Journalism Notes Part 2
Journalism Notes Part 2 journalism 101
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Date Created: 12/02/15
Partials for lmsmovies Before television the primary visuaentertainment in the US was lms In 2014 movies made about 10 B in domestic US box of ce revenues with the largest audience being in the 1224 age range They also make a lot via DVD sales global box of ce sales and through other revenue windows such as global box offices American lms are enormously popular worldwide with China generating the most global revenue Filmmakers stand to make a lot of money but also take great risks The average cost of makingmarketing a major feature lm today is about 130 million Films often though not always are thought by many to in uence their audiences more than other media do in part because of what s called the quotcocoon effect in which audiences often watch lms while enveloped in darkness and shut off from reality and because of the willing suspension of disbelief We know it s not real but we suspend that sense of disbelief to enjoy the lm They re also said to act as a common bond because we often watch them in a communal setting Early lm pioneers were international in nature although many were from France and the United States Edison developedre ned much of the technology that made movies possible and he had signi cant business interests in early lm Muybridge generated great interest in conveying the sense of motion in movies when he captured a series of images a galloping horse The set of single still images placed closely together appeared to be moving The Lumiere brothers in France developed a projection system that allowed more than one person at once to view the moving images These developments took place around 1900 The phenomenon that makes the sense of movies possible is called persistence of vision With it our brains retain an image for a split second after image is gone giving impression of motion making it appear to be a single uid movement Early on viewers would watch just about anything at the movies simply because of the novelty kid pulling a gold sh from a shbowl waves washing ashore man falling off a horse train pulling into a depot See the quotGordon Sisters Boxingquot Eventually audiences began to demand more sophisticated fare with a story line narrative lms Two notable early lms that featured more sophisticated plots by the standards of the day quotGreat Train Robberyquot was considered the rst western and one of rst lms with a real plotstoryline And quotBirth ofa Nationquot by DW Grif th a technically brilliant but racist in ammatory and controversial lm that portrayed the KKK as saviors of the South Edison established the Motion Picture Patent Corporation aka The Trust which controlled the early lm industry His iron grip on the lm industry angered lmmakers and caused them to leave their base of New YorkNew Jersey and moved to California California was a great place to produce lms warmer weather easier to shoot outdoors varied landscapes cheaper labor and free of Edison s meddling Filmmakers ourished out west As lms caught on quickly so did concerns arise about the power of this new medium The Payne Fund Studies of the late 205 and early 305 seemed to con rm these concerns The studies found young audiences wanted to be like the actors they saw movies had signi cant impact on their viewers These were the rst formal studies into the effects of a mass medium Various pressures develooed on the lm industrv in part in response to those concerns As noted the public moral guardians such as preachers parents and politicians became concerned about the content of lms and the various quotscandalsquot in Hollywood in delity divorces The FattyArbuckIe murder trial galvanized that concern and drew a lot of attention to what many considered a decadent lifestyle in Hollywood Public demand for restrictions on lm industry gave rise to the Hays Code which placed severe restrictions on what could be shown talked about portrayed in lm As with many socalled quotvoluntaryquot media practices even today the Hays Code was largely designed to fend offgovernment regulations Government and public coercion brought the code about Keep in mind that the Hays Code was nota formal law but rather a voluntary code the movie industry put in place The major lm studios eventually monopolized the industry and begin to control virtually all aspects of it from production to distribution to exhibition This practice is referred to as vertical integration Eventually the gov t though the Paramount Decree of 1948 forced studios to break up that monopoly and to sell off their holdings It also limited the practice of block booking where theaters had to accept a lousy lm to get a good one and blind booking or buying a lm without being able to see it rst The Hays Code lasted until about the late 19605 when it was largely cast aside because of the threat from TV which was cheaper and more convenient than movies Movie studios had to take chances and offer something new to combat that threat Film industry also responded with gimmicks 3D and real innovations such as better sound better color and wider screens It also changed the content more risqu more violence and sexual content in 19505 and 605 The lm Industry eventually began working with the television industry seeing it as a possible revenue windows and outlet for its products Six major studios now dominate the lm industry Disney Columbia 20th Century Fox Universal Warner Bros and Paramount Sound recordingsmusic industry Perhaps more than any other aspect of mass media technology has had the most dramatic effects on the music industry We39ve moved from record companies controlling virtually all aspects of the industry to the listeners having considerable control This has been a blessing for most listeners a mixed bag for artists and a real challenge for the record companies As the text notes changes in the music industry raise questions about access to and quotcontrolquot of music mashups sampling legal and illegal downloads m and the effect these changes will have on the artists and on your access to and choices in music After many years of speculation on how to reproduce sound Edison patented his quottalking machinequot in 1877 the Phonograph It was an awkward device with a major drawback couldn t make copies from it About 10 years later Emile Berliner solved that problem and paved the way for recorded music to become a Mass Medium In the early 1900s large pieces of furniture with huge speakers megaphones and a crank known as Victrolas became popular soon to be replaced by electric record players Vinyl recordings were developed in the 1940s and by the 1960s eight track and later cassette tapes grew in popularity These tapes were a precursor to the problems the music industry faces today because they allow you to make copies A serious drawback for the consumer however was that those copies deteriorated w each copy By the 1980s major record companies began producing CDs in large numbers essentially making vinyl and tapes obsolete Then m In the 905 MP3 technology allowed music to be compressed into digital files and quotsharedquot with others on the Internet Shawn Fanning a college dropout developed nagster taken from his childhood nickname in 1999 After millions began using this site to sharetrade files and CD sales began to fall off Metallica Dr Dre and the Recording Industry Association of America RIAA began to fight back and sued Napster They claimed the website violated or at least encouraged others to violate copyright and infringed on their intellectual pronertv rights which gives copyright holders control over how their creative work is used The artists and RIAA wan their lawsuit However other sites that were even more difficult to control began to form Kazaa Grokster LimeWire m you know them better than I do Several of these were also eventually shut down The industry soon began using Apple39s iTunes which has become the No 1 music seller and similar services In recent years the industry has cut staff cut prices and continued with its lawsuits to fight illegal downloading The music industry says it has lost billions every year in recent years due to piracy much of that in Asia The film industry has had similar problems RIAA claims that since the arrival of Napster in 1999 music sales in the US have dropped about 50 percent from about 15 billion to 77 billion Industry execs say illegal downloading costs thousands of jobs cuts tax revenues in many communities makes it more difficult for labels to discoverpromote new talent deters artists from creating music and effectively lessens your music choices Three major companies many smaller labels dominate the market 0 Sony its artists include John Legend Shakira John Mayer Kelly Clarkson m 0 Warner Wiz Khalifa Avenged Sevenfold My Chemical Romance Rod Stewart m 0 Universal m Lady Gaga Kanye West Taylor Swift Lil Wayne m Many critics fear this consolidation will lessen diversity of voices with the major labels focusing only on safe mainstream artists And some artists are critical of the iTunes approach arguing that their music is more a coherent body of work than a motley collection of single songs Thousands of much smaller indie labels exist The major risktakers in the industry have long been and continue to be the indbpendant Perhaps the bestknown indie was Mbtown founded by Detroit39s Berry Gordy then a Ford assembly line worker His company made popular the Supremes Temptations Jackson Five but was eventually bought out by MCA for 60 million and then Universal While illegal downloads still outpace legal ones illegals seem to have fallen off on recent years with the growth of iTunes etc CD sales have fallen off by more than 50 percent since 2007 and were surpassed by digital downloads in 2011 Ybutube has become a place for new artists to be discovered Justin Bieber39s mother place his videos on YouTube and a record exec accidentally clicked on one The exec introduced Justin to Usher and you know the rest When artists become popular their work is performed in many venues radio clubs films background music m and the artists are paid for those uses These royalty payments are collected and paid out by two main performance rights companies American Society of Composers Authors and Publishers AKA ASCAP and Broadcast Music Inc 5amp1 With the decline of CD sales record labels have begun finding other revenue windows such as selling music for use in video games Guitar Hero as ringtones and music videos Artists themselves have turned away from the traditional sales of CDs to touringConcerts as well as merchandising corporate sponsorship and product endorsements Despite consolidation in many ways the music industry has dbmocratized in some ways opening it up to more and more people In recent years in fact the number of homerecording studios has increased while the number of commercial studios has actually decreased Artists now their work easy to access online and some such as Radiohead have even made their music available on a payasyouwish basis It39s still very difficult to make it in the music industry The RIAA estimates that only about 1Q percent of recordings released every year make a profit What some have called an elitist approach to music suggests that artists should worry less about sales and more about pushing the limits with their music testing social and cultural boundaries confronting difficult social issues and welcoming controversy See quotCop Killerquot The debate over music lyrics and their impact on society especially on young people has been a longrunning cultural battle and led to calls for both traditionalgovt l censorship urging state officials to ban the sales or punish the artistscompanies and for corporate censorship pressuring companies to stop the sale of some recordings Music as a quotthreatquot to society Music has long been part of our quotculture warsquot or the ongoing battle over our culture s values and beliefs In recent years for example quotBlurred Linesquot by Robin Thicke banned in some universities in England Scotland was harshly criticized for what many said was its misogynistic message Critics said it trivialized rape and could lead to greater tolerance for sexual assault As with much media content it seems fair to say that music both shapes and re ects society and its values While many criticize much media content folks called mral gyardians parents teachers preachers teachers parents civic leaders seem to reserve a special place and have gravest concerns about music because at least in my opinion it has a special appeal to youth This intense concern about musicyouth is relatively recent With far fewer choices than today and little economic reason to target youth with their own brand of music young people decades ago often listened to their parents music and relatively few distinctions were made between styles of popular musnc Still even in the early 19005 new music especially that which appealed to youth was seen as a threat that belief prevails today Perhaps the most harshly criticized popular new music in the 19205 or so was iazz which ironically the nation now points to as one of our proudest cultural exports and it seen as anything but threatening or offensive The term itself which was slang for sex and jazz was attacked for three primary reasons 1 primal ngturelprimitivelcrude 2 promoted race mixing 3 promoted loose morals In the words of words of a 1921 social reformer or moral guardian it was quotvoodooquot music that quotstimulates halfcrazed barbarians to the West of deeds quot Note some of the bizarre claims and fears about it jazz genes implanted in babies In fairness though jazz seemed promote some of the things critics accused it of Note some of the popular jazz song titles when the style was new With the youth subculture of the 505 music became a far greater concern and of course yet another perceived threat was Rock n RoII Much like jazz the earliest objections to RampR were largely race based lts roots in quotrace musicquot were thought to have tainted it Sun Records founder Sam Philips saw opportunity to cash in on this increasingly popular music quot What I need is a White boy who can sing colored he said realizing that white fans and parents would be more willing to accept someone who looked like them performing this new music He of course found that in Elvis Presley Still many parents objected to this and other types of rock They preferred safer singers Pat Boone Frankie Avalon These sanitized singers often covered songs by AfricanAmerican artists making rock more mainstreamacceptable much like some of the watereddown or popularized versions of rap today Popular music heated up as a cultural battleground in 605early 70s as RampR took on popular themesissues as drugs sex politics war revolution The seemingly indecipherable lyrics of Louie Louie were considered so scandalous that the FBI actually launched an investigation into them And just before the 1968 National Democratic Convention thenChicago mayor Richard Daley tried to ban the airing ofthe Rolling Stones single quotStreet Fighting Manquot for fear that it would spark riots The plan back red and airplay and sales of the single reached recordsetting proportions in Chicago Other examples of bans on music mostly of a corporate nature Van Morrison s BrownEyed GirlBrownSkinned Girl Racemixing The Who s My Generation stuttering was offensive or imitating drug users Billie Holiday Strange Fruit Topic of lynching was too morbid MIA Paper Planes Sound of gunshots Adele Rolling in the Deep Was she saying ship or shit Sex Pistols God Save the Queen Banned from BBC airwaves Notorious BIG juicy quotTime to get paid blow up like the World Tradequot These bans often took place during times of con ict andor war as after 911 Note that most other nations more readily restrictcensor music abroad than here in the USA Whatever the criticism aimed at your music criticism is nothing new Music has long been a cultural battleground in America and beyond As with so many new trends and ideas American society often coopted them What was considered immoral or threatening is now used to sell Tide laundry detergent and Cadillacs Early on at was seen as a threat but now is increasingly mainstream Any examples of rap being used to sell products Ice Cube Eminem Many critics and moral guardians still criticize rap rock and other forms of music Some have even tried to ban it andor have taken it to court blaming it for school shootings suicides and all manner of evil The courts have rejectdismiss such claims as well as other claims that media have incited violence saying that those charges are largely speculative at best TV partial notes Day 1 As with any popular medium TV has been both hailed and condemned Former FCC Commissioner Newton Minow is famous for referring to TV as vast wasteland while others have praised it for its ability to take us places we would never go and acting as a BINDING THREAD a common experience although that power has faded in recent years TV is available in about 99 percent of the homes in America and watched an average of 56 hours per day from hundreds of TV stations nationwide over the air through cable and via satellite and the Internet Not surprisingly this enormously popular medium is the source of much concern as people have blamed TV for seemingly everything from obesity stupidity poor selfimage violence political apathy and The main purpose of TV as with most American mass media is to generate pro t It generates pro t by creating and selling a product That product is audience see incass drawing These oftenmassive audiences are then sold to advertisers who want to reach them TV ads can tend to be very expensive While this is admittedly the extreme a 30second Super Bowl can cost about 4M Certain audiences of course are far more valuable than others and thus cost more to reachaccess Advertisers are going to consider both demographics ex age income gender and psychographics ex beliefsinterestsAalues in deciding wherehow to spend their ad money They also consider carefully the CPM or COST PER THOUSAND This intense focus on ratingsnumbers etc has bequn to fade in recent years in large part because of digital technology the ability to reach niche audiences and changes in the ways TV shows are delivered A few recent TV trends Viewers have far more control than in years past much like the music industry 0 TV viewing has become a multiplatform experience delivered via traditional TV laptops smart phones No longer are we tied to a TV set 0 TV tends to be far more interactive Networks program creators and others are listening more closely to what viewers say they want and often respond accordingly In some ways TV viewing has become like those quotchoose your own adventurequot books you read in grade schooL Built around events Increasingly shows involve watching and interacting w others as it airs Examples 0 In part because TV shows can more often survive or even thrive on smaller niche audiences and are less reliant on massive ratings there tends to be more risktaking and creative approaches Many of the best shows we see on TV would never have aired just a few years and certainly not a few decades ago In many ways this is the golden age of TV A bit of TV history Much like other media TV had international roots Early TV pioneers include Vladimir Zworykin and Philo T Farnsworth whose cathode ray tube reproduced the electronic image more clearly and who reportedly told his son there was quotnothing on itquot worth watching TV was technically available in the 19305 and FRANKLIN D ROOSEVELT was the president to appear on this new medium but really took off in the 19505 Another important TV executive who foresaw its market potential was DAVID Sarnoff a major name from radio TV caught on quickly in the United States cutting into movie attendance By 1955 box of ce sales were only half of what they were in 1946 just before TV became a mass medium In the 19505 radio stars started to migrate to TV because it was more prestigious and offered more money Soon network or collections of TV stations that offered programs at the same time across the country grew powerful and focused on variety shows Ed Sullivan westerns movies quiz shows and sitcoms The most famous and in uential sitcom was probably quotI Love Lucyquot starring Lucille Ball who played the role of a dimwit but who was actually a savvy TV executive behind the scenes Early TV was dominated by advertisers who often sponsored entire shows Texaco Star Theatre Camel News Caravan and Kraft Star Theater so those advertisers had a real stake in increasing their audiences The quiz show scandals of the 19505 revealed that advertisers and TV execs were xing results of the show to amp up the ratings While many viewed this period as quotthe golden agequot of television it should be noted that advertiserssponsors often interested w content and we certainly saw far less diversity than we see today TV news also became an important and popular addition to journalism because people could see the images Newsman EDWARD R MURROW became especially wellknown and respected for calling out Sen joseph McCarthy who was engaged in what many called a quotwitch huntquot for communists A few more words about TV history jFKwas considered the rst president to effectively use the medium to get elected In his debates with Nixon he came across as more attractive more poised and polished he projected a better visual image Since then observers have noted the growing importance of TV in swaying voters and in uencing elections People who listened only on radio thought Nixon won As advertisers paid greater attention to TV and paid more money for ads they were naturally concerned about ratings While the importance of ratings has begun to fade in large part because of viewing changes brought on by technology sponsors still want some reliable measure of how many people watch a particular show The company that provides those numbers is Nielson which also provides shares and other data Be familiar with how to gure a simple rating and a simple share The key weekday period for TV broadcasts is called primetime from 7p to 11p when stations and networks air their most popular and lavishly produced shows to try to draw their largest audiences The key months for TV audience measurements are February May and November These are sweeps months when networks and stations gather data that largely determines how much they can change for advertising While sweeps periods are when we re likely to see more bizarre attentiongrabbing programming to boost numbers the importance of sweeps has begun to fade Nielsen ratings have been criticized on several fronts They penalize shows that catch on slowly tend to underrepresent some minority groups and they traditionally failed to measure commercial viewing which is after all the whole point of watching TV The ratings system has also been criticized for leading to a lowest common denominator mentality that awards shows based solely on the numbers In recent years Nielsen has begun measuring TV viewing more effectively outside the home or away from the traditional TV set such as hotels dorm rooms hospitals This is the closest thing we39ll have to math in here Figuring ratings and shares is simple Rating Number of TV homes tuned to a show HWP Number of TV homes in the market HWT Share Number of TV homes tuned to a show HWP Number of TV sets turned on in that market HUT TV programming techniques and tactics The industry uses various techniques to generate an audience and to maintain audience ow from one show to the next Networks routinely air certain types of shows in backto back blocks SimpsonsFamily Guy police dramas or use strong shows to lead in to newer or weaker shows in hopes of retaining a portion of that large audience They might use bridging letting a show run a few minutes past the hour so that the audience has already missed the start of a competing show and simply stays with the channel it s already watching Sometimes they use hammocking or placing an unpopular show between two popular ones Sometimes network place dying shows in the quotFriday Night death slotquot when far fewer people especially younger ones are watchingquot Malibu Utopia Vegas and other shows you ve likely long forgotten ended up in the socalled death slot A typical TV station includes sales production and programming departments among others Sales no surprise sell the local ads based on the stationshow s ratings Production departments at TV stations manage the shows the station creates usually news and produces local commercials The programming department selects shows and develops the station s schedule 0amp0 stations Owned amp Operated tend to be stations in large cities WABC in NYC for example that almost always carry network programs That way the networks can assure advertisers their messages will reach signi cant audiences in those major cities even if the affiliates opt out of a airing a show While affiliates usually carry network shows they don t have to Affiliates keep the money from local ads area stores those really bad car dealer ads The stations draw about half of their revenues from local ads aired on their own shows or during network programs Independent stations tend to carry popular reruns quotSeinfeld and syndicated shows such as quotjudge judyquot As with other media deregulation has destabilized the TV industry New technologies have allowed for more choices fragmented major network audiences and given Viewers far greater control Deregulation led to more TV networks and more choices The rise of cable satellite and Internet viewing has also cut into the major networks share of the TV audience which has fallen to about half of what it was in the 19805 By 1998 cable audiences had already surpassed those of the Big Three CBS NBC and ABC Five major players in TV are Disney Time Warner Viacom CBS and MTV News Corp Fox and Comcast NBC Universal and Hulu Among the many criticisms of TV and concerns about content mentioned earlier sex and violence rate at or near the top The Telecommunications Act of 1996 mandated installation of VChip in all new TV sets to allow parents to restrict children s access to violence sex and other objectionable content This effort to controlimprove content has largely been deemed a failure in part because most people don t even know how to program the damn things As noted earlier Nielsen has long been the king of the TV ratings system and its ratings are the currency on which about 70 billion in advertising dollars will be traded in 2015 in the USA That gure is expected to rise to about 80 billion by 2019 In recent years however TV execs have criticized its methods as antiquated so several companies have begun competing with Nielsen to conduct ratings The Nielsens show that traditionaTV viewing has declined dramatically in recent years as more people use other platforms Net ix online viewing such as Hulu but turn off the traditional TV Millions of millennials 10M say they live on onlineonly existence when it comes to TV viewing Video on demand as opposed to regularly scheduled programming is increasingly the preferred viewing method I More choices in TV viewing Technology has given the viewer far greater control over hisher TV watching Technology such as TiVo lets us skip commercials That s nice for us but potentially disastrous for the industry This is one reason we see more product placement today which makes the advertisement a part of the program Our ability to avoid TV ads a traditional source of revenue has increased the importance of premium pay TV such as HBO Online sites such as Hulu owned in part by NBC and video streaming services threaten the industry s bottom line but also open new revenue windows or ways ofmaking money Some viewers are willing to pay a lot for access to their favorite shows on cable ESPN for example remains among the most popular cable network and the most costly one for cable services to carry It pays a lot for its programming recently paying the NFL about 11 billionyear for rights to broadcast quotMonday Night Footballquot Viewers who want ESPN on their cable system however usually have to accept lots of other networks which they might have little use for just to get ESPN TV however is moving away from this bundling model Instead we seem to be moving toward an a la carte model where you subscribe onyto the networks you want Many creators of TV content say that working with Net ix HBO and similar entities give them far more freedom and encourages greater risktaking The shows they create also tend to attract more devoted and engaged audiences who follow the shows closely This allows more time for character and plot development and less for recapping earlier shows Shows such as quotArrested Developmentquot illustrates how shows with relatively small but loyal audiences niche audiences can nd a home on today s TV In previous years these shows would have been canceed in large part because of the ratings system But the show has been revived and new episodes air on Net ix Increasingly any show with a devoted audience has a chance at survival These loyal audiences also play a role in the contentplot development of these shows Social networks are also transforming the TV experience and the monetization potential of multiscreen content The creators of the incredibly popular ABC Family teen drama quotPretty Little Liars quot recently told the Wall Street journal that viewer response to their show on social media actualy in uences their creative process It s almost like a modern incarnation of quotchoose your own adventure quot where your thoughts and wishes expressed via Twitter can alter the destiny of a speci c character or plot line When viewers are engaged with their shows it allows more time for character and plot development and negates the need to rehash earlier episodes Writerscreators can focus more on ne details and plot twists Further social media tells creators immediately how audiences feel what they like and dislike etc In another way in which digital tech in uences TV content Amazon plans to produce ve original series pilots to air exclusively via Amazon Prime all derived from a crowd sourcing selection process And increasingly these content creators whether Net ix Hulu or the traditional networks are trying to reach us more on our mobile devices They ve created apps to remind us of when a show airs And many of these content producers assume that viewers will binge watch consuming hours of the same show in a single sitting H M More now than ever whether it s quotBreaking Bad Game of Thronesquot or quotPretty Little Liarsquot viewers seem to be more engaged and involved in their shows They are subscribing to online services following their favorite stars on Twitter and Tweeting during the shows and planning their days around their TV viewing on whatever platform Advertisers are doing their best to reach and make money off of those loyal and captivated audiences One of the most successful streaming services today is of course Net ix founded in the late19905 after its cofounder was upset after a 40 late fee on his return of Apollo 13 Net ix s globaviewership rose from about 30 million in 2012 to about 70 million in 2015 an increase of more than 100 and it generates more evening Internet traf c than any other site A major part of Net ix s success so far has been its original programming quotOrange is the New Blackquot quotHouse of Cardsquot and Net ix has also drawn in and held on to viewers by releasing an entire series at once leading to bingeviewing Also it makes effective use of algorithms to suggest other content on Net ix keeping us watching and engaged It suggests shows you might enjoy based in part on what you have watched your ratings our friends viewing habits and other demographic and psychographic data it gathers Finally remember that broadcast media are far more regulated than print media for reasons we discussed earlier spectrum scarcity etc That s why NBC was concerned about allowing Donald Trump to host quotSaturday Night Livequot this weekend Because of FCC content rules the other GOP hopefuls Trump s rivals can probably demand equivalent air time on NBC I Advertising partials Advertising is a good example of ubiquity where something seems to be everywhere at all times But advertising itself is not a mass medium and it s notjournalism so why do we study it in here Advertising is essential to the mass media a Major source of revenues El Subsidizes our media habits it pays for part of them For these reasons it has a majorimpact on mass media content Media content unable to nd a sponsor won t last long It s estimated the United States will spend almost 200 Billion in advertising of all types this year about a third of the estimated 600 Billion to be spent globally TV continues to claim the largest share of the ad budget No surprise that the greatest increases in ad spending in recent years have been online especially on Facebook Yahoo and Google and on mobile advertising cell phones ATampT alone spent more than 5per person in the US in 2014 Much advertising is moving to the internet which holds special appeals for marketers but also raises special concerns for society Every minute the world s 2 billion or so Internet users send about 204 million emails upload 72 hours of of YouTube videos and Apple users download more than 48000 apps Not to mention Facebook shares Tweets lnstagram photos text messages blog posts Advertisersmarketers are using this Big Data the accumulated data from many sources to determine what we want and increasingly when we want it quot Those who have access to anol control the platforms have the largest most powerful source of information about human behavior that anyone has ever had in human history quotsaid one Australian marketing expert Targeted marketing involves targeting ads and other pitches or appeals based in part on 0 Web searches 0 Content of your 0 Purchasing history online and in real world 0 Facebook likes apps you download what you Tweet 0 Information derived from your entries for a free lunch at Chipotle Researchers recently using only Facebook quotlikesquot were able to predict Your race 95 percent accurate and sexual orientation 88 percent accurate 0 Whether your parents divorced before you turned 21 60 percent accurate 0 Whether you are depressed or are likely to experience postpartum 71 percent accurate based on frequency time and content of your Tweets Drug use 0 They could predict whether you had a high IQ based on your likes 0 Another recent app was designed to predict when someone is at risk of committing suicide based solely on your social media posts While most of this is merely amusing it s likely to soon be used to sell us things and many fear this information could or already does invade our privacy Some stores photograph you as you enter and leave noting how long you stayed what you bought On your next visit the store camera will recognize you and might track the aisle you re in and text you a digital coupon for an appropriate product Marketers say they merely want to use this data to build a one on one relationship with the buyer and to establish brand loyalty Others worry about privacy Target for example was able to predict with some accuracy whether its shoppers were pregnant based on what they bought The store came under re however when it mailed a coupon book for baby products to a pregnant teenager because her father rst learned from the Target mailings that his daughter was pregnant Other worry generally about the lack of transparency about how it s collected what happens to it recent revelations by Edward Snowden about how the government is monitoring much of what we do online raised more concerns Arguably the greatest changes in advertising in recent years have been both its ubiquity and its ability to tracktarget consumers made possible by the Internet There seems to be no escape from ads We see hundreds some say thousands of adsdaily Web digital technology lets advertisers track closely who s looking at their ads for how long and whether they follow up order seek more information makes it easier to target ads to speci c demographics age gender and psychographics groups interests values Advertisers face many pressures Because advertising is ubiquitous people resent its intrusive nature so advertisers must nd novel ways to get their messages across They must overcome what is called add clutter where a single ad is lost in the clutter of so many other ads So advertisers try to make ads appear more naturalpart of the landscape This too explains the growing trend of product placement on TV lm and in video games Ads became key to the mass media with the Penny Press 1833 That model reliant on advertising for revenue has been the model for most American media Concerns arose over patent medicine ads and led to formation of Federal Trade Commission which remains the primary watchdog of ad industry This agency keeps watch on the advertising industry especially watching out for deceptivemisleading advertising Today the FTC can demand that advertisers prove their claims levy nes take advertisers to court stop ad campaigns or even force advertisers to run corrective advertising although that s rare In the 19505 ads quickly gravitated to TV They are now moving to the Web And while ads are increasingly moving to the web we re still unsure of their effectiveness It is however easy to measure clickthrough rates how often users click through on an ad to learn more Those rates tend to be less than 1 And it s easier to make sure advertisers reach our intended targets Online advertisers also try to take advantage of viral marketing where an ad is so good clever creative that users will pass those along to others What are some clear advantages to viral marketingads That sort of advertising is virtually free it often generates publicity when media outlets report on it and it enjoys greater credibility than most ads because familyfriends pass it along Why do we see so many ads today El More moneyaf uent society or easy credit El More choices in the marketplace make advertising essential to set your productservice apart El More media outlets makes it easier to reach niche audiences El Less personal selling today so we tend to rely on impersonal advertising Prevalence and repetition are part of what give advertising its power and in uence Often we ll remember ads or ad slogans years or even decades after they ve stopped running Are ads effective The consensus is yes but it39s unclear why A few suggested reasons 0 Their ubiquity We see so many so often being in uenced is almost inevitable Rapid Nature ofAdvertising The come at us so quickly and we tend to dismiss them that we rarely question some of the absurd claims they make Yet we might subconsciously begin to make the connection between the brand and the message 0 Their deliberate nature Absolutely everything in a welldone ad is there for a reason It s deliberate On purpose Nothing is there by mistake That s precision creativity and purpose are part of what cause ads to cost so much Most ads are highquality works They cost far more per minutes than most TV shows and many people say the best things on TV or other media are the ads If you work in the ad industry you might Do account planningmarket research Studying currentpotential customers to gure how they feel about your product and the best way to advertise to them 0 Do media buyingselection Deciding where to place your ad Which media are most effective offer the best value You might determine value in part by looking at medium s CPM or cost per thousand Work on the creative side Designing working with graphics writing copy Common criticisms of advertising 1 Too many adsintrusive lnaneoffensive Sexistexploitative beer ads Deceptive ne print El Ads create waste because generate wants over needs El Increase costs which are then passed on to the consumer El Foster monopolies because only larger companies can afford ad campaigns The immediate message of ads is quotbuy this productquot or quotvote for me But ads are often criticized for their broader subtle messages such as quotimmediate grati cation you can buy happiness you re not good enough See ad busters an anticonsumerist site Some of the main challenges facing advertising industry today How best to use the internet People still resent ads on the internet and perhaps even moreso on their phonesmobile devices Also just getting people to pay attention with all of the competition distractions Global nature of marketplace Markets are growing increasingly global and marketers usually American need to connect to different customers and cultures in new ways What works in the West might fail miserably elsewhere Nova a typical beer commercial in the Middle East Finally the growing diversity of the American market presents challenges as the face and tastes of Americans change This is especially true with the growing Latino population
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