LING1 Textbook Notes Ch. 5-10
LING1 Textbook Notes Ch. 5-10 Ling 1
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HSTA 101H - 00
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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LING1 Textbook Notes Ch. 5-10 5 Phonetics Phonetic Alphabet Consonants Voice Place of articulation Manner of articulation Vowels 6 Phonology Phonological Analysis Phonological rules Phonemes Distinctive and Non-distinctive features How to do a Phonology Problem 7 Language in Society Pidgins Creoles 8 Language Change Proto-languages Romance languages Proto-Germanic The Great Vowel Shift Morphological Change Addition of New Words Semantic Change Comparative Reconstruction Historical Evidence 9 Acquisition Word Meaning Acquisition stages Imitation Knowing more than one language Second Language Acquisition 10 Language Processing in the Human Brain Aphasia RH language functions Brain imaging ERPs Dichotic listening Development of lateralization Critical Period Deprivation studies Wild Children Genie Chelsea Isabelle Specific Language Impairment (SLI) 5 Phonetics Phonetics study of speech sounds Segmentation act of separating words into sounds, and vice versa Linguistic knowledge allows non linguistic differences in speech Acoustic phonetics focus on physical properties of sounds Auditory phonetics focus on how sounds are perceived Articulatory phonetics focus on how vocal tract produces sounds Phonetic Alphabet Orthography “spelling” of any language; is not consistently representative of sounds one sound can be represented by many kinds of spelling To standardize sounds,International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) was invented. Includes symbols that represent fundamental sounds of all languages Separated into consonants and vowels Note: Do not memorize, but understand how the tables work. Consonants Glottis located below the larynx, creates a slightly gagging sound. (eg. “h-oh”)“u Larynx voice box Pharynx tubular part of throat above larynx Oval cavity mouth Nasal cavity nose and part that connects nose to throat Vocal tract contains all of the above and tongue and lips Voice Voiced when sounds are created along with the vibration of vocal chords Voiceless when air flows freely; sound may be similar to whispering Place of articulation Position of mouth, tongue, and lips to create sounds. 1. Bilabial- putting lips together 2. Labiodental - lip to teeth 3. Interdental - tongue between teeth 4. Alveolar - tongue front to alveolar 5. Palatal- tongue front to palate 6. Velar- tongue back to velum 7. Uvular (not in English) 8. Glottal- gagging, basically. Manner of articulation Behavior of the airway to create sounds. Aspirated when a puff of air escapes during the pronunciation of the word Unaspirated when vocal cords vibrate once lips open (no puff of air) Denoted by [h]. Try “pool” and “spool” with hand in front of mouth. ul] and [spul] Oral sounds when air escapes through oral cavity; most sounds are oral. Nasal sounds when air escapes through nose and mouth Stops when airstream is completely blocked in oral cavity; sounds that can only be produced in very short intervals. (eg. [p]) Continuants: sounds that can be held for longer than a stop, i.e. everything not a stop. Fricatives obstructing airway to the point that it causes friction; can go on forever. (eg. [s]) Affricates combination of a stop and fricative; sounds like fricative but short. (]). [tʃ Liquids obstructing airway but not enough to do much; only has [l] and [r]. Glides tongue “glides” to next sound immediately after pronunciation. (eg. [w]) Liquids and glides also called approximants because thealmostcause friction Trills commonly known as “rolling r’s” Flaps flicking tongue against alveolar ridge. Sounds like middle sound of “ladder])([ɾ Clicks often seen as “tsk,” does not exist in English. Sibilants Affricates and fricatives that produce hissing sounds. Consonants are denoted as [symbol] = voice/voiceless - place - manner. Vowels Tongue is moved to the positions described to create the vowels described. Rounded vowels - produced with rounded lips or tongue. Diphthongs - two vowels “squashed” together. (eg.][aɪ Monophthongs - single vowels Pronunciation of diphthongs and monophthongs vary between speakers because of accents. Nasalization when vowels are nasalized. Denoted by placing a “~” over the vowel Diacritic extra mark to denote special cases. (egn])bĩ Tense when tongue muscles are used to create sound; longer than lax sounds Vowels are denoted [symbol] - tongue height -tongue part - strength. Segmentation is determined through stress and other cues. 6 Phonology Study of how speech sounds form patterns Phonological Analysis Allomorph variant of a morpheme Minimal pair two words with different meanings that are identical except for one sound segment that occurs in the same place in each word (eg. [kæd] and [kæt]) Complementary distribution When one sound will never occur when another sound occurs Phonological rules Morphophonemic rules phonological rules that determine a morpheme’s phonetic form Homorganic nasal rule changes pronunciation of nasal consonants as place of articulation is the same Intervocalic flapping Voiceless alveolar becomes voiced flap between two vowels, eg. ‘wait’ [weit] ➙ ‘waiter’ [ɾər] Assimilation rules make neighboring sounds similar to a feature Coarticulation spreading of phonetic features in the anticipation/perseverance of articulatory processes Dissimilation rules make neighboring sounds different from a feature Ease of articulation tendency to prolong an articulatory gesture creates assimilation rules. Ease of perception tendency to avoid creation of similar/identical consonants in sequence (dissimilation rules, eg. buses) Stress denoted by ‘ on top of the letter Epenthesis adding extra sounds to a word for assimilation. Phonemes Phoneme basic form of a sound as sensed mentally rather than spoken or heard, written  Allophones sounds corresponding to the phoneme as spoken or heard, written // allophones of a phoneme are in complementary distribution Distinctive and Non-distinctive features Distinctive features Contrastive. Voicing or nasalization on consonants. Non-distinctive features Predictable. Aspiration or nasalization on vowels. Languages differ in which features are distinctive Spirantization turning a stop into a fricative Natural class of sounds group of sounds described by a few distinctive features Reduction reducing a stressed vowel to an unstressed, or schwa [ǝ] How to do a Phonology Problem Minimal pairs different phoneme Complementary distribution allophones of one phoneme only complementary distribution proves allophones. List the environments where phonemes occur. Find patterns using the environment list. 7 Language in Society Idiolect language of an individual speaker with its unique characteristics Dialect when there are systematic differences in the way groups speak a language Dialects can be different phonetically, lexically, or syntactically Accent Regional phonological or phonetic distinctions Dialect continuum when dialects merge into each other on a spectrum regarding differences Dialect leveling when dialects merge to create greater uniformity and less variation Regional dialect when a dialect is related to a particular geographic region Dialect maps a.k.a. dialect atlases, a map that geographically plots dialect differences concentrations of a certain dialect difference forms a dialect area Isogloss line drawn on a map to separate dialect areas Social dialect dialects related to social factors Prestige dialect the “dominant” dialect that is often called the standard dialect Hypercorrections deviations from the norm that is thought to be proper English Sociolinguistic variables linguistic differences that vary with the social situation Bidialectal the ability to speak different dialects depending on the social situation Lingua franca a language commonly agreed to be utilized in a diverse area Pidgins A mixed language created by speakers of mutually unintelligible languages when they are forced to live together under specific socioeconomic and political conditions. Irregular and severely grammatically broken language that generally uses single clause sentences. Pidgins are not native to anyone. Their lexical items mostly stem from a dominant language, with fewer items stemming from the rest. Superstrate language a.k.a. lexifier, the dominant language Substrate language the rest of the languages Pidgins are stabilized by children of the next generations, and become creoles. Creoles A former pidgin that acquires all the grammatical complexity of an ordinary language. Creoles can be a native language as it is developed enough. Pidginization simplifying a language Creolization expanding a pidgin’s lexicon and grammar Studies of pidgins and creoles help us understand the nature of human language and the processes involved in language creation and language change. 8 Language Change Language change is generally very slow. Historical and comparative linguistics studies language changes and why they occur Regular sound correspondence when one sound occurs in place of another in different dialects Sound shift when languages go under phonological changes Proto-languages Ancient languages that are parents of the modern languages. Not actually attested languages, but hypothesized languages that explain the relationships between modern languages. Cognates related words in languages descended from a common source Genetic relation when languages stem from the same parent Romance languages French, Spanish, Italian, Catalan, European Portuguese, Rumanian, and more. Stemmed from dialects of Latin during the Roman Empire. Proto-Germanic English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Dutch, Yiddish, and more. Latin and Proto-Germanic stemmed from Proto-Indo-European. The Great Vowel Shift A phonological restructuring that completely changed English between 1400 and 1600. Long vowels of Middle English became diphthongs. Early Middle English Vowel Shortening Rule when the vowel of the second word in a pair is shortened (eg. please - pleasant, serene - serenity) Morphological Change Case endings suffixes on nouns based on their role or grammatical relationship to verb Addition of New Words Word coinage creating words specifically for an object (eg. Xerox, Band-Aid) Words from names using a proper name as a general term (eg. sandwich, gargantuan) Blends putting two words together and deleting parts of the words (eg. brunch) Clipping abbreviating longer words into shorter ones (eg. flu for influenza) Acronyms words derived from the initials of several words (eg. NASA) Alphabetic abbreviations acronyms where one pronounces each letter (eg. MRI) Loan words words that are borrowed from other languages (eg. ensemble) Loan translation when an expression from another language is translated and borrowed (eg. it goes without saying) Semantic Change Broadening expanding a word to be a more general term Narrowing making a word mean a specific item instead of a general term Meaning shift changing the meaning of a word Comparative Reconstruction Reconstructing a proto-language using data from related languages. Take many related languages and list their equivalents of words with a specific sound, and record the majority sound of the group as the proto-language sound. Historical Evidence Linguists also use poor spelling and old documents to reconstruct the pronunciation of an old language, like English. Shakespeare helps with his rhymes that don’t always make sense today. Many languages are at risk of dying out when the speakers die or stop speaking the language. Some languages suffer “partial death” in which they survive only in specific contexts, like Latin. Hebrew was miraculously revived through rigorous education on the new generation 9 Acquisition Children acquire a system of grammatical rules that are not taught explicitly. Uniformity of language development despite varying environment and impoverished input leads linguists to believe that children have Universal Grammar. Innateness hypothesis grammar people end up with contain abstract rules and structures that are not directly represented in linguistic input they receive Poverty of the stimulus formal term for impoverished input Children acquire language they hear. Word Meaning Overextension when a child learns a word, and extends it to a broader semantic feature Underextension when a child learns a word for a semantic feature but uses it as a pronoun Syntactic bootstrapping learning of word meaning based on syntax Overgeneralization when children treat irregular verbs and nouns as regular Wug test testing for grammatical rules through made up words Acquisition stages Syntactic competence (understanding) is far better than productive abilities Mean length of utterances (MLU) average length of discourse, measured in morphemes used to determine approximate stage child is at Semantic bootstrapping learning of word category by word meaning Word frames set “frames” of sentences that aid child in finding word category First year - babbling stage children produce and perceive random sounds, gradually fine-tuned to resemble linguistic environment Second year - holophrase one-word sentences Telegraphic stage child produces longer sentence lacking functional morphemes Children need to learn pragmatics as well. Children are sensitive to rules of adult target language at earliest stages of development. Parameters of UG limit grammatical options to small well-defined set and greatly increase speed of language acquisition. Iconic semantically transparent grammatical morphemes in ASL Imitation Some language is imitated (sound), but imitation is not everything. Recast when an adult repeats a child’s sentence but as a grammatical sentence Parents focus more on content than form of utterance. Analogy hearing a sentence, then using it as a model to form other sentences. Motherese a.k.a. child-directed speech(CDS) or baby talk not syntactically simple, does not significantly affect language development Knowing more than one language Second language acquisition a.k.a. L2 acquisition Sequential bilingualism learning another language after acquiring one Bilingual language acquisition simultaneous acquisition of two languages a.k.a. simultaneous bilingualism Language mixing is normal part of early bilingual acquisition Codeswitching when a person switches back and forth between languages in same sentence (Chinglish) Unitary system hypothesis child initially constructs single lexicons and grammar (F) children acquire languages in different circumstances and acquire vocab at same time Separate systems hypothesis child builds distinct lexicon and grammar per language (T) Metalinguistic awareness person’s awareness about language / not of language bilingual children better at adapting to unpredictable rule changes Second Language Acquisition L2 requires intense attention, study, and memorization. Many language-specific parts are not transferred (e.g. idioms) Age is significant factor in L2 acquisition (the younger the easier) Fossilization L2 errors that become ingrained to the point nothing can undo them Fundamental difference hypothesis Adult L2 acquisition is different from L1 acquisition Interlanguage grammars intermediate grammars that L2ers create in mastery process Transfer using L1 grammar on L2 Heritage language learners person raised with strong cultural connection to language through family Language attrition loss of heritage language from disuse Heritage language learners have high advantage over other L2ers 10 Language Processing in the Human Brain Brain is composed of a right and left cerebral hemisphere joined by the corpus callosum. Corpus callosum allows the two hemispheres of the brain to communicate with each other. Cortex a.k.a. gray matter, surface of the brain that processes all incoming information Contralateral brain function where information from the right side is processed by the left hemisphere and vice versa. Localization theory that cognitive abilities and behaviors are localized in specific parts of the brain. Lateralization location of different cognitive functions to specific hemispheres Language is generally an LH function. Phrenology practice of determining personality traits, intellect, and others by examining the “bumps” on the skull. Aphasia Language disorder from brain damage caused by disease or trauma. Specific linguistic deficit language is a separate cognitive function and is compartmentalized Broca’s area syntactic disorder; trouble speaking and finding words Agrammatic function words are dropped Comprehension is okay for simple structures Wernicke’s area semantic disorder; no expressive difficulty but semantically incoherent Neologisms made up words Bad comprehension Anomia Inability to retrieve words and name things, or a constant tip-of-the-tongue-phenomenon Dyslexia reading disorders Acquired dyslexics impaired reading ability due to brain damage RH language functions Storing fixed expressions Intonation contours (eg. question intonation) Pragmatics (use of language in context such as non-literal or humorous meanings) Brain imaging PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Measure changes in blood flow in the brain under different conditions of cognitive processing ERPs Event Related Potentials measures electrical signals emitted from the brain in response to different stimuli. ERPs are sensitive to many linguistic differences: speech vs. nonspeech, semantic anomaly v. syntactic ungrammaticality, etc. Dichotic listening An experimental technique that uses auditory signals to observe the behavior of individual hemispheres. Development of lateralization Infants are predisposed to discriminate speech sounds at birth Some lateralization already at birth, but not completely specialized Humans are prewired to develop language in the LH Lateralization essentially complete at puberty, promoted by language learning. Lateralization goes hand in hand with language acquisition Critical Period Biological window of opportunity during which exposure to language will trigger language development in the child. Deprivation studies Figure out critical period for a particular behavior by depriving animal of relevant input for a certain period of time in his development and see results Wild Children Children found under the age of 8 acquired language, while those above 8 did so poorly. Genie Found at age 13 Developed words but not grammar, even though she was not brain-damaged. Proved that critical period is for grammar, not words. Chelsea Age 32, good lexicon, rich use of social discourse, but no syntax Isabelle Found at age 6, learned remarkably and became indistinguishable from other children at age 8.5 Specific Language Impairment (SLI) Developmental disorder specifically affecting language SLI children have everything normal except for function words and morphology Do badly on Wug tests Hereditary - Monozygotic twins are at least 80% likely to get SLI than Dizygotic (38% +)
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