SOP 3004 Final Exam Study Guide
SOP 3004 Final Exam Study Guide SOP3004
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This 59 page Bundle was uploaded by Julia Marcinak on Friday December 4, 2015. The Bundle belongs to SOP3004 at Florida State University taught by Christopher Beck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 249 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 12/04/15
Exam 1: CH 1 ● How does social psychology study human behavior, thoughts, and feelings? ○ Ask questions that can be empirically tested ○ Ask questions about how people relate and view one another ● Why is it difficult to define social psychology? ○ There are many parts to the study of social psychology ○ We are biopsychosocial organisms ● How does social psychology relate to sociology and other areas of psychology? ○ They all focus on how people feel and think, compared to sociology social psychology focuses more on individuals and experimentations. Compared to personality psychology it focuses on how individuals view and relate to one another. ● Which field is most closely related to social psychology and often studied in unison? ○ Sociology ● What does social psychology focus on? ○ How people think about, relate and influence one another ○ How we construct our social world ○ How our social intuitions guide and sometimes deceive us ○ How our social behavior is shaped by other people, our attitudes and our biology ○ How social psychological principles apply to our everyday lives ● How did behaviorism and Freudian psychoanalysis contribute to the field of social psychology ○ Automatic and unconscious vs. conscious and controlled ○ We have unconscious desired that control our actions ○ Our behavior can be conditioned ● What important 20 century event stimulated interest in social psychology and why did it do so? ○ Nazi trials in WW2 because we were shocked that people so easily listened to directions even though they were cruel. ○ Milgram Experiment tested the extent that people would follow directions even though they did not want to and knew they were harming another person. ● What are some of the most important common themes of social psychology, what do they mean, and why are they important? ○ Power of the Situation: Determines our limitations and possibilities. The situation you are in determines how you act and present yourself. ○ Biological Roots: We are evolved cultural animals but the world we live in is different that the world we evolved in. ○ We construct our Reality: There is an objective reality but we view it through our own lens of beliefs and values. We try to make sense of everything around us. ○ We have duplex minds that enable intuitions: Unconscious thought processes affect our decisions and actions ○ Selfish impulse vs. social conscience: Nature tells us go but culture says stop so we have competing internal and external drives. ○ Focus on self: ■ Selfesteem ■ Selfcontrol ■ Selfawareness ■ SelfPresentation ○ Conflict and Social Prejudice: ■ Gender Issue ■ Racial Issues ■ Post 9/11 ○ Group Dynamics: Social Loafing ○ Concepts are important because they teach us about life and how to gain friends and positively control your life. ● What is the ABC triad and how does it apply to what social psychologists do? ○ Affect: How people feel ○ Behavior: What people do ○ Cognition: What people think ○ It helps have a broad understanding of how people think act and feel Research Methods ● How does labeling relate to bias in research and what are some examples of this? ○ Depending on how you label something could affect a person's opinion of it ○ If observers except a certain outcome they may see this more regularly ■ ie: Fans see more faults on other team than their own. ● Why can’t we just use common sense to tell us about social psychology? ○ Experiments reveal outcomes that are obvious after the testing has been done ● What is the hindsight bias? ○ Once you learn the outcome of something you have a tendency to over exaggerate the fake that you already knew it. ‘I knew it all along’ ● What is a theory and what does your book say about the comparison between evolutionary theory and the theory of gravity? ○ A theory is an integrated set of principles that predict and explain observed events ○ Evolution is just a theory.. but so is gravity ● What can and can’t correlational research tell us about human behavior, thoughts, and feelings? ○ Correlational studies discern the relationships between variables. ○ Shows us if two variables are correlated ○ Correlation does not equal causation! A third variable could be affecting the results ● What does it mean for two variables to be positively correlated with one another? Negatively correlated with one another? ○ Positive correlation is when one increases or decreases the other does the same ○ Negative correlation is when one increases or decreases the other does the opposite. ● What can correlation coefficients range from? What does the sign mean? ○ 1 to 1 ○ The sign represents the direction of the relationship (Positive (+) Negative ()) rd ● What is the 3 variable problem with correlational research? ○ Two events may correlate but there could be another variable causing them to correlate ■ ie: Ice cream sales have a positive correlation with murder rates but ice cream does not cause murder ○ Correlational research allows us to predict but not confirm causation ● What are some of the unintended influences on survey research? ○ Responding with desirable answers instead of true one's ○ Order of questions ○ Wording of questions ● What is the goal and what are the features of experimental research? ○ A control group, a manipulated variable, a response variable and random assignment are key features. They set up cause and effect environments in order to determine the cause of a change. ● Why are these features important for achieving the goal of experimental research? ○ These features are important because an experiment must be done under controlled settings in order to produce valid results ● What are independent and dependent variables? ○ Independent variable is the manipulated one ○ Dependent variable is the one recorded that is expected to change from the manipulate one ● What is an operational definition and why is it important? ○ An operational definition is how you define a construct within the experiment ○ Setting a specific and constant definition of the variables ○ It is important because different people could have a different idea of what a variable is. By clearly defining it we eliminate error. ■ Ie: what do we mean by aggression? ● What are the ways in which we evaluate a measure we that we are using to assess a certain construct? ○ Reliability: Consistency ■ TestRetest: If subjects are given the same assessment multiple times how constant would the results stay? ■ Interrater: If two judges judged the results how consistent would the results be? Consistency between raters. ○ Validity: Accuracy ■ Internal: How well is the experiment measuring what it should be measuring ■ External: How can it be generalized to the public ■ Concurrent: How well do these results match up with previous results ● What does it mean to have an interaction of effects on a dependent variable? ○ The differing level of the independent variable affects the dependent variable. When there are two independent variables and they interact ● What is a main effect? ○ The effect of one independent variable ignoring the effects of all the others ● What are demand characteristics? (Text) ○ Cues in the environment that tell the participant what behavior is expected. ● What are the pros and cons of correlational and experimental research? ○ Pros: ■ Correlational: Real world applications ■ Experimental: Can explore cause and effects by controlling environment ○ Cons: ■ Correlational: Results can be ambiguous because of third variable ■ Experimental: Some variables can not be studied in a lab setting and some results can not be externalized to the real world. CH 2 ● What is the spotlight effect? ○ When people think that others are paying more attention to them than they actually are ● What is the illusion of transparency and what does your book say about this and feeling nervous in front of others? (part from class, part from book) ○ We think others can see right through us but they are really paying less attention than we think ● What is selfawareness? What is the difference between public and private? ○ SelfEsteem is knowledge of your character, feelings and desires ○ Public: Aware of how others perceive you ○ Private: Aware of your internal state ● What are failings of our selfawareness? ○ Discrepancies ● What are the different types of self? What happens when there are discrepancies between them? ○ Actual Self: Who you are right now ○ Ideal Self: Who you want to be ○ Ought Self: The self it is your duty to be ○ Feared Self: The self you are scared of becoming ○ Discrepancies motivate change and cause emotional reactions ● What are the 5 ways that we learn about ourselves that we talked about in class (know their real names) and what are problems associated with them? ○ Looking through others: What do others think about me, trying to get feedback from other ○ Looking inside: Who are you, Good at what you think about yourself but not why ○ Looking at others: Comparing yourself to others. There is always someone doing better or worse than you ○ Looking at yourself: Looking at how your behavior has been/is. Behavior doesn't always appropriately determine feelings. ○ Looking at close others: Thinking that if people around you have a trait than you do too. We may distance ourselves from people who make us look bad ● What are upward and downward social comparisons? When might we use each? ○ Downward comparisons: Thinking you are better than someone else ○ Upward comparisons: Thinking others are better than you ○ We might use these to make us feel better about ourselves or to motivate ourselves to do better ● What are BIRGing and CORFing? What is the function of each? ○ Basking in Reflected Glory: We associate ourselves with others when they are successful ○ Cutting off Reflected Failure: We avoid those who make us look bad ○ How we view others is important to us. ● What differentiates BIRGing and CORFing from upward and downward comparisons? ○ Upward and downward comparisons reflect what we think about ourselves. BIRGing and CORFing reflects what we think of others and the actions we take. ● What are the motives for seeking selfknowledge and which motive tends to be the strongest? ○ Appraisal motive: The desire to know the truth about yourself ○ Consistency motive: The desire to get feedback that approves what we already know ○ Selfenhancement motive: The desire to hear flattering things about yourself ○ Selfenhancement and better than average effects ■ Unrealistic Optimism: Nothing bad will happen to me ■ False Consensus: Everyone agrees with me ■ False Uniqueness: I’m special and unique ■ We all think we’re above average ● What were the examples of the selfserving bias that were given in class? ○ Football games ● What is selfesteem? ○ A person's overall evaluation of selfworth ● What is the sociometer theory of selfesteem? ○ We have an innate need to belong, our sociometer tells us if we are being accepted ○ People who feel accepted have higher selfesteem ● What is the terror management theory of selfesteem? ○ We will die one day but we want to live forever ○ Thinking about death makes us adhere to cultural norms better and than we have higher self esteem and think about death less ● What are the positive and negative things associated with high selfesteem? ○ Positive: Buffer from negative life events ○ Negatives: narcissism, aggressiveness ● What is the false consensus effect? ○ Thinking everyone agrees with you ● What is the false uniqueness effect? ○ Thinking you are special and unique ● What is selfhandicapping? (from book) ○ Protecting your self image by creating a handy excuse for failure ● How does culture affect perceptions of the self? (from book) ○ We note our performance and adjust it to the others desires. ● What is selfpresentation, who does it, and why do people do it? ○ Acting a certain way in order to present yourself in a favorable manner. Everyone does it to try and fit in and look better ● What are implications of selfpresentation for conducting research? ○ People may alter their answers to a more socially desirable answer ● What is selfmonitoring and when is it good, when is it problematic? ○ Being attuned to the way you present yourself and adjusting your actions to be socially desirable. It is good to adjust yourself to a situation but you may seem insensitive or like you are faking ● What is selfregulation and what else is it known as? ○ Self control. It has three parts: ■ Impulse control ■ Managing goals and needs ■ Monitoring and altering your responses ● What were the findings of the marshmallow selfcontrol study? What long term implications are there? ○ Children who had self control scored over 200 points higher on SATS ● What is the limited resource model of selfcontrol and what are implications of this? ○ All types of control rely on one energy source and it is hard to control more than one at once ■ Behavior control ■ Thought control ■ Emotional control ■ Impulse control ● What can happen when selfregulation fails? ○ Unstable relationship, less success, drug and alcohol consumptions, eating poorly, STD’s ○ Academic success is predicted more by selfcontrol than IQ testing CH 3 ● What are attributions and when do we make them? ○ Attributions are explanations of why we engage in certain behaviors ○ We make them to explain a behavior ● What are internal and external attributions, and what do they explain? ○ Internal: Dispositional ○ External: Situational ○ They explain why someone acted a certain way ● What does the Jones & Harris (1967) proCastro/antiCastro study say about the types of attributions we make? ○ Even when someone is forced to express a certain opinion we still believe they really think it. ● What is the fundamental attribution error? ○ The tendency to overestimate internal attribution and underestimate external attribution when observing the behavior of others. ● What is actorobserver bias? How is it related to the fundamental attribution error? ○ Tendency to make internal attributions about others but external attributions about yourself. ● When do we attribute our behavior to external versus internal causes? (Sedikides et al., 1998). How does this relate to selfserving biases from when we talked about the self? ○ Group or personal success = internal ○ Group or personal failure = external ○ Taking credit for success (internal) blaming others for error (external) ● What is Kelley’s covariation model? What are the three types of relevant information we need, and what do they predict? ○ Model for determining when we make internal and external attributions ○ Consistency: Does the person always act this way? If they do their behavior is consistent ○ Distinctiveness: Does the person act this way under other circumstances? If not than there is high distinctiveness ○ Consensus: Do others act this way? If they do than there is high consensus ○ If there is high everything we make an external attribution ○ If there is high consistency but low distinctiveness and consensus than we make an internal attribution ○ If there is no consistency than it is ambiguous ● What is the overconfidence phenomenon? ○ The tendency to overestimate one's beliefs ○ We think we are better at things than we really are ● What is confirmation bias? How may this relate to how we seek out information? ○ The Tendency to search for information that confirms what we believe. We look for information that confirms but not for info that disconfirms ● What are heuristics and when do we use them? ○ Mental shortcuts that we use in order to estimate the likelihood of an event. ○ We use them to make quick decisions but they are often wrong ● What does your book state about embodied cognition? Be able to generalize its examples to other situations. ○ Body sensations influence our judgement ○ Social exclusion literally feels cold, physical warmth leads to social warmth ● What does the text state about how we reconstruct memories and our past behaviors? Do we tend to be accurate? ○ No, we reconstruct memories based on how we currently feel. We unconsciously alter our memories. We will even unconsciously interpret misinformation into the memory of an event if we learn of misleading information. ● What does the Schwarz (1991) study state about heuristics? ○ People asked to list 6 examples of assertiveness rated themselves as more assertive than those who had to list 12 examples ● What is the availability heuristic? How does it affect our judgments of the likelihood of events? ○ Tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event based on how easily instances of it come to mind. The easier we recall something, the more likely the probability of it happening seems. ● What are the limitations of the availability heuristic? See the Ruder & Bless (2003) study. ○ Works more when we are happy then when we are sad ● What is the simulation heuristic? ○ Tendency to be influenced by how easily you can imagine an event happening ○ Ie: If you missed your flight by 5 minutes you can imagine exactly what you could have changed to get there one time whereas if you missed your flight by two hours you could not think of one specific event to change and you will be less mad ● What is anchoring and adjusting? How does this influence our judgments? ○ Tendency to be influenced by our starting point ○ Different anchors produce different adjustments ● How does the conjunction fallacy affect how likely that we judge the occurrence of combination events? ○ Conjunction fallacy is believing that the likelihood of two events is greater than the likelihood of one ● What all drives the false consensus effect? ○ Representation heuristic: The tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event based on how well it matches your expectations ○ THTHHHTT ○ TTTTTTTTT ● What does the text state about illusory correlations and the gambler’s fallacy? ○ Illusory correlations: Perception of a relationship where none exists or that a stronger relationship exists than does. We add significance to random events ○ Gambler's Fallacy: Illusion of control over a chance event or believing a previous event influences a chance event ● How does priming affect our thoughts and behaviors? ○ Recent events activate certain memories and increase the accessibility of a certain concept ○ Our prejudgments have a huge effect on how we perceive an event ● What are selffulfilling prophecies? Be able to relate these to both the rats in a maze and the bloomers examples. ○ People's expectations lead them to think in ways that confirm their expectations. ■ Maze bright/dull rats and ‘bloomers’ CH 5 ● What are the basic components or ideas of evolutionary theory and how do they contribute to evolution? ○ 3 major component to evolution: ■ Variation: Small percentage of genes change randomly ■ Natural selection: Some variations are more favorable for surviving, these will generally be passed on to the next generation ■ Heritability: a large amount of genes are passed on from parents ● What is sexual selection and how is it a more specific type of natural selection? ○ More aggressive, attractive males will attract more females and therefore pass on more of their genes ● What is the EEA and how does it inform social psychology? ○ Environment evolutionary adaptiveness is the period when humans first emerged and adapted to. It explains why humans adapted in a certain way ● What are the ways in which the EEA differs from today’s environment and how does this affect our social psychology? ○ We crave sweet and fatty foods, act aggressively because these traits used to be beneficial to us. ● What is error management theory and how is it adaptive? ○ We are biased to make errors in the more adaptive direction ○ Not attending to potential threats is more dangerous than over attending to them ○ False positive : over attending ○ Miss: under attending ● What percentage of our individual variation does genetics predict? ○ 50% of our personality is from genes ● Who wins in the nature vs. nurture debate? ○ False Dichotomy ○ It isn’t really a debate, they go hand in hand ● How does our environment affect our genes/biology and vice versa? ○ People react differently in environments ○ People choose the environment they live in ○ Epigenetics: our environment influences who we are ● What are our large brains evolved for? ○ Relating to others ● Why is culture so beneficial for our species? ○ Humans rely on other humans for survival, division of labor ○ Learning and progress is passed onto the next generation ● How much influence do peers have on determining a person’s behavior and personality? ○ 4050% of behaviors/decisions ● What is cultural psychology? ○ Studies how thoughts emotions and behaviors differ across cultures ○ Collectivist vs. Individualist ● What does your book say about Norms and Cultural Similarity? ○ Norms are standards for expected behavior ○ Cultures differ in many aspects but are the same with friendships, incest and war ● What are the two types of cultures that are typically studied in cultural psychology, how are they characterized and what societies tend to have each kind? What does the Sedikides (2003) study predict for different cultures? ○ Collectivist: Focused on external reasons of behavior and connections with others (asia/africa) better at otherrelated traits ○ Individualist: Focused on being different from others and internal reasons for behavior (western) better at selfrelated traits ● What was the example given in the book about the way the environment can actually change the norm of that environment? ○ Food ● What are the biological influences of sex on behavior? ○ Men are more aggressive and dominant. Women display more empathy and are more caring ● How do we know that there is a strong influence of culture or “nurture” on gender differences? ○ Gender differences are fairly consistent through all cultures ● What are the major gender differences found in research? ○ Girls focus on relationships ○ Boys focus on dominance ○ Men get paid more ○ Men think about and initiate sex more ○ Women form stronger family bonds ○ Women focus on connectedness while men focus on independence ● What are the criticisms of advances made in “gender equality”? ○ Men and women are more naturally inclined to certain tendencies ● Are there more differences between the genders or between individuals? ○ Individuals Exam 2: Emotions: 1. Affect a. The emotional feeling, tone or mood attached to an event or thought b. Affect is the valence of evaluation towards an event. It can either be positive or negative. Causes spike is physiological arousal. c. Patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex are not aroused when presented with dramatic images. They also have trouble making everyday decisions. d. Affect teaches us avoid risky situations because of the possible punishment. Patients with prefrontal cortex damage never learn this. 2. Theories of Emotion a. Emotion is a specific evaluative reaction to an event. Mood is a general disposition or state b. James Lange Theory i. Incorrect ii. Our experience of emotions is our awareness of physiological responses to emotionally arousing stimuli iii. Emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions to events iv. External stimulus → Physiological reaction → Interpretation of physical reactions → Emotional reaction c. CannonBard Theory i. Incorrect ii. Emotions arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion iii. We feel emotions and experience the physiological reactions simultaneously. So we react to the stimulus and feel the emotion at the same time. d. SchachterSinger Theory i. Correct ii. To experience emotion one must be physically aroused and able to cognitively label the arousal iii. AKA two factor theory of emotion iv. Physiological arousal and cognitive labeling are the two main components of emotion v. Feeling arousal is not enough, we must also identify the arousal to experience an emotion vi. Stimulus → Physiological Arousal → Cognitive Appraisal → Emotion e. Misattributing Arousal i. When we mistake what is causing us to be aroused ii. When arousal arises for one reason but we give it another cognitive label so it produces a different reaction than it would if it was labeled correctly iii. We tend to mistake fear arousal for romantic arousal 3. Emotions and Behavior a. Old View: Emotions are bidimensional i. Arousal ii. Valence iii. The effect on behavior depends on these levels b. New View: Domain Specificity i. The effect of the emotion is dependent on that specific emotions ii. Emotions motivate behavior 1. Disgust: Avoid disease 2. Sadness: Seek social support 3. Sexual Arousal: Find a romantic partner 4. Love: Maintain a relationship 4. Emotional Expression and Perception a. Emotional expressions are universal because they are functional and necessary for survival b. People are usually very good at identifying emotion i. Cross culturally and cross species as well ii. Expectations and stereotypes affect our perception of emotions iii. Our own emotional state also affects perception iv. Women are quicker and better at judging emotions 5. Displaying Emotion a. Factors affecting emotional display i. Cultural differences ii. Power differences iii. Gender differences b. Displaying emotion is not the same as what we feel CH 4 1. Attitudes a. An evaluative reaction toward someone or something. It could be favorable, unfavorable, indifferent, ambivalent, etc. b. Attitudes are different than beliefs c. Attitudes are poor predictors of behaviors, changing attitudes does not cause a change in behavior d. Our attitudes will predict our behavior is other influences are minimized, the attitude corresponds closely with the predicted behaviors and the attitude is potent. e. Attitudes come from i. Affect: A person's feelings or emotions about the subject ii. Behavior: The way the attitude we have influences how we act and behave iii. Cognition: The person's beliefs or knowledge about the subject f. Feelings influence attitudes because they are evaluative reactions g. The Mere Exposure Effect: i. Likeability increases with more exposure ii. More pleasant associations develop iii. Subliminal exposure has this effect as well 2. Cognition and Attitude a. Cognition influences attitudes i. People have beliefs about the properties of the subject ii. People like information that is easier to process 1. Negative and ugly things are harder to process 2. If something is easier to read then people will have more positive attitudes towards it. They think it is true and enjoy reading it more. 3. Ie: when a recipe is easier to people rate it as half as difficult and day it will take half as long. They also are more willing to try it. iii. Rhyming is easier to read and easier to remember so people think a rhyming statement is more true 3. Behaviorally Based Attitudes a. An attitude based on observations of how one behaves towards the subject b. Self Perception Theory: People do not know how they feel until they see how they behave c. Classical conditioning is behavioral attitude formation i. Pair something we already like or dislike with a neutral stimuli ii. Once we learn the association the previously neutral stimuli will now be associated with the good or bad feelings d. Operant Conditioning i. Developing a positive attitude towards behaviors that are rewarded e. Social Learning: Learn attitudes through observation i. ie: You see others having fun playing a game and you think you will have fun as well 4. Consequences of Attitudes a. They tend to cause bias b. Attitude Polarization: Our attitudes become more extreme by convincing ourselves that we are right. c. Attitudes are strong, vested interests 5. Measuring Attitudes a. Dual Attitudes i. Explicit Attitudes: Controlled and conscious evaluative responses 1. Predicted verbal behavior and explicit behavior 2. Come from recent experiences 3. You can simply just ask for an explicit attitudes because they are affected by social desirability. They are measured in creative ways. ii. Implicit Attitudes: Autonomic, unconscious evaluative responses 1. Predicted nonverbal behavior 2. Come from early experiences iii. There is a weak relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes is very weak, potentially because of social desirability b. IAT tests measures these by measuring accuracy and reaction time i. The easier pairings and faster responses are taken to indicated stronger unconscious associations c. GNAT tests measure implicit attitudes by only hitting space bar when you see positive words or attractive women i. Priming is also used d. Developmental Source Hypotheses: Implicit attitudes stem from past and are likely forgotten experiences of childhood. Explicit attitudes come from recent experiences. 6. Cognitive Dissonance a. When behaviors and attitudes are inconsistent causes cognitive dissonance which is an unpleasant state of psychological arousal which makes us change something to reduce dissonance b. It is easier to change attitudes because we can not take back behavior c. Attitude change is more likely if there is insufficient justification for a behavior CH 6 1. Conformity a. A change in behavior or belief as a result of real or imagined group pressure b. Can be good or bad: i. Good: 1. Waiting in line for your turn 2. Tipping 3. Showing team spirit ii. Bad: 1. Drinking and driving 2. Joining in racist behavior iii. Indifferent 1. Clothing choice c. Views are often dependent on culture d. We conform because of mirror neurons. They are activated when we watch others e. Chameleon Effect: Our behavior passively and unintentionally changes to mimic those we are around. We like this! f. Informational Influence: Our behavior is shaped by the evidence about reality we get from others. 2. The Classics a. Sherif i. Visual Perception experiment ii. Subjects sat in a dark room and viewed a light. Then asked how much it moved 1. Alone 2. Groups of 3 iii. Took advantage of autokinetic effect: A fixed light from a dark view would appear to move around erratically. iv. Individual estimates will begin to conform to group norms v. Informational Influence: Sherif 1. People assume the majority is correct 2. Private acceptance b. Asch i. Join 6 other people sitting at a table for a visual perception task ii. Indicate which of 3 comparison lines is identical to a standard line and give answer out loud iii. Confederates gave wrong answer to questions iv. 37% of people conformed with rest of group even though they were obviously wrong. v. 75% of people conformed at least once vi. Normative Influence: Asch 1. People fear social rejection 2. Public compliance 3. People Conform Because: a. Unanimity: i. Agreeing with other people involved. As long as there is one other person we are more likely to join them. b. Cohesion: i. Extent to which members of a group are bound together ii. We are more influenced by those who we feel close too c. Status: i. Higher status people have more impact d. Public Response: i. People conform when responses are given publicly e. Group Size: i. The more people doing something, the more likely we are to conform 4. Obedience a. Acting in accord to a direct order or command b. Milgram experiments i. Participant is the teacher and confederate is the learner ii. Teacher shocks learner for errors iii. A shocking number of people gave harmful shocks just because they were told to iv. The proximity and authority of the authority figure effected how much the participants shocked the confederate c. People respond to orders from authority figures and person's dressed like authority figures more often. People also response quicker to wealthy figures d. Signals from authority figures evoke difference because we assume they are right e. We sometimes blindly follow authority f. Power of the Situation: i. Evil comes from social forces CH 7 1. Persuasion a. Real life examples: i. Politics ii. Purchasing iii. Getting out of sticky situations iv. Getting into good situations b. 2 Routes to Persuasion: Elaboration Likelihood Model i. Central Route: When interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. 1. Deep processing 2. Audience is analytical and motivated 3. Processing is high, elaborate and includes agreement 4. Cogent arguments evoke enduring argument ii. Peripheral Route: When people are influenced by incidental cues. This is shallow processing. 1. Audience is not analytical or involved 2. Processing is low effort and uses peripheral cues and heuristics 3. Cues trigger liking and acceptance but may only be temporary iii. We choose the central route when: 1. We are highly involved 2. The issue is relevant 3. We are motivated 4. When we are able to pay close attention to the arguments 5. Causes long term attitude changes iv. We choose the peripheral route when: 1. We are not as focused 2. The issue is not relevant 3. We are not motivated 4. When we can not pay close attention to the argument 5. We use heuristics 6. Causes short term attitude changes 2. Elements of Persuasion a. The Communicator: Who presents the argument i. Credibility: 1. Expertise: Knowledgeable, rate of speech, confidence 2. Trustworthiness: Look in eye, argue against self interest ii. Attractiveness and Liking: 1. Physical Attractiveness 2. Similarity: a. Subjective preference: We like similar better. b. Objective fact: We like experts better b. The Message i. Reason is more persuasive for intellectuals ii. Mood: when we are in a good mood we are more responsive to persuasive messages. Humor = good mood. Fear = Persuasive c. How the Message is Communicated i. Repetition ii. Personal experiences d. The Audience i. Age ii. Forewarned is forearmed iii. Need for cognition iv. Stimulating thinking makes strong messages more persuasive and weak messages less persuasive 3. Persuasive Techniques a. Footinthedoor Technique i. Gain the target's compliance with a small task and then ask for a related large one b. Lowball Technique i. Start with low cost request and then reveal hidden fees ii. Get an agreement to a specific arrangement and then change the terms of the arrangement c. Bait and Switch Technique i. Draw people in with an attractive offer but that offer is not actually available only a less attractive offer is ii. Advertise a low price on a particular item, describe a course that is unwise/ say that deal is no longer available then suggest an alternative to switch to with a higher price d. Labeling i. Assign a label to someone and make a suggestion/request that is consistent with that label. ii. ‘You look like the type of person that…’ iii. People respond better to positive labels iv. Assign a target a label then seek compliance with a label consistent request e. Maintaining Consistency and The Norm of Reciprocity i. Norm of reciprocity: we will respond favorably to each other by returning benefits for benefits f. DoorintheFace Technique i. Backing down from a larger to a smaller request is a concession. (They did something nice for us) ii. Feel obliged to reciprocate with a concession of their own. (We should do something nice for them in return) g. That’s Not All Technique i. Initial request immediately followed with a discount or bonus h. Fast Approaching Deadline Technique 4. Ways to Resist Persuasive Messages a. Be alert to product placement i. Works because people do not realize they are being influenced ii. Being warned helps b. Attitude Inoculation: Makes people immune to changing their attitudes by introducing them to a small, weak dose of arguments against the position c. Reactance Theory: i. People feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened → Reactance is aroused → Perform the threatened behavior CH 8 1. Groups a. A group is two or more people who interact for more than a few minutes and influence one another. b. When you perceive a group you see a single unit instead of the individual members c. Factors that determine whether or not we perceive a group are: i. Proximity ii. Similarity iii. Shared Fate iv. Entitativity: How much the group is seen as a single unit 2. Feeling Part of a Group a. Minimal Group Paradigm Leads to: i. Increase liking of ingroup ii. Decreased liking of outgroup iii. More empathy for ingroup iv. Group Serving Bias 1. If they succeed ‘we worked as a team’ 2. If the fail ‘We had an off day’ 3. Social Facilitation a. The tendency to perform simple or well learned tasks better when others are present b. Social inhibition: The presence of others makes performance worse because the arousal may impede our ability c. Easyl/Well learned task: Others aid in performance i. Dominant responses are aided d. Difficult/Novel task: Others hinder performance i. Novel responses are hindered e. Social Facilitation: The strengthening of dominant responses due to the presence of others 4. Social Loafing a. When people exert less effort when effort is pooled by a group b. Personal effort decreases in group sizes because people think they are not being evaluated c. If individuals are evaluated then social facilitation occurs, if they are not evaluated social loafing occurs 5. The Effects of Crowds a. The presence of others increases arousal and diffuses responsibility b. People in groups feel anonymous c. Deindividuation: The loss of selfawareness and lack of evaluation apprehension in groups. When you are more anonymous you feel less responsible 6. Groupthink: a. The thinking that occurs in groups when concurrence seeking becomes so dominant other realistic appraisals are overridden b. Overestimate the group: i. Illusion of invulnerability ii. Belief in groups mortality c. Close Minded i. Rationalization ii. Stereotyped view of opponent d. Pressure toward uniformity i. Conformity ii. Selfcensorship iii. Mind Guard: Those who protect group from information that disagrees with group stance iv. Illusion of unanimity e. Preventing Groupthink i. Be impartial: Do not begin with a position ii. Encourage critical evaluation: assign a devil's advocate iii. Occasionally subdivide group and then reunite iv. Welcome critiques v. Have final meetings to address lingering concerns Exam 3: CH 9: 1. What are the definitions of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination? How do they differ? o Stereotypes: generalized belief about members of a group ▪ People from Boston hate the Yankees ▪ Homosexuals are possessed by demons o Prejudice: a generalized NEGATIVE attitude towards members of a group ▪ Dislike overweight people because it’s “something they control” o Discrimination: Behaviors directed toward people on the basis of their group membership ▪ Deny someone a job based on their race 2. Are stereotypes always negative? Always wrong? Always conscious? o NOT always negative ▪ Women are nurturing; Asians intelligent (denying agency: Asians get good grades bc of their group, not bc they work hard) o NOT always conscious ▪ African Americans: danger/ criminality (race IAT) ▪ Meet a new person body language may be negative bc of a group they are in.. not conscious about body language, though o NOT always wrong ▪ Women more nurturing empathy study 3. What is the difference between traditional and modern discrimination? o Traditional: school segregation, voting rights o Modern: informal hiring practices, social interactions ▪ Harder to get rid of, Subtle and just as damaging ▪ Job hiring: White names > black names 4. What is aversive racism? How does that relate to the Frey and Gartner (1986) study, and when would we expect to see aversive racism? o Alternating positive and negative responses to black people ppl know it’s not socially acceptable to have neg. attitudes toward blacks ▪ Masks neg. feelings; response is determined by presence of non racial justification for negative response o Frey and Gartner: examined willingness to help partner working on scrabble ▪ White Ps with either white or black C ▪ Deserving = hard letters; Undeserving= easy letters ▪ Helped deserving white and black C equally, but helped the white undeserving C 40% more than the black undeserving ● There was a justifiable reason to not help the black undeserving 5. What are benevolent and hostile sexism? o Benevolent: paternalism, seeing women as virtuous and fragile ▪ More damaging: not overt at surface. Seems nice, but comes from neg. attitude o Hostile: angry responses to feminism and female dominance ▪ Overt, causes a response ▪ Things seen on the internet 6. What are the social origins of prejudice? How do they help perpetuate it? (From the text) o Unequal status breeds prejudice o Cognitive ▪ Categorization: classify people into groups ▪ Distinctiveness distinct people or extreme occurrences capture our attention and distorts our judgments ▪ Attribution: just world theory o Motivational: frustration and aggression => scapegoat theory ▪ Lynching of blacks in the south when cotton price was low ▪ Social identity theory: categorize, identify, compare o Self perpetuate: when people of a group act the way we expect, our beliefs are confirmed; when they behave contrary to our beliefs, we interpret or explain away the behavior as due to a special circumstance 7. Know the 3 parts of Social Identity Theory. How does SIT relate to prejudice? o People want to feel good about themselves o Our identity (partly) comes from groups to which we belong group membership o Seeing our groups as better than other groups raises selfesteem ▪ Strong ingroup ID – strong outgroup prejudice ▪ I <3 FSU… hate the gators.. but no ties= don’t care about gators ▪ When ppl get bad grades on exam, majority are likely to derogate minority (to recover self esteem) 8. What are the methods and findings of Tajfel & Wilkes (1963) categorization study? What does this tell us about how people perceive group differences (think accentuation and outgroup homogeneity). o Ps judge line lengths seen in groups A and B: affects perception/ judgment o Accentuation effect: tendency to exaggerate differences between member if different categories o Ps also underestimate differences w/in groups o Outgroup homogeneity effect: tendency to perceive more similarity among members of groups we don’t belong to than among members of our own group “they all look the same” ▪ Eye witness: more likely to be incorrect if member of a different race or race we don’t have much experience with 9. What is an illusory correlation? o Perceiving correlation where none exists or overestimating its magnitude ▪ Recognize patterns when learning caused by “distinctiveness” ● Availability heuristic: likelihood of things happening patterns 10. Be able to describe the methods and results of Hamilton & Gifford’s (1976) study on illusory correlations. What do they tell us about how we perceive the behavior of others? o Ps read 39 sentences of someone doing a pos. or neg. behavior (group a & B) o Same ratio, ppl should form same opinion, but formed better opinion of group A (18 pos and 8 neg) than group B (9 pos and 4 neg) ▪ Group B is more distinct remember more of the neg. behaviors illusory correlation o When Ps asked how many pos. and neg. behaviors the groups had ▪ Overestimate B’s neg. behaviors and described the group in more neg. terms o EX: African American men and crime: correlation goes away when socioeconomics is taken into consideration 11. What is the twostage activation model (Devine, 1989)? o 1. Activation: automatic process stereotypes are universally and automatically activated o 2. Application: using the stereotype controlled 12. What are the methods and results from Wittenbrink et al. (1997) and Gilbert & Hixon (1991; both studies)? What does these studies tell us about the twostage activation model? o Wittenbrink o Activation motivation: white Ps primed w/ “black” or “white” – Lexical Decision Task (word or nonword) ▪ How fast ppl act to determine if it’s a word (reaction time measured) o Words: Pos. black (athletic), Neg. black (criminal), Pos. white (intelligent), Neg. white (boring) o Based on old model, we would be able to notice the stereotypes quickly w/ race we were primed with (+ and – stereotypes if universal) o Not all stereotypes were activated ▪ Explicit prejudice correlated w/ stereotype activation ● Activation is not universal ● Low prejudice Ps don’t show stereotypes ● MOTIVATION (universal): ppl motivated to treat ppl = don’t show stereotypes OR people motivated to stereotype show results o Gilbert and Hixon study 1: Activati
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