DEP 3103 Final Exam Study Guide!
DEP 3103 Final Exam Study Guide! DEP3103
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Exam 1: CH 1 1. Child development is the understanding of the constancy and changes from conception to adolescence. 2. There are three domains of development. They combine in a holistic, integrated fashion. They all influence each other a. Physical: Changes in body size, proportions, appearance, functioning of the body, perceptual and motor capacities and physical health. b. Cognitive: Changes in intellectual abilities, including attention, memory, academic and everyday knowledge, problem solving, imagination, creativity and language. c. Emotional/Social: Changes in emotional communication, selfunderstanding, knowledge about other people, interpersonal skills, friendships, intimate relationships and moral reasoning/behavior. 3. Periods of Development: Each brings new capacities and social expectations a. Prenatal: Conception to Birth: The most rapid time of change, the baby develops from a single cell organism b. Infancy and toddlerhood: Birth to 2 yrs: Dramatic changes occur in the body and brain that support the emergence of a wide variety of motor, perceptual and intellectual capacities. Language emerges, first intimate ties to others appear. i. Infancy is the first year ii. Toddlerhood is the second year: Child takes first steps and becomes more autonomous. c. Early Childhood: 26 years: The body becomes longer and leaner, motor skills are refines. The child becomes more selfcontrolled and selfsufficient. Imagination develops, thought and language rapidly expand. Mortality develops, and the child establishes ties with peers. d. Middle Childhood: 611 years: Learn about a wider world and develop more responsibility. Improved athletic ability, participates in organized sports with rules, more logical thought process, mastery of academic skills. Also develops understanding of self, mortality and friendship e. Adolescents: 1118 years: Transition to adulthood, child goes through puberty and develops an adult body and sexual maturity. Thoughts become more abstract. Schooling is geared towards preparation for the real world. Establish autonomy from the family and their own values and goals. 4. Basic Issues in Development: a. Continuous vs. Discontinuous i. Continuous is gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with. Change is gradual and ongoing. ii. Discontinuous is when new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times. Uses stages. Change occurs in sudden periods of rapid transformation. b. One Course or Many i. Stage theorists believe that everyone follows the same sequence of development ii. Contemporary theorists believe in contexts: the unique combination of personal and enviormental circumstances that can result in different paths of change. They are many layered and complex. c. Nature or Nurture i. Nature: Inborn biological givens (heredity information from genes) ii. Nurture: Complex forces of physical and social world that influence who we are. d. Stability vs. Plasticity i. Stability: If you are good or bad at a certain task you will remain so in later years because of heredity or early experiences. They believe that powerful negative events early on can not be overcome later in life ii. Plasticity: How good you are at something is able to change based on experiences e. A Balanced View: i. Acknowledging that there is both continuous and discontinuous development, universal and unique features and that heredity and environment are interwoven. Heredity, Environment and circumstances are all contexts of development. 5. Three Grand Theories of Development a. Psychoanalytic Theory: (Emotions) Children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. How these conflicts are resolved determines the person's ability to learn, get along with others and cope with anxiety. Irrational underlying desires affect behavior, they often develop during childhood i. Psychosexual Theory (Freud): Emphasizes how parents manage their children's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for personality development. ii. Psychosocial Theory: (Erikson): Id: Impulses, Superego: Demands, Ego: makes a positive contribution to development by making the individual an active member of society. b. Behaviorism: (Actions) Directly observable events, stimuli and responses are the focus of study. i. Classical Conditioning: Pairing stimulus with a neutral stimulus to create a conditioned stimulus. Learned fears. ii. Operant conditioning: Reinforcers and Punishment iii. Social Learning: Modeling behaviors causes imitations and is a powerful source of development iv. Behavior modification: procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors or increase desirable one's. c. Cognitive Theory: Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world. i. Sensorimotor stage: 02 years: Cognitive development begins and senses and movements are used to explore the world ii. Preoperational stage: 27 years: Actions develop into symbolic but illogical thinking. Development of language and make believe play emerge iii. Concrete Operational: 711 years: More organized and logical reasoning. More organized. iv. Formal Operational: 11+ years: Thoughts become abstract, systematic reasoning system emerges. Problem solving, inferences can be made and tested. 6. Other Psychological Theories/Studies a. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology: Seeks to understand the adaptive value of specieswide cognitive, emotional and social competencies as they change with age. Clarifying the origins and development of such behaviors to spark effective interventions. What values are and aren't adaptive b. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory: How culture, beliefs and skills are transmitted to the next generations. Cooperative dialogues between children and adults is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving appropriate for their culture. c. Ecological Systems Theory: Children develop in a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment. i. Microsystem: Activities and interaction patterns in the child's immediate surroundings. ii. Mesosystem: Connections between microsystems. ie: home, school, child care iii. Exosystem: Do not contain children but affect the child's experience in immediate settings. ie: Parents workplace iv. Macrosystem: Cultural values, laws, customs and resources v. Chronosystem: Life changes can be imposed on a child, they can arise from within the child. As children get older they select, modify and create many of their own experiences. d. Ethology: The adaptive or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history. i. Imprinting: recognizing and trusting parent ii. Critical Period: A limited time where a child can acquire certain adaptive behaviors with appropriate stimulation iii. Sensitive period: An optimal time for certain capacities to emerge. Can emerge later but they are harder to induce. CH 2 1. Research in Developmental Psychology a. Research Cycle i. Start with empirical evidence, than look for more to build a theory ii. Theory → Research Question → Research Strategie → Hypothesis → Data → Theory b. Quantitative vs. Qualitative i. Quantitative deploys mathematical methods. Usually with a large sample. Statistical analysis is common. Systematic. Naturalistic and Structured. ii. Qualitative: understanding the underlying meaning and motives. Samples are small and deliberately chosen. Subjectively. c. Observational Research i. Naturalistic observation: Going into the natural environment to record the behavior of interest. ii. Structured Observation: The researcher sets up a laboratory interview that evokes the behavior of interest equally in all participants iii. Event sampling: records all instances of a particular behavior during a time period iv. Time Sampling: Records certain behaviors during a sample of short intervals v. Limitations: 1. Observer Influence: the effects ofthe observer on the behavior studied 2. Observer bias: Observers may record what they expect to see rather than what they do d. Ethnography: i. Qualitative technique to understand a culture or social group. ii. Researcher lives in community for an extended period of time e. Interviews i. Clinical: Conversational style to probe for the participants point of view. However the participant may not accurately present themselves or remember an event correctly. The flexible styles make the responses vary. ii. Structured: Every participant is asked the same question in the same way to eliminate interviewer bias. Not as in depth and some may answer in socially desirable ways. f. Questionnaire: Similar to structured interviews g. Neurobiological Methods: i. Measures the relationship between the nervous system processes and behavior. Allows us to infer perception, cognitive abilities and emotions. ii. Measures the autonomic nervous system activities that are sensitive to the psychological state. (blood pressure, heart rate, etc.) h. Case Study: When a person has an unusual condition they are studied personally in great detail. Interviews, observations, test scores and neurobiological measures are included. i. Reliability vs validity i. Reliability is the consistency or repeatability of measures of a behavior 1. TestRetest: Can the test be repeated with the same outcome 2. Interrater: Will different judges find the same results? ii. Validity is how accurately the test measures what it is supposed to test. 1. Internal Validity: Does the study’s design accurately test the hypothesis 2. External Validity: How well do the findings relate to the outside world j. Correlations: i. 1 to 1 the closer to 0 the weaker ii. Correlation does not equal causation iii. Correlational design: researchers gather information about a participant and relate it to their behaviors. No manipulation. iv. Correlation Coefficient ( r ) describes how two variables are associated. 2. Experimental Design: Permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to two or more treatment conditions. a. Variables i. Independent: Is expected to cause change to another variable ii. Dependent: Is expected to be influenced by the independent variable iii. Confounding: Closely related variables that have effects on the outcome which can not be distinguished from the independent variable. b. Longitudinal: Same participants are studied at different ages and changes are noted as they get older i. Advantages: Allows for the study of common patterns and individual differences of development. It also lets them examine relationships between early and later life events. ii. Disadvantages: Biased sampling could cause distortion, selective attrition, practice and cohort effects. The study may become outdated c. Cross Sectional: Studies groups of participants ranging in ages at the same time i. Advantages: More efficient, less attrition and practice effects ii. Disadvantages: Does Not permit studying of individual patterns. Age differences may be destroyed due to cohort effects d. Sequential: Combines longitudinal and cross sectional by either studying the same ages in different years or different ages in the same years i. Advantages: Permits comparisons from both studies, reveals cohort effects, enables tracking of agerelated changes ii. Disadvantages: May suffer from disadvantages of both types of studies but should point out the difficulties in design of each. e. Microgenetics: Similar to longitudinal. Presents child with a novel task and follows their master over a series of closely spaced sessions. i. Advantages: Offers insight into how changes occur ii. Disadvantages: Requires intensive studying of the moment to moment behavior of subjects. The time is required for change is difficult to anticipate. Practice effects. f. Ethics: The benefits must outweigh the risks of the experiment i. Protection from harm ii. Informed Consent iii. Privacy iv. Knowledge of results v. Beneficial treatments CH 3 1. Genetic Foundations a. Genes i. Segments of DNA that codes for and influences phenotypes ii. Chromosome store and transmits genetic information iii. Genome is a person full set of genes and noncoding DNA iv. Replicates via mitosis v. DNA → RNA → Protein (Central Dogma) b. Sex Cells i. Gamete has 23 chromosomes ii. When a gamete is fertilized it becomes a zygote with 46 chromosomes iii. Crossing over is the sharing of information between chromosomes c. Patterns of Inheritance i. Alleles are different forms of the same trait 1. One is inherited from each parent 2. If they are both the same they are homozygous. 3. If they are different they are heterozygous ii. Dominantrecessive inheritance: Only the dominant allele is expressed iii. Incomplete dominance: Both alleles are expressed leading to an intermediate expression or a combined trait iv. Genomic imprinting: one pair of alleles are chemically marked so they are active no matter what the make up is. It may be temporary and disappear in the next generation v. The sicklecell allele: recessive codes for sickle cell, the dominant codes for malaria resistance 2. Gene Regulation a. Switches: i. Stretches of DNA that determine when, where and to what extent a gene is expressed. ii. Genes are controlled by multiple switches b. Regulatory Molecules: i. Transcription factors ii. Activate and deactivate genes by adding switches iii. They recruit or block RNA polymerase iv. All cells have the same genes but different regulatory molecules c. Mutations i. Sudden but permanent changes to genome ii. Germline mutation: Takes place in cells that lead to gametes and can be passed onto offspring. It either modifies the gene or modifies the switch. iii. Somatic Mutations: Normal body cells mutate, causes cancer but is not passed onto offspring iv. A single base change can add a switch 3. Genomic Imprinting a. Inheritance: i. Alleles are marked and silenced so that only one is expressed and only one pair is working ii. Chemical tags stay in place during the whole organism's life but are reset during meiosis b. Polygenic Inheritance: i. One characteristic is controlled by more than one gene ii. ie: Height, skin color iii. Quantitative vary along a continuum c. Chromosomal Abnormalities: i. Usually from mistakes during meiosis ii. The risk increases with increased age of the mother iii. Xlinked inheritance is when the disorder is carried on the x chromosome. This affects men more iv. Down syndrome: trisomy of 21st chromosome d. Genetic Counseling: i. Beneficial for those having difficulty conceiving, older mothers, those with inherited diseases. ii. Many avoid because it may harm their marriage and it won’t change the outcome. 4. Zygote: From fertilization to implantation. 12 weeks a. Fertilization: i. Either occurs on day of ovulation or 2 days before ovulation ii. Occurs in fallopian tubes iii. Cell division and cell differentiation begins iv. Sperm can last for 34 days v. Egg can last for 1224 hrs b. Blastocyte develops after four days and burrows into uterine lining c. Implantation i. Occurs after week one d. Protective membranes: i. Placenta: Brings mother and baby's blood close together, brings food and water, takes away waste. ii. Amnion: encloses amniotic fluid, helps keep the temperature constant and cushions against jolts iii. Chorion: surrounds amnion and yolk sac iv. Umbilical cord connects baby to placenta 5. Embryo: Implantation to 8 weeks a. Embryonic disk (24 weeks) i. Heart begins beating ii. Nervous system develops iii. Ectoderm: nervous system and skin iv. Mesoderm: muscles, skeleton, circulatory system and internal organs v. Endoderm: digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands vi. These three layers give rise to all parts of the body b. 2nd Month i. Eyes, ears, nose, jaw and neck form ii. Fingers, legs, toes form iii. Internal organs become more distinct iv. Production of neurons begins v. Can sense it's world and move 6. Fetus: Week 9 to Birth: Rapid increase in size a. 3rd Month: i. Organs, muscles and nervous systems start to become organized and connect ii. Lungs begin to expand iii. Kicking occurs iv. Heartbeat can be heard v. Sex is evident b. 2nd Trimester i. Mother can feel movements ii. Vernix covers the fetus to prevent chapping iii. Lanugo: white hairs that cover the body to help the vernix stick to the skin iv. Develops hearing and sight c. 3rd Trimester i. Age of viability: between 2226 weeks the baby could survive on it's own ii. Spends time awake iii. Cerebral cortex is formed iv. Respondsto outside environment v. Neural networks form in the brain vi. Gains more than 5 pounds and grows 7 inches vii. Learning begins viii. Excessive sound can damage the fetuses inner ears and hearing ability 7. Teratogens: Enviormental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period. a. Includes: i. Alcohol ii. Tobacco iii. Radiation iv. Pollution v. Drugs vi. Maternal diseases b. Factors: i. Dose: Larger doses over longer time have a worse effect ii. Heredity: Genetic makeup could be more or less resistant to harmful environments iii. Other negative factors: exposure to more than one factor at once has an additive effect iv. Age: The effects vary based on the age of the fetus. Negative effect will harm whatever is in the sensitive period at the time of exposure. c. Epidemics i. Rubella causes blindness (1940’s) ii. Thalidomide causes limb deformities (1950’s) 8. Labor a. Stage 1 i. Baby produces stress hormones to be born awake ii. Mother has contractions and cervix dilates iii. 1214 hrs for 1st birth 46 hours for second birth b. Stage 2 i. Delivery of the baby ii. Mother feels natural urge to squeeze and push which forces the baby out of her iii. 1hr for first birth, 20 minutes for second birth c. Birth of the placenta: i. Placenta separates and is delivered in 510 minutes d. Complications: i. Anoxia: Oxygen deprivation, can lead to brain damage. ii. Could result from: 1. Breech position 2. Failure to begin breathing 3. rh incompatibility 4. Placenta abruption iii. Preterm: Born weeks before due date, may be appropriate weight iv. Smalltodate: below their expected birth weight for length of pregnancy. Have more serious problems e. Interventions: i. Cesarean sections ii. Special Stimulation including massages, soft music and kangaroo care iii. Training parents appropriately f. Approaches to Childbirth i. Natural/Prepared childbirth: techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical interventions to make childbirth as rewarding as possible. Classes, breathing techniques and labor coaches are involved. ii. Positions for delivery can reduce pain iii. Analgesics and anesthetics can be used to reduce pain iv. Home delivery: 1% of Americans but most common in world g. Apgar Scale i. Given at 15 minutes ii. Assesses the baby's color, heart rate, reflexes, muscle tone and respiratory effort iii. 710 is good. 46 the baby needs help establishing vitals, 03 is very dangerous and the baby needs help urgently 9. Heredity and Environmental Effects on Behavior a. Heredity Estimates: How much does heredity contribute to behavior? i. Genetic factors are important to personality ii. Genetic make up explains about half of intelligence iii. Measured on a scale of 01 iv. b. GeneEnvironment Interaction: Not everyone responds to the same environment in the same ways. i. Correlations: Our genes influence the environments we are exposed to 1. Passive Correlations: Parents provide environment based on heredity 2. Evocative Correlations: Children evoke responses from others based on heredity and it strengthens the child's original style. 3. Active correlations: Actively seeking environments that fit their genetic tendencies 4. Niche Picking: We pick environments that complement our heredity ii. Epigenetics: Environment influences gene expression. Development occurs with exchanges between environment and heredity. Exam 2: CH 4 1. Development and Reflexes a. Start: Immobile with reflexes End: Coordinated movement across multiple senses b. We now view infants as actively interacting with their world c. Reflexes: i. Inborn, autonomic response to a particular stimuli ii. Reveal’s the health of a baby’s nervous system 1. Decreased reflexes = problems with PNS 2. Exaggerated reflexes = problems with CNS iii. Form basis for motor skills iv. They are adaptive for survival, many were useful before we evolved v. Newborn reflexes disappear when frontal lobe develops d. Infants discover by acting on their environment, new experiences allow for new affordances (The action possibilities that a situation offers based on one's motor abilities) e. Infants that experienced early deprivation are below average in physical and psychological development. They also experienced emotional and behavioral problems. It leads to lasting cognitive deficits. f. Overwhelming infants with unrealistic expectations also undermines development 2. Newborn States a. 5 States of Arousal i. Regular Sleep (NREM): 89 hours ii. Irregular Sleep (REM): 89 hours iii. Quiet Alertness: 23 hours iv. Waking Activity and Crying: 14 hours v. Drowsiness: Varies b. Sleep i. Sleep needs decline from 18 hours to 12 hours by age 2 ii. Circadian rhythm begins to develop iii. Newborn's spend more time in REM sleep than they ever will again iv. Patterns are affected by brain development, they have implications on cognitive process and disturbed cycle can be a sign of CNS abnormalities c. Crying i. First way of communicating ii. Causes extreme discomfort in adults iii. Young infants cry most frequently because of hunger iv. More responsiveness from parents leads to less crying time v. Nonwestern babies cry less, possibly because they are carried more 3. Learning and Memory a. Operant Conditioning i. Responses are limited to head turning and sucking at first ii. Reinforcers include food, patterns, music and voices iii. Newborn's will suck faster to receive the stimulus they want b. Retention increases dramatically from 2 to 18 months c. Habituation: Gradual reduction in response to a stimuli i. Recovery: Increased response to a nw stimuli ii. Infants prefer novel displays but gradually shift to prefering familiar displays 4. Motor Development a. Gross Motor Development i. Crawling → Standing → Walking b. Fine Motor Development i. Prereaching → Reaching → Ulnar Grasp → Pincer Grasp ii. Ulnar Grasp: Adjusts to grip objects, moves objects from hand to hand. Develops around 34 months iii. Pincer Grasp: Develops around 9 months c. Dynamic systems theory of motor development: Children acquire new motor skills by combining existing skills into increasingly complex system of actions Four factors: i. CNS development ii. Body’s movement capacity iii. Child’s goal iv. Enviormental support d. New possibilities appear as systems develop 5. Senses a. Touch i. Welldeveloped at birth ii. Enhances interactions between parents and baby, important for emotional development and reinforcers neuronal development b. Taste and Smell i. Newborn's have preferences from birth 1. Prefer sweet tastes 2. Around 4 months a preference for salt develops 3. Affected by mother's diet ii. Learn to like new tastes quickly iii. Can locate odors and identify odors by smell c. Hearing i. Can hear a wide variety of sounds at birth and can learn sound patterns in days ii. Preferences 1. Complex sounds to pure 2. Women’s voices over men’s because of higher pitch 3. Mom’s voice over other women’s 4. Dad’s voice = other men’s 5. Heartbeat over dad’s voice a. Possibly because of prenatal influence iii. Prepared to learn language and sensitive to voices d. Vision i. Least developed at birth ii. Unable to see long distances or focus 6. Perception a. Speech Perception i. Can detect sounds from any human language ii. Multisensory communication helps babies associate words with objects iii. By second half of first year they can detect word order which helps with grammar b. Pattern Perception i. 3 weeks: Poor contrast, prefers simple patterns ii. 2 months: Can detect details in complex pattern, scans internal features of the pattern iii. 4 months: Can detect a pattern even if the boundaries are not present iv. 12 months: Can detect object even if ⅔’s of it are missing c. Face Perception i. Prefer to look at simple, facelike stimuli that are arranged naturally ii. Prefer mother's face over other women iii. Prefer to look at attractive and smiling faces d. Depth Perception i. 3 types of cues 1. Kinetic: motion parallax: birth to 1 month 2. Binocular: binocular disparity: 23 months 3. Pictorial: linear perspective: 57 months ii. The Visual Cliff: More crawling experience = less likely to crawl off cliff e. Intermodal Perception i. Birth: Detect amodal sensory properties ii. 34 months: Prefer matching sights and sounds iii. 56 months: Reaching for object in dark, coordinating sight and touch f. Amodal Sensory Perception i. Rate, rhythm, duration, intensity, texture and shape ii. Provides basic for detecting intermodal relationships g. Differentiation Theory i. Infants search for invariant features of the environment ii. Infants note stable relationships between features: Patterns and intermodal relationships iii. Gradually can detect finer and finer features: differentiation CH 5 1. Physical Growth a. We grow for 20% of our life because it gives us enough time to acquire knowledge and gather necessary skills for life. It is a necessary cost for a highly complex system. i. Boys have growth spurt later and tend to have more muscle and less fat than girls ii. Secular trends: most children are taller and heavier than their ancestors and reach puberty earlier b. Factors that Affect Physical Growth i. Heredity ii. Nutrition iii. Infectious disease iv. Emotional wellbeing: Extreme emotional deprivation affects GH production c. Hormonal Influence on Physical Growth i. Endocrine system: Pituitary gland and hypothalamus ii. Growth Hormone iii. TSH: promotes thyroid to release thyroxine which affects brain development and body size iv. Sex Hormones: 1. Estrogen: more in girls 2. Androgens: more in boys, testosterone 2. Gross Motor Skills a. 23 years: Walks rhythmically, rigid upper body, pushes toy b. 34 years: Walks up stairs, flexes upper body, pedals and steers c. 45 years: Walks down stairs, runs smoothly, skips, throws ball d. 56 years: Increased running speed, rides bicycle with training wheels, wholebody throwing e. 712 years: Increases running speed, increases vertical jump, increases throwing and kicking speed, accuracy and distance f. Gender differences: i. Physical: 1. Small differences in childhood 2. Adolescence: Boys develop more speed, strength and endurance while girls develop more fine motor skills, balance and agility ii. Social: More athletic pressure on boys g. Benefits of Team Sports i. Regular physical activity ii. Greater selfcompetence and selfesteem iii. Emphasizes teamwork, improvement and effort. iv. High parental pressure for performance is linked to emotional difficulties 3. Brain Development a. Brain is disportionately large: It is 25% the size of an adult brain while the body is only 5%. By age 2 the brain is 75% developed but body is only 20% b. Cerebral Cortex: i. Largest, most complex structure in the brain ii. 85% of brains weight and contains the majority of the neurons iii. Last structure to stop developing in brain iv. Sensitive to enviormental influences c. Plasticity i. All parts of brain are not specialized in young children ii. Higher plasticity = higher capacity for learning iii. Early experiences greatly affect brain organization iv. Stimulation is vital v. Experience dependent growth 1. Additional growth as a result of a specific individual’s experiences 2. AKA learning vi. Experience expectant growth 1. Ordinary experiences expected by brain to grow normally 2. Should be in typical environment d. Lateralization i. Left: 1. Sensory information and control of right side of body 2. Verbal abilities 3. Positive emotion 4. Sequential, analytical processing ii. Right 1. Sensory information and control of left side of body 2. Spatial abilities 3. Negative emotions 4. Holistic and integrative processing iii. Handedness reflects dominant hemisphere 1. 90% right handed (left hemisphere) 2. Influenced by heredity and environment a. Prenatal position b. Postnatal practice e. Brain development in Adolescence i. Neurons become more responsive to excitatory neurotransmitters ii. React stronger to stressful events iii. Experience pleasurable events more intensely iv. Uneven brain growth: prefrontal cortex is not developed v. Adolescence are capable of rational thinking and learning 4. Nutrition a. Should eat all food groups by age 1, appetite becomes unpredictable by age 2 b. Prefer familiar foods, social environment influences food choice i. Imitates admired people ii. NOT pressuring from parents helps with food acceptance iii. Food Restriction: Children will request a restricted food 3x more when restricted c. Breast Milk i. Good nutrition starts with the mother's milk 1. Less likely to get sick 2. Better vision 3. Reduces risk of breast cancer in mother 4. Nutritionally complete 5. Easier transition to solid food d. Malnutrition i. Marasmus: Wasting condition, low levels of fat, loose skin ii. Kwashiorkor: Unbalanced diet low in protein, protruding belly, rash iii. Food insecurity: Uncertain access to nutritious food (15% of US) e. Overweight i. BMI 2530 ii. Child above 85th percentile f. Obese i. BMI over 30 ii. Child above 95th percentile iii. 25% of american children are obese iv. Causes: 1. Small part is heredity 2. Response to food cues 3. Television 4. Less nightly sleep 5. g. BMI is criticised because people with a lot of muscle are classified as overweight i. BFP (body fat percentage) can be used instead ii. Individual's with waist more than 50% of height are overweight h. Nutrition in Adolescence i. Food intake increases dramatically ii. Poor food choices increase with freedom iii. More family meals are linked to healthier eating i. Eating Disorder i. Anorexia: Not eating out of fear of getting fat, severely underweight, 1% of girls ii. Bulimia: Binge and purge, 24% of girls, feel depressed and guilty about eating habits, easier to treat iii. Positive correlation between facebook use and eating disorder 5. Puberty a. Attain an adult size body and become capable of producing offspring b. Primary sexual characteristics: involve sexual organ directly i. Females: Ovaries, uterus, vagina: Menarche ii. Males: Penis, scrotum, testes: Spermarch c. Secondary sexual characteristics: visible on the outside of body that serve as a sign of sexual maturity i. Females: Breasts, under arm and pubic hair ii. Males: Voice change, facial hair, pubic hair d. Psychological impact of puberty i. Biological, psychological and social forces influence development ii. Industrialized nations extend period of adolescence e. ParentChild Relationships i. Families with more conflict feel less close ii. More conflicts with girls because parents place more restrictions on girls f. Timing of Puberty: i. Early development for girls makes them unpopular, withdrawn and have a negative body image. Also more prone to deviant behavior. ii. Early development for boys makes them popular, confident and have a positive body image iii. Late development for girls makes them popular, sociable and have a positive body image iv. Late development for boys makes them unpopular, anxious, attentionseeking and negative body image 6. Sexuality a. North American attitude is fairly restrictive but this is not portrayed in the media b. Most say premarital sex is okay with committed partners c. Recent increase in contraceptive use d. 20% of americans still do not use birth control e. Sexual Orientation: i. 4% are gay or bisexual ii. Genetic and enviormental factors alter hormones iii. Prenatal hormone exposure iv. Sequence of coming out: 1. Feeling different: 612 2. Confusion: 1115 3. Self acceptance: some never make it to here 7. Ecological Systems Theory: We encounter different environments that affect our development to certain degrees a. Microsystem: The direct environment that we live in, including the individual's that we have direct contact with b. Mesosystem: The relationships between the microsystems in our lives c. Exosystem: The person does not have an active role but it still affects them d. Macrosystem: The actual culture. ie: socioeconomic status, religion, etc that affects daily life but the person had no control over e. Chronosystem: The transitions and shifts in one's lifestyle. ie the parents getting divorced directly influences the children CH 6 1. Cognitive Development a. Cognition is the inner processing of the mind that lead to knowing, it includes all mental processes. b. Research i. Goals are to chart the typical course of cognition, examine differences and uncover the mechanisms c. Theory i. Constructivist approach: We don’t start out as cognitive beings, we use perceptual and motor activities to make sense of things ii. Four broad stages characterized by different quality ways of thinking. They are universal and invariant. d. Core Knowledge Perspective: Infants are innately equipped with core domains of thought that support rapid cognitive development 2. Organization a. Schemes i. Organized ways of making sense of experience ii. Types of Schemes 1. Behavioral: Used to represent and respond to objects and experiences 2. Symbolic: Internal mental symbols that represent aspects of experience 3. Operational: Internal mental activity that one performs on objects of thought. (cognition) b. Adaptation *examples on exam* i. Building Schemes through direct interaction with the environment ii. Consists of: 1. Assimilation: Using current schemes to interpret the external world, used during equilibrium. 2. Accommodation: Adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit the environment, used during disequilibrium c. Organization i. Rearranging and linking schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system, occurs internally 3. Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development: Children construct their own knowledge through their own activity: Cognitive Constructivist. Maturation before learning. a. Sensorimotor: Birth to 2 years i. Can’t carry out many mental activities ii. Circular reactions: infant stumbles onto new scheme but intentionally repeats it iii. Substages: 1. Reflexive schemes: a. Birth to 1 month b. Newborn reflexes 2. Primary Circular reactions a. 14 months b. Simple motor habits centered around own body 3. Secondary Circular reactions a. 48 months b. Repeat interesting effects in environment 4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions a. 812 months b. Intentional, goaldirected behavior: Coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems c. Object permanence: Understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight. i. Babies stare at new and surprising objects for longer ii. Violation of expectation method proves babies are aware of their physical world because they stare at surprising stimuli for longer 5. Tertiary Circular Reactions a. 1218 months b. Explore properties of objects through novel actions 6. Mental Representations a. 1824 months b. Internal depictions of objects and events: images of people, places and objects. Categories. Can manipulate mind c. Deferred imitation iv. Categorization: Helps infants make sense of experience by reducing the amount of new information constantly encountered. Exploration of objects and environment leads to categorization skills v. Symbolic understanding: 1524 months can distinguish from object and image. 1. Displaced Reference: Using words to cue mental images of things not physically present vi. Video Deficit: Infants confuse video images with reality, studies show toddlers who watch tv have poor skill performance, deferred imitation, word learning and poor problem solving. Experts recommend to not exposed children until 2.5 years vii. Recent research has showed that the timing of these may occur sooner b. Preoperational: 27 years i. Big Increase in mental capacity ii. Make believe play: Develops gradually and becomes more detached from real life, less selfcentered and more complex iii. Drawing iv. Dual representation: Viewing a symbolic item as both symbolic and an object, mastered at age 3 v. Limitations of thought: Thinking is rigid and limited to one aspect of a situation at a time. 1. Egocentric: Unable to see things from others perspectives. Starts to develop at 18 months 2. Animistic thinking: Attribute thoughts and feelings to inanimate objects because of incomplete knowledge of objects 3. Reversibility: Can not reverse steps 4. Have difficulty with hierarchical classification vi. Recent research shows that logical thinking develops more gradually c. Concrete Operational: 711 years i. More logical, flexible and organized cognitive processing ii. Begin to understand conservation, reversibility and class inclusion iii. Seration: Ability to order items quantitatively iv. Spatial reasoning develops v. Limitations of thought: Have trouble with abstract ideas d. Formal Operational: 11+ years i. Capacity for abstract, systematic and scientific thinking ii. Hypotheticdeductive reasoning: Deducing hypotheses from a general theory 1. Possibility → reality iii. Deductive reasoning iv. Consequences of abstract thoughts: 1. Trouble with decision making: Inexperience and overwhelming options 2. Selfconsciousness and selffocusing: Sensitive to criticism v. Recent research shows that school age children start to develop abstract thinking. Development is not as stage like. e. Educational principles derived from these stages are: Learning by discovery and acceptance of individual differences in learning 4. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory: Social interactions with others construct knowledge. Sociocultural constructivist. Learning can lead to development. a. Emphasized the importance of social experience and language development b. Private speech: A foundation for higher cognitive processing. Helps guide behavior when tasks are difficult, after errors and when confused, gradually becomes more silent. c. Makebelieve play: Helps children separate thinking from objects, strengths capacity to think before acting. Helps children understand norms and expectations, learn important activities in their culture. It does not occur spontaneously, parents must encourage d. Assisted Discovery: Zone of Proximal Development: Tasks children can not achieve on their own but can with the assistance of adults. Exam 3: CH 7 1. Information Processing Approach a. Mind is a complex, symbolmanipulating system. Information flows through the mind like a computer i. Encoding → Recoding → Decoding ii. Researchers can track physical patterns and movements b. Computer like diagrams are used to analyse thinking into it's components and to map the steps involved in thinking c. This approach breaks cognition down precisely into it’s components. It has helped a lot with teaching strategies that are more effective for how children think. However the computer model does not reflect the richness of human thought and real life learning experiences. It does not teach us about the connection between cognition and other areas. d. System Store Model: A model of information processing system i. 3 stores: 1. Sensory registry: Represents sights and sounds and stores them briefly. Can either store in short term memory or produce a response to the stimulus 2. Working/Short term memory: Holds a limited amount of information that facilitates memory and problem solving. Stores and retrieves important info from long term memory 3. Long term memory: Stores permanent memory that can be retrieved at any time ii. We use mental strategies to operate on and transform information as it flows through the system iii. Central Executive 1. Part of the mind that is conscious and coordinates incoming information with information that is already in our system 2. Controls attention 3. Selects, applies and monitors the effectiveness of strategies 4. Directs the flow of information and controls the procedures and strategies we use. 5. The more effectively we process information, the greater likelihood that they will become autonomic processes and transfer to our long term memory e. Several aspects of the cognitive system improve with age i. The capacity of our working memory 1. Maxes out around age 30 ii. The speed of processing iii. Executive functioning: Gaining attention, suppressing impulses, flexible thinking and resisting distractions. iv. Also influenced by genetics and enviormental factors v. They can eventually handle increasingly difficult tasks 2. Developmental Theories of Information Processing a. NeoPiagetian Theory i. Accepts Piaget's stages but suggests change between and within stages is a result of greater efficiency of the working memory capacity ii. Suggests increase in working memory capacity is a result of change as a result of: 1. Brain development: Neural growth, synaptic pruning and myelination 2. Practice with schemas and automatization 3. Central conceptual structures: Networks of concepts and relations that permit more advanced thought in a wide range of situations iii. Information processing is a continuum of acquisition, understanding appear in specific situations at different times which accounts for the unevenness in cognitive development b. Siegler's Model of Strategy Choice i. Children's experimentation and selection of mental strategies accounts for differences and changes in children's thinking ii. Evolutionary Perspective 1. Variation: When a given problem generates a variety of strategies 2. Selection: Gradually select those leading to a better outcome in terms of accuracy and speed 3. Leads to adaptive problem solving techniques iii. Use of less efficient strategie
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