New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Introduction to Criminology Notes

by: Elizabeth Hunter

Introduction to Criminology Notes SOC:1410

Marketplace > Sociology > SOC:1410 > Introduction to Criminology Notes
Elizabeth Hunter
GPA 3.8
Introduction to Criminology
Prof. Heimer

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is a whole semester worth of Criminology Notes in Prof. Heimer's course. Got a A in this class with the help of these notes!
Introduction to Criminology
Prof. Heimer
75 ?




Popular in Introduction to Criminology

Popular in Sociology

This 45 page Bundle was uploaded by Elizabeth Hunter on Friday January 30, 2015. The Bundle belongs to SOC:1410 at a university taught by Prof. Heimer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 193 views.

Similar to SOC:1410 at University


Reviews for Introduction to Criminology Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/30/15
Criminology notes Exam 2 10142014 0 Countries with stronger welfare has a smaller gap and there is less poverty They don t value having more money Social welfare They look at the more serious crime homicide Society is not in consensus over econ success 0 Crime is not only committed by the poor 0 13 now from what it was in the 705 o LarcenyTheft most common property crimes 0 68 of all property crime in 2009 FBI 0 Most types of theft that do not include the use of force Examples pickpocketing shoplifting stealing a bike purse snatching thefts from MV employee theft Shoplifting o Shoplifting types on the ends of continuum of involvement Amateurs impulsive unskilled unplanned n Motives need greed thrill Occupational more skilled planned big payoff n Motives major source of income 8 of all shoplifters Techniquestools of the trade 0 Ideas and supplies on the web a quotFencingquot the goods 0 Some pawnshops specialize El El Pickpockets 0 Typical explanations routine activities amateurs 0 You re just there at the right time in the right placequot 0 Differential association occupational Other Varieties of Property crime 0 Embezzlement fraud forgery counterfeiting etc o Burglary o Amateurwork alone or in teams Unsophisticated entry a Breaking a window smashing a door kids MotivationRichard Wright studies PEO a Quick money for common needs and desires Food drugs alcohol a Few good labor market options 0 Many from poor neighborhoods with high unemployment n Go for quantity over quality 0 Not well planned 0 What do they steal Less expensive 0 Sometimes opportunistic Most common explanation o Routine Actives Motivated offender Suitable target Lack of guardianship no alarm system no one at home 0 Professional Work alone or in teams Planned specialized tools contacts clients for resale D Chambliss Harry King quotthe boxmanquot Most common explanation n Differential association theory 0 Through associations with others Learning de nitions skills Cr Sutherland s quotThe Professional Thiefquot 0 A behavior system because it can be described as a unit 0 Mostly con dence games shoplifting and pickpocketing Characteristics 0 Regular work at theft a business 0 Have high status among thieves and in criminal underworld 0 Associate with other professional thieves selective Learn via apprenticeship and tutelage n Developed codesnorms common anguageargot n Established techniques and tools technical skills 0 Security Choosing jobs that involve minimal danger n Con dence games often victim agreed to participate in dishonest deal a Pickpocketing and shoplifting hard to proveprosecute Clever techniques and skills via assoc xer I Some employ professional xer 0 Work on victims return stuff if refuse to cooperate in court Bribing police or court officials Characteristics based on many studies past and present 0 000000 Highly developed career pattern nonviolent High level of skill Association with other profession not amateurs Few arrests Status based on skill and pro t Not from poorest classes start crime later eg quotMurph the Surfquot jewel thief Violent Crime Murder rape robbery aggravated and simple assault Murderwillful killing 0 Manslaughterwithout malice aforethought O O Nonnegligent voluntary Negligent involuntary Robberytaking or attempting to take possessions from a person by use or threat of force Aggravated Assaultattack of person with purpose of in icting severe or aggravated bodily injuryusually involves a weapon 0 Simple Assaultassault or attempted assault no weapon no serious injury includes stalking hazing intimidation Typical murderer not thought out Wolfgang and Ferracutti s Subculture of Violence Macrolevel Explanation of Violence Rates 0 Cultural explanation o Subcultural norms expression of violence appropriate in certain situations 0 No guilt abt violence 0 Common in many situation 0 Violent subcultures where there are high crime rates 0 Urban areas southern states and poor areas 0 Southern subculture of violence thesis 0 Violence is a part of Southern culture and pervades social relationships 0 Because North s treatment of the south after the Civil Warow threshold for aggression Loftin and Hill study of murder across states 0 Poverty accounted for SouthNorth difference in murder 0 Social structure is what is important Critique of Subculture of Violence 0 Structure may be important and NOT culture 0 Origin of violent subculture is unspeci ed 0 Variation among individuals within the group not explained individual differences not explained Another MacroLevel Explanation Blau and Blau s Structural Inequality Explanation 0 related to anomie theory Inequality can lead to violence 0 Why Fosters con icttension between groups Leads to alienation of groups and anomie o Inequality viewed as fairl violence more likely o Inequality view as unfairl violence more likely o What kind of inequality would seem most unfair Inequality based on race and o BampB Hypothesis 0 Inequality based on race caste caste sex or other ascribed characteristics is likely to be viewed as unfair 0 Research supported this Income inequality gap explains violence better than does LEVEL of poverty Blau and Blau s Structural Inequality Explanation High rates of inequality based on ascribed charactersiticsl High rates of violence 3 short answer multiple choice truefalse CRIMINOLOGY DISCUSSION 1023 applying theories 0 DAT O O O O Level of Analysis Individual differences Model of the Law Group con ict Applying Cquues Not a lot of free will all about interactions Labeling O O Level of Analysis Individual differences Model of the Law Group con ict 0 Applying Minor deviancecrimesocietal reactioncriminal identitymore serious deviancecrime o Critiques Not a lot of free will puts no responsibility on the person people don t agree with that people are criminals because they were labeled 0 RAT Lifestyle 0 Level of Analysis Cross level n Individual differences victimization a High Crime 0 Model of the Law We don t know 0 Applying Motivated offenderljsuitable targetljlack of capable guardian o Critiques 0 Anomie Merton 0 Level of Analysis Crime Rates 0 Model of the Law Consensus 0 Applying Goalslemerican Dream DAnomie normlessness frustrationcrime rateindividual adaptation Means to achieve itHard workeducationlenomie normlessness frustration Crime rateindividual adaptation Imbalance between these Individual adaptation n Conformity n Innovann 0 lots of crime white collar property drug sellers a Ritualist office worker factory worker a Retreatist drug users hobo n Rebellion Sub means and goal cults counter culture terrorism 0 Institutional Anomie 0 Level of Analysis Crime Rates 0 Model of the Law Concensus 0 Applying Goals and meansanomiecrime rate Difference institution a Econ politics family law education weaken social control 0 Critiques lt maybe not be consensus Doesn t talk about rich people committing crime BampB Structural Inequality 0 Level of Analysis Crime Rates 0 Model of the Law Con ict 0 Applying Inequalityviewed as unfair can t changecrime rates a Raceethnicity a Gender White Collar and Corporate Crime Sutherland s First Usage of Term and De nition 0 White collar crime status occupation committing crime within their work they wouldn t be able to do it without their job Sutherand s address 0 conspiracies 0 position persona gain wo concern for the law Why should we be concerned with white collar crimes 0 It is widespread o It is costly to society Costs of White Collar Crime 0 FB more than 300 billion annually 0 White collar is not a victimless crime FBI de nition 0 Read the famous cases on the FBI website Enron Madoff more Enron is the FBI s most complex wcc case 0 quottop officials at the Houstonbased company cheated investors and enriched themselves through complex accounting gimmicks like overvaluing assets to boost cash ow and earnings statements which made the company even more appealing to investors when the company declared bankruptcy in December 2001 investors lost millions prompting the FBI and other federal agencies to investigatequot Mutiagency investigation FBI IRS SEC DO 0 know what a quotponzi schemequot Survey of White Collar Crime Victimization 0 National public survey on white collar crime 2010 BJA 0 24 of households victims of white collar crime 0 HH reported average of 14 victimizations 0 Only 12 of victimizations were reported to any CJ agency 0 Older people are most vulnerable to getting scammed 0 Credit card fraud 1 0 Price misrepresentation 2 o Unnecessary repairs 3 o dentity theft 4 0 check out the graphs on icon 0 some WCC viewed as more serious than street crime Enough resources Recent Economic Crisis o Is their enough resources for wcc and is the government spending enough money on it Recent Comparisons of Costs 0 White Collar Crime 0 338 Billion Chamber of Commerce estimate 0 health care fraud alone costs 100 billion annually 9genral accounting office 0 250 billion antitrust or trade violations 0 60 billion cost for investors pensioners and employers from Enron case 0 Property Street Crimes 0 18 billion 0 loss from robbery burglary larcenytheft motor vehicle theft and arson Steven Pinker Harvard Psychologist 0 Violence Arguments 1 Civilizing Process 12002000 violence trends 0 Homicide has decreased substantially Reasons 0 Society got more structured o More just society 0 infrastructure 2 Humanitarian Revolution 1600 What is being abolished 0 Judicial Torture by government Death Penalty for Nonlethal Crimes witch hunts religious persecution slavery Why 0 Pinker argues not wealthy and appreciate life more was no increase in income 0 Pinker argues it is Printing and literacy quotThe Enlightenmentquot Knowledge replaced superstition and ignorance cosmopolitanism empathize less likely to be cruel 3The Long Peace 0 19th vs 20th century 0 quotpeacefulquot 19th century 0 20th century quotvery violentquot 0 wars no nuclear weapons no wars between great powers 0 wars between European countries Europe doesn t dominate politics 0 numbers vs rates 0 numbers WWII worst world war but in rates it is not 19th century by trends is actually more violent than 20th 0 Trends in great powers 0 1500200 Jack Levy war natural state of things Duration of Wars involving a Great Power shorter in duration Frequency of Wars Involving a Great Power less frequent Deadliness of Wars involving a great Power increasing Deaths in War 4 New Peace 1946 fewer interstate wars more civil wars Colonial wars 0 none Interstate wars 0 Plummeted fewer most deadly Civil wars 0 More don t kill as many people Genocide o Decreasing What changed Age of genocide who cared about it Cause of Peace 0 Increased Democracy trade international community 5 Rights Revolution 0 What is happening during this period 0 Trends 0 Laws Lynchings decreased Hate crime murders of blacks gone down Nonlethal hate crimes against blacks gone down Whites hostility to blacks gone down Discrimination against minorities decline Rape gone down Domestic violence gone down Uxoricide and matricide Us states with corporal punishment Approval of spanking Child abuse School violence States that have decriminalized homosexuality Animal Hunting gone down gays o Attitudes Antigay attiudes Increase knowledge increase communication decrease fear decrease oppression government violence decrease Clinard and Quinney s Classi cation of WhiteCollar Crimes Occupational Crimes 0 Crime committed by individuals in the course of theirjob o Embezzlement De nitions n Violation of trust position of trust a Clerk of cer of a company Certain positions more opportunity n Which offer greatest opportunity a Common method of embezzling today internet 0 Corporate Crimes 0 Crimes committed by corporate of cials and it s in the interest of the corporation 0 Price xing illegal mergers 0 Corporate Crime and Harm 2 people are murdered in America every hour 3 Americans die every hour as a result 0 unhealthy or unsafe conditions in the workplace 0 Why don t we fear corporate crime The effects are less immediate Often hidden Offenders are not clearly identi able How the media addresses it Cressey s Causes of Embezzlement o Nonsharable nancial problem 0 Gambling 0 Medical problem 0 Drug addiction 0 Position of trust solution 0 Rationalizations Types of Corporate Crimes o iega restraint of trade 0 manufacturing violations 0 environmental violations 0 financial crimes 0 abor violations noncompiance with court orders Clinard and Yeager Classic Study 0 582 of the largest corporations 0 1533 federal cases over in 2 years 60 of corps at least one conviction average 44 convictions per corp Etzioni and Clinard o 62 of Fortune 500 Companies Explaining Corporate Crime Drive for pro t industry variation Structure of organizations how Culture of Organizations how Culture Harvard Business Review Survey 45 executives believes that its unethical 47 would violate a code of ethics if they knew they wouldn t get caught Culture justifying WhiteCollar Crime people do it because everybody else is doing it executive level the stock will decrease then lead to loosing the business and people will loose their jobs and there would be no more product How can we reduce corporate crime GET TOUGH treat it as crime in criminal courts not civil courts First corporation tried in criminal courts Ford 0 Called quotcorporate violencequot by some Ford Pinto Calculations in internal memo 50 million to x everything 137 million to x gas tanks 495 million to not x the gas tanks which led ford not to x them and led to like 500 people dead Outcomes rst criminal trial of a corporation Ford was acquitted in 1978 US DOT recalled the 19711976 Ford and Firestone 1997 Ford knew of 35 deaths and 130 injuries law suits before the federal probe 1999 Firestone had been replacing faulty tires in other countries 2000 recall of millions the Firestone tires and Ford CEO apologizes on television Firestone apologizes to congress quotin the name of pro t pro les in corporate irresponsibilityquot Pinker Violence had declined Why 0 Criminal Justice was nationalized 0 Infrastructure of commerce 0 Literacy increase Knowledge replaced superstition o Cosmopolitanism increased Empathy increased Cruelty decreased 0 Rights extended oppressed groups Enron o Started as an energy company 0 lnnovann Transform energy supplies into nancial instruments that could be traded online like stocks and bonds 0 Created new markets for other commodities Keylssues 0 Mark to market accounting Claim future pro ts as income now 0 Special Purpose Entities SPEs Transfer assets including debt to another entity 0 Performance Review Committee n quotRank amp Yankquot Background 0 Once ranked the 6th largest energy company in the world 0 Enron shares worth 9075 August 2000 067 January 2002 0 Top executives sold their company stock prior to downfall o Lowerlevel employees were prevented form selling their stock due to 401K restrictions 0 Environmental Crime In textbook Jacksonville Arkansas quotdioxinvillequot Proposals for preventing corporate crime severe and certain punishment create more stringent code of corporate ethics make upper management more responsible for actions of the corporation gtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltCo n S U m e r Press U regtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtllt ORGANIZED CRIME De nitions Continuum of Criminal Organization 0 Explanations of Organized Crime Classic Patterns and characteristics History Criminological De nition of Organized Crime Albanese 6 elements 0 Organized hierarchy Rational pro t through crime Use or threat of force Corruption to gain immunity from sanctions Demand for service Monopoly over markets OOOOO Shorter Def Groups that 1 Utilize violence or threats of violence 2 provide iicit goods that are in public demand and 3 assure immunity for their operators through corruption and enforcement Continuum of organization of group crime Nonorganized ll highly organized Organized structure Hierarchy of positions Roles expectations for behavior they De ned roles accompany positions Membership roles Normative codes Emphasis of pro t Procedures for immunity Explanations of organized crime three models of organized crime Cosa Nostra II Enterprise Power I Patron Client Disagreement over level of organization A quotCosa Nostraquot Cressey nationwide centralized study n1 Joseph Valachi informant soldier Birth of La Cosa in 1931 192931 wars 1931 Maranzano l quotboss of bossesquot 91131 quotMa a Purge Dayquot Luciano and Genovese form national alliance Know history of organized crime in the United States Explanations of Organized Crime Cressey cont From local gangsters l national organization speci c families boss Links Cressey Theft of The Nation Structure of Cosa Nostra chart on ICON organized crime works because of illegal markets prostitution gambling drugs good and services that are against the law that people want society creates the demand government makes it illegal which opens a spot for it to become a demand ega markets come from the government and society Organized crime is able to in some way to control the government so that they can provide goods and services on the illegal market corruption Prohibition created a huge illegal market because everyone drank 1986 Presidents Crime Commission on Organized Crime echoed Valachi and Cressey Cosa Nostra largest and most powerful org crime group However Arguments against quotCosa Nostraquot A Block 0 Cressey relied on ONE informant Study newspaper coverage of Ma a Purge Day Claims that there is no evidence of national organization Difference between the levels of organizations is that they disagree with themselves EnterprisePower Syndicates Block Study of syndicates in NY 19301950 Two Types Enterprise Syndicates 0 Illegal services and goods 0 Large division of labor Power syndicates eg Lucky Luciano Dutch Schultz o Extortion 0 Division of labor 0 Sometimes tried to control the enterprise syndicates Albini s Patron Client Explanation Alternative to Cressey s model focus on Cosa Nostra but no ridged formal structure shifting and complex network of relationships local and ethnic groups powerful quotpatronsquot deliver favors to clients patrons can be clients to other accommodation cooperation Bottom Line organizational level what s the glue The threat of violence and the hierarchy basically what s holding them together is selfinterest of actors Classic Patterns of Organized Crime illegal Businesses and Activities ex chop shops smuggling traf cking Money Laundering Hiding the source of illegal money How does it work Steps 1 Filtering 2 Hiding Camou age 3 Mainstream Circulation Corp Culture Risk Survival of the ttest rank and yank highly competitive cultural Prophet Kenneth Lay was convicted may 25 2006 Died before sentencing could happen Died at 64 because of a heart attack Jekkery Skilling May 25 2005 Convicted on the 19 of the 28 things against him Andrew Fastow Faced 98 criminal charges Typical Characteristics of Organized Criminals Main income crime Identity criminal Normative code of secrecy Theory and Syndicated Crime 0 Anomie Theory macro Goals Means n Blocked means group solution a lnnovann 0 Differential Association Theory ln interactions n De nitions favorable to crime Eg crime respected quotjobquot a Techniques n Criminalopportunities Global Organized Crime Organized crime thrives in 0 Liberal Democracies o Corrupt Dictatorships Some International Organized Crime Groups 0 Japanese Yakuza gangster good for nothing not hidden 0 Chinese Triad Societies 0 Russian Organized Crime Russian Ma a Major Global Organized Crime Human Traf cking 0 Acquisition of people by improper means Migrant smuggling Drug traf cking Money laundering Estimation of annual costs of global organized crime 0 United Nations Of ce on Drugs and Crime 870 billion 0 FBI 1 trillion Political Crime Any kind of harmful act that is aimed at changing the status quo Blackmail assassination theft Not about the act of the crime Different in MOTIVATION of crime 0 Crimes against the state Purpose ultimate goal often is social change a Violent terrorism assassination n Nonviolent disobeying rules for a change a Throughout history 0 Example 1 o Workerschange work conditions Late 18005 lots of protestsvioence n 1886 8 hour work day Rally at Haymarket Square Chicago turned violent Bomb went off Police red into crowd 0 Example 2 0 British Suffrage Movement 0 Speci c strategies of violence Breaking windows hurling hammers arson threw stones at Downing Street quotDeeds not Wordsquot 0 Example 3 0 US 19605 early 19705 US Urban Riots Civil rights Student Protest and Violence El El 0 Crimes by the state Domestic a State corruption Weather Underground Faction of Students for Democratic Society used scare tactics and violence Back red and hurt other protestors Gov used them as the poster children for all youth protestors Examples bribery kickbacks election fraud corrupt campaigns a Political repression Examples illegal surveillance repression of protest genocide human rights violations International a Violation of law domestic or international by a state of cial and the crime occurs outside state s boundades Political Crime 0 Crimes against the state 0 Purpose ultimate goal often is social change Violence a Terrorism tough to de ne Use of violence or threat of violence to coerce the state 0 Assassination kidnappings bombings 0 Examples in US 0 Ku Klux Klan o 1995 Oklahoma City Bombing McVeigh and Nichols anti government militia Homegrown terrorism Revenge for deaths of Branch Davidians at Waco David Koresh 0 9112001 World Trade Center NYC Attack from groups based outside of US4 Schlesinger cycles of terrorism applied to terrorism 0 Before WWII right wing 0 Between WWII and the 19705 left wing 0 Since 19705 right wing LaFree et al article READ AND UNDERSTAND Nonviolent n Example 1 civil disobedience and nonviolence Refusing to obey certain laws because they are unjust Many view as necessary for addressing government injustice Social movements 0 Civil rights student protests Indian independence movement 0 Root Causes of Human Trafficking Open borders Poverty Lack of opportunities Instability with new governments Lack of enforcement of laws Money Lack of education Fraud or deceit Recruitment and Transportation Usually recruited by someone they know 3 or 4 different people in the trafficking chain Sold over and over and over again Methods of Controlling Victims quotbreak themquot 0 one individual is beat in front of others to teach them a lesson quotremote or unknownquot locations Threaten the victims Give them the hope to be freed Pay of the debt Police officer aren t helping Taking away their passport Drugs Political Crimes BY the State government violations of human rights civil liberties and constitutional privileges as well as the illegal behavior that occurs in the process of enforcing the law or maintain the status quo ex p259 DOMESTIC State Corruption Political bribery 0 Acceptance of money by state official for favors Political Kickbacks 0 Payment for help in getting a contract 0 Examples 0 Election Fraud False registration stuffing baet boxes Corrupt campaign practices 0 1972 water gate State poitica repression 0 Use of state power in illegal ways to achieve sate goals Example 1 illegal surveillance n FBI surveillance of MLKJr Threatening letters telephone tapped n J Edgar Hoover s personal les 0 MLKJr Eleanor Roosevelt o KennedysJFK RFK The Hoover vault at the FBI website Example 2 State use of force against protesters 0 Civil Rights Protest Birmingham 1963 US Students Protests 0 Kent State 541970 Arab spring Example 3 genocide throughout history 0 Nazi Germany 0 Latin America Gov deaths squads 0 Iraq chemical use against Kurds o Darfur Sudan International crimes by the state INTERNATIONAL International State Crimes Violation of law domestic or international by a state of cials and the crime occurs outside state s boundaries Example IranContra Conspiracy 1980 s O O 0 US Secret sale of arms to Iran in Exchange for 7 hostages and money Uses money to fund Contras opposing the Nicaraguan rebel Sandinistas Destroying evidence Criminal Convictions 1989 Drug Trafficking Some primary production locations The golden triangle opium The golden crescent opium Latin America 0 Colombian Medellin Cartel United many narco trafficking groups 0 Mexico Drug Cartels today pro tsgtUS defense budget for Iraq war cartels bribe political and justice officials n bribery for immunity a BIG lssue poorly paid police force Control 90 US cocaine market meth etc 0 Mexican cartels today Violence bw rival groups and bw cartels and Mx Gov Drug cartes US biggest or crime problem Why is the drug trade attractive to organized crime Demand for illegal commodity and supply through Why is the drug trade attractive to organized crime Demand for illegal commoditysuppy through illegal markets Legislating Drug use intro Public Order LawCrime o 1 Enforce morality o outlaw vice o quotvictimlessquot Why and how do public order crimes become illegal Explanations of the emergence of drug laws 0 1 Social control explanation o 2 quotmoral crusadesquot What view of the law is this consistent with and why 0 Consensus Social control view quotcon ict viewquot 18005 to about 1875 o Opiates ega 1875 SF outlaws opium dens why 0 18751900 depression White majority pushes for antiopium aws 1909 US Congress Opium Exclusion Act 0 Import illegal except as medicine Social Control View Cocaine o By the early 19005 Widely used Public discourse minorities n Myth o In REALITY most opiate and cocaine use was by Middle class white women used for medical problems 0 1914 Harrison Narcotics Act Tax opium cocaine and derivatives heroin Goal control narcotics traf cking Treasury Dept 0 19191922 Supreme Court rulings make prescriptions iega So what is the outcome 0 Outcomes Social Control View Birth of illegal drug markets Creates quotcriminal classquot of users poor Marijuana 0 Used legally until 1930s 0 Competition forjobs during 19305 Great Depression Southwest ethnic tension public discourse a dangerous drug l violence 0 1937 Marijuana Tax Act Regulates import and use Created a criminal class Summary 0 Opiates cocaine and marijuana become criminalized Not because of study of their effects Perceived economic threat More History 1970 Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act 0 Replaced all previous law on quotdangerous drugsquot 0 Department ofjustice Lobbying by pharm industry amphetamines and tranquilizers 19805 84 86 more Congressional Acts and War on Drugs 0 Created a quotdrug czarquot 0 Crack down on marijuana cocaine etc Over time harsher penalties for crack vs powder cocaine Documentary 1 Needs to be treated as a health issue not a crime Documentary 2 Goal reduce highway facilities Some experts believe its actually added to the fatalities Lowering the age will make kids safer Simply drove it behind closed doors basements fraternities closed dorm rooms Cant enforce the law because its not effective Didn t call 911 because they were underage Moral Crusades Also rooted in the con ict perspective on the law And a variant of labeling theory Howard Becker Outsiders book Where do rules come from 0 Groups differ in values Values are vague 0 Rules created about speci c behaviors Law speci c rule that is codi ed and sets out consequences for violation 0 BUT There are exceptions Selfdefense younger age marijuana granted in some states legal 0 AND Enforcement of rules is selective Status discrimination race Creation of law is selective Value I rule I enforcement How does enforcement occur 0 1937 Marijuana Tax Act Values a Protestant ethnic responsibilitywork n Pragmatism disapproval of behavior solely for pleasure I Humanitarianism law helps users to be free of addiction Treasury department formed Bureau of Narcotics in 1930 o How does enforcement rule applicationlaw evolve o Moral entrepreneurs Groups mobilize to create amp enforce rules llaw Need support from other groups n Include 1 Rule creators o crusading reformer detests quotevilquot 0 often humanitarian rationale Help poor people youth addicts o Enlist experts 0 Use media 19305 hundreds of news articles about horrors of marijuana lm 0 Success creation of new outsiders class of criminals 2 Rule enforcers enforcement of rulelaw 0 Existing and new agencies Harrison Tax Act 1914 n Originally enforced by the Treasury department a Federal Narcotics Bureau within Treasury 1930 Institutionalizesolidify rule a FNB was key Must justify existence of agency a Dilemma a Show they are effective a Show that there is still need 0 Summary 0 Becker Deviance is s an enterprise Moral crusades n l deviance rule enforcers l solidify boundary creation of criminal group Connections to Review Final Exam Political Crime 0 Crimes against the state Purpose ultimate goal often is social change a Violent n Nonviolent 0 Crimes by the state maintain status quo Domestic a State corruption 0 Examples bribery give money for doing something kickbacks election fraud corrupt campaigns a Political repression Examples iega surveillance repression of protest genocide human rights violations International a Violation of law domestic or international by a state official and the crime occurs outside state s boundades Benson reading and how he talks about neutralizations and rationalizations and how it relates to cresseyDAT History of mafia read Difference between corporate structure and culture 0 Structure the size the hierarchy the levels of autonomy how much freedom 0 Culture norms and values Continuum of Organization of Group Crime 0 Nonorganized highly organized Nonorganized n riots Highly organized a Havejobs Explanations of Organized Crime 0 Cosa Nostra Cressey Structure on icon Theft of the nation on icon know how to explain Videos in discussion Pinker and the history of violence Enron Know all mafia Sex slaves 0 Factors that in uenced o How women were brought in Debate on alcoholdrugs Organized crime What did Cressey have to say about embellzalment Rationizations Financial problem cant find a way out of Short answer lists Strengths and weaknesses data Qualitative etc Models of law Drugs Consensus general agreement murder is bad Con ict not general agreement


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.