1st chapter of notes Psych 105
1st chapter of notes Psych 105 3118
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Amica Smith on Friday January 30, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 3118 at Washington State University taught by Gabriella Bedoyan in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see psych 105 in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
Psychology 105 chapter 1 notes Psychology Day 1 Psychology Is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Why study psychology Makes us more aware how humanity works Can help you be more effective in other career fields Types of psychologist Clinical The diagnosis dx and treatment tx of mental emotional and behaviorabx disorders and promotion of psychological health Counseling assist with personal problems Behavioral neuroscience the study between brain and behavior Cognitive psychology the study of how people perceive remember think speak and solve problems Developmental psychology the study of how thought and behavior change across I espan Educational psychology studies how people of all ages learn Forensic psychology blends law and criminal justice Health psychology the study of the role of psychological factors play in regard to health and illness ndustriaIorganizational psychology application of psychological concepts and questions to work setting Personality psychology study of what makes people unique and the consistencies in behaviors across time and situation Social psychology the study of how living among others influences thought feeling and behavior Sports psychology the study of psychological factors in sports and exercise Origins of psychology Prehistoric As far back as the stone age humans tried to treat mental problems Supernatural explanations were often drawn upon in older times Trephination Drilling a hole in skull Wilhelm Wundt Founder of Psychology Used Scientific methods to study psych processes Principles of physiological psychology basically connections between physiology and psychology Established first 1st psych lab in Germany Studied himself first and then brought others beginning psychology as experimental science Brought over 200 people to get degrees from him Edward Titchener Wundt39s student Created Structuralism studying most basic components or structure of conscious experiences First school of thought Criticized as unreliable because of varied responses from introspection and can t be used for kidsanimals also invalid w complex topics lntrospection looking internally conscious experience William James Functionalism studied psychology in 1870s Opposed Wundt and Titchener Influenced by Darwin Functionalism stressed importance of how behavior functions to allow people animals to adapt to their environment Used naturalistic observation not introspection Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis Austrian Physician Not psychologist Behavior and personality influenced by unconscious conflicts Emphasized sexual aggressive nature of unconscious processes Powerful influence on later theories Psychology Day 2 Behaviorism The study of observable behavior Learning lvan Pavlov Founder of behaviorism Cassica Conditioning It is possible to associate behavior through expenence John Watson Coined behaviorism Learning how behavior is acquiredmodified in response to environment Began testing with animals and controlled labs BF Skinner Operant Conditioning Organisms repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes Humanism Emphasizes each person s unique potential for psychological growth and self direction Emphasizes self determination free will and potential It is used psychotherapy Carl Rogers Founder of Humanism Abraham Maslow Founder of Humanism Current Perspectives in Psychology Biological Psychology Physical bases of behavior Neuroscience Psychodynamic Importance of unconscious influence Big focus on early childhood Behavioral How behavior is acquiredmodified by environment Humanistic Motivation of people to grow psychologically Positive Psych Positive emotionsstatestraits Tries to focus on peoples positive emotions in their life Cognitive How we mentally processes influence behavior Cross Cultural Cultural patternsbeliefs influence behaviors Nature vs Nurture Nature lnborn tendencies and genetically based traits Nurture All essentially the same at birth we are the product of our experiences Nature and Nurture both interact to shape us Example Artistic Ability Nature lnherent artistic skills from parent Nurture Parent engages in art with child Pseudoscience claims are presented as scientific but are not supported by scientific evidence What makes something pseudoscience is the way it is studied not the content Science must be testable How to tell if something is Pseudoscience 1 Testimonials rather than evidence 2Scientific jargon wo scientific evidence 3 Combining current science with unfounded claims 4 lrrefutable or nonfalsifiable claims 5 Confirmation bias Pseudopsychologies systems of explaining human behavior not consistent w scientific evidence Phrenology Reading bumps on the skull Palmistry Reading palms Graphology analysis of personality through handwriting The Scientific Method System for reducing error in measurement Empirical Evidence Standardized way that we acquire data through objective observation measurement andor experimentation Goals of Psychological Science 1 Describe Behavior 2 Explain Behavior 3 Predict Behavior 4 Control or influence behavior STEPS OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1 Formulate a testable hypothesis Hypothesis Predict Variables Operational Definition defines variables in very specific terms as to how it will be measured or manipulated changed 2 Design study and collect data Descriptive Method observingdescribing behavior Experimental Method deliberately manipulating one factor to show causeeffect 3 Analyze the data and draw conclusions Statistics Math used by researchers to organize summarize interpret data Statistically Significant Mathematical indication that results did not likely occur by chance Metaanalysis pooling results from multiple studies into single analysis 4 Report the findings Publish or Report findings Must describe the study accurately in these reports Useful for replication repeat study to increase confidence in the findings Building Theories Theory Tentative explanations nation that tries to integrate various findingsobservations into 1 explanation Theories are not absolute but they have not been wrong so far They change with sciencenew evidence Psychology Day 3 Descriptive Methods Naturalistic Observation Observing things in their natural environment ProsUnobtrusive Real World Gives information with no tainting Cons Nothing Controlled can t demonstrate cause and effect Case Study Observe one person or group over a long period of time Collects data from numerous sources Cons Studying one specific case may not be general information Interviews amp Survey s Standardized set of Questions Pro Easiest to carry out with large samples Con Based on self report because of biased answers Representative sample selected segment of the population used to represent a group being studied Random Selection Subjects randomly selected from a larger group each person having an equal chance of being selected Correlation a measure of the relationship between two variables Disadvantages Correlation does not prove causation probably other factors contribute Perhaps a lurking 3rd variable which is related to the 2 variables leads to an illusory correlation Correlation Coefficients measure of strength and direction of relationship Strength determined by number between 1 and 1 Positive Correlation Between 0 and 1 variables change in same direction Negative Correlation Between 0 and 1 variables change in different direction Experimental Studies Used to demonstrate Cause and effect in research Manipulation of the variables Random Assignment Equal chance of being assigned into either group of participants to groups Independent Variable Can be manipulated under controlled conditions Dependent Variable Outcome of the treatment Experimental Group received treatment Control Group Do not receive treatment Placebo Substance that appears identical to actual treatment but lacks active substance Single Blind Participants do not know group assignment Double Blind Neither participants nor researchers know the group assignments Prevents demand characteristics subtle cues from researchers that communicate response expected from participant Research Ethics Milgram39s obedience study If there is an authority figure present would a person go against their own moral code Confederate actor pretending to be participant People are obedient to authority figures Stanford Prison Experiment 1971 Created a mock prison recruited people to be either prisoner or guard to study how assigning people to roles affects behavior Guards degraded and punished prisoners Mental Breakdowns were caused and they stopped the study after 6 days instead of 2 weeks Ethical Principles 1 Informed consent Participants must know how long it will take what the study is about and they can withdraw at any time without penalty Can t force people to participate 2 Respect for persons Safeguard the dignity and autonomy of individuals Special precautions for childrens prisoners elders etc 3 Minimize costs and maximize benefits Inform Participants about costsbenefits 4 Must keep info confidential only researchers able to access info 5 Justice Fairness and equality treat all participants equal Deception Only allowed if it s Not feasible to use other methods or deception can be justified by potential findings
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