March notes from Language and Culture
March notes from Language and Culture ANT3620
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Friday, February 26, 2016 Multilingualism Language ideologies surround all multilingual speakers Languages in the world: o Number of speakers of languages problematic; dying languages o Many world languages spoken by less than a thousand people o Transnational flows of languagemedia technology o No universal accepted definition of dialect vs a language Max Weinriech: “a language is a dialect with an army and a navy.” (the language separation is mostly because of politics) Politics and Debates – Mutual Relationality Most nation-states have “official” or “national” languages which seek a standardized form of speech Oftentimes, the notion of a dialect had connotations of being subaltern, backward, not proper in relation to the “official” one. Register: “polite language”, “nerd talk”, “girl talk”, “slang” speech genres! o Differences in register directly related to how one is perceived in the world by others. India – A Case of Language(s) In India, the official language is Hindi with 22 additional nationally recognized languages. o English is the language of the legal system artifact of British colonization. Official Language Resolution of 1968 o Passed because of India’s enormous ethnic heterogeneity o Stated that “it is the duty of the union to promote the spread of the Hindi language…” o Yet it also states that “…concerted measures should be taken for the full development of these [additional 22] languages.” o When everyone needs to learn Hindi there is a hierarchy creating cultural tensions. o Which language to use was, and still very much is, a major point of ethnic controversy. o Being multilingual, however, is a part of daily life in India. Many know between 3-5 different languages o What is “official” versus what actually occurs in practice are often in contradistinction to each other jrrqfcnThis can, and does, lead to social inequalities and the loss of social identity. Class Activity British accent language ideology makes of thing of serious things. Don Kulikck – Papuan bilingualism Studied language acquisition and socialization in the Papuan community of Gapun that spoke a native tongue, Taiap, and a lingua franca creole, Tok Pisin. Children, versus adults, tend to spoke mainly (or sometimes only) in Tok Pisin, to the chagrin of their elders. o Adults claim the children are to blame because they are strong willed and not respective of traditions Marshall Sahlins: people tend to want to reproduce their social conditions but in the process of doing so, may actually contribute to change. Papuan bilingualism – Theory of Person Two major cultural concepts regarding theories of person in Gapun: o Hed: the individualistic, egotistic, unbending self (Individualism, feminity, children, negativity) Taiap o Save: the cooperative, knowledgeable self (Communalism, masculinity, adults, positivity) Tok Pisin In Gapun, these two concepts both act on the individual, who must mitigate hed in order to cultivate save Missionary activity changed these structural relations: o The idea of hed came to form a semantic domain with the native languages, Taiap, and “backwardness”, or “barbarity”. o Save came to form the opposite domain, with the newly created Tok Pisin language —from the missionaries —clustered with modernity, Christianity and “goodness” Papuan Bilingualism – Practice Kulick notes that adults assumed children incapable of language acquisition of retrieval before 18 months of age o Infants speaking a few native Taiap words were displaying their hed —their selfishness Parents assumed Tok Pisin is easier to speak so when they want young children to pay close attention, they speak Tok Pisin o Cultural norms regarding infant speech made a catch-22 of the native tongue! o Parents unconsciously reinforcing hed/save distinction through language ideologies but in a new linguistic system/structure. o Not cause and effect, it all embedded inside of each otherco- embedded Who Speaks What? – Campbell and Grondona Misión la Paz, Argentina has about 650 Indigenous people speaking 3 languages. o All part of the Matacoan family Linguistic exogamy occurs, though it is not a socially constructed rule. Passive bilingualism: speakers speak only one language but understands other speaker’s perfectly fine. o They speak the language they identify with. Identity and Practice People identify with a single language o Begins around 5 or 6 personal choice o No status conferred to one over the other o Gender, prestige and power not factors in a person’s identification While claiming to not be able to speak other languages, this is not born our in practice! History of multilingualism in the area for at least a century, probably longer. o It is not born out of practices Impacts on Linguistic Structure Interestingly, natives resist lexical borrowing form Spanish or each other, and instead create their own words o Ex. “goat” “similar to brocket deer” Another curiosity is that the three languages in MLP appear to be diverging from each other. Structural differences in syntax and morphology b/w the 3 languages supposes linguistic identity is rigidly guarded. Passive/Dual Multilingualism Universals This has been observed in some aspects from immigrants to US, Papua New Guinea and the Scandinavian countries. Aboriginal Australians tend to be multilingual that follow their father’s dialects “patrilects” Usually, linguistic exogamy involves the wife coming into her husband’s community, and then she earns the local lang. Vaupes region mentioned! o Social practices explicitly constructed around multilingual practices and ideologies. o Considered incest to practice linguistic endogamy. Monday, March 7, 2016 Differences and Conclusions MLP differs significantly from universals noted in the text o Multilingual interactions occur in a very one-sided seeking/listening discourse. o Many claim to not speak others, though large evidence to the contrary o Woman in MLP often choose husbandsunusual o Linguistic exogamy not realized as an explicit social practice “just the way it is” narratives Generalizations about linguistic convergence and universals in language use need to be critically engaged. o There is a lot of human variation o There is not that idea of “universals” Jan Blommaert-Rwanda Political Asylum Blommaert studies transidiomatic practices in relation to power asymmetries. Case of “Joseph Mutingira”: o Sought political asylum in Britain after Rwandan genocide o Home Office rejected him on grounds of the language he spoke considered inauthentic o Perception of “national languages” and authentic nationals. Wednesday, March 9, 2016 Recap Finished Campbell and Grondona: o Universals of linguistic exogamy and multilingual communities criticized o What makes MLP community linguistically and culturally unique? Blommaert and political asylum: recognition of multilingual communities as more the rule than the exception Non verbal communication intro Gestures and Paralinguistic Gestures reflect speakers’ thoughts Gestures can change speakers’ thoughts Gestures are important features in linguistic acquisition and socialization Temporal scales” o Moments o Learning language(s) through time o Linguistic change through time Gesture’s Role in Linguistic Processing Meanings different for gestures and speech: o Gesture: Global= visual and mimetic imagery; meant to be understood by most people in the world o Speech: Local= codified words and linguistic structured shared in a speech community; i.e. not recognized universally. Theories on Gesture and meaning in Human Communication Growth Point Theory Relies on the duality of meaning of gesture and speech Every utterance contains a globally defined gesture image and a linguistically defined speech structure How to define “global”? Information Packaging Hypothesis Gestures help contextually by organizing information in a visual-spatial way Gestures also help speakers organize into segments, or units, that resemble linguistic phenomena. Lexical Gesture process Words are made easier to understand through gesturing o Lexicon “dictionary” This process has serious implication for language acquisition. Gesture-as-Simulated Model A speech act produces a simulation of the action in the speaker’s mind Geertz’s “models of reality” These simulations activate (unintentionally) motor movements in the nervous system o The body, biologically speaking, seems hardwired for gestural practice. Interface Model Gestures and speech are separate systems but entangled together in terms of speech acts Gestures shaped by syntactic structures of one’s speech community Case Study: English/Turkish Sign Languages o English: manner and path of motion expressed in single clause; in Turkish they are expressed in two separate clauses o English Sign Language uses one motion to express simple actions; Turkish uses two o Different sign languages influenced by different syntaxes of embedded spoken languages. Gesture & Language Comprehension Studies on gesturing and language learning: o Gestures linking movement create a more accessible environment of learning o Sending/receiving abstract concepts harder to produce through gesture Gesture are communicative: o They convey contextual information o Reinforce information o Facilitate the learning of new information. Gesture and Early Infancy Most children use gestures before speaking (of any kind). How much and what type of gesturing are indicators of later speech acquisition and development Types of gestures: o Deictic gesture: indexical/indirect relationality E.g. pointing to an object o Iconic gesture: iconic/direct relationality E.g. putting index finger on lip o Symbolic gesture: cultural/conventional relationality E.g. peace sign Stages of Gestural types Human infants first begin using deictic gestures (8-12 months) Later in this stage, symbolic gestures can be recognized in an infant’s repertoire Iconic gestures: large variation across studies o Children begin to use iconic gestures at different times and seemingly for different reasons. Children combine words/gestures well before they begin to syntactically combine words Changes in gesturing show a causal change in language learning o Children learn vocabulary that they gesture to most frequently Most important: gesturing is highly integral to the process of learning/language acquisition Monday, March 14, 2016 Recap Theories of gestures and relation to communication Gestures and infancy: pre-language o Diectic (indexical) o Iconic o Symbolic Gesturing and Leaning a Language Practice ideas, make mistakes produces a learning environment Amount of variation in gesturing at 14 months mild indicator at vocabulary breadth at 42 months o Now always, however Generally: parents who gesture more have children who gesture more, who in turn tend to have larger vocabularies later in life. Gesturing and Language Creation Sign language resembles spoken language because it has segmented, combinatorial forms (their view of language) However, sign languages do not entirely depend on syntax of spoken language o American vs. British Sign Language Syntax, morphology, cultural idiosyncrasies o Contrary to popular opinion, SL largely not iconic in its relationalities. Emergent Sign Systems 90% of deaf children born to hearing parents who don’t know a sign language Homesigns: signs constructed more ad hoc and contextually that, over time, begin to form its own syntax and morphology. Emergent Sign Systems: NSL In the late 1970’s and early 80’s deaf Nicaraguans began to organize independent outreach programs No one had sign language: each had their own colloquial system of gestures/signs Nicaraguan Sign Language grew out of a heterogeneous and dispersed group of people to form a new and emerging speech community. o Homesigns carried over to produce a completely new Sign Language that was officially adopted by the state o Still changing to this day Gesturing and Hearing Adults Multilingual group study: o English, Spanish, Chinese, Turkish speakers o Could not use speech, had to use gestural signs. o Could express simplistic ideas, not abstract ones o Curiously: SOV word order emerged even if underlying language is not! Gestures and the Deaf Deaf signers do gesture when they use sign language Deaf children produce as many gestures as hearing children Deaf children who gestured more frequently tended to succeed better at instructional tasks than those who gesture rarely. Corbalis and Gesture Gesturing was the foundation of speech Looks at evolutionary biology to determine how and when speech/language came about. Mirror Neurons Giacomo Rizzolatti et al. studied neural activity in the brains of monkeys. Specific brain area activates neurons when the monkey intentionally grasps for something ALSO activate when the monkey see another doing the same movement “mirror” The are in the monkeys’ brains corresponds to the location in the human brain called the Broca’s Area major language center of brain In both monkeys and humans, this area simultaneously sends signals to certain motor functions when gesturing or speaking o Impossible to speak without gesturing, it is instinctual We perceive speech not through acoustics but through how we ourselves would do it. Evolutionary History Early human gesturing heavily reliant on facial gestures evolution of facial bones provided better muscle control over facial articulation Vocal tract changed when hominin species began to walk fully upright allowed greater variation in sound production Extra muscles surrounding lungs gave more power to producing sounds. Gestures are pre-language for Corbalis Genetics History – FOXP2 Needed for normal speech production in humans o Found in most animals songbird testing Genetic studies believe the gene mutated specially for human between 38-45 kya Breeding with Neanderthal also have us a more microcephalingene regulating brain size (bigger) Corbalis Answers, “Why?” Utilitarian thing o Spatial Reach o Freeing the hands o Diversity and the “Language Fortress” Wednesday, March 16, 2016 Myths of Sign Language Sign languages are universal o Like spoken languages, depends on numerous factors that explain variation Sign languages are same language as one that is spoken “just done with the hands” o Small grammatical relationships to spoken languages i. Word order (SVO, SOV, etc.) Changes occur via other sign languages, not other spoken languages. Sign Language and Written Language Written language enters sign language through iconicity”fingerspelling”. No universal fingerspelling alphabets o E.g. USA and Europe use one-handed fingerspelling UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand use a two-handed approach Sign Language and d/Deaf Socialization Three major levels of social scale that are NOT mutually exclusive: o Deaf community: largest scaleanyone who is interested in deaf issues. o Deaf culture: deaf and hearing peoples who follow semi- conventional rules of behavior o d/Deaf ethnicity: birthright important; can be deaf or born into a deaf family Lower case “deaf” vs uppercase “Deaf” one of ethnic social ties. Binary opposition of deaf/hearing in USA not universal either multiple variations. Variation arises from: geography, race, gender, ethnicity o Sign for “birthday” different even in the USA depending on region! o In Ireland, elderly deaf signers educated in gendered classroom settingsproduced gendered variation of Irish Sign Language Sign Language and d/Deaf Socialization, final Sign language, just like spoken language, is a practiced phenomenon that gives a certain model of reality to its user and at the same time socializes a person in a particular way Language in the 21st Century Pre-Internet history 16 Century EuropeRenaissance o Systematic classification & mathematics Imperialism o Bacon “knowledge is power” o Word collection(s) o Need to archive and understand Renaissance Three main innovations from Renaissance: o Library o Index o Article/Encyclopedia Library, Encyclopedia, Knowledge Library initially good, but spatially exclusive French philosophers recognized problemcreated encyclopedia Encyclopedia: o Massive but no complete o Slowly updated. Index Cards th Paul Otlet – late 19 C Created pre-Dewey Decimal System Created archival sciences Derrida & “Archive Fever” The “compulsive, repetitive, and nostalgic desire for the archive, an irrepressible desire to return to the origin, a homesickness, a nostalgia for return to the most archaic place of absolute commencement” Freudian psychology – “death drive” Dual opposition of archive theory vs. archive practice o What is sough tot do versus what it actually did. Friday, March 18, 2016 Poe’s Theory of the Internet Altered social practices and the cultures in which it is embedded Produced a distinct “internet” culture of its own Aspects of Experience What “Pulled the Internet? Who/what pulled the internet into this current practiced? 3 Major Forces of Pull: o Industrial capitalism Productivity decreased with larger bureaucracy R&D technology development protected by intellectual property rightsmoney! PCs primary pulling device of companies o The State Welfare State Keeping tack of millions State surveillance Govt. already pit in millions, might as well fully use it o Cultural shifts (post 60’s) Mass expression of individualism The “good life” should be pursuit of personal happiness Pornography explosion, desire to express feelings (blogs, Friendster, MySpace, IM) Human Nature (?) & the Internet Poe believes “people were ready” for the Internet to emerge as it is today Anomalies and Puzzle-Solving “A book takes out on a trip from here to there; the Internet takes you on a trip from here to God-knows-where” Internet Culture It will: o Spread further and wider o Be used for pleasure o Link the past with the present through language o Create social groups and communities o Save everything, making is both knowledgeable yet also vulnerable. Social Networking Sites (SNS) – Culture & Language Anthropology and SNS in general: o Tension in anthropology over discussion of internet and its effects o Traditionally linked with small-scale societies: global reach? o SNS challenges old dichotomies: neighborhood vs. network, family vs peers, public vs. private o Miller: internet now a new form of social networking but an unconscious attempt to return to old forms of social construction. Past SNS Studies Popularity of sites like Facebook were not “inevitable” but a reflection of desiring similarity yet uniqueness. People have begun compiling their lives archive fever; self- aggrandizement of the individual Most studies have yet to prove or disprove the importance of SNS. Comparative Anthropology of SNS Cultural relativism: o Cultures may change but also localize global processes and institutions o East Adian SNS: CyWorld in S. Korea organized to reflect Korean custom of viewing kin relations in center/periphery relations. Aesthetically of these SNS made to look “cute” distance from the coldness of technology. o Broadbent: “attention” protocols: different cultures have a spectrum of acceptable linguistic action. Philippines high immediacy of answering vs. UK USA?? Tales From Facebook: Globalization Looked at Trinidad discourse on Facebook Trinidad culture already geared towards a practice of intense and explicit social scrutiny o They were “ready” for Facebook Believe the “truth” of a person is found not in the physical self, but the virtual one. o Word for “hanging out” —liming— now encompasses spending social time online o Globalization does not simply destroy culture it is more a process of change Localized ways of speaking and doing take global social phenomena and re-cast them culturally. Trolls Just Want to Have Fun – Buckels et al. Trolling: the practice of behaving in a deceptive, destructive, or disruptive manner in a social setting on the internet with no apparent instrumental purpose. Dark Tetrad personality traits detected in trolling activities: o Narcissism, Machiavellianism (authoritarianism/manipulative), psychopathy, sadism. Study: 418 participants from the US, two studies reported trolling tendencies and behavior types. Testing through Language Participants given large questionnaires with the “key questions” scattered about o Language attributed to one of the Dark Tetrad provided index for researchers. o E.g. “I have been compared to famous people” or “It’s not wise to tell your secrets”. o Internet activities (like debating, shopping, commenting, trolling, etc.) ranked and use were also asked. First Study: showed correlation between people with highest Dark Tetrad attributes and those who listed trolling as favorite internet pastime Second Study: showed correlation between frequency of commenting and Dark Tetrad, especially narcissism in online debating. Discussion Sadism was the biggest indicator of positive views of trolling and the Dark Tetrad trolls defined largely through sadistic impulses. Trolling behaviors and practices ultimately indexed through the psychological need to harm Among the “trolls” identified in the study, the frequency of enjoying trolling was directly linked to identity it was almost necessary for these people to practice trolling. Technology use and anti-sociality? o Anonymous aspects of the internet help antisocial people express their dark tetrad personalities? Monday, March 21, 2016 Recap History of the relationship between humans and information storage devices. Human nature: tend to classify and organize the world around us. Internet speech practices of trolling and online identity. Analysis of Discourse of Trolling – Merritt Trolling: a genre of internet practice; notes their links to “antisocial behavior” but instead sees them as “purposeful” and “complex” Trolling vs. flaming: she sees what is popularly constructed as “trolling” as something else “flaming” or setting metaphoric fires on message boards/comments sections Discourse Analysis used on the site reddit.com She asks: how can we label practice “disruptive” if we do not stablish what is being “disrupted”? Questioning the Normative “Troll” Critical of the normal way people see trolling what measures “annoyance” or “anger” and how can we measure why someone trolls at a particular time? Problems with intentionality: are trolls really seeking just to troll or is it failure of communication? Different personality types not syncing? Temporal scale: o Once a troll, always a troll? o Is there a line that is crossed to turn into a troll? Results Paralinguistics played large role in discourse! o Different than in spoken language o Yelling, sarcasm, etc. conveyed through these paralinguistics signs Noticed those who troll tend to construct a persona, or sometimes devil’s advocate role. o Social language: what she calls different languages and dialects based on culture Trolling is “a genre of communication that poses a challenge to identify” The threat of being trolled way even serve to socialize Internet users in certain communities into what is appropriate online communication Paralinguistics ALL CAPS, , I’m great. Trolls weren’t related to anti-social behavior but they are not doing it just to be mean but they were trying to construct something but they couldn’t find a way how to. It is an internet practice Gender, Language and Power Performative Roles – Gender vs. Sex All cultures have gendered predispositions Judith Butler: o Borrowed from Foucault’s idea of discourse and power o Holds that gender is performative: not something to have but something to do “Sex” considered biological: o Between 1 in 30k to 1 in 1k born “intersexed” o Current medical practices: is sex truly “natural”? Foucault & “discourse” Linguistic Anthropology & Gender Gender is learned o Socialized Gender is collaborative o Constructed through personal and social contexts Gender is practiced (Bordieu) and performed (Geertz) o Ochs: “indexed gender” Practice indexes genders Western Samoa vs. United States Gender is power Markedness From linguistics: o “unmarked”: dominant default from(s) o “marked” is the irregular from(s) o Gender: male = unmarked, female = marked Grammatical markedness: some grammars unconsciously divide world into a faulty opposition o Masculine generic pronouns (e.g. English & Spanish) Los hombres piensan Male/Female Man/Woman o Semantic domain of “gentleman’s skills/activities” Amalia Sa’ar’s study of Israeli linguistic practices: o Studied Hebrew and Arabic speaking women from different economic positions o Hebrew fashion designer & Palestinian elderly woman same language family o Both languages use masculine generic pronouns. Some thought it would professionally help, others didn’t notice it at all until pointed out! No simple direct relationality between grammatical and cultural genders. Early Gender Studies Studies assumed categorical differences Language myths that still persist: o Competitive vs. cooperative o Silent vs. talkative These differences were never proven: considered true from the start! Late Gender Studies Janet Hyde: Gender Similarities Hypothesis o Early gender studies perpetuate dangerous myths [“talkativeness”] o Meta-analysis indicated negligible, or NO, difference in terms of behaviors o Problems with the meta-analysis’ data o Later meta-analysis: boys talked more Gender studies focused more on how identities emerged through time: o Embodiment theory: mind/body is a faulty opposition o Experience captured through body, not generated form mind o Mind does not trump body: they are co-present in any experiential phenomena. Either vice versa, it is all co-embedded. Wednesday, March 23, 2016 Recap Gender is: Performed Cultural Relational Collaborative/Competitive Power Marked/Unmarked depends on which flavor! Embodiment Theory Philosophy in social and behavioral sciences emphasizing the body in the production of human thought Lakoff and Johnson: o We define our world metaphorically to our bodies o E.g. work/love/life often defined as a journey of sorts Sexuality bound up not just as our own subjective thoughts (mind) but also our habitus (cultural practices). o Cultural plays both subtle and active roles in constructing our theories of person and body Recursive phenomena: o Information comes in through perceptual systems (senses) mind interprets according to theory of person/habitus/cultureactionreactionmore perceptual information so on. “Talkativeness” Matthias Mehl et al.: studied over 400 college students and words spoken. o F= 16,215 words/day o M=15, 669 words/day Large individual differences around the average due to individuals’ habitus and daily practice “Competition vs. Cooperation” Marjorie Goodwin: studied African American and racially mixed children’s speech behaviors across U.S. o Focus was on girls and their interactions in school Certain activities had cooperative language involved “He-Said-She-Said” moments: highly competitive linguistic techniques same as boys more to do with societal structures than linguistic structures Eckert — “Cooperative Competition” Notes a theory of person in US culture: o Men’s power based on public economic accumulation o Women’s power based on domestic capabilities that are inherently indexical to men’s power Because of this indexicality, women’s repertoires are more status- bound, NOT status-conscious Eckert — Symbolic Capital From Bourdieu: capital in the form of social prestige (not purely economic). o Goodwin: men/women symbolic capital o Women must justify status through relationships, not professional performance “Girl talk” is a linguistic force for women to increase competitive edge Eckert — Dialogic Interactions Being “popular” a defining system of thought concerning language in high schools. What occurred: o Interview/discussion among 6 African American girls entering senior year of HS o Competitive attitudes over self-presentation (popularity) vs. likability o Defining what is even “popular” o A small competition arose between two groups: “popular” and “non-mainstream” Eckert — Results At the end of the conversation, several issues of status and gender were settled between the different girls: o Girls reached consensus on importance of independence o “Shaky” consensus: religion Whether there was consensus or not, girls’ discussion an indexical speech event to larger societal structures. o However: provided a means of discussing and forming own opinions outside normative bounds. Monday, March 28, 2016 Symbolic Capital Distribution of social prestige. Kim Kardashian has a lot of capital on her Instagram and Twitter. Anger, Gender, Language Shift — Kulick Axiom: any discourse/thought/norm about emotion is implicitly also about gender Two speech genres analyzed to understand how discourses of gender, knowledge and being reinforce each other through linguistic practice. Language Ideology Kros: “anger”; it is culturally stereotypically feminine “Men’s oratories”: spoken in or around men’s house; o Downplay conflict and reframed disputes to achieve harmony Local knowledge semantically bound to ideas of danger and hazard e.g. magic chants, agriculture, men’s cults o Their language likewise privileges ambiguity with hidden meanings. Anger Anger is linked with danger having angry thoughts produces a “rot” within a person If anger is voiced or acted on, ancestral spirits sought to correct negative behavior o Correct their hed social being Women stereotyped as practitioners of kros o Self-fulfilling prophecy internalized but not explicitly. Anger and Orality Oratories considered a male-only practice When men discuss anger explicitly, it is indexical to negatively perceived phenomena o The anger must be “revealed” to correct the cosmic imbalance with the ancestors. Men re-contextualized speech in a socially “proper way” to downplay that there is even a problem. Relationality of: Men, Women, Anger Women publicly display their kros without re-concealing it through proper language practice Anger exposes a rot into village life that could potentially disrupt ancestral happenings. Men and women’s practices of anger are inverted: o Within private dwellings/within public men’s houses. o Oratories are sympathetic constructions/kroses are accusative declarations. Language Shift/Death Symbolic relationships and linguistics practices re-enforce ideas of hed, kros, femininity and Taiap Ways of talking about modernity and creating a better modern village use Tok Pisin terms and syntactical rules. Old language faces extinction Race, Ethnicity and Language Defining Race Jane Hill’s “folk theory of race” o Basic category of biology in which people fit AAA: physical traits inherited independently “There facts render any attempt to establish lines of division among biological populations both arbitrary and subjective.” Defining Race — Beginnings of Color Blumenback in the late 1700’s Formulated 5 different races of the world based on craniometry Believed in mono-genist “degeneration” theory Color typology to racial theory still in use today! “Race” as a concept is real, but as biological reality, remains to be seen Race should be viewed as cultural perceptions of others a theory of person for Other subjects Example: “whiteness” o Many groups now considered white were not always o Irish, Germans, Italians, etc. o Franklin: “swarthy” Swedes Race through Time “Race” is a concept: fluid and changeable through time Sarah Hengen: o Research in Nepal o Mongol National Organization (MNO) o Tried to fight ruling religious casts using outdated racial typology o Recast national and ethnicities, even though not technically true. Wednesday, March 30, 2016 Recap Covered anger, gender and language in Gapun Defining race o Variation vs. explanation o Does “one trait [looks] rule them all”? No Race vs. Ethnicity Some researchers critically split “race” and “ETHNICITY” Bonnie Urciuoli: o Research on NYC Puerto Rican community o Racial discourses: “frame group origin in natural terms” o Ethnic discourses: “frame group origin in cultural terms” o Racialized people considered dangerous, disorderly, chaotic o Ethnic people considered quaint, safe, orderly. o Speaking with an accent linguistically marks someone as dangerous, disorderly, unsafe. African American English (AAE) Linguistic system with rules governing: morphology, phonology, syntax. Presence of geographic dialects and absencelinguistic variation! Many can code-switch between linguistic registers to fit social context Scholars still disagree on statues of AAE as language or dialect o No matter what: has as much systematicity as other languages. Some Major Grammar/Rules of AAE Invariant or habitual “be” o “He be singing” vs “He is always singing” Copula deletion o “She happy” vs. “She is happy” Double negatives o “I can’t not go out tonight” vs. “I can go out tonight” o Anglo-Saxon bias: “rationality”, mathematics, modernization. Reduction of final consonants o Rule!: voiced and voiceless finals o Final consonant dropped only if preceded by a voiced consonant. Dump, belt, sink vs. ol’ (old), lef’ (left) “Ask” vs. “Aks” o Popularity considered to be the worst of errors by AAE speakers. o History happening for centuries in England o England: Didn’t historically index blackness Came to represent lower social classes after Revolution Speaking differently is not tied to cognitive competency! does not index intelligence, just difference. Racism in Linguistic Practice Queer theory and racism: racist ideas can emerge in conversation/practice Valentina Pagliai: o Research how people react to racist comments in conversation Recorded conversations about immigrants in barber shop in Tuscany, Italy. o Spiral effect: “occurs because when speakers receive a positive reception for their mildly negative comments, they are emboldened to make more blatantly negative and eventually outright racist remarks. Racism, Language Ideologies, Practice Psychosomatic tendencies of race and learning Ruben and Smith conducted match-guise tests in a classroom setting: o 4-minute lecture recorded by a white woman o Half class shown video of her with her voice, other half shown video of East Asian woman with original white woman’s voice o Students in Asian group tended to report the woman had an accent and did worse on comprehension of lecture materials. Ebonics, Language and Power – Long The role of “ebonics” in U.S. educational system Coined by Robert Williams in a 1973 conference: o “refers to the study of the language of black people in all its cultural uniqueness.” Linguistic studies in AAE: o Classroom practices and language ideologiesasymmetric dualism Language and Social Identity AAE not a marker of “blackness” variation and cross-ethic diffusion. o Southeast Asian, Hawaiians, working-class white and Latino Symbolic relationality: resistance o Suppression of Hawaiian o Suppression of Basque in fascist Spain AAE language ideology, emic perspective: resistive politics to perceived eradication, or at least, change of identity. Oakland School Board Resolution Flashpoint of “linguicism” came in 1997 in Oakland, California o 53% of student K-12 population was black, with 47% Asian & Latino, less than 1% white. Oakland School Board attempted to rectify terrible conditions teach classes in a different register It was NOT to “teach Ebonics”, BUT to help facilitate learning to increase language skills and others. Reactions Support from the Linguistic Society of America met in Chicago to specially address this issue Department of Education rejected the proposal based on linguistic grounds AAE not a “separate language” Even popular black culturalists — Maya Angelou and Jesse Jackson — condemned the proposal, while less popular black figures’ opinions marginalized. Reactions and New Relationship Oakland proposal became platform for larger “English-only” movement. o Other languages (mainly Spanish) also demonized alongside AAE Oakland School Board Reaction: o Re-stated that AAE had limited genetic relationship to West African languages (correct) o Stated it is not a dialect of English (incorrect) o Stated ultimately goal was to impart Standard English on the Students. Nature vs. Nurture & Education Follows Chomsky’s view of language as innately cognitive and universal o But, also sees the “language environment” as pivotal in formulating social identity Certain access to power is predicated in language: o Submersion: standard dialect in classrooms o Assimilation: collects subaltern communities together to create uniformity o Immersion: programs designed to immerse one in a language and its ideologies. Conclusions and Questions Bilingual education programs see huge results (Hawaii’s KEEP program, Canada’s French program) o Learning-in-general and learning a language in particular share the same problems National unity discourses often downplay or outright try to destroy linguistic diversity in the sake of security Long’s proposition if the world is only going to increase in its multi- cultural and multi-linguistic state, how do we deal with this in an educational setting? Friday, April 1, 2016 Recap Spiral effect case study: Italian barber shop talk about immigrants Ruben and Smith case study: white female voice over on East Asian female actor Oakland School Board Resolution o 1997 Ebonics controversy o Teaching in vernacular o What were they attempting to do/not do? RSA Animate: Language as a Window into Human Nature Indirect Speech Act Veiling Relationship Types (x3) o Dominance (Hierarchy in primates) o Communality (Share & share alike (kin selection and mutualism) o Reciprocity (Exchanges of good and services, reciprocal altruism) – Two ways Mutual Knowledge Shared understanding, we are all in the same page. Language has to convey some content and it has to negotiate a relationship type the solution is to use language at 2 levels Innuendos provide individual knowledge and direct speech provides mutual knowledge. “Word-Sound-Power”: Rastafarian Cosmology Rastafarianism: not what you think it is o Syncretic Christian and West African religious system that began in Jamaica o Believe Haile Salassei, last Ethiopian monarch, was the next Christian Messiah o Millenarian movement00> bring about a new age for African diasporic peoples around the world. Historical Context(s) Jamaica was the crown jewel of British Caribbean landholdings o Both plantation owners and newly imported African slaves spoke the local dialect o British political elites in Jamaica still held language ideology of British accent as “normal” In the 1930’s mass political unrest against British domination began with street preachers. o Pan-African Movement in the 60s and 70s catapulted mutual knowledge of black suppression across the globe. Rastafarian Morpho-Syntax Morpho-syntactics: how a language constructs its words ans sentences Context of communication: o Part of “speaking Rastafarian” is not in the language itself, but in what context it is found in. o i.e. it is about its practice in reference to word construction o Rastafarian speech explicitly deconstructs English and African words are re-arranges them. Word-sound-power is: o Linguistic construct that expresses local ideas of identity, agency and speech. o Theory of person! Research and Method Interviewed “Bongo”, a Jamaican man in the late 60’s who recently became “Dread” but famous for good oratory skills. Because English was language of subjugators, it is purposefully “busted” to show resistive practices “Up” fill morphologies: o Any word with a prefix that had symbolic similarities to negative things were overtly changed to create a positive relationship Example: English word “dedicate” —pronounced “DEAD- icate — is changed to “livicate” Example: English word “oppression” begins with an “o” — linked with word “over” and power over — is changed to “down-press” Word-World Production Up-fill morphology defining characteristic of Rastafarian linguistics and identity Histories of oppression linguistically renegotiated and resisted The world-sound-power of Rastafarian speech further promotes their world view of a Pan-African religious unifier
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