Sociology final Sociology 120
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Michaela Humby on Friday December 4, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Sociology 120 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr Tobin Walton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 12/04/15
Material culture includes all those things that humans make or adapt from the raw stuff of nature ex computers houses jewelry forks Material culture is made up of artifacts Nonmaterial Culture made up of intangible things the ideas about truth and beauty happiness what s funny or not Symbols language norms sanctions values and beliefs make up the nonmaterial culture A symbol is anything that represents something else to more than one person 38 is a symbol for a dollar sign and the swastika is the symbol of Nazi Germany Language is an organized set of symbols made up of spoken and written words gestures and rules grammar and syntax Sometimes hard to use these rules to properly express what we mean ex Man shot in head accidentally dies vs Man accidentally shot in head dies those are to different meanings The context itself reveals a lot about culture Ex Masai of Africa have 17 different terms for cattle college students have 12 different words for vomit A thumbs up gesture in Australia is rude but means good job in the USA Norms ex how women should dress in a temple women must not wear jeans must not wear clothing that exposes their navels must not wear clothing that exposes their breasts 3 Types of Norms 1 F olkway casual norms man not wearing a shirt 2 Mores important rules such as norms against unj ustif1ed assaults on other persons man not wearing any pants 3 T aboos norms so deeply held that even thinking about violating them upsets pleas eating human esh Sanctions 1 Negative Sanetion the certain type of response you expect when violating a norm For example negative sanctions for a violation of folkways may be a nasty look while for taboo one may be sanction by imprisonment 2 Formal Sanetion official responses from specific organization in society ex government universities churches etc 3 Informal Sanction individuals in social groups can range from being laughed at to being given the cold shoulder 4 Positive Sanetion can be both formal and informal being rewarded by going beyond what is expected Values are abstract ideas about what is good and what is bad in a society Ex hard work equality success freedom etc Beliefs people s ideas about what is real and what is not real Culture systems may be considered as products of action or as conditioning elements of further action p l 10 Social Institution a set of ideas about the way a speci c important social need ought to be addressed These tend to be justi ed by values and beliefs so an institution is a part of nonmaterial culture After the pattern of responding to particular social needs it becomes established or institutionalized Being trans historical pattern of behavior all designed to meet some need for society it spans scales of time outside of the scope We are born into institutions Ex families meet needs by feeding kids and making them adults into society Cultural Di usion cultural leveling when cultural things are adopted EX Americans eating sushi and Japanese playing baseball and eating Big Macs Subculture groups of people within society whose shared values norms beliefs or use of material culture sets them apart from other people in that society EX In southern US people share common folkways food and have distinct accents small Counterculture members within the subculture hold values and share norms that set them apart from the subculture but are perceived to threaten the parent culture EX the Ku KluX Klan smaller Idiocultures p 117 consists of a system of knowledge beliefs behaviors and customs shared by members of an interacting group to which members can refer and employ the basis of further interaction Gary Alan Fine Over time people interact and develop shared knowledge beliefs and customswhich become important to their future interactions smallest Are all countercounters sub cultures Yes Are all subcultures counter cultures No A social status is a position that a person occupies in a social structure family status mother father child grandparents occupational status president lawyer computer programmer social class upper class middle class lower class Also age race sex and ethnicity etc Some statuses are achieved like becoming a college graduate and others are ascribed placed generally at birth into a status like sex race ethnicity etc that they cannot escape Status symbols eX wedding is a symbol of marital status a police uniform is a symbol of occupational status etc some symbols may not be as obvious but a backpack on a young person may be symbol that they are a student A Role is the sum total of expectations about the behavior attached to a particular social status Ex a teacher s role is to stand up in the front of the classroom and teach students and be prepared assign homework etc Role strain occurs when the demands of a particular role are such that the incumbent is hardpressed to meet them all Status Inconsistency a person with an ascribed status achieves an inconsistent status Example woman goes to work as a truck driver or a middleaged man is a college student Role Con ict when the roles of inconsistent statuses clash Example A juvenile court judge having his own daughter into court role con ict Master Status calling a female lawyer little lady versus calling a male laweys counsel or Mr Who you are is usually a result of your membership in groups family marriage friendship group clubs organizations etc A social aggregation is some collectivity of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time Example Tennessee fans at a football gam they are not social groups but they all want the Vols to win the game Primary group more intimate group Example your family Secondary group larger numbers Example this sociology class Think Gemeinschaft and and Gesellschaft Socialized how people are taught to be functioning members of a social group Habitualization when any action is repeated frequently enough to become a pattern Routine behavior is the way we do it but institutionalized behavior is the way it must be done Socialization the process by which people acquire cultural competency and though which society perpetuates the fundamental nature of existing social structure Without social interaction humans nd it di icult to survive Without social interaction humans cannot develop a social self that relatively organized complex of attitudes beliefs values and behaviors associated with an individual Charles Horton Cooley emphasized that the social self arises through interaction with others Based on how our perception of how others see us we develop our re ected or looking glass selves The I and Me Sociologist George Herbert Mead The Me is what you see when you put yourself into the shoes of another and look back at yourself we act towards our me what beliefs and values you that drive you to your me The I is the part of you that is uniquely you your personal reactions to the situation The self evolves continually as it interacts with a variety of agents of socialization ex family peers schools and the workplace Anticipatory socialization the second step of making a career choice which involves learning about and even playing at a work role before entering it Rites of Passage the many steps in the process of socialization These are ceremonies or rituals that make important transitions from status to status within a life cycle Total Institution coined by Erving Goffman Socialization processes that take place in intense experiences such has mental hospitals prisons etc The goal of the total institution is to take away the individuals self and give them a new one more in keep with the needs of the total institution This goal is called Resocialization Depersonalization example Marine Corps Young men no longer called by their names their possessions are taken away and they were subject to many new rules The Generalized Other cultural part of beliefs and values of the entire community which doll do you think is the prettiestugliest video Internalization of an Ideology the internalized beliefs and values and making them their own The process of consolidating and embedding one39s own beliefs attitudes and values when it comes to moral behavior Terminal Values These are values that we think are most important or most desirable They are desirable states of existence that we will work towards or try to reach They include but are not limited to happiness selfrespect recognition inner harmony and professional excellence Culture industry German Kulturindustrie was coined by the critical theorists Theodor Adorno 1903 1969 and Max Horkheimer 1895 1973 and was presented as critical vocabulary in the chapter quotThe Culture Industry Enlightenment as Mass Deceptionquot of the book Dialectic of Enlightenment 1944 wherein they proposed that popular culture is akin to a factory producing standardized cultural goods films radio programs magazines etc that are used to manipulate mass society into passivity Roletaking theory or social perspective taking is the sociological theory that one of the most important factors in facilitating social cognition in children is the growing ability to understand others39 feelings and perspectives an ability that emerges as a result of general cognitive growth Ideal Type Ideal is a conception or a standard of something in its highest perfection It refers to mental image or conception rather than a material object It is a model The term type means a kind class or group as distinguished by a particular character So generally we may conceptualize ideal type as a kind category class or group of objects things or persons with particular character that seems to be the best example of it 11 11 Deviance is one of the more intriguing topics studied by sociologists Norms vary across societies Egoism occurs when people are not well integrated into society Culture Social Structure Culturally lnstitutionally Available Emphasized Legitimate Means Goals to Goa Attainment l Conformity accent accept H Innovation accept reject I Ritualism rclcct 39 accept iV Retreatism rclcct I39CJCCL V Rebellion 39 relect old and sabsmutc riew ones Primary deviance committed for many reasons like trying to fit in the secondary Deviances are the subsequent acts committed once in that group 11 16 15 What s the typical case of social mobility Is economic inequality a problem in the USA Have things gotten better since WW2 Is racial and gender discrimination a problem in the US and the world Crash of 2009 housing market and job market Social mobility most social mobility in the US has occurred in the middle classes and has been relatively small moves up and down Over the last century social mobility has been fairly high and upwards 11 18 However since the 1970s mobility has been uneven and often downward unpredictable and a lot more downward versus the overall century Trends in US health and poverty Overall income and wealth inequality has increased in the US over the past several decades Consider several measures Percentage share of wealth owned by the richest 1 percent of Americans has increased in 1970 from 22 to 33 percent while the top 20 percent held 813 percent before the crash Percentage share of total US income earned by the top 20 percent grew from 43 to 50 percent Is wealth or income inequality more extreme in USA Wealth inequality is much more extremelopsided than income globally Ratio of CEO pay to average worker pay in 1980 was 421 in 2005 it was 41 1 1 Deindustrialization trend in manufacturing jobs in developing countries that begin to disappear and those jobs are no longer based in 1St world countries and are shifting to other developing countries like Mexico and areas in southeast and east Asia is 43 percent of total US jobs in 1950 The quotrealquot value of the minimum wage is 1978 was about 675 while in 2002 it was just below 500 and in 2012 it was just above 500 in constant 2000 dollars Over last several decades the real value of minimum wage has decreased Consistent large growth in median middle Not average family income from 26k to 52k in 19501979 and that s how things have gotten better however it does not include the other stuff like Increased working hours per household dual income Less financial security job and retirement security no pension Healthcare insecurity lower cost sharing individuals are paying more Has median family income increased in the USA YES Inconsistent net growth from 19802010 Since the late 1970s the US there has been a growing commitment amongst policy makers to neo new liberal Laissez faire don t get involved economic theory The classical theory suggests government is to play no role I the economy free marker capitalismquot Donald trump As opposed to Keynesian economic model post WWII through 1970s where the power government is to be used to stabilize the economy with the goal of full employment to make sure there are not high rates of unemployment and poverty etc Bernie sanders Deindustrialization trend in manufacturing jobs in developing countries that begin to disappear and those jobs are no longer based in 1St world countries and are shifting to other developing countries like Mexico and areas in Southeast and East Asia Mass shift in the manufacturing of goods from 1960 to present happens alongside inequality Mainly bluecollar jobs Leads to deterioration of lower classes Impacts loss of jobs opportunities so an increase of poverty mainly cities the rust belt Why does it happen Correlating variables the elimination of tariffs throughout the world How would this relate to commitment to get government out of economic matter 11 18 15 Overall since the mid 1970s the US has increasingly become a twotiered society The shrinking middle class Income wealth economic and health security for those in the middle classes and below has stagnated or declined while increasing for the upper classes The reemergence of economic liberalism economic freedom has not worked to the benefit of most Americans but has worked for the few wealthiest top 20 Alternative explanation shift high paying jobs to locations where wages and benefits are drastically lower to increase profits As the US middle class shrinks so too does its purchasing power Without middle class consumption declining rates of profits problem for the upper class because they cant spend money on their stuff Shrinking middle class means capital credit increases drastically The extension of credit to the American middle class restored profitability to corporate interests Big bank and financial firms pushed for deregulation to increase their profitability largely off of buying and selling of DEBT Makes inequality even larger Free trade allowed for deindustrialization to happed neo liberalism economic philosophy Extra Discussion Notes Social Construction of Race Ethnicity The social construction of race is the notion that the way we understand Race and racial categories varies by culture and historical time period Inherited biological characteristics actually play a minimal role in a societies ascription of its members to particular groups These groupings then take on significant social meaning A racial group is not something that the natural order of the universe generates it is more accurately a social category status with significant social meaning that develops in a society The roots of its development depend on what theoretical perspective one wishes to use The Concept of Race ITS VARIATION OVER TIME In 1600 s Europeans used the term to describe people with a common Ancestral family lineage kinship In the late 1800 s race came to mean a category people with physical intellectual and spiritual characteristics that transmit through genetics Rooted in Imperialistic Colonial Racism Rudyard Kipling and The White Man s Burden Paternalism Polygenism The various races constituted subspecies of humanity Born of separate origin Crossculturalhistorical Construction of Race Status Groups Italian Jewish and Irish Americans were thought of as a different race contemporary understanding in the early 1900 s but are today clearly considered white Various Official conceptualizations 1787 Philadelphia Convention The Three Fifths Compromise property 1790 US Census four groups free white males FWF Slaves other institutionalization of the onedrop rule 1960 US Census two groups Whites and Nonwhites 1990 US Census four groups white black American Indian Eskimo Asian Pacific Islander 2000 All official surveys must include at least five race categorieswhite African American American IndianAlaska native Asian Native Hawaiian Pacific Islander Also official recognition of quotmultirace identity Cross cultural differences in racial categorization America s quotone drop rule vs South Africa ln American Culture one drop of Black blood classi es one as Black Consider Borok Obomo Hallo Bony Tony Dungy ln South Africa 0ne drop of nonblack African blood removes one from the category of black Who is Black anyway what are the historical roots of the American race classification scheme Hypodescent Children of mixed race unions are ascribed ascribed membership in the subordinate group In US people of European African and North American ancestry are divided into three races White Black Native American In Mexico the same population would be divided into six groups Negroblack Indiaindian Mestizoindianwhite Loboindianblack Mulattowhiteblack Hispanowhite The race classification scheme in a given society is based on real or alleged subjectively selected physical traits understood to be rooted in genetics and biology These categorical beliefs stereotypes become internalized labeling theory by both in and outgroup members such that individuals are compelled to conform to the culturally defined attributes and selfconcepts that are associated with the particular status groups While Durkheim believed that Anomie normlessness would go away after the shift from preindustrial to industrial society was completed Merton believed this was not the case Well what is Anomie Anomie to Durkheim was a concept used to explain a rise in suicide rates people had no idea what was going on in society and their old ways of life were challenged Their ascribed goals for what society is or was meant to be were no longer universal which made people feel like they had no purpose Men are far more likely than women to kill themselves successfully What caused increased suicide rates after 2000 all the way until now A mismatch of goals means Employment is a part of masculine identity In 2007 there was mass unemployment due to the great recession This recession is unique because of the number of long term unemployed which impacts one group the most Middle Aged Men When men couldn t find employment for a long period of time the result was a sense of anomie leading to an increased suicide rate Most social mobility in the US has occurred in the middle classes and has been relatively small moves up or down The American Dream Over the last century social mobility has been fairly high and on the aggregate upward Merton 1938 theorized that anomie did not go away when society became industrialized it built itself into the structure of society Structure Capitalism economic the American Dreamquot cultural While the American Dream has made itself a part of American society social scientists typically doubt its existence Why Many people that worked hard and earned success had important structural advantages that other groups did not have access to Legitimate means to reach financial success do not work for some groups of people so they turn to illegitimate means ie Deviance Social stratification is a society39s categorization of people into socioeconomic strata based upon their occupation and income wealth and social status or derived power social and political Exemplified by Europe in the Middle Ages during Feudalism Social position determined by birth The First Estate Aristocracy and Nobility The Clergy The Peasants Basically zero chance of social mobility Caste systems Exemplified by Indian culture Again social position is determined by birth except slightly more extreme Legislation has been passed to address the treatment of untouchables but it is culturally imbedded so there has been limited change In the past many social actors in the US claimed we lived in a quotclasslessquot society However this has never truly been the case Since the period of industrialization we have lived in a class system The most exible of stratification systems Built on the assumption that class is an achieved status rather than an ascribed status explains the emphasis placed on meritocracy Bourgeoisie owners of the means of production Means of production facilities machinery tools infrastructural capital typically government owned assets highways airports prisons and natural capital environmental resources Proletariat do not have access to the means of production thus only have their labor to sell for a wage NOTE MARX WAS WRITING IN THE MID 18003 BEFORE THE EXISTENCE OF ANY STABLE MIDDLE CLASS SOCIETY DURING THE BIRTH OF INDUSTRIALIZATION Class is not only about income but power and status Power the ability to impose one s will or to get one s way even after opposition from others physical power political power hierarchical power Status prestige widespread respect and admiration felt for someone or something on the basis of a perception of their achievements or quality Horizontal Mobility movement within the same social class in other words there is some movement occupationally ie you might be making a little more or a little less than before but you are in the same class Vertical Mobility movement up or down the stratification system this means moving from one class to another not necessarily a good thing if everyone is moving downward Intergenerational Mobility mobility between generations happens when offspring attains a higher or lower class shift Example Millennials are one of the first generations in decades to make less on average than their parents Intragenerational Mobility mobility which occurs within a person s lifetime becoming increasingly rare it is more likely today that you will die in the class you were born into 1 in 10 whites 1 in 4 blacks 1 in 4 hispanics 1 in 8 Asians and 1 in 4 native americans are in poverty In 2012 women earned 77 percent of what men earned on average not accounting for type of job However if we control for type of job we still see a pay gap Depending on the job there can be a huge pay gap or barely one at all Jobs like CEOs managers and secretaries have the most gender inequality
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