Reading Assignment/Learning Objectives for Trends in Chemical Reactivity
Reading Assignment/Learning Objectives for Trends in Chemical Reactivity CHM 11500 - 002
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Date Created: 12/01/15
CHM 11500 Reading Assignments and Learning Objectives Fa2015 Trends in Chemical Reactivity Lectures 1114 Reading Assignments Section 83 Trends in Three Atomic Properties 27 Compounds Introduction to Bonding 84 Atomic Properties and Chemical Reactivity 62 Enthalpy Chemical Change at Constant Pressure 64 Stoichiometry of Thermochemical Equations 65 Hess s Law Finding AH of Any Reaction 91 Atomic Properties and Chemical Bonds 92 The Ionic Bonding Model 93 The Covalent Bonding Model 96 An Introduction to Metallic Bonding 94 Bond Energy and Chemical Change Learning Objectives Understand these concepts Outer electron configuration within a group of elements is related to chemical behavior 0 Chemical behavior is determined by outer electron configuration 0 Since groups have the same outer electron configuration they have similar chemical behavior The definition of valence electrons 0 For main group elements the outer electrons 0 For transition elements in addition to the outer ns electrons the n1d electrons are also valence electrons 0 Those involved in forming compounds Definition of atomic radius ionization energy and electron affinity 0 Atomic radius A measure of how closely one atom lies next to another atomic size is determined from the distances between nuclei of adjacent atoms 0 Ionization energyA measure of how closely one atom lies next to another atomic size is determined from the distances between nuclei of adjacent atoms 0 Electron affinity The energy change in kJ accompanying the addition of one mole of electrons to one mole of gaseous atoms or ions The relationship between ionization energy and electron shell structure 0 Down a group decreases as n increases the atomic size increases too The distance from nucleus to outer electron increases attraction lessens so the electron is easier to remove 0 Across a periodincreases as we move left to right across a period Zeff increases and atomic size decreases The attraction between nucleus and outer electron increases so the electron is harder to remove Atomic properties are related to the tendency to form ions 0 Reactive nonmetals have high IE and attract electrons strongly form negative ions 0 Reactive metals Low IE and lose electrons easily but attract them weakly form positive ions Page 1 of I Noble gases high IEs and tend not to lose or gain electrons don t form ions General atomic and chemical properties of metals and nonmetals I Metals generally higher atomic size low ionization energy low electron affinity I Nonmetals generally lower atomic size high ionization energy high electron affinity How the vertical and horizontal trends in metallic behavior are related to ion formation and oxide acidity 0 Ionization energy 0 Increases across a period 0 Decreases down a group I Oxide acidity The relation between ionic and atomic size and the trends in ionic size 0 Relation between ionic and atomic size 0 Ions aren t the same size as the atoms they come from 0 Positive ions I smaller than the atoms they come from I You ve lost a whole layer of electrons I Remaining electrons are being pulled in by the full force of more protons O Negative ions I Bigger than the atoms they come from I Extra repulsion produced by the incoming electron causes the atom to expand 0 Trends in ionic size 0 Down a group I Ionic radii increase so the electrostatic energy between cations and anions decreases I Lattice energies should decrease as well 0 Across a period I Positive ions 0 Ions have exactly the same electronic structure isoelectronic 0 However the number of protons is increases 0 Causing the ionic radii to fall 0 Decreases I Negative ion 0 decreases How differences in atomic properties lead to differences in bond type The basic distinctions among the three types of bonding 0 Metal with nonmetal 0 Electron transfer and ionic bonding 0 Large differences in their tendencies to lose or gain electrons 0 Empirical fomula I Cationtoanion ratio 0 Nonmetal with nonmetal 0 Electron sharing and covalent bonding 0 Differ little in their tendencies to lose or gain electrons 0 Each nonmetal atom holds onto its own electrons tightly Page 2 of O Nucleus of each atom attracts the valence electrons of the toher drawing the atoms together 0 Shared electron pair is typically localized between the two atoms linking them in a covalent bond of a particular length and strength 0 Separate molecules result when atoms bond covalently 0 Molecular formula I Actual numbers of atoms in each molecule 0 Metal with metal 0 Electron pooling and metallic bonding O Atoms are relatively large I Few outer electrons are well shielded by filled inner levels I Lose outer electrons easily low IE and don t gain them readily 0 Lead metal atoms to share their valence electrons by metallic bonding I The enormous number of atoms in a sample of a metal pool their valence electrons into a sea of electrons that ows between and around each metalion core I Attracting them and holding them together I Electrons in metallic bonding are delocalized moving freely throughout the entire piece of metal Describe the essential features of ionic bonding including electron transfer to form ions and their electrostatic attraction to form a solid 0 Between atoms with large differences in their tendencies to lose or gain electrons 0 Such differences occur between reactive metals and nonmetals O A metal atom loses its one or two valence electrons and a nonmetal atom gains the electron 0 As the transfer of electrons from metal atom to nonmetal atom occurs each atom fomrs an ion with a noble gas electron configuration 0 Electrostatic attractions between these positive and negative ions draw them into a threedimensional array to form an ionic solid 0 The chemical formula of an ionic compound is the empirical formula 0 Because it gives the catoin to anion ratio Explain the period trends in lattice energy using Coulomb s law effect of charge and ionic size 0 Lattice energy 0 Enthalpy change that accompanies the reverse of the previous equation I 1 mol of ionic solid separating into gaseous ions 0 results from electrostatic interactions among ions I magnitude depends on ionic size ionic charge arrangement of the ions in the solid 0 Coulomb s law 0 The electrostatic energy between particles A and B is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the distance between them I Electrostatic energy charge A charge B distance 0 In an ionic solid I Electrostatic energy cation chargeanion chargecation radiusanion radius Lattice energy 0 Effect of ionic size Down a group Page 3 of I Ionic radii increase so the electrostatic energy between cations and anions decreases I Lattice energies should decrease as well 0 Effect of ionic charge across a period I Across a period ionic charge changes I Energy increases because of it Predict the type of bonding that occurs between atoms based on their metallicnonmetallic characteristics 0 Metal and nonmetal 0 Electron transfer 0 Ionic bonding I Nonmetal and nonmetal 0 Electron sharing 0 covalent bonding 0 Metal and metal 0 Electron pooling 0 Metallic bonding State the chemical equation that represents lattice energy I Lattice energy the enthalpy change that accompanies 1 mol of ionic solic separating into gaseous ions I Lattice energybonds brokenbonds made Describe how lattice energy is ultimately responsible for formation of ionic compounds 0 Ion formation by itself absorbs energy but more than that quantity of energy is released when the ions form a solid 0 The high lattice energy of an ionic solid the energy required to separate the solid into gaseous ions is the reason the compound forms Describe how ionic bond strength and attraction relate to lattice energy I Coulomb s law 0 The electrostatic energy between particles A and B is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the distance between them 0 Electrostatic energy is directly proportional to lattice energy 0 Effect of ionic size 0 As we move down a group ionic radii increase so the electrostatic energy between cations and anions decreases I Lattice energies should decrease as well 0 Effect of ionic charge 0 Across a period ionic charge changes I Lattice energy increases across a period Describe how bonding and lone electron pairs fill the outer valence level of each atom in a covalent molecule 0 To achieve a full valence level of electrons each atom in a covalent bond counts the shared electrons as belonging entirely to itself 0 The shared pair is represented by a pair of dots or line Page 4 of 0 An outerlevel electron pair that is not involved I bonding is called a lone pair or unshared pair Describe the interrelationships among bond order bond length and bond energy 0 Bond order 0 The number of electron pairs being shared by a given pair of atoms I Single bond 0 Most common 0 One bonding pair Double bond 0 Two bonding electron pairs four electrons shared between two atoms 0 Bond energy 0 The strength of a covalent bond depends on the magnitude of the attraction between the nuclei and shared electrons 0 The energy needed to overcome this attraction O The standard enthalpy change for breaking the bond in 1 mol of gaseous molecules 0 And endothermic process 0 Always positive 0 Difference in energy between separated and bonded atoms I The same quantity of energy absorbed to break the bond is released when the bond forms 0 Bond length 0 The distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms 0 Interrelationship O A higher bond order results in a smaller bond length and a higher bond energy Describe how changes in bond strength account for the heat of reaction Page 5 of 0 Recognize the attractive and repulsive forces present in covalent bonds 0 Given a graph of potential energy versus internuclear distance see p 338 identify the bond length and bond energy 0 Apply knowledge of bond strengths to chemical reactions 0 Master these skills 0 Use periodic trends to rank elements by atomic radius first ionization energy electron affinity and metallicity Identify an element from its successive ionization energies Use the periodic table to predict the monatomic ion formed from a maingroup element Write the formula of an ionic compound after predicting the charges on the ions Use periodic trends to rank ions by size Write electron configurations of maingroup and transition metal ions Predict whether a metal or nonmetal oxide will be acidic or basic Use Lewis electrondot symbols to depict main group atoms and ions Describe the electronic structure of ions using electron configurations and Lewis electrondot symbols 39 Calculate lattice energy using hypothetical steps Use ionization energies and electron affinities along with other data to calculate AHOrxn 0 for the reaction of a metal with a nonmetal 0 Rank similar covalent bonds according to their length and strength 0 Use bond energies to calculate or rationalize AHorxn for a reaction of covalent molecules
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