secretory granules containing renin I Act as mechanoreceptors Juxtaglomerular Apparatus JGA I Macula densa I Tall closely packed distal tubule cells I Lie adjacent to JG cells I Function as chemoreceptors or osmoreceptors I Mesangial cells I Have phagocytic and contractile properties I In uence capillary filtration Juxtaglomerular Apparatus JGA Efferent arteriole 4 f Glomerular capsule Glomerulus Afferent arteriole M l l u I Efferent 131 arteriole p 8 U Juxtaglomerular apparatus Macula densa cells of the ascending limb of loop of Henle Extraglomerular mesangial cells Granular cells Afferent arteriole Mesanglal cells I H between capillaries Juxtaglomerular Rena corpuscle apparatus JGA tSYSTEMIC BLOOD PRESSURE od pressure in l GFR terioles l GFFJ L Laffere l Filtrate flow and lNaCl in ascending k o of Henle s loop 39 t Stretch of sm 1 39 muscle in walls 0 L afferent arterioles Vasodilation of afferent arterioles Macula densa cells of JG apparatus of kidney Release of vasoactive a chemical inhibited Vasodilation of I afferent arterioles L fGFR J Tubuloglomerular mechanism of autoregulation Myogenic mechanism of autoregulation 7 A catalyzes Cascades ii 39iii Targets resulting in converSion ll Angiotensinogen 7 y 7 A L quot u Adren rtex Systemlc arterIoles Granular cells of 1 juxtaglomerular apparatus of kidney 1 I i a Release Renin l Angiotensin II ses l Aldosterone I Vasoconstriction I ipheral resistance 3 7 iTargets 3939 l Kidney tubules 1Na reabsorption water follows I 1 Blood volume Intrinsic mechanisms directly regulate GFR despite moderate changes in blood pressure between 80 and 180 mm Hg mean arterial pressure 1 Systemic blood pressure Hormonal reninangiotensin mechanism Baroreceptors in blood vessels of systemic circulatio Sympathetic nervous system Stimulates Inhibits crease l L ase Neural controls I Extrinsic mechanisms indirectly regulate GFR by maintaining systemic blood pressure which drives filtration in the kidneys And Now Something Easy Ureters I Slender tubes that convey urine from the kidneys to the bladder I Ureters enter the base of the bladder through the posterior wall I This closes their distal ends as bladder pressure increases and prevents back ow of urine into the ureters Ureters I Ureters have a trilayered wall I Transitional epithelial mucosa I Smooth muscle muscularis I Fibrous connective tissue adventitia I Ureters actively propel urine to the bladder Via response to smooth muscle stretch Lumen 393 x 5 1 39 t 39 quotbyquot 4 Adventitia Circular layer Longitudinal layer Transitional epithelium Lamina Muscularis I Mucosa propria Urinary Bladder I Smooth collapsible muscular sac that temporarily stores urine I It lies retroperitoneally on the pelvic floor posterior to the pubic symphysis I Males prostate gland surrounds the neck inferiorly I Females anterior to the vagina and uterus I T rigone triangular area outlined by the openings for the ureters and the urethra I Clinically important because infections tend to persist in this region Urinary Bladder Ureter Ureteric orifices Trigone of bladder Bladder neck Ureteric orifices Prostate Prostatic urethra Bladder neck 5 r A 5nd I il imi 35 Urinary Bladder I The bladder wall has three layers I Transitional epithelial mucosa I A thick muscular layer I A fibrous adventitia I The bladder is distensible and collapses When empty I As urine accumulates the bladder expands Without significant rise in internal pressure Urinary Bladder Adventitia Rugae Detrusor muscle Urethra I Muscular tube that I Drains urine from the bladder I Conveys it out of the body Urethra I Sphincters keep the urethra closed When urine is not being passed I Internal urethral sphincter involuntary sphincter at the bladder urethra junction I External urethral sphincter voluntary sphincter surrounding the urethra as it passes through the urogenital diaphragm Urethra I The female urethra is tightly bound to the anterior vaginal wall I Its external opening lies anterior to the vaginal opening and posterior to the Clitoris I The male urethra has three narned regions I Prostatic urethra runs Within the prostate gland I Membranous urethra runs through the urogenital diaphragm I Spongy penile urethra passes through the penis and opens Via the external urethral orifice Urethra trquot39 quot 395 39 gt 32quot 39139 2A I I 3quotquot 39 C Kquot k aquot I quotV it V1 4 t I r 39 l s A39 R l V v Bladder neck a 1ng Q D Internal urethral sphincter 3 We Prostate 39 l Prostatic urethra Urogenital diaphragm x External urethral sphincter Membranous urethra OI 4339quot 1 4 4 quot41m4 as v a I 43 vitvs ii Spongy urethra External urethral orifice Urinary System End CLEMENTS QEPNDE yo s n An AquotL39 AII J Hquot Inm 13 C MN lOI quotl 710IDO I00 ll00 Renal cortex Renal medulla Major calyx Papilla of pyramid Renal pelvis 39 Minor calyx Ureter Renal pyramid in renal medulla Renal column Fibrous capsule b Diagrammatic view Papilla of 539 Renal pyram39d hilum Renal pelvis Minor calyx Q Renal pyramid in renal medulla Fibrous capsule Renal cortex Papilla of 539 Renal pyram39d hilum Renal pelvis Minor calyx Q Renal pyramid in renal medulla Fibrous capsule Renal cortex Renal medulla 4 Papilla of Renal pyram39d huum Renal pelvis H i rg39 r 1 Minor calyx 0 Renal pyramid in renal medulla Fibrous capsule Renal hilum Q Renal cortex i I 5 I H r 77 l Keg l 1quot I 7 3 Renal medulla Major calyx Papilla of pyramid Renal pelvis Minor calyx l i Renal pyramid in renal medulla Fibrous capsule Rena39 hilum Renal cortex Renal medulla H 3 V H j yg39 r a Major Calyx PaIOilla of pyramid Renal Pelvis Minor 63 quot Ureter Renal Pyramid in renal medulla Fibrous capsule Renal cortex Renal medulla quot 39 7T Rig 33 Major calyx rm Papilla of Renal pyramid hilum Renal pelvis Minor calyx Ureter Renal pyramid in renal medulla Renal column Fibrous capsule Renal corpuscle Glomerular capsule Glomerulus Distal convoluted tubule Proximal convoluted tubule l Cortex Meciulla Thick segment Thin segment 39 Loop of Henle Descending limb Ascending limb Co39lecung C Glomerular capsule Glomerulus Cortex 39 Meciulla Thick segment TI on Descending limb Ascending limb Renal corpuscle Glomerular capsule Glomerulus Cortex 39 Meciulla Thick segment TI on Descending limb Ascending limb Renal corpuscle Glomerular capsule Glomerulus Proximal convoluted tubule f Cortex Meciulla Thick segment TI n Descending limb Ascending limb Renal corpuscle Glomerular capsule Glomerulus Proximal convoluted tubule f Cortex Meciulla Thick segment Thin segment 39 Loop of Henle Descending limb Ascending limb Renal corpuscle Glomerular capsule Glomerulus Distal convoluted tubule Proximal convoluted tubule l Cortex Meciulla Thick segment Thin segment 39 Loop of Henle Descending limb Ascending limb Co39lecung x y if zgggirm s E m sgiL External urethral orifice END Kopi Luwak or Civet coffee is coffee made from coffee berries which have been eaten by and passed through the digestive tract of the Asian Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus The civets eat the berries but the beans inside pass through their system undigested This process takes place on the islands of Sumatra Java and Sulawesi in the Indonesian Archipelago and in the Philippines where the product is called Kape Alamid Vietnam has a similar type of coffee called weasel coffee which are coffee berries which have been regurgitated by local weasels In actuality the quotweaselquot is just the local version of the Asian Palm Civet Kopi Luwak is the most expensive coffee in the world selling for between 120 and 600 USD per pound and is sold mainly in Japan and United States but it is increasingly becoming available elsewhere though supplies are limited only 1000 pounds at most make it into the world market each year One small cafe the Heritage Tea Rooms in the hills outside Townsville in Queensland Australia has Kopi Luwak coffee on the menu at A5000cup The locals line up for it It has gained nationwide press The Digestive System 2 Part A Digestive System Overview I The alimentary canal or gastrointestinal GI tract digests and absorbs food I Alimentary canal mouth pharynx esophagus stomach small intestine and large intestine I Accessory digestive organs teeth tongue gallbladder salivary glands liver and pancreas Digestive System Overview Parotid gland Mouth Ola caVitV f Sublingual gland Saquotvary Tongue Submandibular glands Esophagus Pharynx Stomach Pancreas Liver Spleen Gallbladder Transverse colon Descending colon Ascending colon Cecum 39Large Sigmoid colon intestine Rectum Vermiform appendix Anal canal Duodenum Small Jejunum intestine lleum Anus Histology of the Alimentary Canal I From esophagus to the anal canal the walls of the GI tract have the same four tunics I From the lumen outward they are the mucosa submucosa muscularis externa and serosa I Each tunic has a predominant tissue type and a specific digestive function Histology of the Alimentary Canal Intrinsic nerve plexuses Myenteric nerve plexus Submucosal nerve plexus Glands in submucosa Mucosa Epithelium Lamina propria Muscularis mucosae Submucosa Muscularis externa 3 5 393 W Longitudinal g muscle Crcularmuscle 39 Serosa Epithelium Connective quot ssue Lumen quot Lymphatic Duct of gland outside Mucosaassociated Mesentery vessel alimentary canal lymphoid tissue Mucosa I Moist epithelial layer that lines the lumen of the alimentary canal I Its three major functions are I Secretion of mucus I Absorption of the end products of digestion I Protection against infectious disease I Consists of three layers a lining epithelium lamina propria and muscularis mucosae Mucosa Glands in submucosa Mucosa Epithelium Lamina propria Muscularis mucosae mtg x fygf I 4 L 39 I ui uquot J A 39t I W1 m5 3913 WW a 4 K V N 39 39Q q I I s x 139 c F I I l x I k O V 39 9223 4 139quot 40555 J39 vr iaquot K39 3 WWW czraw v bf A g m I a VISA 3 l i quot1 3413 Lumen Mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue Mucosa Epithelial Lining I Consists of simple columnar epithelium and mucus secreting goblet cells I The mucus secretions I Protect digestive organs from digesting themselves I Ease food along the tract I Stomach and small intestine mucosa contain I Enzyme secreting cells I Hormonesecreting cells making them endocrine and digestive organs Mucosa Lamina Propria and Muscularis Mucosae I Lamina Propria I Loose areolar and reticular connective tissue I Nourishes the epithelium and absorbs nutrients I Contains lymph nodes part of MALT important in defense against bacteria I Muscularis mucosae smooth muscle cells that produce local movements of mucosa Mucosa Lamina Propria and Muscularis Mucosae I MALT Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue Mucosa 7 Qua w a as if I T I 39 39 3f i39 x V v 39 4 Mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue Other layers I Submucosa dense connective tissue containing elastic fibers blood and lymphatic vessels lymph nodes and nerves I Muscularis externa responsible for segmentation and peristalsis I Serosa the protective visceral peritoneum Other layers Submucosa Muscularis externa Longitudinal muscle Circular muscle Serosa Epithelium Connective ssue Lumen 3K I 9 waifG90 what quot3quot p QQQH39ULu 3 39 n 27 ad xiqu We d Aquot 2 v v 4quot 1 a Lquot 7quot I 0000306 D Enteric Nervous System I Composed of two major intrinsic nerve plexuses I Submucosal nerve plexus regulates glands and smooth muscle in the mucosa I Myenteric nerve plexus Maj or nerve supply that controls GI tract mobility Enteric Nervous System Intrinsic nerve plexuses Myenteric nerve plexus Submucosal nerve plexus V 39 1 4 Whm quot I Jquot w my Ia a L l C 1 rnbMDME g 4 953159 1 5 as r 9 r in 0 3 N V WWquot i ao ii v b if A v 39 23 8 ltgf aV W39g 1f 4 x NQ 339 Q OW v 0000093quot r A iaoqn nn Mouth I Oral or bueeal cavity I Is bounded by lips cheeks palate and tongue I Has the oral orifice as its anterior opening I Is continuous With the oropharynX posteriorly I To Withstand abrasions I The mouth is lined With stratified squamous epithelium I The gums hard palate and dorsum of the tongue are slightly keratinized Anatomy of the Oral Cavity Mouth Soft palate lossalx BEE Hard palate cavity Palatine tonsil Tbngue Oropharynx Lingual tonsil Epiglottis Hyoid bone Laryngopharynx Esophagus Trachea a Sagittal section of the oral cavity and pharynx Palate I Hard palate underlain by palatine bones and palatine processes of the maXillae I Assists the tongue in chewing I Soft palate mobile fold formed mostly of skeletal muscle I Closes off the nasopharynX during swallowing I Uvula projects downward from its free edge Tongue I Superior surface bears three types of papillae I Filiform give the tongue roughness and provide friction I Fungiform scattered Widely over the tongue and give it a reddish hue I Circumvallate Vshaped row in back of tongue I Sulcus terminalis groove that separates the tongue into two areas I Anterior 23 residing in the oral cavity I Posterior third residing in the oropharynX Tongue Epiglotlis s Palatopharyngeal arch f Palatine tonsil as Llngua39mnsquot jquotquotquotf quotquotquot39 39 I 39 Circmvallato Palaloglossal arch V papilla Sulcus terminalis l t 39 39 m 1 l ililonn J papillae 39 a x 4 quot J g Dorsum of tongue 3 39 Funglfom 2 3911 x 39 papilla x l I 1 I ml quot l 39 v llejk quot H o l l d a Salivary Glands I Produce and secrete saliva that I Cleanses the mouth I Moistens and dissolves food chemicals I Aids in bolus formation I Contains enzymes that break down starch I Three pairs of extrinsic glands parotid submandibular and sublingual Extrinsic Salivary Glands I Parotid lies anterior to the ear between the masseter muscle and skin I Parotid duct opens into the vestibule next to the second upper molar I Submandibular lies along the medial aspect of the mandibular body I Its ducts open at the base of the lingual frenulum I Sublingual lies anterior to the submandibular gland under the tongue I It opens Via 1012 ducts into the oor of the mouth Salivary Glands Ducts of sub ngualh gland l Tbngue Teeth Parotid gland Parotid duct Sub ngual gland Submandibular duct Submandibular gland Teeth I Primary and permanent dentitions have formed by age 21 I Primary 20 deciduous teeth that erupt at intervals between 6 and 24 months Deciduous Forest 5 3 d I uLMdp o4o 7 I u a n3 51quot ll 90 Deciduous Teeth Incisors Central 6 8 mo Lateral 8 1 0 mo Canine eyetooth 16 20 mo 3A quot oquot Molars R First molar quot 10 15 mo Deciduous milk teeth Second molar about 2 yr Deciduous Teeth Deciduous teeth Permanent teeth Permanent Teeth I Permanent enlarge and develop causing the root of deciduous teeth to be resorbed and fall out between the ages of 6 and 12 years I All but the third molars have erupted by the end of adolescence I There are usually 32 permanent teeth Permanent Teeth Incisors Central 7 yr Lateral 8 yr Canine eyetooth 11 yr Premolars bicuspids First premolar 11 W Second premolar 12 13 yr Molars First molar 6 7 yr Second molar i 12 13 yr Third molar r Permanent wisdom tooth teeth 17 25 yr Classification of Teeth I Teeth are classified according to their shape and function I Incisors chisel shaped teeth adapted for cutting or nipping I Canines conical or fanglike teeth that tear or pierce I Premolars bicuspids and molars have broad crowns with rounded tips and are best suited for grinding or crushing I During chewing upper and lower molars lock together generating crushing force Tooth Structure I Two main regions crown and the root I Crown exposed part of the tooth above the gingiva gum I Enamel acellular brittle material composed of calcium salts and hydroxyapatite crystals is the hardCSt SUbStanCC in thC except for diamond stud navel piercings I Encapsules the crown of the tooth I Neck where the crown and root come together I Root portion of the tooth embedded in the jawbone Crown Neck Root p a quot1 lu ttl lmmt W 39 f 39 no0 1 Em 7777777quot 7V 3 3 3 t mm mm WWW 393 i I w lbLULA N r x v39 l A ur u J n I 1 13 H m r tti Tooth Structure Tooth Structure I Periodontal ligament I Anchors the tooth in the alveolus of the jaw I Forms the fibrous joint called a gomphosis I Gingival sulous depression Where the gingiva borders the tooth Tooth Structure Crown Neck Root quot Enamel Gingival Sulcus Gingiva gum MMm39m u A 1 Cementum m 1 39 Rootcanal I a Periodontal 5 ligament Pharynx I From the mouth the oro and laryngopharynX allow passage of I Food and uids to the esophagus I Air to the trachea I Lined With stratified squamous epithelium and mucus glands I Has two skeletal muscle layers I Inner longitudinal I Outer pharyngeal constrictors Pharynx Oral cavity Tbngue Oropharynx Epiglottis Laryngopharynx Esophagus Esophagus I Muscular tube going from the laryngopharynX to the stomach I Travels through the mediastinum and pierces the diaphragm I Joins the stomach at the cardiac orifice Esophagus Parotid gland Mouth oral cavity Sublingua gand Saivary Tongue Submandibular glands gland Esophagus Pharynx Stomach Relaxed muscles I Circular muscles contract Bolus of food Longitudinal muscles contract Gastroesophageal sphincter closed From mouth a Peristalsis Adjacent segments of b Segmentation Nonadjacent segments alimentary tract organs alternately contract 01 allmentary tract organs alternately and relax which moves food along the tract contract and relax moving the food distally forward then backward Food mixing and slow food propulsion occurs tmh Stomach I Cardiac region surrounds the cardiac orifice I Fundus dorneshaped region beneath the diaphragm I Body midportion of the stomach I Pyloric region made up of the antrurn and canal which terminates at the pylorus I The pylorus is continuous With the duodenum through the pyloric sphincter Stomach Cardla Fundus Esophagus Body Rugae of mucosa Pyloric Pyloric canal antrum Pyloric sphincter a valve at pleI US Duodenum Stomach Fundus Serosa Body Rugae of mucosa Pyloric sphincter Pyloric antrum Stomach I Greater curvature entire extent of the convex lateral surface I Lesser curvature ccncave medial surface I Lesser cmenturn runs from the liver to the lesser curvature I Greater crnenturn sounds like a cult leader drapes infericrly from the greater curvature to the small intestine From Wikipedia I The greater omentum also the great omentum gastrocolic omentum or epiploon is a large fold of peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach and extends from the stomach to the posterior abdominal wall after associating with the transverse colon w 7 Greater Omentum Stomach I Nerve supply sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers of the autonomic nervous system I Blood supply celiac trunk and corresponding veins part of the hepatic portal system Stomach x 77 Lesser curva Greater curvature Stomach Can Expand a Lot J 06y Chastnut Local boy San Josa Ca In 2013 70 Sausage brats 179 ChiCkBIl Wings 10 minutas 69 hot dogs in 10 minutes f 539 x 5 vquot Microscopic Anatomy of the Stomach I Muscularis has an additional oblique layer that I Allows the stomach to churn miX and pummel food physically I Breaks down food into smaller fragments Stomach Muscularis externa 0 Longitudinal layer Circular layer Oblique layer Microscopic Anatomy of the Stomach I Epithelial lining is composed of I Goblet cells that produce a coat of alkaline mucus I The mucous surface layer traps a bicarbonate rich uid beneath it I Gastric pits contain gastric glands that secrete gastric juice mucus and gastrin Glands of the Stomach Fundus and Body I Gastric glands of the fundus and body have a variety of secretory cells I Mucous neck cells secrete acid mucus I Parietal cells secrete HCl and intrinsic factor I Chief cells produce pepsinogen I Enteroendocrine cells secrete lots of stuff Microscopic Anatomy of the Stomach El Mucosa 939s Surface as epithelium mmnmm my quot Minimum g WWW mtm ttmtmmm I Vquot U I h 39 Jazzzfpft flmtilT J lt K J nu HitPH I 1 Lamina propria 392 Muscularis 39 39 mucosae Submucosa contains submucosal plexus Oblique layer Muscularis externa Circular layer 39393939 quot contains myenteric L n I In plexus o gtud a ayer Serosa Stomach wall a Layers of the stomach wall ls 4 039 J v a s 39p I39a z 39 w m B m m 9 mm m lle quot mm nu nu Mm nu I nc nu ca u m c uac r a0 otf t IC nlve mug wm Mnmc c 3amp1qu Z c 4 r r h Y Q 39 tvccrcrcc V c N5 y qxx 2 e j A 5 V t P t 255235 mm r yigS532 Af I 1 Ramp5a Zi ifi c ul l m f qua aJIi t r 411Zifh wxei 1222 2x 5 ullI 5 A pit Microscopic Anatomy of the Stomach Enteroendocrine cell Glands of the Stomach Fundus and Body I Chief cells produce pepsinogen I Pepsinogen is activated to pepsin by I HCl in the stomach I Pepsin itself Via a positive feedback mechanism I Enteroendocrine cells secrete gastrin histamine endorphins serotonin cholecystokinin CCK and somatostatin into the lamina propria Microscopic Anatomy of the Stomach Mitochondria Parietal cell Chief cell Enteroendocrine cell Stomach Lining I The stomach is exposed to the harshest conditions in the digestive tract I To keep from digesting itself the stomach has a mucosal barrier With I A thick coat of bicarbonate rich mucus on the stomach wall I Epithelial cells that are joined by tight junctions I Gastric glands that have cells impermeable to HCl I Damaged epithelial cells are quickly replaced Bacteria Mucosa layer of stomach cteria a a A gastric ulcer lesion b H pylori ba II Stomach to Small Intestine Pykwk vahue closed Pwo c vahue closed Pyloric valve slightly opened Duodenum Small Intestine Gross Anatomy Runs from pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve Has three subdivisions duodenum jejunum and ileum The bile duct and main pancreatic duct I Join the duodenum at the hepatopancreatic ampulla I Are controlled by the sphincter of Oddi The jejunum extends from the duodenum to the ileum The ileum joins the large intestine at the ileocecal valve Cystic duct Common hepatic duct Bile duct and sphincter Accessory pancreatic duct A 3 Gallbladder Major duodenal papilla Hepatopancreatic ampulla and sphincter Duodenum 39 Pancreas Jejunum Main pancreatic duct and sphincter Small Intestine Microscopic Anatomy I Structural surface modifications of the small intestine wall increase surface area I Plicae circulares deep circular folds of the mucosa and submucosa I Villi fingerlike extensions of the mucosa I Microvilli tiny projections of absorptive mucosal cell s plasma membranes Small Intestine Microscopic Anatomy Vein carrying blood to hepatic portal vessel gt Muscle layers Circular folds Villi Lumen Plicae circulates Small Intestine Microscopic Anatomy Absorptive cells Lacteal Goblet cell Blood capillaries Vilus Enteroendocrine cells Venule Lymphatic vessel Submucosa Intestinal crypt I Muscularis 4 mucosae v quot Duodenal gland 39 Small Intestine Microscopic Anatomy Microvilli brush border Intestinal crypt Microscopic Anatomy Absorptive cells Small Intestine Absorptive cell Villi 110 QL to 5 4 4 nil 4h I J 110 JAVLv fql La ll pll clvhrn lq39Tlo Hf1o v w a Small Intestine Microscopic Anatomy Small Intestine Histology of the Wall I The epithelium of the mucosa is made up of I Absorptive cells and goblet cells I Entereendocrine cells I Interspersed T cells called intraepithelial lymphocytes IELs Small Intestine Histology of the Wall I Cells of intestinal crypts secrete intestinal juice I Peyer s patches are found in the submuccsa MALT I Brunner s glands in the duodenum secrete alkaline mucus Small Intestine Microscopic Anatomy Absorptive cells V Lacteal Goblet cell Blood capillaries Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue Intestinal crypt Enteroendocrine 3 3 V cells Muscularis c venu39e mucosae quot 25 4 Lymphatic vessel Duodenal gland G 39o Submucosa Liver The largest gland in the body I Superficially has four lobes right left caudate and quadrate The faloiform ligament I Separates the right and left lobes anteriorly I Suspends the liver from the diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall I The ligamentum teres I Is a remnant of the fetal umbilical vein I Runs along the free edge of the faloiform ligament Nipple 3 Liver quot p39 4 Left lobe of liver Quadrate lobe Of liver lJQEImentum teres Caudate lobe Of liver Right lobe of liver Sternum Nipple f Liver quot Right lobe of liver Falciform ligament Left lobe of liver Round ligament ligamentum teres Liver Associated Structures I The lesser cmentum anchors the liver to the stomach I The hepatic blood vessels enter the liver at the pcrta hepatis I The gallbladder rests in a recess on the inferior surface of the right lobe Sternum Nipple Liver 39 Lesser omentum in fissure Sulcus for inferior vena cava Hepatic vein cut Bile duct cut Pcrta hepatis containing hepatic artery left and hepatic portal vein right Gallbladder Liver Associated Structures I Bile leaves the liver Via I Right and left hepatic ducts which fuse into the common hepatic duct I The common hepatic duct which fuses with the cystic duct I These two ducts form the bile duct Gallbladder and Associated Ducts Right and left hepatic ducts of liver Cystic duct Common hepatic duct Bile duct and sphincter Mucosa with folds Gallbladder Liver Microscopic Anatomy I Hexagonal shaped liver lobules are the structural and functional units of the liver I Composed of hepatocyte liver cell plates radiating outward from a central vein tissue septum a 39 H39 L ts Lobule v vr I b 23 1 l IX Central 39555 3436 39 7 j 391rr39 7 238 39 e o t a A in I v VGIn quot 219 35 39 quot fax A 5quot is quot s Q An 4 Connective Microsco ic anatom of the liver Liver Microscopic Anatomy I Portal triads are found at each of the siX corners of each liver lobule Portal triads consist of I bile duct I Hepatic artery supplies oxygenrich blood to the liver I Hepatic portal vein carries venous blood With nutrients from digestive viscera I Sinusoids enlarged leaky capillaries located between hepatic plates I Kupffer cells hepatic macrophages found in liver sinusoids ll l D Mieroeeome anatomw ii the Weir lnterlobuar veins lk a to hepatic veIn Central vein Sinusoids J Plates of Bile duct receives bile from bile canchuH Fenestrated lining endothelial cells of sinusoids Portal venule Portal triad Portal arteriole macrophages In SanSOld walls Portal vein 6 Liver Microscopic Anatomy I Hepatocytes functions include I Production of bile I Processing blood borne nutrients I Storage of fatsoluble Vitamins I Detoxification I Secreted bile flows between hepatocytes toward the bile ducts in the portal triads Migrgsggpig anatgmy gf the liver Fenestrated lining endothelial cells of sinusoids I Bllecanallcull I 1quot I Portal 39 triad Penal arteriole Central vein Kupffer cells in sinusoid walls Bile in bile canaliculus flows into bile duct 039 Composition of Bile A yelloW green alkaline solution containing bile salts bile pigments cholesterol neutral fats phospholipids and electrolytes Bile salts are cholesterol derivatives that I Emulsify fat I Facilitate fat and cholesterol absorption I Help solubilize cholesterol Enterohepatic circulation recycles bile salts The chief bile pigment is bilirubin a waste product of heme The Gallbladder I T hinwalled green muscular sac on the ventral surface of the liver I Stores and concentrates bile by absorbing its water and ions I Releases bile Via the cystic duct Which flows into the bile duct Gallbladder and Associated Ducts Mucosa with folds Cystic duct Duodenurn llepatopancreatlc ampulla and sphincter Major duodenal papilla IO 5 I I39 I Gallbladder I 39 39 Right and left hepatic ducts of liver Common hepatic duct Bile duct and sphincter Pancreas Jejunum Main pancreatic duct and sphincter Figure 2320 Pancreas I Location I Lies deep to the greater curvature of the stomach I The head is encircled by the duodenum and the tail abuts the spleen Pancreas Liver Sp39een Gallbladder Duodenum Small Jejunum intestine lleum Bile duct and sphincter Accessory pancreatic duct K A J c g x F V I V 7 I a 39 7 r quot f quotu x x 39 39 l p f r39 I 39 l n l I J Tail of pancreas f Pancreas Jejunum Main pancreatic duct and sphincter Head of pancreas Major duodenal papilla Hepatopancreatic ampulla and sphincter Duodenum Pancreas I Exocrine function I Secretes pancreatic juice which breaks down all categories of foodstuff I Acini clusters of secretory cells contain zyrnogen granules With digestive enzymes I The pancreas also has an endocrine function release of insulin and glucagon Acinus of the Pancreas Small duct Acinar cells Basement membrane Zymogen granules Rough endoplasmic reticulum Acinus of the Pancreas Acinar cells a l 91m J5 M Stomach Pancreas Ep he al cells f 1151 Chymotrypsin 4 Carboxypeptidase Digestion in the Small Intestine I As Chyrne enters the duodenum I Carbohydrates and proteins are only partially digested I No fat digestion has taken place Digestion in the Small Intestine I Digestion continues in the small intestine I Chyme is released slowly into the duodenum I Virtually all nutrient absorption takes place in the small intestine Pykwk vahue closed Pwo c vahue closed Pyloric valve slightly opened C1 Chyme enter ing duodenum causes release of cholecystokinin CCK and secretin from duodenal enteroendocrine cells 9 CCK red dots and secretin yellow dots enter the bloodstream C9 CCK induces secretion of enzymerich pancreatic juice Secretin causes secretion of HCO3rich pancreatic juice 4 Bile salts and to a lesser extent secretin transported via bloodstream stimulate liver to produce bile more rapidly 5 CCK via bloodstream causes gallbladder to contract and hepatopancreatic sphincter to relax bile enters duodenum 6 During cephalic and gastric phases vagal nerve stimulation causes weak contractions of gallbladder MICI OVIIII brush border Ej Absorptive 1 cells A I Lacteal Goblet cell Blood capillaries h i wy I 1 4 M quotl Intestinal crypt Muscularis mucosae Duodenal Submucosa gland Large Intestine I Is subdivided into the cecum appendix colon rectum and anal canal I The sac like cecum lies below the ileocecal valve in the right iliac fossa and contains a wormlike vermiform appendix I Has distinct regions ascending colon hepatic flexure transverse colon splenic flexure descending colon and sigmoid colon I The transverse and sigmoid portions are anchored via mesenteries called mesocolons Large Intestine Transverse colon Descending colon Ascending colon Large Cecum Intestlne Sigmoid colon Rectum Vermiform appendix Anal canal Anus Large Intestine Right colic Left colic hepatic splenic flexure flexure Transverse colon Ascending Descending colon colon lleum Heocecal valve Si moid Cecum g colon Vermiform appendix a Colon I The sigmoid colon joins the rectum I The anal canal the last segment of the large intestine opens to the exterior at the anus Large Intestine Sigmoid colon Anal can I 3 External anal sphincter a HOW are Star Trek and a roll of toilet paper the same They both chase down Klingons Circling Uranus Valves and Sphincters of the Rectum and Anus I Three valves of the rectum stop feces from being passed With gas I The anus has two sphincters I Internal anal sphincter composed of smooth muscle I External anal sphincter composed of skeletal muscle I These sphincters are closed except during defecation 1 ill siglili i 93 ilri Druiiiim ml jam Rectal valve Rectum 39 Anal canal 39 I 0 External anal Q 1 sphincter Y 4 Internal anal sphincter Anal sinuses Anus A Few Terms I Peritoneum is an example of serous membranes in the abdominopelvic cavity I Mesentery is a double layer of peritoneum serous membranes I Contains blood vessels lymphatic vessels and nerves I Hold organs in place I Store fat Mesenteries of Digestive Organs Liver Gallbladder Lesser omentum Stomach Duodenum Transverse colon Small intestine Cecum Urinary bladder Mesenteries of Digestive Organs Greater omentum Transverse colon Transverse mesocolon Descending colon Jejunum Mesentery Sigmoid mesocolon Sigmoid colon lleum Mesenteries of Digestive Organs Liver Pancreas Stomach Duodenum Transverse colon Jejunum lleum Parietal peritoneum Urinary bladder Rectum The End httpwwwanatomywizcomSinusSinusMainHTM httpWWWy0utubecomwatchV ajchiYhFKY The Respiratory System 2 Major Functions of the Respiratory System I To supply the body With oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide I Respiration four distinct processes must happen Major Functions of the Respiratory System I 1 Pulmonary ventilation moving air into and out of the lungs I 2 External respiration gas exchange between the lungs and the blood I 3 Transport transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues I 4 Internal respiration gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues Major Functions of the Respiratory System I Only the first two are truly respiratory system I 1 Pulmonary ventilation moving air into and out of the lungs I 2 External respiration gas exchange between the lungs and the blood I These two are more circulatory system but I 3 Transport transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues I 4 Internal respiration gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues thout the other i I Can t have one W Nasal cavity Oral cavity Nostril Pharynx Larynx Left main primary bronchus Trachea Carina of trachea Right main primary bronchus Left lung Right lung Diaphragm Respiratory System Consists of the conducting zones and respiratory zones and maybe sometimes but not for us something else I Conducting zone I Provides rigid conduits for air to reach the sites of gas exchange I Includes nose nasal cavity pharynx larynx trachea bronchi primary secondary and tertiary terminal bronchioles Respiratory System I Respiratory zone I Site of gas exchange I Consists of respiratory bronchioles alveolar ducts and alveoli Respiratory System I And maybe the I Respiratory muscles diaphragm and other muscles that promote ventilation I But we did that already Nasal cavit y Oral cavity Nostril Pharynx Larynx Trachea Left main Carina of Lpr39marry trachea mm quot5 Right main primary Left lung bronchus Right lung Diaphragm Structure of the Nose I The nose is divided into two regions I The external nose including the root bridge dorsum nasi and apex I The internal nasal cavity J 9EUnmHMLco iZmeDHolt5a Epioranius frontal belly Rootand bridge of nose Dorsum nasi w Ala of nose Apex of nose Naris nostril i n I h I t u m s 3 LN I h l I y u b 339 39 4 x a Surface anatomy Nasal Cavity Lies in and posterior to the external nose Is divided by a midline nasal septum Opens posteriorly into the nasal pharynx Via internal nares The ethmoid and sphenoid bones form the roof The floor is formed by the hard and soft palates Nasal Cavity Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Sphenoid sinus Posterior nasal aperture Nasopharynx Frontal sinus Nasal cavity Nasal meatuses superior middle and inferior Nasal vestibule Nostril Hard palate Soft palate Nasal Cavity I Vestibule nasal cavity superior to the nares I Vibrissae hairs that filter coarse particles from inspired air Vestibule and Vibrissae Nasal Cavity Mucosa I Olfactory mucosa I Lines the superior nasal cavity I Contains smell receptors I Respiratory mucosa I Lines the balance of the nasal cavity I Glands secrete mucus containing lysozyme and defensins to help destroy bacteria Nasal Cavity Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Sphenoid sinus Posterior nasal aperture Nasopharynx Smell receptors Frontal sinus Nasal cavity Nasal vestibule Nostril Hard palate Soft palate Nasal Cavity I Superior medial and inferior conchae I Protrude medially from the lateral walls I Increase mucosal area I Enhance air turbulence and help filter air I Sensitive mucosa triggers sneezing When stimulated by irritating particles Nasal Cavity Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Sphenoid sinus a Posterior nasal 1 z Nasal cavity aperture quot H 39 quot Nasal conchae Nasopharynx superior middle and inferior Nasal meatuses superior middle and inferior Nasal vestibule Nostril Hard palate Soft palate Frontal sinus Olfactory nerves Supe ornasal concha and O39faCthy superior nasal epithelium meatus Middle nasal Mucosa concha and of pharynx middle nasal meatus Tubal Interior nasal tonsil concha and Nasopharynx I interior nasal meatus Pharyngotympanic Hard palate auditory tube 1 Soft palate Uvula a Photograph Functions of the Nasal Mucosa and Conchae I During inhalation the conchae and nasal mucosa I Filter heat and moisten air I During exhalation these structures I Reclaim heat and moisture I Minimize heat and moisture loss Paranasal Sinuses I Sinuses in bones that surround the nasal cavity I Sinuses lighten the skull and help to warm and moisten the air Sphenoid sinus 39I39I O 3 pl 9 SII IUS Nasal Cavity Paranasal Sinuses Frontal Ethmoidal Sphenoidal Maxillary Sinuses Pharynx I Funnelshaped tube of skeletal muscle that connects to the I Nasal cavity and mouth superiorly I LarynX and esophagus inferiorly Pharynx I It is divided into three regions I NasopharynX I OropharynX I Laryngopharynx Laryngopharynx Oropharynx Nasopharynx Nasal Cavity Nasopharynx Lies posterior to the nasal cavity inferior to the sphenoid and superior to the level of the soft palate Strictly an air passageway Lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Closes during swallowing to prevent food from entering the nasal cavity The pharyngeal tonsil lies high on the posterior wall Pharyngotympanic auditory tubes open into the lateral walls tube pharyngotympanic Pharyngeal tonsil Opening of Nasopharynx Nasopharynx Oropharynx I Extends inferiorly from the level of the soft palate to the epiglottis I Opens to the oral cavity I Serves as a common passageway for food and air I The epithelial lining is protective stratified squamous epithelium I Palatine tonsils lie in the lateral walls I Lingual tonsil covers the base of the tongue Oropharynx Nasopharynx Pharyngeal tonsil Opening of pharyngotympanic tube Oropharynx Palatine tonsil Isthmus of the fauces Lingual tonsil Laryngopharynx Serves as a common passageway for food and air More stratified squamous epi Lies posterior to the upright epiglottis Extends to the larynx Where the respiratory and digestive pathways diverge Laryngopharynx Nasopharynx Pharyngeal tonsil Opening of pharyngotympanic tube Uvula Oropharynx Palatine tonsil Isthmus of the fauces Laryngopharynx Larynx Voice Box I Attaches to the hyoid bone and opens into the laryngopharynx superiorly I Continuous With the trachea Larynx Voice Box Nasopharynx Pharyngeal tonsil Opening of pharyngotympanic tube Uvula Oropharynx Palatine tonsil Isthmus of the fauces Laryngopharynx I a Hyoid bone Epiglottis Esophagus Vestibular fold Vocal fold Trachea Larynx Voice Box I The three functions of the larynx are I To provide a patent airway I To act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels I To function in voice production Framework of the Larynx I Cartilages hyaline of the larynx I Shieldshaped anterosuperior thyroid cartilage with a midline laryngeal prominence Adam s apple I Signet ring shaped anteroinferior cricoid cartilage I Three pairs of small cuneiform corniculate and arytenoid cartilages I Epiglottis elastic cartilage that covers the laryngeal inlet during swallowing Framework of the Larynx i 45 Epiglottis c um I 5 g 39 39 I Body of hyoid bone u a ThyrohyOId 39 39 Y membrane a if Thyroid cartilage f 39 Laryngeal prominence Adam s apple CricotherId ligament Cricoid cannage Cricotracheal ligament Tracheal cartilages a Anterior superficial View Framework of the Larynx Epiglottis v Body of hyoid bone Thymhyoid R fiat l Th roh oid membrane membrane g Y Y Cuneiform cartilage Corniculate cartilage Arytenoid cartilage Arytenoid muscles Cricoid cartilage Cricothyroid ligament Cricotracheal ligament Tracheal cartilages b Sagittal View anterior surface to the right Vocal Ligaments I Vocal folds true vocal cords I Attach the arytenoid cartilages to the thyroid cartilage I Composed of elastic fibers that form mucosal folds called true vocal cords I The medial opening between them is the glottis I They Vibrate to produce sound as air rushes up from thelungs Vocal Ligaments I Vestibular folds false vocal cords I Mucosal folds superior to the true vocal cords I Have no part in sound production Framework of the Larynx false vocal cord f Thyroid cartilage Vocal fold true vocal cord Arytenoid cartilage Arytenoid muscles b Sagittal View anterior surface to the right Movements of Vocal Cords Base of tongue Epiglottis Vestibular fold j false vocal cord 2 I Vocal fold a w true vocal cord Glottis 39 l 39 l l I Inner lining of trachea I I I z I a Cuneiform cartilage 2 39 w H I I Corniculate cartilage 3quot I a Vocal folds in closed position b Vocal folds in open position closed glottis open glottis httpwwwmetacafeComwatcw7639843stroboscopyofthevocalcords Vocal cords Trachea I Flexible and mobile tube extending from the larynx into the mediastinum Trachea Epiglottis Vestibular fold Thyroid cartilage Vocal fold Cricoid cartilage Thyroid gland Trachea Trachea I Composed of three layers I Mucosa made up of goblet cells and pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium I Submucosa connective tissue deep to the mucosa I Adventitia outermost layer made of C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage Trachea Mucosa Esophagus Submucosa Trachealis Seromucous gland muscle Lumen of 4 v in submucosa trachea Hyaline cartilage quot quot quotquot Adventltla Anterior a Cross section of the trachea and esophagus Trachea Mucosa 0 Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Lamina propria connective tissue Submucosa Seromucous gland in submucosa Hyaline cartilage e b Photomicrograph of the tracheal wall 320x Trachea d a quot quot x x a O Q Q 39 I quot quot Vquot I I r n quotn 391 39 o x I 5 erev I w g V 3 f I oCd C r L 5 39 V 39 1 39 2 I ivz Q 399 39 c Scanning electron microgr ph o cilia in the trachea 2500x 25 Conducting Zone Bronchi I The carina cf the last tracheal cartilage marks the end of the trachea and the beginning of the right and left bronchi Respiratory System Trachea Carina of trachea Conducting Zone Bronchi I Air reaching the bronchi is I Warmed and cleansed of impurities I Saturated With water vapor I Bronchi subdivide into secondary bronchi each supplying a lobe of the lungs Trachea 1 I f g Superior lobe E of left lung if Left maln quotA primary Superior lobe E bronchus Of right lung quotg tsceZZrndarv bronchus Conducting Zone Bronchial Tree I Tissue walls of bronchi mimic that of the trachea I Mucosa made up of goblet cells and pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium I Submucosa connective tissue deep to the mucosa I Adventitia outermost layer made of Cshaped rings of hyaline cartilage Conducting Zone Bronchial Tree I As conducting tubes become smaller structural changes occur I Cartilage support structures change I Epithelium types change I Amount of smooth muscle increases Conducting Zone Bronchial Tree I Bronchioles I Consist of cuboidal epithelium What was it in the bronchus I Have a complete layer of circular smooth muscle anybody catch the namelocation of the trach muscle I Lack cartilage support and mucusproducing cells Trachea quotVN v f Posterior Mucosa Esophagus Submucosa TraCheaIIS Lumen of erom ous glan o quotEscle trachea a mucos In bronchiolss 4 it s circular Anterior Not in bronchiolss Conducting Zone End Respiratory Zone I Defined by the presence of alveoli begins as terminal bronchioles feed into respiratory bronchioles I Respiratory bronchioles lead to alveolar ducts then to terminal clusters of alveolar sacs composed of alveoli I Approximately 300 million alveoli I Account for most of the lung s volume I Provide tremendous surface area for gas exchange Respiratory Zone I Count them I 120 out of 300 Million L 4quot y I L Alveoli Alveolar duct 929 Respiratory Alveolar duct bronchioles Terminal Alveolar bronchiole sac Respiratory Alveolar duct bronchioles Terminal Alveolar bronchiole n sac f Respiratory 7 bronchiole Alveolar duct Alveolar Alveoli Alveolar sac Respiratory Membrane I This airblood barrier is composed of I Alveolar walls I Capillary walls I Their fused basal laminas Respiratory Membrane V of Terminal bronchiole Respiratory bronchiole Smooth muscle Elastic 1 v i x I 1 95 l v 1074 f39b 1 4 I I f A 9 V Jx 139 Alveolus I quotr J quot A gt a x r 2 quot 39 erg V M 39 Capillaries a Diagrammatic View of capillaryalveoli relationships Alveolar walls I Are a single layer of type I squamous epithelial cells I Permit gas exchange by simple diffusion I Interspersed among the type I cells are cuboidal type 11 cells that secrete surfactant I Contain open pores that I Connect adjacent alveoli I Allow air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized I House macrophages that keep alveolar surfaces sterile Respiratory Membrane Red blood cell 3 a Nucleus of type I squamous epithelial cell Alveolar pores Capillary Type I cell 02 of alveolar wall Alveolus v 1 Macrophage s Endothelial cell nucleus Alveolar epithelium Fused basement membranes of the 39 ReSPII39atOI39Y alveolar epithelium Red blood cell membrane and the capillary in capillary endothelium Capillary endothelium Alveoli gasfilled Type II surfactant air spaces secreting cell c Detailed anatomy of the respiratory membrane Gross Anatomy of the Lungs I Lungs occupy all of the thoracic cavity except the mediastinum What is in the mediastinum I Root site of vascular and bronchial attachments I ApeX narrow superior tip I Base inferior surface that rests on the diaphragm I Hilus indentation that contains pulmonary and systemic blood vessels Apex of lung Diaphragm Base of lung lntercostal muscle Rib Parietal pleura Pleural cavity Visceral pleura Left superior lobe Oblique fissure Left inferior lobe Cardiac notch a Anterior view The lungs flank mediastinal structures laterally Apex of lung Pulmonary artery Left main bronchus Pulmonary vein Pulmonary hilum Aortic impression b Photograph of medial View of the left lung Lungs I Cardiac notch impression cavity that accommodates the heart I Left lung separated into upper and lower lobes by the oblique fissure I Right lung separated into three lobes by the oblique and horizontal fissures lntercostal muscle Rib Parietal pleura Pleural cavity Visceral pleura Apex of lung Right superior lobe Horizontal fissure LGft superior lobe Oblique fissure Left inferior lobe Right middle lobe Oblique fissure Right inferior lobe Diaphragm Base of lung a Anterior view The lungs flank mediastinal structures laterally Cardiac notch Lungs I There are 9 bronchopulmonary segments in each lung Add em up Right lung Left lung Right supe or lobe 3 segments Left superior lobe 4 segments Right middle obe2 segments Right Left inferior inferior lobe 5 segments lobe 5 segments Blood Supply to Lungs I Lungs are perfused by two circulations pulmonary and bronchial I Pulmonary arteries supply systemic venous blood to be oxygenated I Branch profusely along With bronchi I Ultimately feed into the pulmonary capillary network surrounding the alveoli I Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from respiratory zones to the heart Pulmonary artery Low 2 blood Pulmonary vein High 2 blood Blood Supply to Lungs I Bronchial arteries provide systemic blood to the lung tissue I Arise from aorta and enter the lungs at the hilus I Supply all lung tissue except the alveoli I Bronchial veins anastomose with pulmonary veins Lower 2 ngh 2 I Pulmonary veins carry most venous blood back to the heart Pleurae I Thin doublelayered serosa I Parietal pleura I Covers the thoracic wall and superior face of the diaphragm I Continues around heart and between lungs Pleurae I Visceral or pulmonary pleura I Covers the external lung surface I Divides the thoracic cavity into three chambers I The central mediastinum I Two lateral compartments each containing a lung Posterior Vertebra I 539 quot t v W t l I f r V 39 I p f I V 3 l I l b I r J I l l 3 Right lung A Parietal if K pleura i 1 e 39 v i A Pleura Pleural cav y Pu39monary trunk quot Heart in mediastinum Anterior mediastinum Atmospheric pressure Thoracic wall 39 Lung Diaphragm Parietal pleura Visceral pleura Pleural cavity Transpulmonary pressure 760 mm Hg 756 mm Hg 4 mm Intrapleural pressure 756 mm Hg 4 mm Hg Intrapulmonary pressure 760 mm Hg 0 mm Hg 760 d n 6 S g n u L Special Senses Sight Smell Taste Hearing and balance Touch not special and not here Ch 13 x K K y Eye and Associated Structures 70 of all body sensory receptors are in the eye About half of the cerebral cortex is involved in Visual processing 56 ths of the eye is protected by a cushion of fat and the bony orbit Eye and Associated Structures Accessory structures include eyebrows eyelids conjunctiva larimal a aratus and extrinsic e e o as l muscles 5 Eyebrows Coarse hairs that overlie the supraorbital margins Functions include Shading the eye Preventing perspiration from reaching the eye Associated muscles Orbicularis oculi muscle depresses the eyebrows Corrugator muscles move the eyebrows medially Eyebrows Orbicularis oculi muscle depresses the eyebrows Corrugator muscles move the eyebrows medially Palpebrae Eyelids Protect the eye anterior Palpebral fissure separates elids Canthi medial and lateral angle commissures orirnal oaruno e co ins glands that secrete whitish oily 399 secretion Sandman s ey and Conjunctiva Transparent membrane that Lines the eyelids as the palpebral or tarsal conjunctiva Covers the Whites of the eyes as the bulbar or ocular conjunctiva Lubricates and protects the eye Palpebral conjunctiva Bulbar conjunctiva Lacrimal Apparatus Consists of the lacrimal gland and associated ducts Lacrimal glands secrete tears Tears Contain mucus antibodies and lysozyme Enter the eye Via superolateral excretory ducts Exit the eye medially Via the lacrimal punctum Drain into the nasolacrimal duct Lacrimal Apparatus Lacrimal sac Lacrimal gland Excretory ducts of lacrimal glands Lacrimal punctum Vi a Lacrimal canaliculus N asolacrimal duct Extrinsic Eye Muscles SiX straplike extrinsic eye muscles Enable the eye to follow moving objects Maintain the shape of the eyeball Four rectus muscles originate from the annular ring Two oblique muscles move the eye in the vertical plane Extrinsic Eye Muscles Superior oblique muscle Superior oblique tendon Superior rectus muscle Lateral rectus muscle quot 19 39 i hp 0 rl w mr as quotf Inferior rectus Inferior oblique muscle muscle a Lateral view of the right eye Extrinsic Eye Muscles Superior oblique muscle Superior oblique tendon of eye Superior rectus muscle Inferior rectus muscle Medial rectus muscle Lateral rectus muscle Common tendinous ring b Superior view of the right eye Let s play Pin the Lacrimal Gland on the Eye Lateral View of R eye Let s play Pin the Lacrimal Gland on the Eye Medial Lateral Superior View of R eye Let s play Pin the Lacrimal Gland on the Eye 0k Superior and Lateral right So now name this muscle And this one Superior View of R eye Summary of Cranial Nerves and Muscle Actions Names actions and cranial nerve innervation of the extrinsic eye muscles Muscle Action citarloll l c ge Lateral rectus Moves eye laterally VI abducens Medial rectus Moves eye medially Ill oculomotor Superior rectus Elevates eye and turns it medially Ill oculomotor Inferior rectus Depresses eye and turns it medially Ill oculomotor Inferior oblique Elevates eye and turns it laterally Ill oculomotor Superior oblique Depresses eye and turns it laterally IV trochlear c Summary of muscle actions and innervating cranial nerves Structure of the Eyeball A slightly irregular hollow sphere with anterior and posterior poles The wall is composed of three tunics fibrous vascular and sensory The internal cavity is filled With uids called hurnors The lens separates the internal caVity into anterior and posterior segments Structure of the Eyeball Sclera Fibrous Choroid Vascular Henna Sensory ampt A I cu K Vo r k v v I quot I Anterior segment containsy aqueous humor 39 Posterior segment contains vitreous humor a Diagrammatic View The vitreous humor is illustrated only in the H 1 d 1 bottom part of the eyeball ya 01 C3113 Fibrous Tunic Forrns the outermost coat of the eye and is composed of Opaque sclera posteriorly Clear cornea anteriorly The sclera protects the eye and anchors extrinsic muscles The cornea lets light enter the eye Structure of the Eyeball Fibrous Tunic Choroid Vascular 4 v a X 2 i Anterior pole Anterior j v segment contains39 aqueous humor 39 Posterior segment contains vitreous humor Vascular Tunic Uvea Has three regions choroid Ciliary body and iris Choroid region A dark brown membrane that forms the posterior portion of the uvea Supplies blood to all eye tunics Vascular Tunic Uvea Choroid Region S m 39 9 quot13 Sensory i Cornea 39 W J I Anterior 39 segment contains aqueous humor r I Posterior segment contains vitreous humor Vascular Tunic Uvea Ciliary Body A thickened ring of tissue surrounding the lens Composed of smooth muscle bundles ciliary muscles Anchors the suspensory ligament that holds the lens in place Vascular Tunic Uvea Ciliary Body ary body Ciliary zonule suspensory ligament o Cornea S 39 9 quot13 Sensory A J I r 39 Il vl v I I t l 39v v I 391 I Anterior f 39 segment contains aqueous humor Posterior segment contains vitreous humor Vascular Tunic Uvea Iris The colored part of the eye Pupil central opening of the iris Regulates the amount of light entering the eye during Close Vision and bright light pupils constrict Distant Vision and dim light pupils dilate Changes in emotional state pupils dilate When the subject matter is appealing or requires problem solving skills Vascular Tunic Uvea Iris Ciliary body Ciliary zonule 39 Sclera SUSPGDSOW Choroid ligament 39 Retina Sammy Anterior z 4 segment contains aqueous humor Posterior segment contains vitreous humor Pupil Dilation and Constriction Parasympathetic Sympathetic Sphincter pupillae quotis tVYO mUSCeS Dilator pupillae muscle contraction 39 SPhlnCtel Ruplllae muscle contraction decreases pupil size 39 DllatOI Puplllae increases pupil size Sensory Tunic Retina A delicate twolayered membrane Pigmented layer the outer layer that absorbs light and prevents its scattering Neural layer Which contains Photoreceptors that transduce light energy Bipolar cells and ganglion cells Amacrine and horizontal cells Structure of the Eyeball Sensory Tunic Ciliary body Ciliary zonule 39 Sclera suspensory id ligament 39 1w Iris 7 i Anterior a segment contain aqueous humor 7739 quotk If 7 S a 1 4 I Posterior segment contains vitreous humor Sensory Tunic Retina Pathwa of H ht Neural layer of retina Pigmented layer of retina Choroid Sclera r 39 39r 1 3 15 1 X 133 13 1 51 vi a a Posterior aspect of the eyeball Photoreceptors Rod Cone Bipolar cells Pathway of light v w Amacrine cell quot Horizontal cell Pathwa of si nal out ut pigmented Pathway of light I layer of retina h Cells of the neural layer of the retina Nuclei of gang on cells Axons of gang on cells N v A I S v I Aquot s f I lt NV h l w A x I 1 a g A m v i o u 4 v t A I M L h V 39 y v f 5 1 39 i 39 t J 39 quot A 4 v I 39 f 3 V x v I a 3quot P I IV V 39 39 a H I e lt I s V 39139 5 gt 39 A l I n V Pf ug Choroid Outer segments of rods and cones I i i 1 quot71 i 39l l I 10 gtu c r w Nuclei of bipolar cells Nuclei of rods and Pigmented layer of retina cones c Photomicrograph of retina The Retina Ganglion Cells and the Optic Disc Ganglion cell axons Run along the inner surface of the retina Leave the eye as the optic nerve The optic disc Is the site Where the optic nerve leaves the eye Lacks photoreceptors the blind spot Photoreceptors Rod Cone Bipolar cells Pathway of light v w Amacrine cell quot Horizontal cell Pathwa of si nal out ut pigmented Pathway of light I layer of retina h Cells of the neural layer of the retina Sensory Tunic Retina Pathwa of H ht it E Neural layer of retina Pigmented Optic disc i 4 i 39 X is 1 M392 layer of retina Choroid Sclera a Optic nerve The Retina Optic Disc i Optic disc I Blind Spot if Re na The Retina Photoreceptors Rods Respond to dim light Are used for peripheral Vision Cones Respond to bright light Have high acuity color Vision Are found in the macula lutea Are concentrated in the fovea centralis Photoreceptors Rod Cone Bipolar cells Pathway of light v w Amacrine cell quot Horizontal cell Pathwa of si nal out ut pigmented Pathway of light I layer of retina h Cells of the neural layer of the retina The Retina Optic Disc Macula lutea i Optic disc I Blind Spot if Re na Sensory Tunic Retina Bipolar cells and ganglion cells Carry the action potential to the optic nerve crine and horizontal cells 39 ual processing Modify output of bipo Sensory Tunic Retina Photoreceptors Rod Cone Bipolar cells Ganglion cells Pathway of light Amacrine cell 39 quot quot Horizontal cell Lll Pathwa of si nal out ut pigmented Pathway of light I layer of retina h Cells of the neural layer of the retina Blood Supply to the Retina The neural retina receives its blood supply from two sources The outer third receives its blood from the choroid The inner two thirds is served by the central artery and vein Small vessels radiate out from the optic disc and can be seen With an ophthalmoscope The Retina Central artery and vein Central artery and vein emerging from the optic disc Optic disc Re na Inner Chambers and Fluids The lens separates the internal eye into anterior and posterior segments The posterior segment is filled With a Clear gel called Vitreous humor that Transmits light Supports the posterior surface of the lens Holds the neural retina firmly against the pigmented layer Contributes to intraocular pressure Inner Chambers and Fluids osterior segment contains vitreous humor r I r quotr v Anterior Segment Composed of two Chambers Anterior Ch between the cornea and the iris Posterior Ch between the iris and the lens Aqueous humor A plasmalike uid that fills the anterior segment Produced by the ciliary processes Drains Via the scleral venous sinus Canal of Schlemm Supports nourishes and removes wastes Anterior Segment Anterior Anterior SeQmenL chamber Contains Posterior lfr egrgs chamber 9 Scleral venous Clllary sinus processes Ciliary muscle Ciliary body Lens A biconveX transparent exible avascular structure that Allows precise focusing of light onto the retina Is composed of epithelium and lens fibers Anterior Segment Ciliary processes Ciliary 1 muscle Ciliary body Lens Is composed of epithelium and lens fibers Lens epithelium anterior cuboidal cells that differentiate into lens fibers Lens fibers cells filled With the transparent protein crystallin e Anterior Segment Lens y ep he un1 Lens Lens With age the lens becomes more compact and dense and loses its elasticity and you need Focusing Light on the Retina Pathway of light entering the eye cornea aqueous humor lens Vitreous humor neural layer of the retina to the photoreceptors Light is refracted At the cornea Entering the lens Leaving the lens The lens curvature and shape allow for fine focusing of an image Focusing for Distant Vision Light from a distance needs little adjustment for proper focusing Far Point of Vision the distance beyond which the lens does not need to change shape to focus 20 ft Nearly parallel rays from distant object Lens r y l A e 5 p v A i 39 3 439 l WV 4 A g 2 lt x f 4 1 V I I A It 4 e p r 39 O 1 2 2 L 1 39 I 0 v 39 39 o39 39 Ciliary zonule Inverted image Ciliary muscle a Lens is flattened for distant vision Focusing for Distant Vision Sympathetic activation Nearly parallel rays from distant object Lens Ciliary zonule Ciliary muscle Inverted image a Lens is flattened for distant vision Sympathetic input relaxes the ciliary muscle tightening the ciliary zonule and flattening the lens Focusing for Close Vision Close vision requires Accommodation changing the lens shape by ciliary muscle contraction and lens ligament relaxation to increase refractory power Constriction the pupillary reflex constricts the pupils to prevent divergent light rays from entering the eye Convergence medial rotation of the eyeballs toward the object being viewed Focusing for Close Vision Parasympathetic activation Divergent rays Inverted from close object image Lens ligaments b Lens bulges for close vision Parasympathetic input contracts the ciliary muscle loosening the ciliary zonule allowing the lens to bulge Visual Pathways Axons of retinal ganglion cells form the optic nerve Medial fibers of the optic nerve deeussate at the optic Chiasrn ptie Chias w Visual Pathways Fixation point Optic nerve Optic chiasma Optic tract Uncrossed ipsilateral fiber Crossed contralateral fiber Corpus callosum b Visual Pathways Most fibers of the optic tracts continue to the lateral geniculatc bod Lof the thalamus gateway to the cortex conscious senses all pass through the thalamus Visual Pathways Fixation point Optic nerve Optic chiasma Optic tract Lateral geniculate body A v Uncrossed ipsilateral fiber Crossed contralateral fiber Wm bedy ctthalamus Occipital lobe visual cortex Corpus callosum b Visual Pathways Other optic tract fibers end in superior collieuli initiating visual re exes and preteetal nuclei involved with pupillary re exes Optic radiations travel from the thalamus to the visual cortex Visual Pathways Fixation point Optic nerve Optic tract Lateral geniculate n l I quot 39 asquot a n A v y colliculus sectioned Uncrossed ipsilateral fiber Crossed contralateral fiber Lateral geniculate body of thalamus quota I 394 quot Ifquot 39 radiation 39 Superior COIIICUIUS Occipital lobe visual cortex Corpus Callosum a b x K K y H5 V l x u p I w 39 n I I39 u Q Q x Iquot w H v I M th N Chemical Senses Chemical senses olfaction smell and gustation taste Their chemoreceptors respond to chemicals in aqueous solution Smell to substances dissolved in uids of the nasal membranes Taste to substances dissolved in saliva Sense of Smell this one s easy The organ of smell is the olfactory epithelium Which covers the superior nasal concha Olfactory Receptors Olfactory epithelium Olfactory tract Olfactory bulb Sense of Smell this one s easy Olfactory receptor cells are bipolar neurons With radiating olfactory cilia Olfactory receptors are surrounded and cushioned by supporting cells Basal cells lie at the base of the epithelium Olfactory Receptors Olfactory epithelium Olfactory tract Cribriform plate Olfactory tract of ethmoid bone olfactory nerve cglily l quot 9quot A r tquot AXOI39I I Olfactory gifyxgland 39 rquot Basa39 cequot J 5 lfactory Route of i W cetor c a inhaled air Olfactory I i 39 i F quot Supporting cell ep39thel39um 39 39 Dendrite l Mucus Y A it v Olfactory ollla 41 7ffjj j i C l 4 Igt quotquot Route of inhaled air 390 containing odor molecules Olfactory Pathway O actory receptor cells synapse with mitral cells at glom li Mitral cells r cess odor signals Mitral cells sendi lses to The olfactory cortex Via t e thalamus for conscious perception of the s se of smell The hypothalamus amygdala and bio system for unconscious perceptions and emotio 1 response Olfactory Receptors Mi Olfactory OUtP epithelium Olfactory Glomer tract 39 7 quot Olfactory tract q Olfactory bulb Nasal uwa i A conchae 39 Olfactory 9393quot 72 a 39 Route of a inhaled air Olfactory epithelium Mucus Route of inhaled air 390 containing odor molecules Olfactory Receptors end told U it was easy Taste Buds Most of the 10000 or so taste buds are found on thetongue Some are other places in the mouth Taste buds are found in papillae of the tongue mucosa Papillae come in three types filiform foliate fungiform and Circumvallate vallate Taste Buds Epiglottis bt rlt1 Palatine tonsil Lingual tonsil FOIiate Papillae Circumvallate vallate l a Taste buds are associated with fungiform foliate and circumvallate vallate papillae Fungiform papillae Taste Buds Circumvallate papilla Taste bud b Enlarged section of a circumvallate papilla Structure of a Taste Bud Gourdshaped Taste Buds Connective tissue Gustatory Taste fibers haquot of cranial nerve Stratified Basal Gustatory Taste squamous cells taste cells pore epithenum h of tongue c Enlarged View of a taste bud Structure of a Taste Bud Each gourdshaped taste bud consists of three major cell types Supporting cells insulate the receptor Basal cells dynamic stem cells replace gustatory cells every 7 10 days Gustatory cells taste cells transmit signals to sensory dendrites of Cranial Nerves VII and IX facial and to thalamus Taste Buds Connective tissue 3 I Gustatory Taste fibers haquot of cranial nerve Stratified Basal ustatory Taste squamous cells aste cells pore epithenum of tongue Taste Sensations There are five basic taste sensations Sweet sugars saccharin alcohol and some amino acids Salt metal ions NaCl and Cl Sour hydrogen ions acids Bitter alkaloids such as quinine and nicotine Umami elicited by the amino acid glutamate MSG And maybe now a 6th calcium Most tastes are combinations Physiology of Taste In order to be tasted a chemical Must be dissolved in saliva Must contact gustatory hairs Binding of the food chemical Depolarizes the taste cell membrane releasing neurotransmitter to the sensory dendrite Gustatory Pathway Cranial Nerves VII Facial and IX Hint well named for tongue stuff carry impulses frorn taste buds to the thalamus and then to the gustatory cortex Conscious perception of taste Gustatory cortex in insula Vb A r r W r r 39 I Pons Solit ucleus in 39 medulla ob ta Facial nerve VII Glossopharyngeal nerve IX Influence of Other Sensations on Taste Taste is 80 smell food tastes bland when you have a cold T herrncreceptcrs rnechancreceptcrs ncciceptcrs also in uence tastes Temperature and texture enhance or detract from taste End of Taste and Smell y 39 O I H5 V l 39 I3939v Pf A H Iquot u quotquotquotL quot39 quotI Iquot w H v I Ixquotlt N The Ear Hearing and Balance 153 pA O U ON 2 a N 3 a N V E 3 W N 5 3 p n Q p n 3 00 lt O C 3 00 m H D H J G lt g D H I H O H N D H 34 42 quot complicated quot y g I E2 39 Aug 3339 pay attentlon th IS 0116 IS f 2 6 up Slt up Wak 7 A A A l u I us r Q c A l v A 339 339 I 39 3 1 n I 39 I n 39 39v o v I I v A I 39 I 3939 I p A 39 g 39 o I 39l L t The Ear Hearing and Balance The Ear Hearing and Balance The three parts of the ear are the inner outer and middle ear The outer and middle ear are involved With hearing The inner ear functions in both hearing and equilibrium Three regions of the ear Middle Internal ear w EXtemal ear labyrinth Outer Ear The auriole pinna contains The heliX rim The lobule earlobe External auditory canal Short curved tube filled With ceruminous glands The Ear Hearing and Balance Middle Internal ear EXtemal ear labyrinth ear I acous c meatus Outer Ear T ympanic membrane eardrum Thin connective tissue membrane that vibrates in response to sound Transfers sound energy to the middle ear ossicles Boundary between outer and middle ears The Ear Hearing and Balance Middle Internal ear EXtemal ear labyrinth Tympanic membran Middle Ear Tympanic Cavity A small airfilled mucosalined cavity Flanked laterally by the eardrum tympanic membrane Flanked medially by the oval and round Windows Middle Ear Oval window es Middle Ear Ear Ossicles The tympanio cavity contains three small bones malleus incus and stapes Transmit Vibratory motion of the eardrum to the oval Window Dampened b39y elensor tympani tube to malleus and stapedius muscles cavity Tthe stap Auditory 39quotCU ossicles 3mm Stapes stirrup Middle Ear Tympanic Cavity Pharyngctyrnpanic tube connects the middle ear to the nascpharynX Equalizes pressure in the middle ear cavity With the external air pressure Middle Ear The Inner Ear Hearing and Balance Receptors for hearing and balance Respond to separate stimuli Are activated independently Inner Ear Hearing and Balance Inner Ear Hearing and Balance Bony labyrinth Tortuous channels worming their way through the temporal bone Contains the vestibule the cochlea and the semicircular canals Filled With perilymph similar to CSF Inner Ear Hearing and Balance Semicircular ducts in i semicircular I 3931 39 git canals 39 quot139 39 A 3 quot Anterior Posterior Lateral Utricle in vestibule Saccule in vestibule Cochlear duct in cochlea Inner Ear Hearing and Balance Bony labyrinth Tortuous channels worming their way through the temporal bone Contains the vestibule the cochlea and the semicircular canals Filled With perilymph similar to CSF supports the Membranous labyrinth Series of membranous sacs Within the bony labyrinth Filled With endolymph similar to intracellular uid Inner Ear Hearing and Balance M6 branous labyrinth inside bony labyrinth inside which bone u u m 1 Sufi I 539 x 1 p v s Semicircular ducts in semicircular canals Anterior Posterior Lateral Hearlng B alance Cristae ampullares 39 in the membranousquot Maculae ampullae Spiral organ Utricle in of Corti vestibule Cochlear saccule in gnugichlea vestibule gt 39 Stapes In v wquot V v V V w Round oval wmdow window 39 39 39 tation M chanisms of Equilibrium and Orln e A Mechanisms of Equilibrium and Orientation Vestibular apparatus equilibrium receptors in the semicircular canals and vestibule Maintains our orientation and balance in space Vestibular receptors monitor static equilibrium Semicircular canal receptors monitor dynamic equilibrium Inner Ear Balance The Vestibule Inner Ear Balance The Vestibule The Vestibule The central cavity of the bony labyrinth Suspended in its perilymph are two sacs the utricle and saccule The utricle extends into the semicircular canals balance U is a semi circle The saccule extends into the cochlea cochlea is for hearing Inner Ear Balance The Vestibule Utricle in vestibule Saccule in vestibule Inner Ear Balance The Vestibule The utriele and saccule Have equilibrium receptors called maculae Respond to gravity and changes in the position of the head Inner Ear Balance The Vestibule Utricle in vestibule Saccule in vestibule Inner Ear Balance The Vestibule Utricls Macula Sacculs Anatomy of Maculae Maculae are the sensory receptors for static equilibrium Contain supporting cells and hair cells Each hair cell has stereocilia and kinocilium embedded in an otolithic membrane Otolithic membrane jellylike mass studded With tiny CaCO3 stones called otoliths Utricular hairs respond to horizontal movement Saccular hairs respond to vertical movement Inner Ear Balance The Macula Otoliths Kinocilium Otolithic Stereocilia membrane Hair bundle 9 I i P p l 39 W r 5 A FVN L l 14 1 l Macula of utricle Macula of saccule Hair cells Supporting cells Vestibular nerve fibers Inner Ear Balance The Macula Otolithic membrane Kinocilium Stereocilia I 139 739 I I 39 I 7 A A I Iquot if HIM ga VI n 39 39 H I 39 39 quot I yperpo arlzatlon Depolarization I h Q v W gtj r jw i quotf i W j gt7quot W u W 7 W quot quot f ii y39 j g wii W v 7 vquot quotH gmti iJ f W L U U 2 LL HEM UH L W U UL mgL U UNEL SM Ekguzgn JU Ui L J may1LUKL 3U U ctonpote ntal spotentalfreqncy Inner Ear Balance The Semicircular Canals Inner Ear Balance The Semicircular Canals Three canals that each define twothirds of a circle and lie in the three planes of space Membrancus semicircular ducts line each canal and communicate With the utricle Inner Ear Balance The Semicircular Canals Semicircular ducts in semicircular canals Anterior Posterior Lateral Inner Ear Balance The Ampulla The ampulla is the swollen end of each canal and it houses equilibrium receptors in a region called the crista ampullaris These receptors respond to angular movements of the head Inner Ear Balance The Ampulla Semicircular a iw ducts in x o f semicircular fryI quot39 31 t canals 339 39o397 1 I a Anterior Posterior Lateral x x 390 c Crlstae ampullares W a v 33 g In the membranous w 39 39 01 ampullae n 2 quot quot O v 3 5 I Crista Ampullaris and Dynamic Equilibrium The crista ampullaris or crista Is the receptor for dynamic equilibrium Is located in the ampulla of each semicircular canal Responds to angular movements Inner Ear Balance The Ampulla Crystaa ampullaras in the ampullea Crista Ampullaris and Dynamic Equilibrium Each crista has support cells and hair cells that extend into a gellike mass called the cupula Dendrites of vestibular nerve fibers encircle the base of the hair cells Inner Ear Balance The Ampulla gt n 35mm nnnnnn In 8 quot 1133 Crista ampullaris Membranous labyrinth Fibers of vestibular nerve Supporting cell Inner Ear Balance The Ampulla Cupula b Scanning electron micrograph of a crista ampullaris 200x Inner Ear Balance The Ampulla Section of ampulla filled with Fibers of At rest the cupula stands upright c Movement of the cupula during rotational acceleration and deceleration vestibular During rotational acceleration endolymph moves inside the semicircular canals in the direction opposite the rotation it lags behind due to inertia Endolymph flow bends the cupula and excites the hair cells As rotational movement slows endolymph keeps moving in the direction of the rotation bending the cupula in the opposite direction from acceleration and inhibiting the hair cells Inner Ear Balance Input Information about the body s position in space comes from three main sources and is fed into two major processing areas in the central nervous system 4quot I I 39 Vestibular Vlsual 3 Sfomatl receptorls receptors receptors mm 5 Equot muse 9 J I and jomts Vestibular Cerebellum quotF39e39 In brain stem Central nervous system processing Oculomotor control Spinal motor control cranial nerve nuclei cranial nerve XI nuclei III IV VI and vestibulospinal tracts eye movements neck movements Output Fast reflexive control of the muscles serving the eye and neck limb and trunk are provided by the outputs of the central nervous system Inner Ear Hearing The Cochlea Inner Ear Hearing The Cochlea The Cochlea A spiral conical bony chamber that Extends from the anterior vestibule saccule area Coils amm7 piHar ealledthleanodinlus Contains the cochlear duct Which ends at the Toehlear apeai hehcotreima Contains the organ of Corti hearing receptor The Cochlea Inner Ear Hearing The Cochlea The cochlea is divided into three Chambers Scala vestibuli Scala media Scala tympani Inner Ear Hearing The Cochlea V 39 12 g vestibE39quot erllymph Cochlear duct scala media contains endolymph Spiral organ of Corti contains rilymph Inner Ear Hearing The Cochlea The cochlea is divided into three Chambers Scala vestibuli Continuous With vestibule abuts the oval Window Scala media The cochlear duct the hearing part Scala tympani Abuts round Window meets the scala vestibuli at the helieotrema The Cochlea and Hearing The Cochlea The oor of the scala media aka cochlear duct is composed of The osseousbony spiral lamina The basilar membrane Which supports the organ of Corti The cochlear branch of nerve VIII runs from the organ of Corti to the brain CN VIII is 7 Vestibulocochlear The Cochlea Osseous spiral lamina b Spiral Cochlear duct 49 ganglion scala media Ix 39 39 contains 1 contains perIIymph endolymph l f I T I w f39 quot Cacnlear nerve W n Of the r g locochlear Spiral organ 4 ve VIII 0f Corti w Scala tympani Basilar N contains membrane 2 p r v v A 7 Organ of Corti Tectorial membrane Inner hair cell Hairs stereocilia Afferent nerve Outer hair cells l 7 Bas ar membran A little physio Sound and Mechanisms of Hearing 3quot 5135339 32 Area of I 3 high pressure j compressed 5 39 1391 molecules Area of I I low pressure l rarefaction I I l I I I creSt l I l I l E Trough Distance LAmplitude a A struck tuning fork alternately com resses and rarefles the an molecules aroun It creatlng alternate zones of hlgh and low pressure b Sound waves radiate outward in all directions A little physio Sound and Mechanisms of Hearing Sound vibrations beat against the eardrum The eardrum pushes against the ossicles which press uid in the inner ear against the oval and round Windows This movement sets up shearing forces that pull on hair cells Moving hair cells stimulates the cochlear nerve that sends impulses to the brain Transmission of Sound to the Inner Ear Auditorylossicles I I Malleus lncus Stapes Cochlear nerve Scala vestibuli Oval window Hellcotrema Scala tympani Cochlear duct BasHar membrane Sounds with frequencies 39 below hearing travel through 39 the helicotrema and do not excite hair cells Tympanic Round membrane window a Route of sound waves through the ear sounds In the hearmg range go through the cochlear duct CD Sound waves vibrate Pressure waves created by vibrating the basilar membrane the tympanic membrane the stapes pushing on the oval and deflecting hairs on inner window move through fluid in hair cells 2 I I I O Auditory ossrcles vrbrate the scala vestibuli Pressure is amplified Transmission of Sound to the Inner Ear Basilar membrane Base H Apex short long stiff floppy 7 V A f fibers quot fibers quot39 t H 9213 20000 2000 200 20 a Frequency Hz b Different sound frequencies cross the basilar membrane at different locations Transmission of Sound to the Inner Ear The route of sound to the inner ear follows this pathway Outer ear pinna auditory canal eardrum Middle ear malleus incus and stapes to the oval Window Inner ear scalas vestibuli and tympani to the cochlear ductscala media Stimulation of the organ of Corti Generation of impulses in the cochlear nerve Inner Ear Hearing The Cochlea Medial geniculate nucleus of thalamus Hearing Primary auditory cortex in temporal lobe Inferior colliculus Lateral lemniscus Superior olivary nucleus ponsmedulla junction Midbrain Cochlear nuclei I Medulla Vestibulocochlear nerve Spiral ganglion of cochlear nerve Bipolar cell Spiral organ of Corti Deafness Conduction deafness something hampers sound conduction to the uids of the inner ear e g impacted earwaX perforated eardrum osteosclerosis of the ossicles Sensorineural deafness results from damage to the neural structures at any point from the cochlear hair cells to the auditory cortical cells Heart in concert httpwwwvoutubecomwatchvhpkitLUbeEq httpwwwastfmmusicHeart Barracuda Haart sounds httpWwwmeduclaeduWilkssintrohtml Guess What s next CO39 It C The Cardiovascular System The Heart 1 Heart Anatomy I Approximately the size of your fist I Location I Superior surface of diaphragm I Left of the midline I Anterior to the vertebral column posterior to the sternum Heart Anatomy Midsternal line 39 2nd rib a W Ll 39 kl Diaphragm K 539 O I f I 39 f 39 quot 393quot r I If A y A V a I a I V lt 4 l n lt 39x quotI u m39 a la z z 1 I 39 1 r K J I r V quot I Sternum Point of maximal intensity PMI Heart Anatomy Mediastinum Heart Left lung Posterior Coverings of the Heart Anatomy I Pericardium a doublewalled sac around the heart composed of I A superficial fibrous pericardium I A deep two layer serous pericardium I The parietal layer lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium I The Visceral layer or epicardium lines the surface of the heart I They are separated by the uid filled pericardial cavity Coverings of the Heart Anatomy Pericardium cut Apex of heart Diaphragm Pericardial Layers of the Heart Fibrous pericardium Parietal layer of serous pericardium rPericardial cavity f 1 Epicardium V 39 a Visceral layer 39 quotIf of serous Heart I I pericardium wall v i h n O Heart chamber Heart Wall I Epicardium Visceral layer of the serous pericardium I Myocardium cardiac muscle layer forming the bulk of the heart I Fibrous skeleton of the heart crisscrossing interlacing layer of connective tissue I Endocardium endothelial layer of the inner myocardial surface Heart Wall Epicardium quot visceral layer of serous Heart pericardium wall Myocardium Endocardium a Heart chamber External Heart Major Vessels of the Heart Anterior View I Vessels returning blood to the heart include I Superior and inferior venae cavae I Right and left pulmonary veins External Heart Anterior View Superior vena cava Left pulmonary veins Right pulmonary veins Auricle of left atrium Right atrium Inferior vena cava External Heart Major Vessels of the Heart Anterior View I Vessels conveying blood away from the heart include I Pulmonary trunk Which splits into right and left pulmonary arteries I Ascending aorta three branches brachiocephalic left common carotid and subclaVian arteries External Heart Anterior View I Aortic arch fat covered Pulmonary trunk Auricle of right atrium Auricle of left atrium Anterior interventricular artery Right ventricle Apex of heart left ventricle a Anterior aspect pericardium removed External Heart Anterior View Left common carotid artery Left subclavian artery Aortic arch Brachiocephalic trunk Right pulmonary artery Ascending aorta Pulmonary trunk Left pulmonary artery Left pulmonary veins External Heart Vessels that SupplyDrain the Heart Anterior View I Arteries right and left coronary in atrioventricular groove marginal circum ex and anterior interventricular arteries I Veins small cardiac anterior cardiac and great cardiac veins External Heart Anterior View Circumflex artery Left coronary artery Right coronary artery in coronary suIcus in coronary sulcus Anterior cardiac vein Great cardiac vein Anterior interventricular artery in anterior interventricular sulcus Right marginal artery Small cardiac vein External Heart Major Vessels of the Heart Posterior View I Vessels returning blood to the heart include I Right and left pulmonary veins I Superior and inferior venae cavae I Vessels conveying blood away from the heart include I Aorta I Right and left pulmonary arteries External Heart Posterior View Aorta Left pulmonary artery 39 9 l Superior vena cava 39quot w Right pulmonaryartery Right pulmonary veins Left pulmonary veins Inferior vena cava External Heart Vessels that SupplyDrain the Heart Posterior View I Arteries right coronary artery in atrioventricular groove and the posterior interventricular artery in interventricular groove I Veins great cardiac vein posterior vein to left ventricle coronary sinus and middle cardiac vein External Heart Posterior View Great cardiac vein Posterior vein of left ventricle Coronary sinus Right coronary artery in coronary sulcus Posterior interventricular artery in posterior interventricular sulcus Middle cardiac vein Atria of the Heart Atria are the receiving chambers of the heart Each atrium has a protruding auricle Pectinate muscles mark mostly right atrial walls Blood enters right atria from superior and inferior yenae cayae and coronary sinus Blood enters left atria from pulmonary veins Gross Anatomy of Heart Frontal Section Superior vena cava Left atrium Left pulmonary veins 0 Right atrium a v k Right pulmonary veins Fossa ovalis Pectinate musclesig g J I Inferior vena cava e Frontal section Ventricles of the Heart I Ventricles are the discharging chambers of the heart I Papillary muscles and trabeculae carneae muscles meat beams mark ventricular walls I Right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk I Left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta Right and Left Ventricles Left ventricle Right ventricle lnterventricular septum Gross Anatomy of Heart Frontal Section y r Aorta E l a Left pulmonary artery Papillary muscle lnterventricular septum Right ventricle Chordae tendineae Trabeculae carneae e Frontal section 333333333 Pathway of Blood Through the Heart and Lungs I Right atrium 9 trieuspid valve 9 right ventricle I Right ventricle 9 pulmonary semilunar valve 9 pulmonary arteries 9 lungs I Lungs 9 pulmonary veins 9 left atrium Pathway of Blood Through the Heart and Lungs Ca illar beds 4 quot39e p y 4 vie of lungs where quot 39 quot gas exchange occurs Pulmonary Circuit Pulmonary arteries Aorta and branches Venae cavae 1 f quot L it t39 r e a rlum i l Right atrium N Lett ventricle l Pulmonary veins Right ventricle I Oxygenrich COzpoor blood I Oxygenpoor COzrich blood Pathway of Blood Through the Heart and Lungs I Left atrium 9 bicuspid valve 9 left ventricle I Left ventricle 9 aortic semilunar valve 9 aorta I Aorta 9 systemic circulation Pathway of Blood Through the System Aorta and branches Left atrium Left ventricle Right atrium Heart Right ventricle Syst ic Circuit A gt 39 c 7 Capillary beds of all 7 body tissues where e A 39 gas exchange occurs I Oxygenrich COzpoor blood I Oxygenpoor COzrich blood I d y Coronary Circulation I Coronary circulation is the functional blood supply to the heart muscle itself I Collateral routes ensure blood delivery to heart even if major vessels are occluded but not as good as direct delivery Coronary Circulation Arterial Supply r Left cotronary I 3 ar er atrium quotd i C39 fl 3 a Ircum ex Right 114 L artery coronary quot artery Left Right I ventricle ventricle a Anterior Right interventricular may Posterior artery Interventrlcular artery a The major coronary arteries Coronary Circulation Venous Supply 0 Great cardiac vein Anterior cardiac quot veins Coronary sinus Small cardiac vein Middle cardiac vein Heart Valves I Heart valves ensure unidirectional blood ow through the heart I Atricventricular AV valves lie between the atria and the ventricles I AV valves prevent backflcw into the atria When ventricles contract I Chcrdae tendineae anchcr AV valves to papillary muscles Gross Anatomy of Heart Frontal Section i ii Left atrium Mitral bicuspid valve x xi Left ventricle L I I e Frontal section quot Heart Valves I Aortic sernilunar valve lies between the left ventricle and the aorta I Pulmonary sernilunar valve lies between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk I Sernilunar valves prevent back cw of blood into the ventricles Gross Anatomy of Heart Frontal Section Aorta Pulmonary trunk Aortic valve Pulmonary valve Left ventricle Right ventricle Papillary muscle J 1 x 1 1 s 3 I u m V A Heart sounds Heart sounds Heart Valves e Pulmonary valve Aortic valve 4 Area of cutaway Mitral valve Tricuspid valve Myocardlum 3 J Tricuspid ws right atrioventricular valve kmnral r left atrioventricular E valve l AOI tIC valve Pulmonary I H k valve Fibrous skeleton a Anterior Heart Valves Myocardium Tricuspid right atrioventricular valve Mitral left atrioventricular valve Aortic valve Pulmonary valve Pulmonary valve Aortic valve 1 Area of cutaway b quot Mitral valve Tricuspid valve V i Chordae tendineae attached to tricuspid valve flap 6 A Papillary muscle Pulmonary valve A AOI tIC g valve L gt11 3 Area of 39 Scutaway Mitral valve Tricuspid valve Heart Valves Mitral valve Chordae Opening of inferior vena cava Tricuspid valve Myocardium of right ventricle Myocardium of left ventricle Pulmonary valve Aortic valve Area of cutaway Mitral valve Pap39uary lnterventricular muscles septum t Tricuspid valve Heart Valves b AV valves closed atrial pressure less than ventricular pressure Direction of blood flow Atrium Cusp of atrioventricular valve open Chordae tendineae Papillary muscle Atrium Cusps of atrioventricular valve closed Blood in ventricle Heart Valves i Aorta VAR I Pulmonary 391 trunk 9 v f g 13quot a i7 we I a Semilunar valves open b Semilunar valves closed Microscopic Anatomy of Heart Muscle I Cardiac muscle is striated short fat branched and interconnected I The connective tissue endornysiurn acts as both tendon and insertion I Intercalated discs anchor cardiac cells together and allow free passage of ions I Heart rnuscle behaves as a functional syncytiurn Microscopic Anatomy of Heart Muscle Nucleus lntercalated discs Cardiac muscle cell Gap lemctions Desmosomes i Cardiac muscle cell K 5 GT 0 lntercalated y g of I L 4 39 1 disc r w K a r l l TIN I Mltochondron I v T tubule I Sarcoplasmic 3 reticulum Z dIsc v a c o c oooov 1 w V E A s w quotaquot Nucleus gm TEC b Sarcolemma I I 39 I band A band I band I Excellent G 00 d Evaluation tim6 soon G0 to WebSmart Log in D S Find it complete it O r Heart Endocrine System Overview Endocrine System Overview Endocrine system the body s second great controlling system which in uences metabolic activities of cells by means of hormones Name the other controlling system Endocrine System Overview Endocrine glands pituitary thyroid parathyroid adrenal pineal and thymus The pancreas and gonads produce both hormones and exocrine products Endocrine System Overview The hypothalamus has both neural functions and releases hormones Other tissues and organs that produce hormones adipose cells pockets of cells in the walls of the small intestine stomach kidneys and heart Major Endocrine Organs Pineal gland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands on dorsal aspect of thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal glands Pancreas Ovary female Testis male Major Endocrine Organs Repeat after 1116 Major Endocrine Organs Pineal gland Repeat after 1116 Major Endocrine Organs Pineal gland Hypothalamus Repeat after 1116 Major Endocrine Organs Pineal gland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Repeat after 1116 Major Endocrine Organs Repeat after 1116 Pineal gland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Major Endocrine Organs Pineal gland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Repeat after me on dorsal aspect of thyroid gland Major Endocrine Organs Repeat after me Pineal gland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands on dorsal aspect of thyroid gland Thymus Major Endocrine Organs Repeat after me Pineal gland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands on dorsal aspect of thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal glands Major Endocrine Organs Pineal gland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Repeat after me on dorsal aspect of thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal glands Pancreas l I 1 Major Endocrine Organs Pineal gland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Repeat after me on dorsal aspect of thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal glands Pancreas Ovary female I I 1 Major Endocrine Organs Pineal gland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Repeat after me on dorsal aspect of thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal glands Pancreas Ovary female Testis male Hormones rmones chemical substances secreted by cells into e extracellular uids Regulat he metabolic function of other cells Have lag time nging from seconds to hours Tend to have prolon 0 effects Are classified as 1 amino acid based hormones 2 steroids Types of Hormones Amino acid based Amines thyroxine peptide and protein hormones Steroids gonadal and adrenocortical hormones Major Endocrine Organs Pituitary Hypophysis Pituitary gland twolobed organ that secretes nine major hormones Neurohypophysis posterior lobe neural tissue and the infundibulum Receives stores and releases hormones from the hypothalamus Adenohypophysis anterior lobe made up of glandular tissue Synthesizes and secretes a number of hormones Major Endocrine Organs Pituitary gland PituitaryHypothalamic Relationships Posterior Lobeneurohypophysis The posterior lobe is a down growth of hypothalamic neural tissue Has a neural connection With the hypothalamus hypothalamichypophyseal tract Nuclei of the hypothalamus synthesize oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone ADH These hormones are transported to the posterior pituitary Posterior Lobeneurohypophysis c Paraventricular nucleus Supraoptic nucleus Infundibulum connecting stalk Hypothalamic hypophyseal tract Inferior hypophyseal artery E y K L il Axon terminals Posterior lobe Of Oxytocin pituitary ADH CD Hypothalamic neurons synthesize oxytocin and ADH Oxytocin and ADH are transported along the hypothalamichypophyseal tract to the posterior pituitary Oxytocin and ADH are stored in axon terminals in the posterior pituitary GD Oxytocin and ADH are released into the blood when hypothalamic neurons fire PituitaryHypothalamic Relationships Anterior Lobe The anterior lobe of the pituitary is an outpocketing of the oral mucosa There is no direct neural contact With the hypothalamus PituitaryHypothalamic Relationships Anterior Lobe There is a vascular connection the hypophyseal portal system consisting of The primary capillary plexus The hypophyseal portal veins The secondary capillary plexus Anteri J l I b Hypothalamic neuron cell bodies Hypophyseal portal system Primary capillary plexus Hypophyseal portal veins Secondary capillary plexus Anterior lobe of pituitary TSH FSH LH ACTH GH PRL POMC 7 l iquot or V r 3 l gt quot A 39 W 7 a f or Lobeadenohypophysis CD When appropriately stimulated hypothalamic neurons secrete releasing and inhibiting hormones into the primary capillary plexus C2 Hypothalamic hormones travel through the portal veins to the anterior pituitary where they stimulate or inhibit release of hormones from the anterior pituitary G Anterior pituitary hormones are secreted into the secondary capillary plexus Adenophypophyseal Hormones The siX hormones of the adenohypophysis Abbreviated as GH TSH ACTH FSH LH and PRL Regulate the activity of other endocrine glands In addition proopiornelanoCortin POMC Has been isolated from the pituitary Is split into ACTH opiates and MSH melanooyte stimulating hormone Activity of the Adenophypophysis e hypothalamus sends a Chemical stimulus to the anter1 ituitary Releasing u ones stimulate the synthesis and release of hormo Inhibiting hormones shut u the synthesis and release of hormones Activity of the Adenophypophysis The tropic hormones those which regulate other endocrine glands that are released are Thyroidstimulating hormone TSH Adrenooortiootropic hormone ACTH Folliclestimulating hormone FSH Luteinizing hormone LH Non tropic hormones GH PRL Anterior lobe of pituitary GH Growth Hormone GH duced by somatotropic cells of the anterior lobe that Stimulate t cells but target bone and skeletal muscle Promote protein synthes1 d encourage the use of fats for fuel Most effects are mediated indirectly by somatomedins Hypothalamus Inhibits GHRH release secretes growth FeedPa6k6 Stimulates GHIH amp hormone releasing 1 release Aiqltjigr r hormone GHRH and Inhibits GH synthesis p y somatostatin GHIH and release LGrowth hormoneJ Direct actions metabolic antiinsulin Liver and other tissues Produce T Insulinlike growth factors IGFs 0 Effects V Carbohydrate metabolism I Skeletal L Extraskeletal J Fat J creases stimulates Increased protein Increased cartilage S quotthesis and Increased Increased blood formation and cgquot row and fat breakdown glucose and other skeletal growth 9 and release antiinsulin effects proliferation I Result Too much Growth Hormone GH Ring names Giant Singh The Great Khali Billed height 7 ft 3 in 221 InIll Billed weight 420 m 191 kg Too much Growth Hormone GH Ring names The Big Show The Giant Paul quotThe Greatquot Wight Weight 536 m 244 kg Billed height 7 ft 2 in 218 m up to 7 ft 5 in 226 m m Too little Growth Hormone GH 5 tall Anterior lobe of pituitary TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Thyrotropin ulates the normal development and secretory activr f the thyroid Triggered by othalarnic peptide thyrotropin releasing hormone 39 H Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Thyrotropin V Hypothalamus l TRH plAnterior pituitaryJ 1 TSH Thyroid gland IIIIII hormones Target cells 39 Stimulates Inhibits Anterior lobe of pituitary ACTH Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Corticotropin We adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids Anterior lobe of pituitary FSHLH Gonadotropins nadotropins folliclestimulating hormone FS nd luteinizing hormone LH Regulate 39 function of the ovaries and testes FSH stimulates g ete egg or sperm production Absent from the blood in ubertal boys and girls Functions of Gonadotropins ernales LH s s With FSH to cause maturation of the ovarian fo e LH works alone to 39 39er ovulation expulsion of the egg from the follicle LH promotes synthesis and releas f estrogens and progesterone Functions of Gonadotropins ulates interstitial cells of the testes to produce tes LH is also referred hormone ICSH s interstitial cell stimulating Anterior lobe of pituitary PRL Prolactin PRL females stimulates milk production by the breas Triggered b n e hypothalamic prolactinreleasing hormone PRH Inhibited by prolactinin 39 39ting hormone PIH Blood levels rise toward the en s regnancy Suckling stimulates PRH release and en e rages continued milk production d J W B O n u d H l PituitaryHypothalamic Relationships Posterior Lobe back to the nsurohypophysis Oxytocin PituitaryHypothalamic Relationships Posterior Lobe Paraventricular nucleus Supraoptic nucleus Posterior lobe of Oxytocin pItUItary ADH The Posterior Pituitary and Hypothalamic Hormones Posterior pituitary made of axons of hypothalamic neurons stores antidiuretic hormone ADH and oxytocin ADH and oxytocin are synthesized in the hypothalamus ADH in uences water balance Oxytocin stimulates smooth muscle contraction in breasts and uterus Oxytocin v etie and natural oxyteeie drugs are used to induce or labor Plays a role in sexual are and satisfaction in males and nonlaetating females Oxytocin t tocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contr ion Regulated b ositive feedback mechanism to oxytocin in the b u a c This leads to increased in a a sity of uterine contractions ending in birth Oxytocin triggers milk ejection let 0 v re ex in women producing milk Oxytocin Antidiuretic Hormone ADH ADH helps void dehydration or water overload Prevents urine formatl Major Endocrine Organs Pituitary Hypophy is End Major Endocrine Organs Thyroid gland Thyroid Gland The largest endocrine gland located in the anterior neck consists of two lateral lobes connected by a median tissue mass called the isthmus Composed of follicles that produce the glycoprotein thyroglobulin Colloid thyroglobulin iodine fills the lumen of the follicles and is the precursor of thyroid hormone Other endocrine cells the parafollicular cells produce the hormone calcitonin Thyroid Gland Colloidfilled follicles ThnyId Follicle cells cartllage lt v 39 i o J 11 V I I 0 9 D It 39I 3 J l quot 39 390 a s 33 f A 1 j quotx 339 u u a v Isthmus of 3 F l 4 thyroid gland 39g 39 quot392 a 2 l A t vquot k t N 2 o v39 39 39 39 9 39 3 I e o v 5 r s No 0 I I 2 quot co 4 G d 3 1 quot c a n quot a quot 1 I Left lateral lobe v w a 39 1 2 of thyroid gland X 3 39 a H h t C quot 5 s Hquot 39 quot quot5v quot 139 a i X a 390 g b g 3 1 A 39 391 Parafollicular cell a Gross anatomy of the thyroid gland b Photomicrograph of thyroid gland anterior View follicles 125x Thyroid Hormone roid hormone major metabolic hormone Consists two related iodinecontaining compounds T4 thyroxine has t tyrosine molecules plus four bound iodine atoms T3 triiodothyronine has two tyro 39 es With three bound iodine atoms Effects of Thyroid Hormone t is concerned With ose oxidation Increas1 metabolic rate Heat productr Maintaining blood ssure Regulating tissue growth Developing skeletal and nervou stems Maturation and reproductive capabilr s Calcitonin A eptide hormone produced by the parafollioular or C C s Lowers bloo eiurn levels in Children Little activity in a ts Antagonist to parathyroid hor e PT H Calcitonin citonin targets the skeleton Where it Inhib osteoclast activity and thus bone resorption 1 release of calcium from the bone matrix Stimulates calcium upta the bone matrix nd incorporation into Major Endocrine Organs Parathyroid glands on dorsal aspect of thyroid gland Parathyroid Glands 39n glands embedded in the posterior aspect of the th id Cells are arrand in cords containing oxyphil and chief cells Chief principal cells secre TH PT H parathorrnone regulates calci balance in the blood Parathyroid Glands Chief cells ThYVOid secrete gland parathyroid Parathyroid 2 y hormone glands 399 I 7 Oxyphil Esophagus 39 39 r ceHs Trachea Capillary Effects of Parathyroid Hormone 3 release increases Ca2 in the blood as it Stim es osteoclasts to digest bone matrix Enhances the 39 bsorption of Ca2 and the secretion of phosp by the kidneys Increases absorption of Ca intestinal mucosal Effects of Parathyroid Hormone Hypocalcemia low blood Ca2 stimulates parathyroid glands to release PTH Rising Ca2 in blood inhibits PTH release 33 PTH incr 39 Ca2 reabsorptl o in kidney tubules PTH promotes kidney s activation of vitamin D which increases Ca2 absorption from food 339 Ca2 ions 1 PTH Molecules BIOOdStream Major Endocrine Organs Adrenal glands Adrenal Suprarenal Glands Adrenal glands paired pyramidshaped organs atop the kidneys Structurally and functionally they are two glands in one Adrenal medulla neural tissue that acts as part of the sympathetic ANS Sympathetic Outflow Greater splanchnic nerve Stimulata Adrenal medulla Kidney Adrenal Suprarenal Glands Structurally and functionally they are two glands in one Adrenal cortex glandular tissue derived from embryonic mesoderm Adrenal Cortex Synthesizes and releases steroid hormones called corticosteroids Different corticosteroids are produced in each of the three layers Zona glomerulosa mineralocorticoids chie y aldosterone Zona fasciculata glucocorticoids chie y cortisol Zona reticularis gonadocorticoids chie y androgens Adrenal Cortex Adrenal gland f t Medulla 8 Cortex Kidney L E 5 o E a Drawing of the histology of the Zona glomerulosa Hormones Zona fasciculata adrenal cortex and a portion of the adrenal medulla Zona reticularis Adrenal medulla s 7 quot if af x I Z A39 o quotquot A 39 quot x secreted Cortisol and androgens Epinephrine and NE Mineralocorticoids 3 e ulate electrolytes in extracellular uids Aldoster most important rnineralocorticoid Maintains Na 9 lt lance by reducing excretion of sodium from the bo Stimulates reabsorption of by the kidneys Adrenal Cortex Synthesizes and releases steroid hormones called corticosteroids Different corticosteroids are produced in each of the three layers Zona glomerulosa mineralocorticoids chie y aldosterone Zona fasciculata glucocorticoids chie y cortisol Zona reticularis gonadocorticoids chie y androgens Adrenal Cortex mquot Medulla Cortex Medulla I j Zona 8 glomerulosa Zona fasciculata 4 3 t of I 3 Zona reticularis Adrenal medulla a Drawing of the histology of the adrenal cortex and a portion of the adrenal medulla 39 A 1 9 1514349 iz quot39 Hormones secreted j Aldosterone Cortisol androgens Epinephrine and NE Glucocorticoids Cortisol gt 1p the body resist stress by Kee r n blood sugar levels relatively constant Maintaining ood volume and preventing water shift into tissue Cortisol provokes Gluconeogenesis formation of g cose from noncarbohydrates Rises in blood glucose fatty acids and amin cids Adrenal Cortex Synthesizes and releases steroid hormones called corticosteroids Different corticosteroids are produced in each of the three layers Zona glomerulosa mineralocorticoids chie y aldosterone Zona fasciculata glucocorticoids chie y cortisol Zona reticularis gonadocorticoids chie y androgens Adrenal Cortex mquot Adrenal gland Medulla Cortex A Cortex I Medulla I 1 1L 2 quot Hormones Capsule a 1i fa secreted cpJ 39 J zona E 2 glomerulosa 1 quot Zona fasciculata Cortisol androgens Zona 6 v I 1 retlcularls F5 M a 39 it V quot I 39 39It Thisquot 39 a tjz i quot H gt a A zquot63 f39 v Adre a39 E ine hrine medulla p p and NE J 39 A 4 M a Drawing of the histology of the adrenal cortex and a portion of the adrenal medulla b Photomicrograph 160x Gonadocorticoids Sex Hormones ost gonadocorticoids secreted are androgens ma seX hormones and the most important one is testos one Androgens con 39bute to The onset of pubert The appearance of second seX characteristics SeX drive in females Androgens can be converted into estroge after menopause Adrenal Medulla 14 de up of chrcmaffin cells that secrete epin rine and ncrepinephrine Secretion 0 ese hormones causes Blood glucose le s to rise Blood vessels to constrl The heart to beat faster Blood to be diverted to the brain hear nd skeletal muscle Major Endocrine Organs Pancreas Pancreas A triangular gland which has both exocrine and endocrine cells located behind the stomach Acinar cells produce an enzymerich juice used for digestion exocrine product Pancreatic islets islets of Langerhans produce horrnones endocrine products The islets contain two major cell types Alpha oc cells that produce glucagon Beta 3 cells that produce insulin Glucagon major target is the liver Where it promotes Glyco nolysis the breakdown of glycogen to glucose Gluconeogenesis thesis of glucose from lactic acid and noncarbohydrat Release of glucose to the blood r a liver cells Insulin Lowers od glucose levels Enhances trans t of glucose into body cells Counters metabolic act1 that would enhance blood glucose levels Diabetes Mellitus DM Results from hyposecretion or hypoactivity of insulin The three cardinal signs of DM are Polyuria huge urine output Polydipsia excessive thirst Polyphagia excessive hunger and food consumption Hyperinsulinisrn excessive insulin secretion resulting in hypoglycemia Major Endocrine Organs Ovary female Gonads Female Paired ovaries in the abdorninopelvic cavity produce estrogens and progesterone They are responsible for Maturation of the reproductive organs Appearance of secondary sexual characteristics Breast development and cyclic changes in the uterine mucosa Major Endocrine Organs Testis male Gonads Male Testes located in an extraabdominal sac scrotum produce testosterone Testosterone Initiates maturation of male reproductive organs Causes appearance of secondary sexual characteristics and seX drive Is necessary for sperm production Maintains seX organs in their functional state Other newly discovered glands England Iregland Ireland UK Republic of Ireland d n M a v Super The Smart Gland Left cerebral hemisphere Transverse cerebral fissure Brain stem Cerebellum Major Endocrine Organs Pineal gland Pineal Gland Small gland hanging from the roof of the third ventricle of the brain Secretory product is melatonin Melatonin is involved With Daynight cycles Physiological processes that shoW rhythmic variations body temperature sleep appetite Major Endocrine Organs Thymus Thymus Lobulated gland located deep to the sternum These hormones are essential for the development of the T lymphocytes T cells of the immune system Other HormoneProducing Structures Heart produces atrial natriuretic peptide ANP which reduces blood pressure blood volume and blood sodium concentration Gastrointestinal tract enteroendocrine cells release localacting digestive horrnones Placenta releases hormones that in uence the course of pregnancy Other HormoneProducing Structures Kidneys secrete erythropoietin which signals the production of red blood cells Skin produces cholecalciferol the precursor of Vitamin D Adipose tissue releases leptin Which is involved in the sensation of satiety and stimulates increased energy expenditure Developmental Aspects Hormoneproducing glands arise from all three germ layers Endocrine glands derived from mesoderm produce steroid hormones Endocrine organs operate smoothly throughout life Most endocrine glands show structural changes With age but hormone production may or may not be affected Developmental Aspects Exposure to pesticides industrial chemicals arsenic dioxin and soil and water pollutants disrupts hormone function SeX hormones thyroid hormone and glucocorticoids are vulnerable to the effects of pollutants Estrogen Molecule Developmental Aspects Ovaries undergo significant changes With age and become unresponsive to gonadotropins Female hormone production declines the ability to bear children ends and problems associated With estrogen deficiency e g osteoporosis begin to occur Testosterone also diminishes With age but effect is not usually seen until very old age Developmental Aspects GH levels decline With age and this accounts for muscle atrophy With age Supplemental GH may spur muscle growth reduce body fat and help physique TH declines with age causing lower basal metabolic rates PT H levels remain fairly constant with age and lack of estrogen in women makes them more vulnerable to bonedemineralizing effects of PT H I Excellent G 00 d Evaluation tim6 soon G0 to WebSmart Log in D S Find it complete it O r Overview of Blood Circulation more later I Blood leaves the heart Via arteries that branch repeatedly until they become capillaries I Oxygen O2 and nutrients diffuse across capillary walls and enter tissues I Carbon dioxide C02 and wastes move from tissues into the blood Overview of Blood Circulation I Oxygendeficient blood leaves the capillaries and ows in veins to the heart I This blood ows to the lungs Where it releases CO2 and picks up 02 I The oxygenrich blood returns to the heart Composition of Blood Blood is the body s only uid tissue It is composed of liquid plasma and formed elements Formed elements include I Erythrocytes or red blood cells RBCs I Leukocytes or White blood cells WBCs I Platelets Hematocrit the percentage of RBCs out of the total blood volume Components of Whole Blood Formed Q elements Plasma o 55 of whole blood Least dense component j Buffy coat Leukocytes and platelets lt1 of whole blood 39 Erythrocytes CD Withdraw Centrifuge the 45 of whole blood blood and place blood sample Most dense in tube component Functions of Blood I Blood performs a number of functions dealing with I Substance distribution I Regulation of blood levels of particular substances I Body protection Blood Plasma I Blood plasma contains over 100 solutes including I Proteins albumin globulins clotting proteins and others I Non protein nitrogenous substances lactic acid urea creatinine I Organic nutrients glucose carbohydrates amino acids I Electrolytes sodium potassium calcium chloride bicarbonate I Respiratory gases oxygen and carbon dioxide Formed Elements I Erythrocytes leukocytes and platelets make up the formed elements I Only WBCs are complete cells I RBCs have no nuclei or organelles and platelets are just cell fragments I Most formed elements survive in the bloodstream for only a few days I Most blood cells do not divide but are renewed by cells in bone marrow Components of Whole Blood Platelets Erythrocytes 7 Monocyte x I 0 39 39 Neutrophilsj Lymphocyte Components of Whole Blood Erythrocytes 7 v o Erythrocytes RBCs I BiconcaVe discs anucleate essentially no organelles I Filled With hemoglobin Hb a protein that functions in gas transport I Contain the plasma membrane protein spectrin and other proteins that I Give erythrocytes their exibility I Allow them to change shape as necessary I Say as they pass through the capillaries Erythrocytes RBCs I Erythrocytes are an example of the complementarity of structure and function 25 pm I Structural characteristics contribute to its gas transport function 75 pm Top view Erythrocytes RBCs I Biconcave shape that has a huge surface area relative to volume Why is this important I Discounting water content erythrocytes are more than 97 hemoglobin I ATP is generated anaerobically so the erythrocytes do not consume the oxygen they transport Erythrocyte Function Erythrocytes are dedicated to respiratory gas transport Hemoglobin reversibly binds With oxygen and most oxygen in the blood is bound to hemoglobin Hemoglobin is composed of the protein globin made up of two alpha and two beta chains each bound to a heme group Each heme group bears an atom of iron Which can bind to one oxygen molecule Each hemoglobin molecule can transport four molecules of oxygen A K I Q Um ERA H H U L J E w 9m H 4 m UHHHH HHKJ S U E5 x Q 51 x 9 94 ff ff Q5 51 53 37 B Globin chains Heme group on Globin chainsJ a Hemoglobin consists of globin two b Ironcontaining heme pigment alpha and two beta polypeptide chains and four heme groups Hemoglobin I Oxyhemoglobin hemoglobin bound to oxygen I Oxygen loading takes place in the lungs I Deoxyhemoglobin hemoglobin after oxygen diffuses into tissues reduced Hb Hemoglobin I Carbaminohemoglobin hemoglobin bound to carbon dioxide I Carbon dioxide loading takes place in the tissues Production of Erythrocytes I Hematopoiesis blood cell formation I Hematopoiesis occurs in the red bone marrow of the I Axial skeleton and girdles I Epiphyses of the humerus and femur I Hemocytoblasts give rise to all formed elements Production of Erythrocytes Erythropoiesis Stem cell Committed cell Proerythro Hemocytoblast blast Life Cycle of Red Blood Cells 1 Low 02 levels in blood stimulate kidneys to produce erythropoietin Erythropoietin levels rise in blood Erythropoietin and necessary raw materials in blood promote erythropoiesis in red bone marrow l New erythrocytes 2 enter bloodstream Aged and damaged function about 120 days red blood cells are engulfed by macrophages of liver spleen and bone marrow the hemoglobin Hemoglobin is broken down 39eme Glofin Bilirubin Iron stored Amino as ferritin acids hemosiderin Iron is bound to transferrin and released to blood from liver as needed for erythropoiesis Bilirubin is picked up from blood by liver secreted into intestine in bile metabolized to stercobilin by bacteria and excreted in feces Circulation Food nutrients including amino acids Fe B12 and folic acid are absorbed from intestine and enter blood Raw materials are made available in blood for erythrocyte synthesis Life Cycle of Red Blood Cells Low 02 levels in blood stimulate kidneys to produce erythropoietin Erythropoietin levels rise in blood Erythropoietin and necessary raw materials in blood promote erythropoiesis in red bone marrow New erythrocytes enter bloodstream function about 120 days Aged and damaged red blood cells are engulfed by macrophages of liver spleen and bone marrow the hemoglobin is broken down Life Cycle of Red Blood Cells Hemo lobin g Heme Globin r l Bilirubin Iron stored Amino as ferritin aci o s hemo iderin Iron IS bound to transferrin and released to blood from liver as needed for erythropoiesis Bilirubin is picked up from blood by liver secreted into intestine in bile metabolized to stercobilin by bacteria and excreted i c i 9 Li C tail Circulation Food nutrients including amino acids Fe B12 and folic acid are absorbed from intestine and enter blood Raw materials are made available in blood for erythrocyte synthesis Summary of Formed Elements TABLE 172 Summary of Formed Elements oi the Blood Duration of Cellsmm nil Development D Cell TyEe Illustration DescriEtion39 of Blood and Life Span llSl Function Erythrocytes Q Bicomcaye anucleate 46 million D 57 days Transport oxygen and red blood cells disc salmoncolored LS 160 120 carbon dioxide RBCS diameter 78 mm days Components of Whole Blood Monocyte I I yg 39 NeutrophilsJ Lymphocyte Leukocytes WBCs I Leukocytes the only blood components that are complete cells I Are less numerous than RBCs I Move through tissue spaces I Make up 1 of the total blood volume Components of Whole Blood Formed Q elements Plasma o 55 of whole blood Least dense component j Buffy coat Leukocytes and platelets lt1 of whole blood 39 Erythrocytes CD Withdraw Centrifuge the 45 of whole blood blood and place blood sample Most dense in tube component Components of Whole Blood Differential WBC count All total 4800 10800l Formed elements Platelets Granulocytes Neutrophils 50 70 Leukocytes Eosinophils 2 4 Basophils 05 1 Erythrocytes Ag ranulocytes Lymphocytes 25 45 Monocytes 3 8 Leukocytes WBCs I Leukocytosis WBC count over 11000 per cubic millimeter I Normal response to bacterial or Viral invasion Granulocytes I Granulccytes neutrcphils eosincphils and basophils I Contain cytoplasmic granules that stain specifically acidic basic or both With Wright s stain I Are larger and usually shorterlived than RBCs I Have lobed nuclei I Are all phagocytic cells Summary of Formed Elements TABLE 172 2 Summary of Formed Elements of the Blood continued Cell Type Illustration Granulocytes NeutrOphil 72 Eosinophil I 8530th Neutrophils I Neutrophils make up 70 of WBC s I Neutrophils have two types of granules that I Take up both acidic and basic dyes I Contain peroxidases hydrolytic enzymes and defensins antibiotic like proteins I Neutrophils are our body s bacteria slayers Eosinophils I Eosinophils account for 1 4 of WBCs I Have redstaining bilobed nuclei connected Via a broad band of nuclear material I Have red to crimson acidophilic large coarse lysosome like granules I Lead the body s counterattack against parasitic worms I Lessen the severity of allergies by phagocytizing immune complexes Basoph s I Account for 05 of WBCs and I Have U or S shaped nuclei With two or three conspicuous constrictions I Are functionally similar to mast cells I Have large purplish black basophilic granules that contain histamine I Histamine in ammatory chemical that acts as a vasodilator and attracts other WBCs antihistamines counter this effect Summary of Formed Elements TABLE 172 2 Summary of Formed Elements of the Blood continued Duration of Cellsmm3 pl Development D Cell Type Illustration Description of Blood and Life Span LS Function Granulocytes a Neutrophil Nucleus multilobed 3000 7000 D 69 days Phagocytize bacteria inconspicuous LS 6 hours to cytoplasmic granules a few days diameter 1012 um Eosinophil Nucleus bilobed red 100 400 D 69 days Kill parasitic worms cytoplasmic granules LS 812 days destroy antigen diameter 10 14 am antibody complexes inactivate some BaSOpniI Nucleus lobed large 2050 D 3 7 days Release histamine bluepurple cytoplasmic LS a few and other mediators granules diameter 8 10 pm hours to a few days ol inflammation contain heparin an anticoagulant Summary of Formed Elements TABLE 172 2 Summary of Formed Elements of the Blood continued Cell Type Illustration Agranulocytes Lymphocyte G K a Monocyte Ag ranulocytes I Agranulccytes lymphocytes and monocytes I Lack Visible cytoplasmic granules I Are similar structurally but are functionally distinct and unrelated cell types I Have spherical lymphocytes 0r kidneyshaped mcnccytes nuclei Lymphocytes I Account for 25 or more of WBCs and I Have large darkpurple circular nuclei With a thin rim of blue cytoplasm I Are found mostly enmeshed in lymphoid tissue some circulate in the blood Lymphocytes I There are two types of lymphocytes T cells and B cells I T cells function in the cell mediated immune response I B cells give rise to plasma cells which produce antibodies Monocytes I Monocytes account for 4 8 of leukocytes I They are the largest leukocytes I They have abundant paleblue cytoplasms I They have purple staining U or kidneyshaped nuclei I They leave the circulation enter tissue and differentiate into macrophages Monocytes I Macrophages I Are highly mobile and actively phagocytic I Activate lymphocytes to mount an immune response Summary of Formed Elements TABLE 172 Summary of Formed Elements of the Blood continued Duration of Cellsmm3 pl Development 0 Cell Type Illustration Descriptionquot of Blood and Life Span LS Function Agranulocytes Lymphocyte Nucleus spherical or 1500 3000 D days to Mount immune i J indented pale blue weeks response by direct cell quot cytoplasm diameter LS hours attack or via antibodies 5 17 pm to years Monocer Nucleus U or kidney 100700 D 2 3 days Phagocytosis develop shaped grayblue LS months into macrophages in cytoplasm diameter 1424 pm tissues Leukocytes Neutrophil 7 b Eosinophil d Sml e Monocyte multilobed bilobed nucleus lymphocyte kidneyshaped nucleus red cytoplasmic large spherical nucleus granules nucleus Leu k0CyteS Neutrophil 70 Eosinophil 14 Basophil 05 V 1g d e Lymphocyte 25 M01100th 48 Formation of Leukocytes All leukocytes originate from hemocytoblasts Hemocytoblasts differentiate into myeloid stem cells and lymphoid stem cells Myeloid stem cells become myeloblasts or monoblasts Lymphoid stem cells become lymphoblasts Myeloblasts develop into eosinophils neutrophils and basophils Monoblasts develop into monocytes Lymphoblasts develop into lymphocytes Formation of Leukocytes Stem cells Hemocytoblast Myeloid stem cell Lymphoid stem cell Comm39tted l cellsl Myeloblast Myeloblast Myeloblast Monoblast Lymphoblast Promyelclcyte Promy locyte Promylelocyte Promonocyte Developmental pathway Prolymphocyte co 0 Eosinophilic Basophilic Neutrophilic myelocyte myelocyte myelocyte Eosinophilic Basophilic Neutrophilic band cells band cells band cells 0 v Lymphocytes e 0 Agranular leukocytes ll Eosinophils Basophils Neutrophils Monocytes a d quot39 quot g b C 3 quot a 3 h Some Granular leukocytes S o m 6 become become Macrophages tissues Plasma cells Leukocytes Disorders Leukemias I Leukemia refers to cancerous conditions involving White blood cells I Leukemias are named according to the abnormal White blood cells involved I Myelocytic leukemia involves myeloblasts I Lymphocytic leukemia involves lymphocytes I Acute leukemia involves blasttype cells and primarily affects children I Chronic leukemia is more prevalent in older people Leukemia I Immature White blood cells are found in the bloodstream in all leukemias I Bone marrow becomes totally occupied With cancerous leukocytes I The White blood cells produced though numerous are not functional I Death is caused by internal hemorrhage and overwhelming infections I Treatments include irradiation antileukemic drugs and bone marrow transplants Components of Whole Blood Pateets r i f I I 0 o Genesis of Platelets I The stem cell for platelets is the hemocytoblast I The sequential developmental pathway is hemocytoblast megakaryoblast promegakaryocyte megakaryocyte and platelets Stem cell Developmental pathway Hemocyto Promegakaryocyte blast Megakaryoblast Megakaryocyte Platelets Summary of Formed Elements TABLE 172 2 Summary of Formed Elements of the Blood continued Duration of Cellsmm3 pl Development D Cell Type Illustration Description39 of Blood and Life Span LS Function Platelets 1 Discoud cytoplasmic 150000 400000 D 45 days Seal small tears in 3 39 fragments containing LS 510 days blood vessels o granules stain deep instrumental in blood g quot purple diameter clotting Components of Whole Blood End The Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System ANS I The ANS consists of motor neurons that I Innervate smooth and cardiac muscles and glands I Make adjustments to ensure optimal support for body activities I Operate Via subconscious control I Have Viscera as most of their effectors Effectors I The effectors of the SNS are skeletal muscles I The effectors of the ANS are cardiac muscle smooth muscle and glands ANS Versus Somatic Nervous System SNS I The ANS differs from the SNS in the following three areas I Effectors I Efferent pathways I Target organ responses Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Systems Cell bodies in central nervous system Neuro transmitter Effector Peripheral nervous system at effector organs SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM SYM PATH ETIC PARASYM PATHETIC I I h I a 7 l a I Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle eg in gut glands cardiac muscle A Acetylcholine ACh Norepinephrine NE Effect Stimulatory Stimulatory 0r inhibitory depending on neuro transmitter and receptors on effector organs Efferent Pathways 0 1D 1 V I I I 0quot e I Axons of the ANS are a twoneuron chain I The preganglionic first neuron has a lightly myelinated axon I The ganglionic second neuron is unmyelinated and extends to an effector organ 1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Systems Cell bodies in central nervous system u in I 8 E ACh lt gt I 7 r Iv 739 E m g a VA 8 I in Heavily myelinated axon Twoneuron chain from CNS to effector organs ACK NE 4 O b o I I Unmyehnated 39 ost an lionic axon I Lightly myelinated Ganghon p g g n Eplnephrme and E preganghonlc axons h gt nore1nep r1ne D Adrenal medulla Blood vessel 0 I ll i5 ACh 21 ACh lt V V E it n 3 VA 539 Lightly myelinated yr 39 Unmyelinated g Preganglionic 3X0 Ganglion postganglionic n axon A Acetylcholine ACh Norepinephrine NE Peripheral nervous system Single neuron from CNS to effector organs Neu ro transmitter Effector at effector organs S L h l J Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle eg in gut glands cardiac muscle Effect Stimulatory Stimulatory or inhibitory depending on neuro transmitter and receptors on effector organs Divisions of the ANS I The two divisions of the ANS are the sympathetic and parasympathetic 39 I The sympathetic mobilizes the body during extreme situations activities and conserves body energy I The two divisions counterbalance each other s activity Role of the Sympathetic Division I The sympathetic division is the ght or ight system I Involves E activities exercise excitement emergency and embarrassment I Promotes adjustments during exercise blood ow to organs is reduced ow to muscles is increased I Its activity is illustrated by a person WhO is threatened I Heart rate increases and breathing is rapid and deep I The skin is cold and sweaty and the pupils dilate Effort and hers alavation Elation Role of the Parasympathetic Division I Concerned With keeping body energy use low I Involves the D activities digestion defecation and diuresis I Its activity is illustrated by a person Who relaxes after a meal I Blood pressure heart rate and respiratory rates are low I Gastrointestinal tract activity is high I The skin is warm and the pupils are constricted Daydreaming Dithering Delaying Dingin around Drifting Decomposing Anatomy of ANS Location of Division Origin of Fibers Length of Fibers Gangha Sympathetic Thoracolumbar Short preganglionic Close to the region of the spinal and long spinal cord cord postganglionic Parasympathetic Brain and sacral Long preganglionic In the Visceral spinal cord and short postganglionic effector organs Anatomy of ANS Parasympathetic Sympathetic Eye gt39 Eye Salivary gt Skin glands S th t Salivary ympfl e 1 39 glands CerVICal Lungs g T1 3amp3 vr x K I 1 r v r x 53a Thoracic Ll zDQ Lumbar Genitals Genitals 33 Anatomy of ANS Pop Quiz 1 Sympathetic system mediates 3 Rest b Excitement Anatomy of ANS Pop Quiz 1 Para sympathetic system a Short pre ganglionic fiber b Long pre gang fiber Anatomy of ANS Pop Quiz 1 Ganglions contain a Gang members Who roar ltng b Effector organs 0 Cell bodies 1 White matter Parasympathetic Division Outflow Cranial Out ow Cranial Nerve Ganglion Effector Organs Occulomotor III Ciliary Eye Facial VII Pterygopalatin Salivary nasal and Submandibular lacrimal glands Glossopharyngeal Otic Parotid salivary glands IX Vagus X Located within the Heart lungs and most walls of target organs Visceral organs Sacral Out ow 8284 Located within the Large intestine urinary walls of the target organs bladder ureters and reproductive organs Parasympathetic Division Outflow N 1 V Ciliary Eye ganglion Lacr1mal 71 gland Ft rygopalatin 93m I ganglion Nasal a V mucosa 39 Submandibular 3 ganglion Submandibular VI and sublingual Otic ganglion glands 3 Parotid gland 0 Heart Cardiac and pulmonary plexuses y i Liver and Celiac gallbladder plexus EH Stomach 39 Pancreas S 2 I r Large S4 l 39 39 39 39 intestine Q quot Pelv1c Small splanchmc nerves A r 1ntest1ne Inferior Rectum hypogastric plexus Genitalia 2 Urmary Preganglionic penis bladder Postganglionic clitoris and vagina and meters cu Cranial nerve Parasympathetic Division Outflow Lacrimal gland x Nasal mucosa Facial Li 39 4 s Occulomotor 11m quotwry gangllon Glossopharyngeal Va gus SubmandibulaI x gangliOH Submandibular and sublingual Otic gangliOH glands Parotid gland J 39 Heart r Cardiac and pulmonary lexuses K p Lung Preganglionic 39 Postganglionic CN Cranial nerve Parasympathetic Division Outflow Preganglionie Postganglionic Liver and gallbladder CN Cranial nerve Stomach 52 Large S4 intestine Pelvic splanchnic nerves Small intestine Rectum Inferior hypogastric plexus y quot g I 1 Urinary bladder Genitalia penis clitoris and vagina and ureters Sympathetic Sympathetic Outflow I Arises from spinal cord segments T1 through L2 I Sympathetic neurons produce the lateral horns of the spinal cord Why not the parasyrnp Gray Matter Organization Dorsal root Dorsal horn interneurons sensory Dorsal root gang on SS Somatic sensory neuron Visceral sensory neuron S Visceral motor neuron Somatic motor neuron Spinal nerve Ventral root motor Ventral horn motor neurons Sympathetic neurons produce the lateral horns of the spinal cord Why not the parasymp Sympathetic Outflow I Preganglionie fibers pass through the White rami communicantes and synapse in the Chain paravertebral ganglia I Fibers from T 5L2 forrn splanchnic nerves and synapse With collateral ganglia splanehnie I Postganglionie fibers innervate the numerous organs of the body Sympathetic Outflow T1 to L2 Lateral horns T1 run hxnalnxl m w Vr w w F L Mu n liftii39 4 Sympathetic trunk f chain an lia f g g 39 Blood vessels Superior X a skln larrectlor p111 cervical a H quotquot muse es and ganglion 1 rf 4 th 7 7 r V 7 M V r sweat g an S x r I quot39r H l Salivar lands Middle x y g cervical r A ganglion x f 7 Heart 0 5 7 d Vivi Inferior FZ39AL WJW x A if i quotK ceercal ff x Cardiac and ix 31111011 1 pulmonary plexuses Greater splanchnic nerve Lesser splanchnic nerve r w f quotI t Liver and Celiac ganglion gallbladder L Stomach White rami Superior communicantes mesenterlc Fquot r quot Spleen ganglion X R gt Adrenal medulla Sacral splanchnic a nerves x X L l umbar Small 3 splanchnic Inferior Rx quotanerves mesenteric Intestine ganglion Large gll 7 intestine a Rectum Genitalia uterus vagina and penis and urinary bladder Post gang Fibers to organs Sympathetic Outflow Middle cervical gang on Inferior cervical gang on cervical gang on asal mucosa Sympathetic trunk chain ganglia Blood vessels skin arrector pili muscles and White rami communicantes sweat glands N Salivary glands Cardiac and pulmonary plexuses Preganglionic Postganglionic Sympathetic Outflow Greater splanchnic nerve Lesser splanchnic nerve Liver and gallbladder Celiac ganglion i I i 1 I l I l l Stomach k Spleen Adrenal medulla Superior mesenteric gang on Sacral splanchnic nerves Lumbar Sm ll splanchnic Inferior intjstine erves mesenteric 5 quot391 o L ganglion a aggf a 1n es 1ne F Rectum Preganglionic x1 Postganglionic form T Splanchnlc HBYVBS Genitalia uterus vagina and penis and urinary bladder Sympathetic Trunks and Pathways I The paravertebral ganglia form part of the sympathetic trunk or chain I Typically there are 23 ganglia 3 cervical ll thcracic 4 lumbar 4 sacral and l ccccygeal Sympathetic Trunks and Pathways Rib Sympathetic trunk ganglion Sympathetic trunk Ventral ramus of spinal nerve Gray ramus communicans White ramus communicans Thoracic splanchnlc nerves Sympathetic Trunks and Pathways I A preganglionic fiber enters through the White ramus communicans and follows one of three pathways upon entering the sympathetic trunk I l Synapse at the same level Within the sympathetic trunk I 2 Ascend or descend in the sympathetic chain to synapse in another chain ganglion I 3 Pass through the sympathetic trunk emerge Without synapsing then synapse in a collateral ganglion Sympathetic Trunks and Pathways Lateral horn visceral motor zone A l NV Gray ramus D 1 Skin arrector communican 4 m White ramus Ventral root 39 Sympathetic communrcans M trunk ganglion 39 39 Sympathetic trunk To effector CD Synapse at the same level Blood vessels Sympathetic Trunks and Pathways Skin arrector pili muscles and sweat I w Q To effector I Blood vessels Synapse at a higher or lower level Sympathetic Trunks and Pathways Splanchnic nerve Collateral ganglion such as the celiac Target organ in abdomen eg intestine Synapse in a distant collateral ganglion anterior to the vertebral column Pathways with Synapses in Chain Ganglia 1 Postganglionic axons enter the ventral rarni Via the gray rarni communicantes These fibers innervate sweat glands and arrector pili muscles Rarni communicantes are associated only With the sympathetic division Pathways to the Head 2 I Preganglionic fibers emerge from T 1T4 and synapse in the superior cervical ganglion I These fibers I Serve the skin and blood vessels of the head I Stimulate dilator muscles of the iris I Inhibit nasal and salivary glands Sympathetic Outflow Eye 39 Stlml ata acrimal gland we asal mucosa was V Sympathetic trunk t lrf n9 chain ganglia l Blood vessels x a 39 uperlor skin arrector pili cervical gang on muscles and sweat glands Salivary glands l White rami communicantes Pregangllonlc Postganglionic Pathways to the Thorax I Pre glionic fibers emerge from Tl T6 and synapse in the cervica ain ganglia I Postganglionic 39ers emerge from the middle and inferior cervical ganglia an a ter nerves C4 C8 I These fibers innervate the h t via the cardiac plexus as well as innervating the thyroid a s the skin I Other Tl T6 preganglionic fibers synaps 39 the nearest chain ganglia I Postganglionic fibers directly serve the heart aorta a s and esophagus Sympathetic Outflow Thyroid Skin A Blood vessels skin arrector pili muscles and Sympathetic trunk chain ganglia Middle cervical gangHon Inferior cervrcal w ganglion a Cardiac and pulmonary plexuses White rami communicantes Preganglionic Postganglionic Pathways with Synapses in Collateral Ganglia I These fibe T 5L2 leave the sympathetic chain Without synapsr 1 I They form thoracic lu r and sacral splanchnic nerves I Their ganglia include the celiac the ericr and inferior mesenterics and the hypcgastric Pathways to the Abdomen I Sympat ie nerves innervating the abdomen have preganglioni 39bers from T 5L2 I They travel through t thoracic splanehnie nerves and synapse at the celiaC a a superior mesenteric ganglia I Postganglionie fibers serve the stomac 39 testines liver spleen and kidneys Pathways to the Pelvis I Pregang 39 nie fibers originate from T loL2 I Most travel via lumbar and sacral splanehnie nerves to the inferior w esenterie and hypogastrie ganglia I Postganglionie fibers serve the dis half of the large intestine the urinary bladder an e reproductive organs Sympathetic Outflow I Greater splanchnic nerve T 1 Lesser splanchnic nerve H Liver and 1 gallbladder l I ll 1 1 L2 Sacral splanchnic nerves l Lumbar splanchnic Inferior Small Intestine nerves mesenterlc L ganglion 1 arge Intestlne Rectum 39X ex Preganglionic m Postganglionic Genitalia uterus vagina and penis and urinary bladder Pathways with Synapses in the Adrenal Medulla I And pathway 4 I Fibers of the thoracic splanchnic nerve pass directly to the adrenal medulla I Upon stimulation rnedullary cells secrete norepinephrine and epinephrine into the blood I What are the effects of ep and norep in the blood Sympathetic Outflow Greater splanchnic nerve Adrenal medulla Kidney I Done With that Whew f But 9 d0 gst 801116 6X6rci36 httpWwwb0dyworldsComanhtml http6nwikipediaorgWikiEggsandbrains The Peripheral Nervous System PNS 11 CNS Perceptual level processing in cortical sensory centers f Motor cortex Somatosensory cortex h Reticular Thalamus formation porls Cerebellum Circuit level Medulla processing in Spinal ascending pathways cord 39 t Free nerve endings pain cold warmth Muscle spindle Receptor level sensory reception Joint ang 9 and transmission kinesthetic 39 1 1 0 CNS receptor 3 Axon b Myelin Sheath Endoneurlum Perineurium Epineurium 8 A Fascicle w i i Blood o 39 Vessels Spinal Nerves I Thirtyone pairs of mixed nerves arise from the spinal cord and supply all parts of the body except the head Spinal Nerves I What is a mixed nerve Spinal Nerves I They are named according to their point of issue I 12 Cranial I 8 Cervical C1 C8 I 12 Thoracic Tl T12 I 5 Lumbar LlL5 I 5 Sacral 8185 I 1 Coccygeal C0 Filaments of olfactor nerve I Frontal lobe Optic nerve ll Optic chiasma Facial Oculomotor nerve VII 1 A nerve III Vestibulo quot w s I Trochlear cochlear quot f I o nerve IV nerve VIII Trigeminal nerve V Abducens nerve VI Glossopharyngeal nerve IX Vagus nerve X quot 9 391 x g quot quot Accessory nerve XI Hypoglossal nerve XII 139 I I On Old Olympus Towering Tops A Fine Vested German Viewed All Hops Cranial nerves Sensory Motor PS I VI function function fibers l Olfactory Yes smell No No II Optic Yes vision No No Ill Oculomotor No Yes Yes IV Trochlear No Yes No V Trigeminal Yes general Yes No sensa on VI Abducens No Yes No Cranial nerves Sensory Motor PS VII XII function function fibers VII Facial Yes taste Yes Yes VIII Vestibulocochlear Yes hearing Some No and balance IX Glossopharyngeal Yes taste Yes Yes X Vagus Yes taste Yes Yes XI Accessory No Yes No XII Hypoglossal No Yes No PS parasympathetic Spinal Nerves I They are named according to their point of issue W I 8 Cervical C1 C8 I 12 Thoracic Tl T12 I 5 Lumbar LlL5 I 5 Sacral 8185 I 1 Coccygeal C0 Spinal Nerves I 8 cervicals C1C8 I Hold it All mammals have 7 cervical vertebra I Where d we get 8 nerves Spinal Nerves C1 nsrvs 0011163 out from above C1 Cervical nerves C1 ca C8 nsrvs 0011163 out from balow C7 All the rsst come out balow th6 similarly n21de vsrtsbra Spinal Nerves Cervical nerves C1 Ca Thoracic nerves T1 T12 i Sacral nerves S1 S5 Coccygeal nerve Co1 Roots Spinal Nerves Spinal Nerves Roots I Each spinal nerve connects to the spinal cord Via two medial roots I Each root forms a series of rootlets that attach to the spinal cord I Ventral roots arise from the anterior horn and contain motor efferent fibers I Dorsal roots arise from sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and contain sensory afferent fibers Spinal Nerves Roots Dorsal and ventral rootlets of spinal nerve Ventral root Dorsal root Dorsal root gangHon Spinal nerve Spinal Nerves Rami I The short spinal nerves branch into three or four mixed distal rami I What does mixed mean Spinal Nerves Rami I The short spinal nerves branch into three or four mixed distal rami I Small dorsal ramus I Larger ventral ramus I Tiny 39 eal branch not shown on the diagram returns to the can e 39 nervate meninges and blood vessels inside it shou c u lled the meningeobloodvesseal branch I Rami communicantes at the base of the ventral rami in the thoracic region only in the thoracic region Spinal Nerves Roots Ventral ramus of spinal nerve Rami communicantes Vw Sympathetic trunk gang on Nerve Plexuses I All ventral rami except TzT12 forrn interlacing nerve networks called plexuses I Plexuses are found in the cervical brachial lumbar and sacral regions I Each resulting branch of a plexus contains fibers from several spinal nerves f 71 1W J Cervical plexus Brachial plexus lntercostal nerves Lumbar plexus Sacral plexus Nerve Plexuses I Fibers travel to the periphery via several different routes I Each muscle receives a nerve supply from more than one spinal nerve I Advantage damage to one spinal segment cannot completely paralyze a muscle Back Anterolateral Thorax and Abdominal Wall I Not plexuses I The back is innervated by dorsal rami via several branches I The thorax is innervated by ventral rami Tl le as intercostal nerves I Intercostal nerves supply muscles of the ribs anterolateral thoraX and abdominal wall E371 DU f7 HM M it jl39if D m fgg H g D U by D g 4 E 4 f 11 U 1 r u 13 E22115 22 m u f m so Dorsal ramus I Ventral ramusxi 39 Spinal nerve 39 A quotx N a lntercostal nerve Branches of intercostal nerve Lateral cutaneous Anterior cutaneous Sternum Cervical Plexus I The cervical plexus is formed by ventral rarni of I Most branches are cutaneous nerves of the neck ear back of head and shoulders I The most important nerve of this plexus is the phrenic nerve I The phrenic nerve is the major motor and sensory nerve of the diaphragm Cervical Plexus Ventral rami Ventral rami Lesser occrpltal H C nerve g 1 Greater auricular w r C quot k r 2 nerve I Transverse g g u C cervrcal nerve n 3 Ansa cervicalis renic nerve Supraclavicular nerves Branches of the Cervical Plexus S eeFigure 1378 SPINAL ROOTS VENTRAL RAMI STRUCTURES SERVED CUTANEOUS BRANC Lesser occipital Skin on posterolateral aspect of neck Greater auricular Skin of ear skin over parotid gland Transverse cutaneous cervical C2 C3 ior and lateral aspect of neck Supraclavicular medial intermediate and lateral C3 C4 Skin of shoulder an c MOTOR BRANC Ansa cervicalis superior and inferior roots lnfrahyoid muscles of neck omohyoid sternohyoid and sternothyroid Segmental and other muscular branches C1 C5 Deep musoes quot eniohyoid and thyrohyoid and portions of scalenes ulae trape W i lt Phrenic C3 C5 Diaphragm sole motor nerve supply Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Brachial Plexus I Formed by C5C8 and T1 C4 and T 2 may also contribute to this plexus I It gives rise to the nerves that innervate the upper limb Brachial Plexus I There are four major sections of this plexus I Roots I Trunks I Divisions I Cords I Really Tired Drink Coffee Brachial Plexus I There are four major sections of this plexus I Roots five ventral rami CS T1 C4 amp T27 I Trunks upper middle and lower I Divisions anterior and posterior serve the front and back of the limb 6 total ant X3 post X3 I Cords lateral medial and posterior fiber bundles in relation to the axillary artery I Really Tired Drink Coffee Roots ventral rami Anterior lelSlonS if C6 Posterior C7 Upper dIVIsIons of Middle Trunks Lateral C8 Lower Cords Posterior Medial a Roots rami 65 T1 trunks divisions and cords I Anterior 7 Posterior I Trunks I Roots divisions divisions Brachial Plexus Nervesbranches I Axillary innervates the deltcid and teres minor I Musculccutanecus sends fibers to the biceps brachii and brachialis I Median branches to most of the excr muscles of the arm I Ulnar supplies the eXOr carpi ulnaris and part of the fleXOr digitcrum prcfundus I Radial innervates essentially all extenscr muscles Brachial Plexus Roots ventral rami Dorsal scapular Nerve to subclavius Suprascapular Posterior f Upper dIVISIons Middle Trunks Lateral Lower Cords Posterior Long thoracic Medial Medial pectoral Lateral pectoral Axmary Upper subscapular Musculo L b I Thoracodorsal Radial Median g Medial cutaneous Unar nerves of the arm and forearm a Roots rami 65 T1 trunks divisions and cords D Anterior El Posterior l Trunks Roots divisions divisions Brachial Plexus Distribution of Nerves IAnterior DPosterior ITrunks EIRoots divisions divisions 7xillary nerve 5 roots 3 trunks 6 divisions Humerus 3 cords 391 i Radial nerve 1 a I l l A 7 I quot II it 1 4 Ulnar nerve I if if 4 39 h39t K r39 Musculocutaneous nerve 3 I l Median nerve I Radial nerve superficial branch Dorsal branch of ulnar nerve Superficial branch of ulnar nerve 1 lt Digital branch of ulnar nerve Muscular branch Digital branch Th major nerves of the upper limb Median nerve Brachial Plexus Nerves I Anterior Posterior Trunks Roots divisions divisions Major terminal branches Cords Divisions peripheral nerves Anterior Musculocutaneous Median Lateral 39POSterior I Med39a39 Anterior Ulnar k r 39 Posterior Radial 539 gt Posterior lt Anterior Axillary Posterior Flowchart summarizing relationships within the brachial plexus And on the cadaver Musculocutaneous nerve Axillary nerve Biceps brachii Coracobrachialis Median nerve Radial nerve Lateral cord Posterior cord Medial cord Radial nerve Ulnar nerve at 5433p 7 It TABLE 134 Branches of the Brachial Plexusi l ie flgure l NERVES CORD AND SPINAL ROOTS VENTRAL RAMI a U A v1 STRUCTURES SERVED Musculocutaneous Median Ulnar Radial Axillary Dorsal scapular Long thoracic Subscapular Suprascapular Pectoral lateral and medial Lateral cord C5 C7 By two branches one from medial cord C8 T1 and one from the lateral cord C5 C7 Medial cord C8 T1 Posterior cord C5 C8 T1 Posterior cord C5 C6 Branches of C5 rami Branches of C5 C7 rami Posterior cord branches of C5 and C6 rami Upper trunk C5 C6 Branches of lateral and medial cords CS T1 Muscular branches flexor muscles in anterior arm biceps brachii brachialis coracobrachialis Cutaneous branches skin on anterolateral forearm extremely variable Muscular branches to flexor group of anterior forearm palmaris longus flexor carpi radialis flexor digitorum superficialis flexor pollicis longus lateral half of flexor digitorum profundus and pronator muscles intrinsic muscles of lateral palm and digital branches to the fingers Cutaneous branches skin of lateral twothirds of hand palm side and dorsum of fingers 2 and 3 Muscular branches flexor muscles in anterior forearm flexor carpi ulnaris and medial half of flexor digitorum profundus most intrinsic muscles of hand Cutaneous branches skin of medial third of hand both anterior and posterior aspects Muscular branches posterior muscles of arm forearm and hand triceps brachii anconeus supinator brachioradialis extensors carpi radialis longus and brevis extensor carpi ulnaris and several muscles that extend the fingers Cutaneous branches skin of posterolateral surface of entire limb except dorsum of fingers 2 and 3 Muscular branches deltoid and teres minor muscles Cutaneous branches some skin of shoulder region Rhomboid muscles and levator scapulae Serratus anterior muscle Teres major and subscapular muscles Shoulder joint supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles Pectoralis major and minor muscles Lumbar Plexus I Arises from LlL4 and innervates the thigh abdominal wall and psoas muscle I The major nerves are the femoral and the obturator Lumbar Plexus Ventral rami ven39jral L ramquot lliohypogastric I a I L1 llioinguinal Femoral g L2 Lateral femora 39 lliohypogastric 6 cutaneous r quotiOiHQUinal Obturator Genitofemoral iquot3 A 39 nterlor femora 3 cutaneous Lateral femoral L4 Saphenous cut ous Obturator Femoral I 7 L5 Lum osacral trunk a Ventral rami and major branches of the lumbar plexus la Lumbar Plexus I Femoral nerve innervates anterior thigh muscles quads sensory to the anterior thigh and medial leg from knee to foot I Obturator nerve innervates adduotor muscles Branches of the Lumbar Plexus Seeg i Figure SPINAL ROOTS VENTRAL RAMI STRUCTURES SERVED Femoral Obturator Mneous lliohypogastric llioinguinal Genitofemoral L2 L4 L2 L4 L2 L3 L1 L1 L1 L2 Skin of anterior and medial thigh via anterior femoral cutaneous branch skin of medial leg and foot hip and knee joints via saphenous branch motor to anterior muscles quadriceps and sartorius of thigh and to pectineus iliacus Motor to adductor magnus part longus and brevis muscles gracilis muscle of medial thigh obturator externus sensory for skin of medial thigh and for hip and knee joints Skin of lateral thigh some sensory branches to peritoneum Skin of lower abdomen lower back and hip muscles of anterolateral abdominal wall obliques and transversus and pubic region Skin of externwoximal medial aspect of the thigh inferior abdominal muscles Skin of scrotum in males of labia majora in females and of u tenor thi h inferior to middle portion of inguinal region cremaster muscle in males Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings lliohypogastric llioinguinal Femoral Lateral femoral cutaneous Obturator Anterior femoral cutaneous Saphenous Distribution of the major nerves from the lumbar plexus to the lower limb Sacral Plexus I Arises from L4S4 and serves the buttock lower limb pelvic structures and the perineum I The major nerve is the sciatic the longest and thickest nerve of the body why would this be so big I Supplies entire lower limb except anteromedial thigh I The sciatic is actually composed of two nerves the tibial and the common fibular old peroneal nerves Sacral Plexus Ventral rami Ventral rami Supe or gluteal Lumbosacral trunk Inferior gluteal Common fibular Tibial Pos rIor femoral cutaneous Pudendal Sciatic Sciatic n Ventral rami and major branches of the sacral plexus Sacral Plexus I Sciatic innervates the hamstrings and adductor magnus I The sciatic then diverges into two I Tibial serves all posterior compartment muscles and skin of the posterior calf and sole of the foot I Common fibular peroneal innervates knee joint skin of the lateral calf dorsum of the foot and the muscles of the anterolateral leg Sacral Plexus I Superior and inferior gluteal nerves innervate the buttocks and tensor fascial lata muscle I Pudendal nerve innervates the muscles and skin of the perineum mediates erections and is involved in voluntary control of urination Superior gluteal Inferior gluteal Pudendal Sciatic Posterior femoral cutaneous Common fibular Tibial Sural cut Deep fibular Superficial fibular Plantar branches Distribution of the major nerves from the sacral plexus to lower limb TABLE 136 Branches of the Sacral Plexus See gure SPINAL ROOTS NERVES VENTRAL RAMI STRUCTURES SERVED Sciatic nerve L4 L5 81 83 Tibial including sural L4 S3 medial and lateral plantar and medial calcaneal branches Common fibular L4 82 superficial and deep branches Wal L4 L5 S1 Composed of two nerves tibial and common fibular in a common sheath they diverge just proximal to the knee Cutaneous branches to skin of posterior surface of leg and sole of foot Motor branches to muscles of back of thigh leg and foot hamstrings except short head of biceps femoris posterior part of adductor magnus triceps surae tibialis posterior popliteus flexor digitorum longus flexor hallucis longus and intrinsic muscles of foot Cutaneous branches to skin of anterior surface of leg and dorsum of foot Motor branches to short head of biceps femoris of thigh fibular muscles of lateral compartment of leg tibialis anterior and extensor muscles of toes extensor hallucis longus extensors digitorum longus and brevis Motor branches to gluteus medius and minimus and tensor fasciae latae Motor branches to gluteus maximus Inferior gluteal hgSL Posterior femoral 5183 cutaneous Pudendal 82 84 5km of loi r rock osterior thigh and popliteal region length variable may also innervate pa 39 calf and heel Supplies most of skin and muscles of perineum 39 om assing external genitalia and anus and including clitoris labia and vagin in females and scrotum and penis in males external anal sphincter Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Innervation of the Skin Dermatomes I Dermatome area of skin innervated by a single spinal nerve I Trunk area is easy I Limbs are more complex Anterior View Po terior i Vlew S1 Nsrvss mp3 httpwwwcptpr0t0ncom Test Muscles of the Forearm Anterior Compartment I These muscles are primarily exors of the wrist and fingers Palmar aponeurosis Flexor digitorum superficialis Flexor carpi ulnaris Palmaris longus Flexor carpi radialis Medial epicondyle of humerus Part I Anterior Muscles Figure 1015 Superficial Muscles Pronator teres pro na39tor te39r z pronation turning palm posteriorly or down teres round Flexor carpi radialis flek39sor kar39pe raquotdea lis ex decrease angle between two bones carpi wrist radi radius Palmaris longus pahl ma ris lon39gus palma palm longus long Flexor carpi ulnaris ulna39ris ulnar ulna These eight muscles of the anterior fascial compartment are listed from the lateral to the medial aspect Most arise from a common flexor tendon attached to the medial epicondyle of the humerus and have additional origins as well Most of the tendons of insertion of these flexors are held in place at the wrist by a thickening of deep fascia called the flexor retinaculum Median nerve Median nerve Median nerve Ulnar nerve C7 and C8 Flexor digitorum superficialis dTquotjitor39um sooquotperfish ea39is digit 2 finger toe superficial close to surface Median nerve C7 C8 and T1 Misc i ngb39r 1015 tw a tquot ii foi gearingnagigaaaxaaaagawe m 39dial39e39biconayl voi39tii humerus and have additional origins as well Most of the tendons of insertion of these flexors are held in place at the wrist by a thickening of deep fascia called the flexor retinaculum Super cial Muscles Pronator teres prona tor te r z pronation turning palm posteriorly or down teres round Flexor carpi radialis flek39sor kar39pe raquotdea lis flex 2 decrease angle between two bones carpi wrist radi radius Palmaris longus pahlma ris lon39gus palma palm longus long Flexor carpi ulnaris ulna ris ulnar ulna Flexor digitorum superficialis diquotjitor39um sooquotperfish ea is digit finger toe superficial close to surface O medial epicondyle of humerus coronoid process of ulna l by common tendon into lateral radius midshaft O medial epicondyle of humerus l base of second and third metacarpals insertion tendon easily seen and provides guide to position of radial artery used for pulse taking at wrist O medial epicondyle of humerus l palmar aponeurosis skin and fascia of palm O medial epicondyle of humerus olecranon process and posterior surface of ulna l pisiform and hamate bones and base of fifth metacarpal O medial epicondyle of humerus coronoid process of ulna shaft of radius l by four tendons into middle phalanges of fingers 2 5 Pronates forearm weak flexor of elbow Powerful flexor of wrist abducts hand weak synergist of elbow flexion Weak wrist flexor tenses skin and fascia of palm during hand move ments weak synergist for elbow flexion Powerful flexor of wrist also adducts hand in concert with extensor carpi ulnaris posterior muscle stabilizes wrist during finger extension Flexes wrist and middle phalanges of fingers 2 5 the important fin ger flexor when speed and flexion against resistance are required Muscles of the Anterior Compartment I These muscles are the primary toe extensors and ankle dorsi exors I They include the tibialis anterior extensor digitorum longus extensor hallucis longus and fibularis tertius Tibia Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum longus Extensor hallucis longus Fibularis tertius t Superior and inferior 5 j extensor retinacula I Fill in the blanks Muscles of the Forearm Anterior Compartment I These muscles are primarily exors of the wrist and fingers Palmar aponeurosis 1 h Flexor retinaculum Muscles of the Forearm Anterior Compartment I These muscles are primarily exors of the wrist and fingers Palmar aponeurosis And they all attach to 1 r I 9 I t I a Flexor retinaculum Magc39is39squot gs 1015 asa t39i75 t39 Fi s foh 525555nagt aaaxsiagnsa039sagasreagsaayigoras quotquot humerus and have additional origins as well Most of the tendons of insertion of these flexors are held in place at the wrist by a thickening of deep fascia called the flexor retinacuum Super cial Muscles Pronator teres Pronates forearm weak prona39tor te39r z flexor of elbow pronation turning palm posteriorly or down teres round Flexor carpi radialis O medial epicondyle flek39sor kar39pe of humerus raquotdea39lis flex l base of second and decrease angle third metacarpals between two bones insertion tendon easily carpi wrist seen and provides radi radius guide to position of radial artery used for pulse taking at wrist Palmaris longus Weak wrist flexor tenses pahlma ris lon39gus skin and fascia of palm palma palm during hand move longus long ments weak synergist for elbow flexion Flexor carpi ulnaris O medial epicondyle Powerful flexor of wrist ulna ris ulnar I ulna of humerus olecranon also adducts hand in process and posterior concert with extensor surface of ulna carpi ulnaris posterior l pisiform and hamate muscle stabilizes wrist bones and base of fifth during finger extension metacarpal Flexor digitorum O medial epicondyle of Flexes wrist and middle superficialis diquotjitor um humerus coronoid process phalanges of fingers soo perfishquotea lis of ulna shaft of radius 2 5 the important fin digit 2 finger toe l by four tendons into ger flexor when speed superficial close middle phalanges of and flexion against to surface fingers 2 5 resistance are required Muscles of the Anterior Compartment I These muscles are the primary toe extensors and ankle dorsi exors 4 w Nerves These four guys ah39d frontgirl 39 S Jtllellltecl1feate piihkrock son hre gaffagey fast loudkghd yieky mags cat39chji39 than What mast other ms W fdilld label punk but still With veryquot Welleraftedsongs 11m 7 i Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Part A Nervous System I The master controlling and communicating system of the body I Thoughts actions emotions I Communicate by electrical and chemical signals I Rapid specific responses Nervous System I Functions I Sensory input monitoring stimuli occurring inside and outside the body I Integration interpretation of sensory input I Motor output response to stimuli by activating effector organs Nervous System Sensory input Integration Motor output Or Nervous System You 366 that your shouldor is on fire You yell Ouch look for tho wator And throw it on your shoulder Organization of the Nervous System I Central nervous system CNS I Brain and spinal cord I Integration and command center I Peripheral nervous system PNS I Paired spinal and cranial nerves I Spinal nerves carry messages to and from the spinal cord I Cranial nerves carry messages to and from the brain Key Brain h Cranial nerves Sensory afferent division of PMS Motor efferent division of PMS Visceral sensory fiber central nervous Parasym pathetic System CNS motor fiber of ANS 1 Sympathetic motor fiber of ANS 4 quot Visceral organ Spinal Skin cord Somatic sensory fiber J Motor fiber of somatic nervous system Skeletal muscle Peripheral nervous system PNS Peripheral Nervous System PNS Two Functional Divisions I Sensory gfferent grriving division I Transmits impulses from the receptors to the CNS I Motor efferent exit division I Transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs Sensory Division Two Main Parts I Sensory somatic soma body afferent fibers I Carry impulses from skin skeletal muscles and joints to the brain I Visceral afferent fibers I Transmit impulses from Visceral organs to the brain Motor Division Two Main Parts I Somatic nervous system aka voluntary NS I Conscious control of skeletal muscles I Autonomic nervous system ANS aka INvoluntary NS think of it as the automatic NS I Regulates smooth muscle cardiac muscle and glands I Divisions sympathetic and parasympathetic Central nervous system CNS 0 Brain and spinal cord I Integrative and Ke y control centers o Structure I Function 1 1 Peripheral nervous system PNS o Cranial nerves and spinal nerves I Communication lines between the CNS and the rest of the body Sensory afferent division I Somatic and visceral sensory nerve fibers I Conducts impulses from receptors to the CNS Autonomic nervous system ANS o Visceral motor involuntary I Conducts impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscles smooth muscles and glands Sympathetic division I Mobilizes body systems during activity Parasympathetic division I Conserves energy I Promotes housekeeping functions during rest a 4 Motor efferent division 0 Motor nerve fibers I Conducts impulses from the CNS to effectors muscles and glands Somatic nervous system I Somatic motor voluntary Key Sensory afferent division of PMS Motor efferent division of PMS Visceral sensory fiber central nervous Parasym pathetic System motor fiber of ANS CNS amp Sympathetic Viscera organ motor fiber of ANS H Spinal 5km K cord V Somatic sensory fiber J Motor fiber of somatic nervous system Skeletal muscle I s i 1 It I Conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles Peripheral nervous system PNS b Key 0 Structure I Function Central nervous system CNS 0 Brain and spinal cord I Integrative and control centers t 1 o Cranial nerves and spinal nerves I Communication lines between the CNS and the rest of the body 39 o Somatic and visceral sensory nerve fibers I Conducts impulses from receptors to the CNS 0 Motor nerve fibers I Conducts impulses from the CNS to effectors muscles and glands Key Sensory afferent division of PMS Motor efferent division of PMS Visceral sensory fiber central nervous Parasym pathetic System motor fiber of ANS CNS k Sympathetic Viscera organ motor fiber of ANS L H Spinal Skm cord V Somatic sensory fiber V Motor fiber of somatic nervous Skeletal muscle I Mobilizes body systems during activity i system o Visceral motor involuntary I Conducts impulses voluntary I Conserves energy I Promotes housekeeping functions during rest la from the CNS to cardiac muscles smooth muscles and glands 4 o Somatic motor I Conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles Peripheral nervous system PNS lb Central nervous system CNS 0 Brain and spinal cord I Integrative and Ke y control centers o Structure I Function 1 1 Peripheral nervous system PNS o Cranial nerves and spinal nerves I Communication lines between the CNS and the rest of the body Sensory afferent division I Somatic and visceral sensory nerve fibers I Conducts impulses from receptors to the CNS Autonomic nervous system ANS o Visceral motor involuntary I Conducts impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscles smooth muscles and glands Sympathetic division I Mobilizes body systems during activity Parasympathetic division I Conserves energy I Promotes housekeeping functions during rest a 4 Motor efferent division 0 Motor nerve fibers I Conducts impulses from the CNS to effectors muscles and glands Somatic nervous system I Somatic motor voluntary Key Sensory afferent division of PMS Motor efferent division of PMS Visceral sensory fiber central nervous Parasym pathetic System motor fiber of ANS CNS amp Sympathetic Viscera organ motor fiber of ANS H Spinal 5km K cord V Somatic sensory fiber J Motor fiber of somatic nervous system Skeletal muscle I s i 1 It I Conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles Peripheral nervous system PNS b Key 0 Structure I Function Central nervous system CNS 0 Brain and spinal cord I Integrative and control centers t 1 o Cranial nerves and spinal nerves I Communication lines between the CNS and the rest of the body 39 o Somatic and visceral sensory nerve fibers I Conducts impulses from receptors to the CNS 0 Motor nerve fibers I Conducts impulses from the CNS to effectors muscles and glands Key Sensory afferent division of PMS Motor efferent division of PMS Visceral sensory fiber central nervous Parasym pathetic System motor fiber of ANS CNS k Sympathetic Viscera organ motor fiber of ANS L H Spinal Skm cord V Somatic sensory fiber V Motor fiber of somatic nervous Skeletal muscle I Mobilizes body systems during activity i system o Visceral motor involuntary I Conducts impulses voluntary I Conserves energy I Promotes housekeeping functions during rest la from the CNS to cardiac muscles smooth muscles and glands 4 o Somatic motor I Conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles Peripheral nervous system PNS lb Central nervous system CNS 0 Brain and spinal cord I Integrative and Ke y control centers o Structure I Function 1 1 Peripheral nervous system PNS o Cranial nerves and spinal nerves I Communication lines between the CNS and the rest of the body Sensory afferent division I Somatic and visceral sensory nerve fibers I Conducts impulses from receptors to the CNS Autonomic nervous system ANS o Visceral motor involuntary I Conducts impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscles smooth muscles and glands Sympathetic division I Mobilizes body systems during activity Parasympathetic division I Conserves energy I Promotes housekeeping functions during rest a 4 Motor efferent division 0 Motor nerve fibers I Conducts impulses from the CNS to effectors muscles and glands Somatic nervous system I Somatic motor voluntary Key Sensory afferent division of PMS Motor efferent division of PMS Visceral sensory fiber central nervous Parasym pathetic System motor fiber of ANS CNS amp Sympathetic Viscera organ motor fiber of ANS H Spinal 5km K cord V Somatic sensory fiber J Motor fiber of somatic nervous system Skeletal muscle I s i 1 It I Conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles Peripheral nervous system PNS b omponents of nervous system Histology of Nerve Tissue I The two principal cell types of the nervous system are I Supporting cells cells that surround and wrap neurons aka neuroglia or glial cells I Neurons excitable cells that transmit electrical signals Supporting Cells Neuroglia I The supporting cells neuroglia or glial cells I Provide a supportive scaffolding for neurons I Segregate and insulate neurons I Guide young neurons to the proper connections I Promote health and growth Neuroglia or glial cells I CNS I Astrocytes I Microglia I Ependymal cells I Oligo dendrOcytes I PNS I Satellite cells I Schwann cells gtmonltm Astrocytes Most abundant versatile and highly branched glial cells They cling to neurons and their synaptic endings and cover capillaries a Astrocyte Capillary Neuron Figure 113a Astrocytes Capillary Neuron a Astrocyte Figure 11321 Astrocytes I Functionally they I Support and brace neurons I Anchor neurons to their nutrient supplies I Guide migration of young neurons I Control the chemical environment Microglia and Ependymal Cells m Microglia small ovoid cells With spiny processes Neuron Phagocytes that monitor the health of neurons other immune cells cannot enter CNS Ependymal cells range in shape from squamous to columnar W K I Jr 3 193941n They lrne the central 39m a I n cavities of the brain c Ependymal cells 39 Brain or spinal cord tissue and sprnal column Figure 113b c Oligodendrocytes Oligodsndrocytss branchsd calls that wrap CNS nsrvs fibers crsating an insulatsd covsr Myelin sheath Process of oligodendrocyte Nerve fibers I PNS I Satellite cells I Schwann cells Satellite Cells so named because they circle like a satellite around a planet What do you call a glia when it s happy Schwann cells forming myelin sheath f 1 Smyslin smylin smiling gat it What do you call a group of brains who form a singing group at school A glia Club Neurons Nerve Cells I What do neurons use to talk to each other I Billions of cell phones Neurons Nerve Cells I Structural units of nervous system billions of em I Composed of a body axon and dendrites I Long lived 1OO yrs amitotic we know What that means right and have a high metabolic rate need lots of 02 and glucose I Their plasma membrane functions in I Electrical signaling I Cell tocell signaling during development Neurons Nerve Cells Dendrites Cell body receptive biosynthetic center regions and receptive region Nucleolus impu se Nucleus generating IFPPUI 9 Nissl bodies and condUCt39W W Node of Ranvier 991 aquot 39 39 quot Axon terminals Axon hIllock Schwann ce N secretory Neurilemma one inter39 region node Terminal branches Neuron cell body spme m H d n e D Nerve Cell Body Perikaryon or Soma outgrowth of neuronal processes embryonic I Contains the nucleus and a Dendrites Cell body receptive biosynthetic center IlUClGOlUS regions and receptive region I Has well developed Nissl bodies rough ER I Is the focal point for the Nucleolus I Contains an axon hillock cone shaped area from Nucleus Nissl bodies Wh1ch axons ar1se 3g e Axon hillock I Part of the receptive region Nerve Cell Body Perikaryon or Soma I Has no centrioles Why not I Which Cliche would a neuron not use I Let s make like a tree and leave I Let s get the ock out of here I Let s bounce I Let s split Processes are Arrnlike extensions from the soma cell body CNS contains cell bodies and processes PNS contains chie y processes Why There are two types dendrites and axons Bundles of axons are called I Tracts in the CNS and nerves in the PNS Processes are axons and dendrites Dendrites receptive regions Q Dendrites of Motor Neurons Dendrites receptive I Short tapering and regions diffusely branched processes I One neuron usually has many dendrites up to 10000 I They are the receptive or input regions of the neuro I Convey info toward the oe Axons Structure I Slender processes of uniform diameter arising from the hillock carrying information away from the cell I Long axons are called nerve fibers I One leads from the big toe up the leg past the cell body near the spinal cord into the cord and up to the brainstem a couple meters or more I Usually there is only one unbranched axon per neuron I Axonal terminal branched terminus of an axon aka telodendria I 10000 or more terminal branches Axons Structure N V 39 gtIV fa l V O C xon impulse t Impulse g geggnlgfctin direction Axon terminals g Node of Ranvrer secretory greglon a gs I Iv re Ion I 39 gt Jl I l x g Schwann cell N one inter Neurllemma node Terminal branches Axons are the conducting region leading to the secretory region Aka axon terminals synaptic knobs or boutons Myelin Sheath I Whitish fatty proteinlipoid segmented sheath around most long AXONS I NEVER found on dendrites Myelin Sheath and Neurilemma Formation I Formed by Schwann cells in the PNS I Who does this in the CNS I A Schwann cell I Envelopes an axon in a trough I Encloses the axon with its plasma membrane I Has concentric layers of membrane that make up the myelin sheath I Neurilemma remaining nucleus and cytoplasm of a Schwann cell Myelin Sheath and Neurilemma Formation Schwann cell plasma membrane Schwann can i CD A Schwann cell cytoplasm I quot 39 envelopes an axon Axon Schwann cell nucleus quot The Schwann cell then rotates around the axon wrapping its plasma membrane loosely around it in successive layers The Schwann cell cytoplasm is forced from between the membranes The tight membrane wrappings surrounding the axon form the myelin sheath Neurilemma Myelin sheath a Myelination of a nerve fiber axon Myelin Sheath and Neurilemma Formation f V W39 if t D a o A quot39 2quot I dyd s d u g quot39 9 h I i 5 t 39 0 quotquot N 3991 sh 39 o f I 0 quot quot quot v 1 3 39 1 Myelin 39 sheath Schwann cell cytoplasm Neurilemma V I u 39 3 i 139 39 1 quot 39 4 25 399 l o f g b Crosssectional View of a myelinated axon electron micrograph 24000 X Nodes of Ranvier Neurofibral Nodes I Gaps in the myelin sheath between adjacent Schwann cells Myelin Sheath 3 a39 Qs l f Axon Schwann cell terminals Neurilemma OHGinter secretory node Terminal region branches Unmyelinated Axons I A Schwann cell surrounds nerve fibers but coiling does not take place I Schwann cells partially enclose 15 or more axons Axons of the CNS Both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers are present Myelin sheaths are formed by oligodendrocytes Nodes of RanVier are Widely spacyl There is no neurileInIna one Oh covers many axons Regions of the Brain and Spinal Cord I White matter dense collections of myelinated fibers ray matter mostly soma and unmyelinated fibers iIUS impulse genera ng impulse direction gt Node of Ranvier LTl Axonal terminals Axon hillock I Schwann cequot secretory one lnter 1 component ssl bodies Neuron Classification 0116 narve 39 TWO nervs Rad HBI VB Neuron Classification I Structural I Multipolar three or more processes I Bipolar two processes 1 axon and l dendrite I Unipolar single short process Neuron Classification I Functional I Sensory afferent transmit impulses toward the CNS I Motor efferent carry impulses away from the CNS I Interneurons association neurons shuttle signals through CNS pathways a r i Lilli ifif fl s39ilifir i3 i 2quotli i 975 l lfil39 39lfs v67 Structural Class Neuron Type According to the Number of Processes Extending from the Cell Body Many processes extend from the cell body all are dendrites except for a single axon Cell body r 5 a 39 l Dendrites Axon k 39i Two processes extend from the cell body One is a fused dendrite the other is an axon Cell body Md Dendrite Axon One process extends from the cell body and forms central and peripheral processes which together comprise an axon Peripheral Cell body Central process process 1W l Receptive Axon endings Relationship of Anatomy to the Three Functional Regions D Receptive region receives stimulus Plasma membrane exhibits chemically gated ion channels 1 0 sm ltlt w quot I ggervzcne39 E Conducting region generatestransmits action potential Plasma membrane exhibits voltagegated Na and K channels 0 Trigger zone Many bipolar neurons do not generate action potentials and in those that do the location of the trigger zone is not universal D Secretory region axon terminals release neurotransmitters Plasma membrane exhibits voltagegated Ca channels i quot V A H 0 rquot a h a Q I Trigger zone fifigfttltieiit I r a Eli 151 iiei quot ai Lilli 39 33l 1 lt39gta i i lll iio 39 5 i l lf ik39is Relative Abundance and Location in Human Body Most abundant in body Major neuron Rare Found in some special sensory organs Found mainly in the PNS Common only in type in the CNS olfactory mucosa eye ear dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord and Common as cars sensory ganglia of cranial nerves I feel that these Structural Variations Rafa as glass 3763 L 1 L 39clI39B JUSL 1Il DBLWBBII Multipolar Bipolar Unipolar l l l l l Dendrites Receptive endings V Dendrite Peripheral 39 process bady axon Cell Cell body Cell body quot Axon body Cell Axon Central body process Axon Axon axon J Purkinje cell of cerebellum Pyramidal cell Olfactory cell Retinal cell Dorsal root ganglion cell Bad drivers in California are Having a sixth as common as sense is ms as rare as multipolar W neurons bipolar cells Multipolar Bipolar l iquot 7quot139 I 1 l U l y ii Dendrites fl ll l l39 I Dendrite 39 r l 39 i I Cell Cell body Axon body Axon Axon i Purkinje cell of cerebellum Pyramidal cell Olfactory cell Retinal cell I feel that these are just in between Unipolar Receptive 1 endings 1 Peripheral process axon Cell i body Central process axon Dorsal root ganglion cell f Functional Class Neuron Type According to Direction of Impulse Conduction F1 ill l l3 quotl39la 739 l 391 g 3339 i39 quotllbfi39 El l li i 39l r 1 Most multipolar neurons are interneu rons association neurons that conduct impulses within the CNS integrating sen sory input or motor output may be one of a chain of CNS neurons or a single neu ron connecting sensory and motor neurons 2 Some multipolar neurons are motor neurons that conduct impulses along the efferent pathways from the CNS to an effector musclegland lnterneuron association neuron Motor neuron Impulse Muscle Essentially all bipolar neurons are sensory neurons that are located in some special sense organs For example bipolar cells of the retina are involved with the transmission of visual inputs from the eye to the brain via an intermediate chain of neurons Bipolar neuron of retina of eye Most unipolar neurons are sensory neurons that conduct impulses along afferent path ways to the CNS for interpretation These sensory neurons are called primary or first order sensory neurons Sensory neuron Skin Impulse Neuron animation Axon 39 Axosomatic synapses postsynaptic Soma of r neuron Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Central Nervous 12 System Part A Central Nervous System CNS I CNS composed of the brain and spinal cord I First The Brain surface anatomy includes cerebral hemispheres cerebellum and brain stem among other stuff I Composed of wrinkled pinkish gray tissue I About 3 lbs of soft cheese Ricotta alfomo Fresh creamy slightly sweet and lowfat typically around 5 fat with a finely grained texture and a pure white color In this form it is somewhat similar in texture to some cottage cheese variants though considerably lighter Like many fresh cheeses it is highly perishable Brain al demento Not sure how it tastes it contains a lot of fat but yes it is highly perishable The Brain Embryonic Development Anterior rostral end gt Surface Level of ectoderm section Neural a 19 days plate Neural folds gt groove 3 20 days gt c 22 days Surface ectoderm gt d 26 days Neural Tube and Primary Brain Vesicles a Neural tube Anterior rostral Posterior caudan b Primary brain vesicles Prosencephalon quot forebrain Mesencephalon midbrain Rhombencephalon hindbrain 28 days Right after neural tube formation 3 P b V s form Secondary Brain Vesicles c Secondary brain vesicles Week 5 about 35 days S b V form Telencephalon Thess then bacoms adult brain structurss Diencephalon Mesencephalon Metencephalon Myelencephalon Secondary Brain Vesicles c Secondary brain vesicles Diencephalon 1 K 2 Mesencephalon I 2 J Metencephalon I Myelencephalon v ix Adult Neural Canal Regions nicely color coordinated a Neural tube Anterior rostral Posterior caudal b Primary brain vesicles c Secondary brain vesicles d Adult brain structures e Adult neural canal regions Prosencephalon forebrain Mesencephalon midbrain Rhombencephalon hindbrain i 397 quot nquot 39 Telencephalon Diencephalon Mesencephalon Metencephalon Myelencephalon Cerebrum cerebral hemispheres cortex white matter basal nuclei Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Adult Neural Canal Regions d Adult brain e Adult neural c Secondary braln vesucles structures cana39 regions Cerebrum cerebral Lateral ventricles Telencephalon hemispheres cortex white matter basal nuclei Third ventricle Diencephalon I know that one Mesencephalon Brain stern midbrain Cerebral aqueduct Metencephalon Brain stem pans Myelencephalon Brain stem medulla oblongata J Spinal cord Central canal Anterior rostral Posterior caudal Metencephalon Mesencephalon Diencephalon Midbrain Flexures Cervical Spinal cord Tele halon Myelence Ion 5 k a wee s Cerebral hemisphere Diencephalon Outline of diencephalon Cerebellum Midbrain B t mmsem Cerebellum oMidbrain Pons Pons Medulla oblon ata 39MedUHa b 13 weeks 9 oblongata Spinal cord Cerebral hemisphere Cerebellum c 26 weeks pans Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Ventricles of the Brain I Arise from expansion of the lumen of the neural tube I Continuous system ventricles 9 spinal central canal I Lined With ependymal cells remember them Microglia and Ependymal Cells Ependymal cells range in shape from squamous to columnar They line the central cavities of the brain and spinal column 39 csf Fluidfilled cavity i 139 i a I A g 39 MH 39 1 l c Ependymal cells A Brain or spinal cord tissue Ventricles of the Brain I The ventricles are I The paired C shaped lateral ventricles I The third ventricle found in the diencephalon I The fourth ventricle found in the hindbrain dorsal to the pons Ventricles of the Brain Lateral ventricle Septum pellucidum Anterior horn Posterior horn Inferior 1 horn Q lnterventricular foramen Third ventricle Inferior horn Cerebral aqueduct Fourth ventricle Central canal a Anterior view b Left lateral view Lateral aperture Median aperture Lateral aperture Cerebral Hemispheres Cerebral Hemispheres Form the superior part of the brain and make up 83 of its mass Contain ridges gyri and shallow grooves suloi Contain deep grooves called fissures Are separated by the longitudinal fissure Anterior Longitudinal C rtex k fissure gray matter sulcus White matter Sulcus Fissure 39 a deep sulcus was if g 5 g p 39 39I 5 I U 5 o 39I I A a quot f r lt f39l Hg if 4 Left cerebral Right hemisphere cerebral hemisphere Posterior 39 l 3 3 Left cerebral 39 hemisphere 1 Transverse cerebral fissure d Cerebral Hemispheres I Have three basic regions cortex White matter and basal nuclei Cerebral cortex Caudate nucleus Globus pallidus nucleus Putamequot Lentiform Thalamus b Posterior Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Major Lobes Gyri and Sulci of the Cerebral Hemisphere I Deep suloi divide the hemispheres into five lobes I Frontal parietal temporal occipital and insula I Central sulcus separates the frontal and parietal lobes Parietal lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe Frontal be A V lobe 4 w J w quotf P Gyri of insula Major Lobes Gyri and Sulci of the Cerebral Hemisphere I Parietooccipital sulcus separates the parietal and occipital lobes I Lateral sulcus separates the parietal and temporal lobes I The precentral and postcentral gyri border the central sulcus OK this is easy Precentral Central QVVUS sulcus Postcentral gyrus Parietooccipital sulcus on medial surface of hemisphere Lateral sulcus Cerebral Cortex I The cortex superficial gray matter accounts for 40 of the mass of the brain I Mostly interneurons I It enables sensation communication memory understanding and voluntary movements I Each hemisphere acts contralaterally controls the opposite side of the body I Hemispheres are symmetrical in structure but not in function Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex I The following program is a gross simplification No real self respecting brain would operate in such a basic rnanner Most behaviors involve the entire corteX working together but to teach it you have to slice it into parts that are understandable Besides how much would there be to teach if we just said This is your brain This is your brain functioning Everything you are and do comes from and goes back to it somewhere Any questions Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex I The three types of functional areas are not motor or sensory nerves but areas containing interneurons I Motor areas not called nerves control voluntary movement I Sensory areas not called nerves conscious awareness of sensation I Association areas integrate diverse information Association lightcr arca Motor rod Scnsory bluc Motor areas Centra sucus Sensory areas and related asso 39 39 Primary motor cortex Premotor cortex Frontal eye field Primary somatosensory cortex omatic 39 quot Stensor sensation assocuatlon cortex Broca s area I outlined by dashes I Gustatory cortex in insula Taste Wernicke s area outlined by dashes Primary visual cortex Visual VISIOl l association area s A I Auditory assomatlon area Primary auditory cortex Hearing I Primary motor cortex I Motor association cortex I Primary sensory cortex I Sensory association cortex l Multimodal association cortex Violct multimodal association Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Cingulate Primary Premotor cortex Primary somatosensory cortex ParIe a obe Somatosensory association cortex Parietooccipital sulcus Occipital lobe Visual association area y f f i Primary as visual cortex Uncus Calcarine sulcus Primary Parahippocampal olfactory cortex gyrus I Primary motor cortex I Motor aSSOCiation Cortex I Primary sensory cortex I Sensory association cortex D Multimodal association cortex Cerebral Cortex Motor Areas Primary somatic motor cortex Premotor cortex Brooa s area Frontal eye field Primary Motor Cortex I Located in the precentral gyrus I Pyramidal cells neurons that are pyramid shaped Whose axons make up the corticospinal cortex to the spine tracts I Allows conscious control of precise skilled voluntary movements Primary Motor Cortex Homunculus Motor map in precentral gyrus o Somatotopy Primary mofor cortexo prpcentral gyrus Tongue Swallowing 39 l Primary Motor Cortex Homunculus Somatotopy kinda like a topographical map of the body Soma body Topo place Premotor Cortex Located anterior to the precentral gyrus Controls learned repetitious or patterned motor skills use this area to learn snowboarding or guitar Coordinates simultaneous or sequential actions Involved in the planning of movements Association lighter area Motor areas Cen ral sulcus Primary motor cortex Premotor cortex Broca s Area I Broca s area I Located anterior to the inferior region of the premotor area I Present in one hemisphere usually the left Rem Hemispheres are symmetrical in structure but not in function I A motor speech area that directs muscles of the tongue I Is active as one prepares to speak Motor areas Primary motor cortex Premotor cortex Broca s area outlined by dashes u w gtmJgtkaOE Frontal Eye Field I Frontal eye field I Located anterior to the premotor cortex and superior to Broca s area I Controls voluntary eye movement Motor areas Primary motor cortex Premotor cortex Frontal eye field Broca s area outlined by dashes Sensory Areas I Primary somatosensory cortex I Somatosensory association cortex I Visual and auditory areas Primary Somatosensory Cortex I Located in the postcentral gyrus this area I Receives information from the skin and skeletal muscles I Exhibits spatial discrimination it can tell Where the info originates from It can tell What discrete space spatial discrimination is being stimulated Primary Somatosensory Cortex Homunculus T068 Genitals 1 get Gums J 8W Tongue Prim ry somato sensory cortex postcentral gyrus Pharynx Intra abdominal Somatosensory Association Cortex Located posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex Integrates sensory information Forms comprehensive understanding of the stimulus Determines size texture and relationship of parts Association lighter area Central sulcus association areas Primary somatosensory cortex Somatosensory association cortex Gustatory cortex in insula Wernicke s area Primary visual cortex Visual association area Auditory association area Primary auditory cortex Sensory areas and related Somatic sensa on Taste outlined by clashes Vision Hea ng Visual Areas I Primary Visual striate cortex I Seen on the extreme posterior tip of the occipital lobe I Most of it is buried in the calcarine sulcus I Largest of all cortical sensory areas I Receives Visual information from the retinas Visual Areas I Visual association area I Surrounds the primary visual cortex I Interprets visual stimuli e g color form and movement a red rose is not a rose and is not red until this area says so I However that s simplistic recent experiments have shown that visual processing involves the entire posterior half of the cerebral hemispheres Primary visual cortex Visual association Vision area Auditory Areas I Primary auditory cortex I Located at the superior margin of the temporal lobe I Receives information related to pitch rhythm and loudness Auditory Areas I Auditory association area I Located posterior to the primary auditory cortex I Stores memories of sounds and permits perception of sounds I Wernicke s area includes parts of the auditory corteX for sounding out unfamiliar words Wernicke s area outlined by dashes Auditory association area Primary auditory cortex Hearing Association Areas The Club Around the pool Hangin out in the room The cafeteria Association Areas Prefrontal cortex Language areas General common interpretation area Visceral association area Prefrontal Cortex I Most complicated cortical region I Located in the anterior portion of the frontal lobe I Involved With intellect cognition recall and personality I Necessary for judgment reasoning persistence and conscience I Closely linked to the limbic system emotional part of the brain Prefrontal cortex Working memory for spatial tasks Executive area for task management Working memory for objectrecall tasks Solving complex multitask problems Lateralization of Cortical Function Lateralization each hemisphere has abilities not shared With its partner Cerebral dominance designates the hemisphere dominant for language Left hemisphere controls language math and logic and right hemisphere controls Visual spatial skills emotion and artistic skills 90 of people 2 left dominant 10 of people it s equal or reversed If reversed usually shows as a left handed person End of Cortex Info I Yes that was just for the cortex of the brain Now part II of III the Cerebral White Matter I know it s been awhile What three parts am I talking about d Adult brain e Adult neural 3 secondary mam ves39des structures canal regions Cerebrum cerebral Talencephalon hemispheres cortex white matter basal nuclei The brain was easy This one is really tough Cerebral White Matter I Consists of deep rnyelinated fibers and their tracts I CNS bundles of nerves 2 tracts PNS nerve I It is responsible for communication between I The cerebral corteX and lower CNS centers and areas of the cerebrum Cerebral White Matter I Types include color coded I Commissures connect corresponding gray areas of the two hemispheres I Association fibers connect different parts of the same hemisphere I Projection fibers enter the hemispheres from lower brain or cord centers Fiber Tracts in White Matter Commissural fibers corpus callosum Superior Association fibers Corona radiata Internal capsule Gray matter White matter Projection fibers Fiber Tracts in White Matter Association fibers Commissural fibers corpus callosum Corona 1 radiata 1 u Internal capsule Gray matter White matter Projection fibers End of Cerebral White Matter I guess it wasn t so tough after all But this next section is real bad Now part III of III Basal Nuclei I Masses of gray matter found deep Within the cortical white matter I Caudatc nucleus I Lcntifcrm nuclcus composed of thc putamcn and thc globus pallidus Basal Nuclei Fibers of corona radiata Caudate nucleus Lentiform o u amen strlatum Globus pallidus deep to putamen Tail of caudate nucleus Projection fibers run deep to lentiform nucleus Basal Nuclei Corpus callosum Caudate nucleus Putamen Globus Lentiform pallidus nucleus Tail of caudate nucleus Posterior Basal Nuclei Caudate nucleus Lentiform nucleus Functions of Basal Nuclei I Functions of basal nuclei I In uence muscular activity I Regulate attention and cognition I Regulate intensity of slow or stereotyped movements like arm swing with walking I Inhibit antagonistic and unnecessary movement Functions of Basal Nuclei I T ourette syndrome happens With disorders of the globus pallidus End of Basal Nuclei I guess it wasn t so bad after all Diencephalon NOW onto the diencephalon d Adult brain structures e Adult neural c Secondary brain vesicles canal reglons 39 Cerebrum cerebral 39 Telencephalon hemispheres cortex white matter basal nuclei Diencephalon Diencephalon I Consists of three paired structures thalamus hypothalamus and epithalamus Diencephalon lnterthalamic adhesion intermediate Thalamus mass 0 encloses third a amus ventricle Pineal gland part of epithalamus Hypothalamus Thalamus I Paired eggshaped masses that form the superolateral walls of the third ventricle I Connected at the midline by the intermediate rnass I Contains four groups of nuclei anterior ventral dorsal and posterior but lots of nuclei per group I Nuclei project and receive fibers from specific parts of the cerebral corteX Thalamus Dorsal nuclei I 39Medial Lateral Laterall dorsal Anterior nuclear group Reticular nucleus Ventral Ventral Ventral postero Ianterior lateral atera I I Ventral nuclei posterior Pulvinar Medial geniculate body Lateral eniculate b t I auditory I I Visual I Touch pressure pain Thalamic Function I Afferent impulses from all senses converge and synapse in the thalamus I Impulses of similar function are sorted out edited and relayed as a group I All inputs ascending to the cerebral corteX pass through the thalamus Gateway to the Cerebral Cortex I Plays a key role in mediating sensation motor activities cortical arousal learning and memory Thalamus is the gateway to the cortex Arch of the General Staff Building in Palace Square St Petersburg Hypothalamus I Located below the thalamus it caps the brainstem and forms the inferolateral walls of the third ventricle I Infundibulum stalk of the hypothalamus connects to the pituitary gland I Main Visceral control center of the body Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Hypothalamic Nuclei Paraventricular nucleus Anter Dorsomedial commis e nucleus Preoptic I Posterior nucleus hypothalamlc Anterior I nucleus l mi 1 g j n ggnga 6 k 39 39 V Lateral Su raoptic J hypothalam39c p I area 39 x nucleus r Supra i g A Ventromedlal 39 I m A 39 n v I I V chuasmatlc A ammllla Arcuate body nucleus chiasma lnfundibulum stalk of the o ituitary glan r Hypothalamic Function Regulates blood pressure rate and force of heartbeat digestive tract motility rate and depth of breathing and many other visceral activities Is involved With perception of pleasure fear and rage Controls body temperature Regulates feelings of hunger and satiety Regulates sleep and the sleep cycle Endocrine Functions Endocrine Functions of the Hypothalamus I Releasing hormones control secretion of hormones by the anterior pituitary I The supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei produce ADH and oxytocin Hypothalamic Nuclei araventricular nucleus I Oxytocin and ADH Supraoptic nucleus ADH and oxytocin Epithalamus I Pineal gland extends from the posterior border and secretes melatonin I Melatonin a hormone involved with sleep regulation sleep wake cycles and mood I Choroid plexus a structure that secretes cere W5 39 spinal uid CSF Diencephalon Pineal gland part of epithalamus Diencephalon is lnterthalamic adhesion intermcfediate Thalamus 231315 encloses third ventricle Pineal gland part of epithalamus Hypothalamus NOW onto the brainstem d Adult brain e Adult neural c Secondary brain vesicles structures canal regions Cerebrum cerebral Lateral ventricles Talencephalon hemispheres cortex white matter basal nuclei Third ventricle Diencephalon Mesencephalo39 Cerebral aqueduct Metenceph Ion Myelencepha Fourth ventricle Brain Stem Brain Stem Midbrain Pons Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Brain Stem Cerebellum removed from here Q View c Brain Stem I Consists of three regions midbrain pons medulla oblongata I Contains embedded nuclei within the white matter I Controls automatic behaviors necessary for survival I Provides the pathway for tracts between higher and lower brain centers I Associated with 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves Brain Stem Except I do want you to know the red circles w d i 1 El Thalamus M Oculomotor nerve Ill Idbram Pons rochlear nerve IV Meduua oblongata Pons Facial nerve VII Middle cerebellar x quot Abducens nerve VI Vestibulocochlear nerve VIII Iv Glossopharyngeal nerve IX Hypoglossal nerve XII Vagus nerve X Accessory nerve XI Ventral root of first cervical nerve Decussation of pyramids I o 0 o I t a Ventral View Spinal cord i r 2 gt f 1 View a gt 1 N Hypothalamus Vi39 V a h Diencephalon Brainstem Brain Stem a M4 v p Thalamus j View c Diencephalon l Midbrai O 39Superir corpora collIc quadrigemina 39 f I olnerior of tectum Pineal land was x V Trochlear nerve IV 9 quot o eduncle 39ons e le cerebellar peduncle Glossopharyngeal ne Vagus nerve X Accessory nerve V A Thalamus Hypothalamus Midbrain Except I do want you to know the red circles EMS I Medulla oblongata Diencephalon Brain Stem a f f f I 5 39 L Crus cerebri of rebral peduncles ml in And Superior colliculus Inferior colliculus lnfundibulum Pituitary gland ellar peduncle 393 Sup a 39 Middle cerebellar peduncle ior cerebellar peduncle chlear nerve VIII Ial nerve VII Abducens nerve VI Glossopharyngeal nerve I Hypoglossal nerve XII II Thalamus Diencephalon Vagus nerve X Accessory nerve XI E Pons rainstem I Medulla oblongata b Left lateral view Midbrain I Located between the diencephalon and the pons I Nuclei that control cranial nerves III oculomotor and IV trochlear I Corpora quadrigemina four domelike protrusions of the dorsal midbrain I Superior colliculi Visual re eX centers I Inferior colliculi auditory relay centers I Substantia nigra functionally linked to basal nuclei I Red nucleus largest nucleus of the ICWLlOH red nuclei are relay nuclei for som escending motor pathways 7 Midbrain Nuclei KI l V Superior colliculus Tectum Dorsal Periaqueductal gray matter Oculomotor nucleus Ill f Vledial emnlscus Red Cerebral aqueduct Reticular formation Fibers of y pyramidal tract 39 quot l V Ventral Crus cerebri of a Midbrain cerebral peduncle What do these two have in common I Substantia nigra Pons I Bulging brainstem region between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata I Fibers of the pons I Connect higher brain centers and the spinal cord by pyramidal tracts I Relay impulses between the motor cortex and the cerebellum Pons I Origin of cranial nerves V trigerninal VI abducens and VII facial I Contains nuclei of the reticular formation Fourth ventricle Reticular formation Superior ce enar peduncle Trigeminal main sensory nucleus L L T Trigeminal motor nucleus Middle cerebellar peduncle Trigeminal Ponltlne nerve V c el 39 39 Fibers of Medlal lemnIscus pyramidal b Pons tract Medulla Oblongata I Most inferior part of the brain stem I Contains a choroid plexus on the ventral wall of the fourth ventricle Medulla Oblongata 4 1 Fourth ventricle Choroid plexus Solitary nucleus Vestibular nuclear Hypoglossal n us XII Dorsal motor nucle loffvagusXb H complex VIII n erIor cere e ar New m r peduncle X glint COG 93 Av e nucleIVlll rm 9 Lateral Mfg E nuclea E group Nucleus g Medial mblguus 3 nuclear 3 group lnferio ivary 0 Raphe nucleus a nucleus P ramid Medial lemnlscus y c Medulla oblongata Medulla Nuclei I Cardiovascular control center adjusts force and rate of heart contraction I Respiratory centers control rate and depth of breathing The Cerebellum I Located dorsal to the pons and medulla I Protrudes under the occipital lobes of the cerebrum I Makes up 11 of the brain s mass I Provides precise timing and appropriate patterns of unconscious skeletal muscle contraction ie Postural muscles mostly keeps you from falling over I Cerebellar activity occurs subconsciously The Cerebellum Anterior lobe Arbor vitae Cerebellar cortex Posterior lobe Flocculonodular lobe Anatomy of the Cerebellum I Two bilaterally symmetrical hemispheres connected medially by the vermis I Each hemisphere has three lobes anterior posterior and flocculonodular I Neural arrangement gray matter corteX internal White matter scattered nuclei I Arbor Vitae distinctive treelike pattern of the cerebellar White matter The Cerebellum Anterior lobe Primary fissure Posterior I s Jrovquot quot I o b e l 39 rv39 Horizontal fissure Vermis Anterior l lobe Posterior lobe d Vermis Cerebellar end That s it The rest is spinal cord and we do that as a separate section Mesencephalon Metencephalon Myelencephalon Functional Brain System I Networks of neurons working together and spanning wide areas of the brain I The two systems are I Limbic system for emotion and memory I Reticular formation Limbic System Emotion and Cognition Structures located on the medial aspects of cerebral n ispheres and diencephalon I Includes e rhinencephalon amygdala hypothalamu nd anterior nucleus of the thalamus I Parts especially impo nt in emotions are amygdala and cingulate gyrus I Hippocampal structures conver eW information 1nto longterm memor1es I Includes olfactory system Limbic System I Puts emotional responses to odors eg skunks smell bad but D U U D D D D D a D D U111 Limbic System Emotion and Cognition I The limbic system interacts With the prefrontal lobes therefore I One can react emotionally to conscious understandings I One is consciously aware of emotion in one s life Limbic System Fiber tracts connecting limbic Diencephalic structures System Structures of the lImbIc system Fomix Anterior commissure Anterior thala nuclei flanking ventricl pothalamus Mammi ary body Cerebral struc tures of the limbic system Cingulate gyrus Setal nuclei 0W Hippocampus Dentate gyrus Parahippocampal W gyrus Reticular Formation I Reticular formation Reticular Formation I Has farflung axonal connections With hypothalamus thalamus cerebrum cerebellum and spinal cord Reticular Formation Radiations to cerebral lt g cortex Visual impulses Auditory impulses eticular formation Ascending general 7 sensory tracts touch pain temperature Descending motor projections to spinal cord Reticular Formation RAS I RAS reticular activating system I Sends impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep it conscious and alert I Filters out repetitive and weak stimuli H I g n v vr H L Q 7 V 7 5 V w I f y7 u fl IltltV 7 quotj KS ZQ KK 391 U U 5 E Protection of the Brain I The brain is protected by bone meninges and cerebrospinal uid I Harmful substances are shielded from the brain by the bloodbrain barrier Meninges I Three connective tissue membranes lie external to the CNS dura mater arachnoid mater and pia mater Bone of skull Perigsteal Dura Menlngeal mater Arachnoid mater Dura Mater I Leathery strong rneninX composed of two fibrous connective tissue layers I The two layers separate in certain areas and form dural sinuses Meninges Superior sagittal sinus Dura Mater Supe or sagittal sinus Straight sinus Dura Mater Supe or sagittal sinus re a my an mm DT Arachnoid Mater I The middle rneninX which forms a loose brain covering I It is separated from the dura mater by the subdural space I Beneath the arachnoid is a Wide subarachncid space filled with CSF and large blood vessels Meninges f 555 r 39 o s Arachnoid mater noid villus l Subarachnoid space Pia Mater I Deep meninX composed of delicate connective tissue that clings tightly to the brain Meninges Cerebrospinal Fluid CSF Watery solution similar in composition to blood plasma Forms a liquid cushion that gives buoyancy to the CNS organs Protects the CNS from trauma Nourishes the brain and carries chemical signals Light blue areas contain CSF d Adult br 39 e Adult neural c Secondary braln vesucles structures cana39 regions Cerebrum cerebral ateral ventricles white matter basal nuclei Telencephalon hemispheres cortex Third ventricle Diencephalon Mesencephalon Brain stem midbrain Cerebral aqueduct Metencephalon Brain stem pons Myelencephalon Brain stem medulla oblongata J Spinal cord Central canal Meninges Subarachnoid space is filled with CSF and large blood vessels Choroid Plexuses I Clusters of capillaries that form tissue uid filters which hang from the roof of each ventricle I Help cleanse CSF by removing wastes Choroid Plexuses Ependymal cells quotH r capl a y Section Connective 0f Choroid tissue of plexus pia mater l a Q 22f cavity of orms as a flltrate ventricle contaInIng glucose oxygen vitamins and ions Na Cl M923 etc Wastes and unnecessary solutes absorbed CSF Arachnoid Villi protrudo superiorly and permit CSF to be absorbed into venous blood Arachnoid mater m noid villus 139 v 1 Subarachnoid space BloodBrain Barrier I Protective mechanism that helps maintain a stable environment for the brain I Bloodborne substances are separated from neurons by I Continuous endothelium of capillary walls I Relatively thick basal lamina I Bulbous feet of astrocytes Dura mater Terminus of 1quot medulla oblongata 1 of brain cervical Sectioned spinal Spinal roots pedlcles of f n g s cervical cell cal t vertebrae en argemen quot Posterior median sulcus of spinal cord Dura and b q 39 arachnoid Spinal cord mater 7 i y Vertebral Thoracic V 39 5 arc spinal nerves Denticulate Denticulate ligament ligament Lumbar Posterior enlargement Arachnoid median Conus mater su39cus medullaris 394 Dorsal root Lumbar caUda spinal nerves Dura mater eq 39 i 9 My I l c 39 39 erminalef quot f H i H7 Cauda Conus medullaris a Spinous process of second lumbar vertebra Filum k terminale Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings ofb oblongata Dorsal rootlets Terminus of medulla raIn Spinal nerve median sulcus of spinal cord I O u u 3 rquot b Cervical spinal cord Cranial A3 33 um mm 19 El 3 dura mater Sec oned pedicles of Vertebral e m m w t m w m m m Sm m r 9 m w I U S n M n h t r d c r II a39 r D m D m 5D 3 m o a I h s AT T n o e m m P s m c Ia II u m c r u o n h e T d c Denticulate quot ligament Arachnoi mater d Adult brain e Adult neural 3 Sec mda y mam Ves39c39es structures canal regions Cerebrum cerebral Lateral ventricles Te39encephalon hemispheres cortex white matter basal nuclei Third ventricle Diencephalon Mesencephalon Cerebral aqueduct Metencephalon Fourth ventricle Myelencephalon Central canal Spinal Cord I CNS tissue is enclosed Within the vertebral column from the foramen magnum to L1 I Provides twoway communication to and from the brain a 2 33 o e gm 2 E t 3 4 A I 39 e g i if MR Spinal Cord Spinal Cord I Protected by bone meninges and CSF I spinal dura mater arachnoid mater and pia mater I Epidural space space between the vertebrae and the dural sheath dura mater filled With fat and a network of veins Pia mater Arachnoid mater Epidural space contains fat Subdural space Spina meninges Dura mater Subarachnoid space contains CSF Bone of vertebra Dorsal root gangHon Body of vertebra Vertebral e m m w t m w m m m Sm m r 9 m w I U S n M n h t r d c r II a39 r D m D m 5D 3 m o a I h s AT T n o e m m P s m c Ia II u m c r u o n h e T d c Denticulate quot ligament Arachnoi mater Spinal Cord I Ends between L1 and L2 I Below that is an ideal location for a spinal tap I Conus medullaris terminal portion of the spinal cord Lumbar Tap Inter vertebral disc Arachnoid matter L Dura mater Ligamentum flavum Lumbar puncture needle entering subarachnoid space H Supra spinous ligament Filum terminale Cauda equina in subarachnoid space Spinal Cord 1 Conus medullaris Lumbar spinal nerves Spinal Cord I Spinal nerves 31 pairs attach to the cord by paired roots I Cervical and lumbar enlargements sites Where nerves serving the upper and lower limbs emerge I Cauda equina collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal Spinal Cord i Cervica CerVica39 5 1 spinal nerves enlargement Dura and arachnoid mater Th rac39 J Spinal nerves Lumbar enlargement Conus A 323 equina ys lna39 quoterves Filum 7 termr f x 1 V r all erves Note anterior and posterior orientation Dorsal root gangHon I Spinal nerve Dorsal root fans out into dorsal rootlets Ventral root yr derived from several ventral rootlets Gray Matter and Spinal Roots I Gray matter consists of soma unrnyelinated processes and neuroglia I Posterior dorsal horns interneurons I Anterior ventral horns interneurons and somatic motor neurons Gray Matter and Spinal Roots Gray commlssure Dorsal horn Gray Ventral horn matter Lateral hrn Dorsal root gangHon 39 I Spinal nerve Dorsal root fans out into dorsal rootlets Ventral root 1 derived from several ventral rootlets Gray Matter Organization I Dorsal half sensory roots and ganglia I Ventral half motor roots I Dorsal and ventral roots fuse laterally to form spinal nerves I Four zones are evident Within the gray matter somatic sensory SS visceral sensory VS visceral motor VM and somatic motor SM Gray Matter Organization Dorsal root sensory Dorsal root ganglion Dorsal horn interneurons Somatic sensory neuron Visceral sensory neuron Visceral f motor Spinal nerve neuron Ventral horn Ventral root motor neurons Somatic motor motor neuron I lnterneurons receiving input from somatic sensory neurons I lnterneurons receiving input from visceral sensory neurons I Visceral motor autonomic neurons I Somatic motor neurons White Matter in the Spinal Cord I Fibers run in three directions ascending descending and transversely I Divided into three funiculi columns posterior lateral and anterior I Each funiculus contains several fiber tracks I Fiber tract names reveal their origin and destination ie spinocerebellar tract or cafeterio bathroom tract I Fiber tracts are composed of axons with similar functions White Matter in the Spinal Cord Dorsal funiculus White Ventral funiculus Co39umns Lateral funiculus Dorsal roet gangHon I Spinal nerve White Matter Pathway Generalizations I Pathways decussate 2 out of 3 ain t bad I Most consist of two or three neurons in a Chain I Pathways are paired one on each side of the spinal cord or brain White Matter Pathway Generalizations Ascending tracts Descending tracts Dorsal Fasciculus gracilis ventral white Fasciculus cuneatus commissure i cl te Lateral reticulospinal tract Dorsal 7 v Lateral spinocerebellar orticospinal tract traCt a t Rubrospinal Ventral 39 t 39 tract tract reticulospinal Lateral tract spinothalamic tract entral corticospinal Ventral spinothalamic tr tract Vestibulos tract Tectospinal tract spinocerebellar if 1 Medial Ascending Pathways Ascending Pathways I Typically pass through a Chain of three neurons I First order I Cell body in a ganglion I From the body to the cord I Second order I Cell body in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord I In the cord up to the thalamus or cerebellum I Third order I Cell body in the thalamus I Thalarnus to somatosensory corteX Lateral spinothalamic tract axons of secondorder neurons Y39 Medulla oblongata Cervical Spinal cord Axons of firstorder neurons Temperature Lumbar spinal cord receptors f quot I C 14 1 b Spinothalamic pathway Primary somatosensory cortex Axons of thirdorder neurons Thalamus Cerebrum Midbrain Cerebellum Pans b Spinothalamic pathway Ascending Pathways I Typically pass through a Chain of throo neurons I First ordor I Cell body in a ganglion WHAT Class of norvo is this T Pain receptors r l I r quotl 1 I l it l iailgield WitQ V r mi 191 1 Iii ir i i lii v xi 3 aha2 g l l 91115 Relative Abundance and Location in Human Body Most abundant in body Major neuron Rare Found in some special sensory organs Found mainly in the PNS Common only in type in the CNS olfactory mucosa eye ear dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord and C sensory ganglia of cranial nerves T Fan 114 of Hanan L LUV Lllub LLLUDU Structural Variations Rafa as glass 3163 o o 1 39 39 are JUSIUIII between Multipolar Bipolar nlpolar l l l l l Dendrites Receptive endings Dendrite Penman V process b0dY axon Cell Cell body Cell body quot Axon b dy Cell Axon Central body process Axon Axon axon Purkinje cell of cerebellum Pyramidal cell Olfactory cell Retinal cell Dorsal root ganglion cell Three Ascending Pathways I The l nonspecific and 2 specific ascending pathways send impulses to the sensory cortex I These pathways are responsible for touch and conscious proprioception I These pass through the thalamus I The 3 spinocerebellar tracts send impulses to the cerebellum and do not contribute to conscious sensory perception Nonspecific Ascending Pathway I l Nonspecific pathways for pain temperature and crude touch Within the lateral and anterior spinothalamic tracts Receive input from many types of sensory receptors Have difficulty localizing the source nonspecific Lateral spinothalamic tract axons of secondorder neurons Axons of firstorder neurons Temperature receptors T Pain receptors Spinothalamic pathway Nonspecific Ascending Pathway I Nonspecific pathway for pain temperature and crude touch Within the lateral spinothalamic tract Primary somatosensory cortex Axons of thirdorder neurons Thalamus Cerebrum Midbrain Cerebellum 4p Pans b Spinothalamic pathway Specific Ascending Pathway I 2 Specific ascending pathways Within the fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus tracts and their continuation in the medial lemniscal tracts aka medial lemniscal system I Single type of receptor I Can be localized precisely Specific Still ends up passing through the thalamus Medial lemniscus tract axons of secondorder neurons Medulla oblongata quot Joint stretch receptor proprioceptor Cervical spinal cord Lumbar spinal cord Touch receptor Dorsal column medial lemniscal pathway Specific Still ends up passing through the thalamus Primary somatosensory cortex Axons of thirdorder neurons Thalamus T Cerebrum Midbrain Cerebellum Pons 7 Dorsal column medial lemniscal pathway Posterior Spinocerebellar Tracts I The posterior spinocerebellar tract I Senses muscle or tendon stretch I Coordinates skeletal muscle activity Posterior Spinocerebellar Tracts Dorsal splnocerebellar tract axons of secondorder neurons Axon of firstorder neuron Muscle spindle proprioceptor a Spinocerebellar pathway Posterior Spinocerebellar Tracts Spinocerebellar pathway Descending Motor Pathways Descending Motor Pathways I Descending tracts deliver efferent impulses from the brain to the spinal cord and are divided into two groups I Direct pathways equivalent to the pyramidal tracts I Indirect pathways essentially all others I Motor pathways involve two neurons upper and lower Pyramidal cells upper motor neurons Cerebrum Midbrain Cerebral peduncle 39 Cerebellum Pons a Pyramidal lateral and ventral corticospinal pathways Ventral l corticospinal tract MeduIIa oblongata Pyramids Decussa on of pyramid Lateral corticospinal tract Cervical spinal cord Skeletal muscle Lumbar spinal cord Somatic motor neurons lower motor neurons a Pyramidal lateral and ventral cor The Direct Pyramidal System I Direct pathways originate with the pyramidal neurons in the precentral gyri I Impulses are sent through the corticospinal tracts and synapse in the anterior horn direct path I Stimulation of anterior horn neurons activates skeletal muscles I The direct pathway regulates fast and fine skilled movements ie Writing Pyramidal cells upper motor Primary motor cortex neurons Internal capsule Dlrect Cerebrum Midbrain Cerebral peduncle Cerebellum Pons a Pyramidal lateral and ventral corticospinal pathways Ventral l corticospinal tract Dlrect Pyramids Decussa on of pyramid Lateral corticospinal tract MeduIIa oblongata Cervical spinal cord Skeletal muscle Lumbar spinal cord Somatic motor neurons lower motor neurons a Pyramidal lateral and ventral cor icospinal pathways Indirect Extrapyramidal System I Includes the brain stem motor nuclei and all motor pathways not part of the pyramidal system I This sys quot 39 e e rubrcspinal vestibulcspinal reticulcspina an 39 n l tracts Indirect Extrapyramidal System These motor pathways are complex and mu 39 naptic and regulate I Axial mus that maintain balance and posture I Muscles controlling 2 se movements of the proximal portions of limbs I Head neck and eye movement Cerebrum Indirect Midbrain Cerebellum Pans a b Rubrospinal tract Indirect Rubrospinal tract 1 Medulla oblongata Cervical spinal cord b Rubrospinal tract Indirect Extrapyramidal Multineuronal Pathways I Retr 0 spinal tracts maintain balance I Rubrospinal tr e control exor muscles I Superior colliculi and tec so inal tracts mediate head movements
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'