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Lecture #26-28 Study Guide

by: Molly O'Neil

Lecture #26-28 Study Guide biol 208

Marketplace > Towson University > Biology > biol 208 > Lecture 26 28 Study Guide
Molly O'Neil

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Here are the completed skeleton notes for Lectures 26 through 28.
Dr Firestone
75 ?




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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Molly O'Neil on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Bundle belongs to biol 208 at Towson University taught by Dr Firestone in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity in Biology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 12/06/15
Lecture #26 Before class, do the following:  read Ch 35.10 in the Raven, 10 ed. (Freeman 5 ed. p 705-708) Physiological Adaptation vs. Cultural Adaptation What is the difference between a physiological adaptation and a cultural adaptation? Cultural adaptation  behaviors that can be learned or taught Physiological adaptation  inherited through DNA List at least one physiological and one cultural adaptation to the following environmental challenges: Physiological Cultural Cold Vasoconstriction at night Coats, blankets Maintains core temp Animal furs Extremities get cold Wool Short and stalky – small surface area, Have small windows more difficult to lose heat High calorie diets People will have more hair Thick insulation Short and stalky buildings Heat Tall and thin – really big surface area, Air conditioning lose heat more easily Siesta Fans Air circulation in buildings, have windows so you can open them up and have good air circulation in house Perfumes and deodorant Underground sleeping areas Dry (Ex: in Africa) Use lotions and per Vasodilation – blood to skin surface Swamp cooler – increases humidity Low salt concentration in sweat and makes air more wet Adobe walls – thick walls will retain the cold during the day and radiate heat at night Humid (Ex: in South America) Hammocks – increase air circulation Core temperature can be high without heat exhaustion People are less hairy 1 Moving up in the world Left Graph  Andeans are at an average rate, while resting Tibetans are breathing faster, have a higher respiration rate Right Graph  Andeans are about 50 grams per liter higher than Tibetans in hemoglobin concentration What challenges did the Tibetans and Andeans share? Low oxygen, thinner air – causes reduced fertility Cold, dry Rains are unpredictable – hard to grow crops What physiological adaptations helped solve these challenges? Tibetans breathe faster Andeans have higher Hb concentration Short and stocky What is the definition of evolutionary constraint? How could evolutionary constraint have resulted in these two populations adapting differently? Evolutionary constraint  evolution can only act on what you have already -- your ability to adapt to a challenge relies on what you already have Ex: spiders ancestors had book girls, spiders could get book lungs, on the other hand insects had different things to work with Book gills  book lungs Gills  trachae Gills do NOT turn into book lungs What cultural adaptations helped solve these challenges? High meat diet High calorie diet Migrate to avoid extremes – people will have a summer area and a winter area Good tools Warm clothes Had to learn how to use fire 2 Skin color as an adaptation Chile and Peru Tibetan Plateau  both have really dark skin and high UV radiation Answer the following questions. Why is UVB important? UVB produces vitamin D and breaks down folate What adaptation solves the challenge of too much UVB? Melanin How is UV radiation in northern latitudes different from UV radiation in equatorial areas? Northern – almost all of the UVB has dissipated in the atmosphere What health problems can you have with too much UVB? With too little? Too much UVB  skin cancer (also with UVA) and not enough folate (which leads to birth defects, spine doesn’t form correctly) Anemia Too little  vitamin D deficiency which can reduce the sperm count in men and the menstruation rate in women, reduced immune function, brittle bones There is a strong natural selection for the proper amount of UVB Native Americans likely migrated from an area in northern China or Mongolia. Explain why the people native to western Peru and northern Chile have such dark skin. What is this called on a phylogenetic tree? High UVB Reversal 3 Evolution of “bad” alleles Note: these are not bad genes, but bad alleles for these genes BRCA  signals cell death when cell is damaged BRCA-1  broken, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer – harder to treat this cancer CFTR  codes for an ion channel, codes for a membrane protein that allows chlorine through, over a thousand alleles for CFTR, if you have two copies of the allele CFTR-F508 you will have cystic fibrosis – no grandbabies Sickle-cell anemia (HbS)  Hb – involved in Hemoglobin, sickled blood cells don’t transfer oxygen as easy Why would these three alleles exist if they are so bad? 1.) Beneficial as well Hbs – provides resistance to malaria CFTR-F508 – you get a lot of mucus coating your lungs and digestive tract, makes it hard to breathe, but if you’re a heterozygote then you will only have some coating of mucus, and that will make you resistant to typhoid BRCA-1- increases your fertility when younger 2.) Doesn’t affect your until after you have kids (BRCA-1) You should be able to: 1. Give two examples of how modern humans continue to evolve. 2. Explain the difference between physiological adaptations and cultural adaptations. 3. Give examples of physiological adaptations and cultural adaptations for the same environmental challenges. 4. Explain how some cultural human adaptations are similar to physiological animal adaptations for the same environmental challenge. 5. (from reading in text) The first hominids evolved in a woodland/grassland area in central Africa. Explain why the particularly large brain in Homo sapiens allowed it to survive in a wide variety of environments across the globe. 6. Native Americans likely migrated from an area in northern China or Mongolia. Explain why the people native to western Peru and northern Chile have such dark skin. What is this called on a phylogenetic tree? 4 Lecture #27 Before class, do the following:  read Ch 59 in the Raven, 10 ed. (Freeman 5 ed. p 1166-1169, 515-523; sections on mass extinctions and biodiversity)  define the following vocabulary terms:  extinction – extinct= said of a species that has died out // -the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.  extirpation - the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere. Local extinctions are contrasted with global extinctions.  adaptive radiation = rapid evolutionary diversification within one lineage, producing numerous descendant species with a wide range of adaptive forms Mass Extinctions 5 Adaptive radiation happens at each mass extinction When one species, because there are a lot of open niches, makes many new species very quickly Ordovician Before  a lot of marine life Marine arthropods, fish, first land plants and the first land insects After  The islands shifted, which allowed an ocean current to go through – when you change the ocean current, the environment changes Glaciation Sea Level drops because ice formed on land, sea level dropped 50 m (164 feet) Hardest hit  marine arthropods (things with exoskeletons that are not nematodes), invertebrates 86% of all known species went extinct Adaptive radiation The survivors  bony fish, arthropods, molluscs 6 Ordovician to Silurian Silurian Devonian Before  warmer, coastal areas, wetlands, shallow seas, lots of life in wetlands, coastal areas, deltas See our first amphibians, first winged insects, first seed plants (angiosperms and gymnosperm) After  oceans rose and fell very fast, asteroids (Alamo impact) landed in water which added sulfur in the ocean, which caused more phosphorus in the ocean – big algae blood and fish are killed 75% of the species went extinct Hardest hit  coral reefs High phosphorus, high algae, high bacteria (use a lot of oxygen and make carbon dioxide) Huge crash in oxygen 7 Devonian Permian Before  warm, tropical, wet year round After  continents shifted, became more seasonal, drier, volcanoes, ash making it colder, ocean acidification 96% of all species went extinct Hardest Hit  insects and wetland plants Big Survivors  seed plants Huge diversity of angiosperms and gymnosperms 8 Triassic Before  large amphibians, reptiles, has a predictable climage After  volcanoes – temporary cooling (because ash is launched up in the atmosphere), greenhouse gasses (CO2, N2O, CH4), long term warming, ocean acidification 50% of species went extinct Hardest hit  large amphibians and cephalopods (octopi) Permian 9 Triassic Cretaceous Before  Dinosaurs! – small “birds” and small feathers After  Asteroid (Yucatan) and volcanoes Ash – temporary cooling, dark less Photosynthesis Low O2 in atmosphere Greenhouse gasses – long term warming 76% of species went extinct Hardest hit  dinosaurs Survivors  mammals, crocodiles, large turtles, small amphibians 10 Current mass extinction (Anthropocene) – human mass extinction  900 species disappeared in last 200 years  20,000 species put at risk in last 40 years A species is at risk if there are extirpations – when a population dies out and when all members are gone, happen at a normal level (a population will die off and then come back later) – this species is going to go extinct Look at the graph on page 1. How fast did each extinction happen? How narrow are the peaks? Which extinction was the fastest? Which was the slowest? How tall the peak is tells which family went extinct, and how wide tells you how long it took Slowest – (wide and short) - Ordovician and the Devonian (o.77 families per million years) Longest – (skinny and tall) - Permian Anthropocene – what we see today – is 6x faster than what we see in the Permian – 75% of all species will be extinct in the next 60 years – many will be amphibians and insects, some mammals, some plants How is human behavior today causing environmental changes similar to those that caused the mass extinctions? Increasing CO , increase particulate (ash) 2 Increasing other greenhouse gasses (N2O, CH4) Ocean acidification (caused by fertilizer) Sea levels are rising What are other ways humans reduce biodiversity? Oil spills 11 CFCs – chlorofluorocarbons (entirely human made compound, can absorb UV radiation and lease heat, more effective than carbon dioxide) - Very efficient in heating up the atmosphere – cause the hole in the ozone layer – have a very long half-life before they degrade Hunting, fishing (megaphona died off after a few generations) Poaching – in 20 years there will no longer be any wild elephants Habitat destruction Biodiversity Why should we preserve biodiversity? Ecosystem services – we get medicines from insects, plants and fungi Inspiration for technology Materials - provides shelter for us (ex: lumber, glass – which all come from ecosystems) Pollination (some places where plants need to be pollinated by hand) Food Water filtration Air filtration Oxygen – we can’t make our own oxygen How do we preserve biodiversity? Education and awareness Alternative energy sources (sustainable energy sources) Recycling Legislation to protect habitats (clean air act, clean water act, endangered species act) Ecotourism Protect species – including top predators Protect habitats – including corridors Reduce the human birth rate You should be able to: 1. List the five mass extinctions. 2. Compare and contrast: a. what caused the extinctions b. which organisms went extinct c. which organisms survived 3. Explain how humans are causing a sixth mass extinction. 4. Explain why humans should preserve biodiversity. 5. Explain how humans can preserve biodiversity. Lecture #28 Before class,  write a grading key for the practice exam you turned in to Blackboard. Bring this to class. 12  write a practice notecard and bring it to class. You can use both sides of a 3x5 notecard. Practice Exams Students get 20 minutes to complete exam. Closed notes, but they can use a notecard if they brought it. Grade Exams 20 minutes to grade exams and discuss. Final Review Bring questions to ask. Information for final: Exam Schedule: Sect 001: F 12/11 12:30-2:30 Sect 002: T 12/15 8:00am-10:00 Sect 003: T 12/15 5:15pm-7:15 1. Covers lectures 19-27. Note that many YSBATs from these lectures reference earlier material. 2. You can bring notes on both sides of a 3x5 card. Write your name on the card. a. Alternately, you can use space on a piece of paper that is either 6x5 or 3x10. You will be asked to cut off any areas outside of these measurements. 3. Bring scantron sheet 50/W, form #95946 4. There will be assigned seating. 13


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