Notes for Test 4 minus 11/30 class
Notes for Test 4 minus 11/30 class AVS 1500
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarah Edwards on Sunday November 29, 2015. The Bundle belongs to AVS 1500 at Clemson University taught by Heather Walker Dunn in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/29/15
November 11, 2015 Ruminant Anatomy Book 1. Digestion a. Main digestive differences in animals i. Ruminants ii. Hind-gut fermenters iii. Monogastrics b. Five categories i. Energy 1. Carbohydrates a. Purpose: need for growth, proper development, wool production, milk production, muscle development. b. Simplest form: glucose i. Can come from simple sugar ii. Polysaccharides/ monosaccharide iii. Triglycerides iv. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) 1. Form of energy in ruminants v. Proteins are form of energy, 1. Gluconeogenesis: production of glucose from a nonglucose source. a. Happens when animals don’t have enough energy, so they go to protein to form energy. c. Category of carbohydrates for ruminants/hind-gut fermenters: i. Starch 1. Can be converted into energy. 2. Monogastrics don’t utilize starch in the same way, increases the bulk in fecal matter. 2. The larger the molecule, the more energy it takes for it to be broken down for use. ii. Proteins 1. Made up of individual amino acids 2. Ruminants: dietary protein is met from Non protein Nitrogen (NPN) a. Urea iii. Minerals 1. Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride 2. Trace minerals: copper, zinc 3. Something that is added to animal feed in very minimal amount. iv. Vitamins 1. Water Soluble a. Dissovles in water 2. Fat Soluble a. Dissolves in fat v. Fluids 1. Water is necessary for chemical reactions to occure 2. Helps cushion animals 3. Helps maintain internal body temperature c. Make differences on digestive tract but also diet i. Herbivore ii. Omnivore iii. Carnivore d. Lipids and Fats i. Triglyceride 1. 3 fatty acids “tails” and glycerol “backbone” 2. fatty acid “tails” are long chains of Carbon ii. Solid fat 1. Long fatty acid tails. 2. Has long chain of carbons, no more can fit 3. Saturated fat: saturated with hydrogens iii. Liquid fats 1. Unsaturated Fat: double bonds involved, chains will bend and not stack 2. At room temperature animal product is solid a. Butter 3. Plant oils are liquid at room temperature a. Olive oil 4. 3 carbons in from the omega end of the fatty acid tail, if you find double bond it is considered Omega-3 fatty acid. November 13, 2015 Ruminant Anatomy book 1. More Digestion a. Proteins are considered chains or polymers of amino acids i. Can be a hormone, molecule, receptor, etc ii. Can vary in size, shape, and solubility iii. Can be a neurotransmitter. iv. Use proteins as building blocks 1. Comprise skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, all organs v. For dietary needs, when an animal is pre-pubertal, pregnant, lactation; dietary and protein needs are the highest. vi. If the animal has a protein difficiency: 1. Process called gluconeogenesis 2. Animal will break down protein for energy or something else to meet dietary needs. vii. Essential Amino Acids (EAA) or Limited Amino Acids (LAA) 1. 20 total 2. Means that this will have to be added to the diet because animal wont meet needs on their own. 3. Ruminants don’t have a lot of amino acids a. Swine have 10 EAA to be added to the feed b. Poultry have 14EAA b. Minerals i. Ex: sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, phosphorus ii. Absolutely vital for survival iii. If an animal is mineral deficient: 1. Symptoms: diarrhea, stiff joints, weakness, slow growth, convulsions, seizures, death c. Vitamins i. Specific chemicals that are needed in small quantities needed for homeostasis. ii. 16 essential vitamins in mammals iii. It’s rare to have vitamin and mineral deficiencies iv. Dificiency in vitamins: 1. Increase weight loss, reduced reproduction, birth defects, paralysis, death v. Producers produce their own feed, buy bags of minerals and vitamins, and then mix it together for optimal dietary needs. vi. Nutritionist will analyze feed so producers will know exactly what are feeding the animals. Normally 2x year vii. Pg 113 viii. Flow of food through animal: 1. Chew 2. Swallow 3. Through esophagus 4. Into stomach or multiple chambers a. Some nutrients absorbed 5. Then small intestine a. Majority of nutrients are absorbed 6. Large intestine a. Included the colon, rectum b. Only thing left to absorb here is water 7. Leaves the body as waste ix. Bacteria is in digestive tract of all mammals 1. Helps maintain a specific environment 2. Round of antibiotics: kills bacteria all over body 3. Symbiosis is the process of putting bacteria back into body. 4. Ruminants have population of microbes that are in the rumen to convert feed to something else x. Ruminants 1. Food product comes into the reticulum, stops any foreign objects that are nondigestible. 2. Then moves into rumen; different layers a. Chewing cud; food moves down into rumen, back up chewed again, back down to rumen, back up chewed again, back down to rumen. b. Reticulum: hardware gets trapped c. Rumen: fermentation takes place d. Omasum: Very acidic e. Abomasum: has folds on the inside f. Small intestine g. Pg 121-122; 115 h. Animal will cushion internal organs with fat November 16, 2015 1. Digestion in Ruminants a. When feed is swallowed, it goes into the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum. b. Travels up from rumen, rechewed, and any foreign objects get caught in the reticulum. c. Rumen motility: when an animal needs to release gas out of their stomach. i. The gas is called methane ii. Cattle create about 3% of environmental methane d. Symbiosis: microbes live in rumen, do a job of breaking down grass into digestible form for ruminant i. Microbes die, rumen dies e. Abomasum is the true stomach, becomes acidic, microbes cant live here. f. Baby ruminants, when given milk, goes straight to the abomasum i. Wean them off milk to slowly help stomach mature for full grass meal. g. 3 regions in the small intestine in monogastrics and ruminants, as food moves through, acidic level gets higher i. duodenum: lowest acid pH a. cells secrete ii. jejunum iii. ileum h. then move to large intestine i. colon 1. ascending colon 2. transvers 3. descending colon ii. main thing that is absorbed is water. i. pH of the stomach i. Oh my gosh, tomatoes will kill you ii. Your stomach is always high in acid. Just because you eat acidic things, doesn’t mean you will get cancer that houses in acidic environments. 2. The Apendix a. Basically another outpocketing, not a major concern or need. b. Has some immune cells that help battle some diseases. c. Things get pulled in and compacted and when its full it will rupture. 3. If something is not synthesized by that animal it is considered limited and will need to be supplemented into diet. 4. Animal rights: a. Spectrum goes from dog fighters to PETA b. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals c. Universities have animals at the farms i. Fistula in the cattle, its for research ii. Stopped doing student rectal exams and fistula exams iii. Learn how to walk animals and feed them. iv. Learn how to give vaccines d. Has to deal with where people fall in this spectrum November 18, 2015 1. Animal rights a. Know your source b. Pay attention to bias c. Know the audience d. Animals are used for food, fiber, drugs, research, recreation, and education. i. Pigs are the number one animals for insulin production ii. Recreation: horse racing, dog racing, trail rides, rodeos 1. System can be abused; puppy mills, dog fights e. HSUS top heavy and anti-women in top jobs f. You don’t get to choose where your donations go in the individual businesses. 2. What are the roles in animals and serving humans? a. Service dogs b. Entertainment c. Food; milk d. Work; farming e. Protection f. Transportation 3. Are there problems in animal production and abuse? a. Yes, homeless pets November 20, 2015 1. Slaughter Process a. The killing of animals primarily for food production. b. There are now laws in the US to establish the Humane Slaughter act to reduce the amount of pain that the animal feels. i. Means the animal needs to be insensible to pain; animal will lose consciousness from which they will never awaken. ii. Cervical dislocation: snap the spinal cord in the neck thus causing animal to become insensible to pain. c. In order to render them unconscious: i. captive bolt: put up to animal’s head and pull trigger. 1. Has a steel ball on the inside, when trigger pulled, ball shoots forward and then retracts. ii. For swine, electrocution by way of two pronged tool to back of neck. iii. For birds, electrical current water bath d. Hang cattle by feet, cut neck and they bleed out. i. Lose 1/3 volume of blood and this is what kills them ii. Exsanguination: blood loss that causes death e. The animal must have water available up until the time of death. f. Can withhold food the day of slaughter. g. Stress can reduce the quality of meat. h. Kosher Slaughter: Animal is killed by knife across esophagus, trachea, jugular vein, carotid artery, and vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) i. USDA certified: Facility was a federally licensed facility. Has been inspected and approved, licensed vet on kill floor. i. Ante-mortem ii. Post-mortem iii. Licensed vet looks for any sort of disease or nuero malfunction iv. Offal cart: hold the internal organs of this animal and its head. 1. If something looks wrong, that carcass is thrown out. v. Once passes inspection, offal cart moved and organs separated out. vi. What isn’t eaten by humans goes into a rendering room (cooler) 1. Used for other downstream purposes such as dog and cat food. 2. Diet and things we put into food products a. Cattle feed: tons of glutton b. We knock the socks off of our meat with the amount of glutton in the food because it helps fatten them up quicker c. Growth hormone is given to animals d. GMO: genetically modified organisms i. We are now able to grow corn in an area where there is drought November 23, 2015 1. Microwave safe means that the container will retain shape, but doesn’t mean that it wont leak chemicals into food. 2. Plastics being heated and cooled are not good. 3. The peanut is illegal in schools. a. Because of allergies 4. GMO: an organism who’s genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. a. Does nature modify organisms? i. Yes, survival of the fittest. ii. But does it gradually over time b. When we engineer something it is not gradual i. Taste, color, longevity, pest resistance, weather resistance are all things we can genetically modify. c. When something is genetically modified: i. A scientist made a direct DNA change in a lab ii. The engineered gene is added into the DNA, or something can be removed. iii. Inside of chromosome, there are tiny curled up balls of DNA called histones. iv. Different regions of DNA: 1. Exons: coding regions of DNA 2. Introns: non-coding regions of DNA 3. Entire coding region is a gene v. You can “silence” a gene, keep it from turning on and thus showing up in that organism. d. Is something is labeled Not Genetically Engineered doesn’t mean that all the smaller components couldn’t have been GMO early on. e. There is a new FDA approved salmon: Aquadvantage Salmon f. Some people say that including GMO in feed it will require less feed, but yet they still get fat faster and they still have protein in their meat. i. Its always about getting them to market faster.
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