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This 0 page Bundle was uploaded by Rk18370p on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 277 at Pace University taught by Robert Keegan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Psychology in Psychlogy at Pace University.
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Date Created: 12/03/15
Week 7 Lecture Notes Race 0 Are racial differences real 0 Charles Darwin talked about this in Descent of Man 1871 I What is the value of race 0 Direct action of the environment climate NO I Africaners tribe in south Africa 0 They are white descent from Dutch 0 Been in south Africa for 300 years 0 Their skin did not darken over time 0 Lamarck s idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics NO 0 Correlation something is related to something else but doesn t necessarily cause NO I Skin color I Survived because they were resistant to parasite 0 Immunity increased change of survival 0 Trait that would be selected link to genetic trait skin color 0 Natural Selection racetraits selected that produce different races NO I Increases chances of survival 0 Sexual Selection proposed in Descent of Man 23 of book YES 0 Modern Biology on Race 0 Tyrosinase master enzyme in producing skin color I Albinos don t have it 0 White Skin I Part of Tyrosinase is inactive in the body I Tyrosinase inhibitors 0 Black Skin I Active without inhibitors 0 Some traits are because of natural selection 0 Light skin adaptive I Sunlight isn t as strong 0 Evolutionary Psychology on Race 0 No such thing as race 0 They focus on architecture of brain 0 Not been enough time to produce different brains 0 We all have the same brain skin is just a visual difference Manage Aggression 0 American Psychology 0 Topic Learning ignored instinct behavior I Behaviorism Acquired O Ethologists Europe Week 7 Lecture Notes 39 Studies bio I Studied human instinct in born behaviors social behavior Mechanisms for Managing Limiting Aggression 1 Dominance Hierarchy a Social animals b Everyone knows his or her place in social environment i Long periods of stability and peace c Alpha MaleT op Dog d How does it help i There is somebody already at the top so nobody is fighting to get to the top ii Thomas Hobbes English philosopher war of all against all e Human Example Government 2 Territoriality a Establish an area as your own ownership b Niko Tinbergen Nobel Prize i Study done on mating rituals of the three spine stickleback 1 During Mating Season a Females Belly Swells eggs are present b Males belly turns red i This only occurs if the male does something behavioral builds a nest or sand tunnel ii Establishing a territory c Female swims into territory displays belly which is a sign stimulus it triggers next behaviors Male starts to dance Female follows male Male starts to dance downwards Female follows i Fixed action pattern ii Instinct iii One response triggers the next one 2 If another male with a red belly swims into the territory a Male attacks the intruder to defend his territory b Mating Stops c Invader loses fight and swims away limiting aggression d The mating has been interrupted so now they must start over 3 If there is no intruder a Male pokes his nose into nest b Female swims into nest tactmg Week 7 Lecture Notes c Male nuzzles her tail d Female releases eggs into nest and swims off e Male swims into nest and releases sperm c Human Example Good fences make good neighbors i Property lines ii Football soccer hockey iii Monopoly checkers iV One Who established the territory usually Wins Ways to Manage Aggression Ethology 1 Dominance Hierarchies 2 Territories 3 Threat Displays a Make yourself look bigger and more threatening i Blow sh ii Australian lizard iii Chimps waving branches iv Humans expand chest when ready to ght b Occurs within own species i Human vs human ii Animal vs animal c Limits Aggression 4 Appeasement Signals a Signs that you 39give up39 i Expose a vulnerable area of their bodies 1 Open themselves belly up 2 Offer their necks 3 Humans throw their hands up b Limits aggression because the other person isn39t going to hurt you if you give up c How many homicides are there in the US per year by a gun i 11000 people 1 Suicide by gunshot a 19000 ii Technology has changed it s a product of our culture 1 We still have appeasement signals but we have now invented tools to commit murder a Knife Sword Gun Ri e Bomb 2 We have short circuited signals because of technology Natural Selection 0 Physical and mental traits The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex 0 This is full title 0 23 of the book 0 Also called sexual selection Week 7 Lecture Notes Sexual Selection 2 cl Mechanism of Evolution Traits that can39t be explained in Natural Selection 0 Antlers of the Irish Elk 12 feet wide Bullq Disadvantage Weighs 100 pounds 0 The tail of a peacock Tail did not help them survive Sexual selection survival of the sexiest Raises your chances of mating Natural Selection gt Survival gt Adulthood gt Offspring gt Species survival 0 Sexual Selection gt Sexiest gt Find a mate faster gt Offspring gt Species survival 2 Mechanisms of Sexual Selection 1 Female choice a Intersexual selection i Choice between sexes b Female chooses the most attractive male i Physical traits 1 Tails antlers ii BehavioraITraits 1 Product of sexual selection to make them more attractive a Male Birds i Build nests decorate nests H Dance iii Bring gifts food to female iv Sing 2 Male Combat a Intrasexual selection i Choice within sexes b Rams Horns i Fight male to male ii Best Horns wins 1 Trait that gets passed on to offspring Giraffe39s Necks 1 Lamaer a Acquired habit of stretching neck b Acquired that trait c Inherited longer neck d Inherited habit of stretching neck 2 Darwin Week 7 Lecture Notes a Adaptive for food b Chance variation i Get longer neck c Better chance of survival i Better chance of mating 3 Sexual Selection a Male combat i The bigger is the best 4 Does this apply to humans a Attractiveness i Traits women prefer in men 1 Physical Relatively tall Muscular Clean Broad shoulders Body symmetry Face symmetry Deeper voice Clear skin Good hair Good teeth k quotmasculinequot 2 Behavioral nc2 rhrpqpcer a Provider b Funny c Smart d Kind ii Traits men prefer in women 1 Physical a Nice body i Wide hips 1 WHR Waist to Hip Ratio 07 2 Hourglass shape b Large breasts c Clear skin d Clear eyes e Nice hair f Good teeth g Narrow chin h Long legs Can you go through the traits and see if they indicate anything about the individual Indicator of 1 Good health 2 Person is young You could be a good mate Week 7 Lecture Notes Sexual selection 0 Wired into us because of evolution Instincts When peahen sees the peacock with a nice tail she knows she39s healthy Culture 0 Does it play a role 0 Changes within our culture over time in the United States Sex symbols attractive females 0 195039s 0 Marilyn Monroe Hourglass shapevoluptuous 1960 s 0 Twiggy Veryskinny 1970 s 0 Charlie39s Angels Farah Fawcett Athletic Body 0 198039s 0 Madonna Early Madonna Marilyn Monroe Later Athletic 0 199039s 0 Pamela Anderson Voluptuousathletic They all shared a WHR of 07 Biology in the background 0 Cross Culture Examples of the power of culture 0 What features are attractive 0 Larger women in Okinawa Indicated wealth and health 0 Someone who could reproduce Everything started to change when TV came 0 Watching American shows with thinner women 0 Increased anorexia 0 Japanese tiny feet Foot binding broke bones Crippled feet deformed Male power 0 Women can39t run away 0 Extremely long necks Inserted rings deformed o TattoosPiercings Attractive in Maori New Zealand Week 7 Lecture Notes Burned skin 0 Cutting it 0 Acid Subculture some it39s accepted others not 0 Punk 0 Rap 0 Extending the upper lip Inserted plates 0 Extending the earlobes Added gauges to it weights Primarily African 0 Dinka Tribe SudanSouth Sudan Knock out 46 teeth They brought 1416 year old boys without parents to the US Brought them to Iowa known as quotSudanese Boysquot Physical trait can be used to as a signal to show your stupidity Implicit Personality Theory 0 If you39re attractive 0 You39re also smart warm and sexual Good 0 If you39re ugly 0 You39re also stupid cold and sexual Bad Dentist that gave boys teeth Dr Toothacre o Khoi San quotHottentotsquot The quotHottentot Venusquot She had a nice booty o quotBroad in the beamquot 0 Fatty deposits 0 Steatopygia Excessive deposit of fatty depos s If she is big butted then she has a wide pelvis so she could produce offspring o This was not true 0 Fashion a cultural product Clothes 0 Push up bras Padded shouldersjackets Corsets Makeup Lipstick shades of red 0 Eye makeup Week 7 Lecture Notes Emphasizing features of sexuality and attractiveness with clothes and makeup Mating Preferences and Strategies Producing a child 0 Women Produces 400 eggs in a lifetime Becoming a mother 0 9 months of pregnancy 0 Changes in weight hormones immune system 0 Production of breast milk 0 Stops when child stops feeding 0 Up to 4 years 0 Men Produce millions of sperm 12 million per hour Donates sperm 0 Women want to pick up on signs that men will be helpful Chimps 0 When they39re ready to mate Women 0 Physical changes take place 0 Genitals swell and turn red 0 Give off scents Behavioral changes 0 Receptive to sex Male 0 You can tell when the female is ready 0 He can guard her so no other male impregnates her 0 Chimps and humans differ Reproduction more open and noticeable in chimps More hidden 0 Richard Dawkins His book quotSelfish Genequot 0 Get genes into next generation 0 What do males look for in females 0 Youthfulness quotReproductive valuequot her chances of producing offspring 0 Health Physical Men are concerned when they are the father Behavioral 0 Good Partner in Marriage Make sure women won t cheat If you39re a virgin you39re less likely to cheat You won t be attractive for other men Week 7 Lecture Notes Psychoanalytical View of Depression Freud Loss of some kind Interpreted as an abandonment Anger Guilt Punish themselves a Depression is anger turned inwards PWNE Biological Psychology View of Depression 1 No single gene that produces depression a Although certain types of genetics put you at higher risk 2 Look at correlation between brain chemicals and depression a Doesn39t mean cause and effect i Bidirectionality 1 We don39t know what causes depression What comes rst in depression Low levels or serotonin or something else b Brain chemicals that play a role i Serotonin 1 Lower levels more likely low because of depression 2 Medication helps boost serotonin levels a Main cure is to use drugs i SSRI Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors 1 Keeps more serotonin in the brain b When verbal and drug therapy doesn39t work then ECT Electroconvulsive Therapy i Shoot voltage through the brain 1 Sometimes it works a Side effect is often memory loss c Type of Depression known as SAD Seasonal Affective Emotional Disorder i Only occurs 1 time a year winter 1 Occurs because of lack of light a Treated with light therapy 3 Diathesis Stress Model a Environmental Factor b Predisposition i quothigher riskquot for depression 1 Genetic Predisposition a Short alleles 2 Bad Early Experience 4 Cognitive Model of Stress a Thinking and learning process b Aaron Beck i Thought source of depression was faulty thinking Week 7 Lecture Notes 1 Minimization a Giving away your successes i Only thinks about what went wrong ii Think they just got lch and their successes had nothing to do with them b Magni cation i quotown your failuresquot ii Exaggerate them ii Proposed Cognitive Triad 1 Feel badly or negatively about yourself a Low selfesteem 2 Feel badly about present situation or circumstances 3 Feel badly about the future a Person feels helpless 5 Cognitive Model of Stress a Martin Seligman i Experiment used dogs as subjects 3 dogs at a time ii Part 1 lectric b Seligman concluded source of depression was learned helplessness 6 Evolutionary Psychology View of Depression a Fightstruggle and you lose i What is the adaptive thing to do next 1 Withdraw up to a point and heal a If it becomes prolonged or exaggerated it becomes maladaptive b SAD why in winter i Lack of light ii Hibernation withdraw low energy Week 7 Lecture Notes 1 Adaptive goes wrong when it gets exaggerated c Phobia intense fear i Proposed byJohn Watson 1 Behaviorism a Classical conditioning i Association by contiguity next to ii quotLittle Albertquot Experiment 1920 1 11 months old 2 UCS Unconditioned stimulus a Gong 3 UCR Unconditioned Response a Fear 4 CS Conditioned Stimulus a White Rat b CS has to be neutral can39t produce the UCR 5 CR Conditioned Response a Fear iii In conclusion phobias are learned and implies that you can become phobic of anything 2 Bregman 193039s a Replicate Watson39s work classical conditioning i Used animals animate objects classical conditioning worked ii Used inanimate objects and classical conditioning did not work b Explained that there was something wrong with Classical Conditioning 3 Martin Seligman Phobia a Surveyed adults with phobia i Phobias are very restricted 1 Animals snakesspiders 2 Situations open spacesclosed spaces high up dark spaces ii Why 1 Preparedness a Throughout our evolution to fear certain animals in situations b Because they are all potentially dangerous c It would be adaptive to have built into us Signal Detection Theory see handout Evolutionary View of Phobia 1 Seligman39s quotPreparednessquot a Prepared to fear certain dangerous situations adaptive response Week 7 Lecture Notes 2 Adaptive Conservation a Overreaction exaggeration of an adaptive response maladaptive 3 Phobia and Depression are related because it s an overreaction and maladaptive a Cute and Cuddly babies and animals i Neoteny releasing stimulus signs of quotnewnessquot b Red Belly Males and Swollen Belly Females releasing stimuli which is behaviors 4 Bottom Line a The more babies are held and cared for they have a better immune system and better mental health b We are wired to want to pick up new things and hold them
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