March notes from Cultural Anthropology
March notes from Cultural Anthropology ANT2410
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This 17 page Bundle was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Friday April 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ANT2410 at University of Florida taught by Crystal Felima in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Monday, March 7, 2016 Subsistence Foraging (Food collection) Defined as a food-collection strategy that obtains wild plants and animal resources through gathering, hunting, scavenging, or fishing. Foragers in the world today: hunter gatherers. Five Major Food Gathering Strategies 1. Food foraging/collection: collecting vegetation, hunting animals, and fishing 2. Horticulture: plant cultivation with simple tools and small plots of land, relying solely on human power 3. Pastoralism: keeping domesticated animals and using their products as a major food source. 4. (Intensive) Agriculture: horticulture using animal or mechanical power and some form of irrigation 5. Industrialization (Agriculture): production of food through complex machinery. Human Adaptation Adaptation occurs when humans change the natural environment and when the natural environment changes human biology. Humans adapt to climates in two ways: 1. Culturally: dietary patterns, levels of activities 2. Biologically: changes in the body. Inuit To survive in the harsh environment, the Inuit from Nunavut, Canada, have had to develop a number of creative hunting strategies, including the recent adoption of snowmobiles. Example of Human Adaptation Video Tuareg farmers in Mali. Proud traditions as nomads, but environmental conditions forced them to take up farming. Characteristics OF Food Collecting Societies Low Population densities Usually nomadic or semi-nomadic rather than sedentary Basic social unit is the family of band Carry Capacity Contemporary food-collecting peoples occupy the remote and marginally useful areas of the earth Neolithic Revolution Food Producing Societies Transition from food collection to food production began 10,000 years ago Humans began to cultivate crops and keep herds of animals Humans were able to produce food rather than rely only on what nature produced. Changes Resulting from Food Production Increased population Population became more sedentary Stimulated a greater division of labor Decline in overall health reduced the life expectancy from 26 to 19 years Why Food Production Led to Declining Health Foragers had a more balanced diet (plant and animal proteins). Farmers ran the risk of malnutrition or starvation if the crops failed Increased population brought people into greater contact and made everyone more susceptible to parasitic and infectious diseases. Horticulture The simplest type of farming, which involves the use of basic hand tools rather than plows or machinery driven by animals or engines. Slash and Burn Pastoralism Involves keeping domesticated herd animals and is found in areas of the world that cannot support agriculture because of inadequate terrain, soils or rainfall. Associated with geographic mobility Movement patterns: Transhumance and Nomadism Cattle is important to society. Agriculture Uses technology such as irrigation, fertilizers and mechanized equipment Produces high yields and supports large populations Associated with permanent settlements, cities, and high levels of labor specialization. Industrialized Food Production Uses more powerful sources of energy Requires: o High levels of technology (such as tractors and combines) o Mobile labor force o Complex system of markets Applied anthropology Community Gardens Farmer’s Markets Foragers Horticulture Population Size Small Small/Moderate Permanency of Nomadic (or semi) Generally sedentary settlement Surpluses Minimal Minimal Trade Minimal Minimal Labor specialization None Minimal Class differences None Minimal Pastoralist Intensive agriculture Population Size Small Large Permanency of Nomadic (or semi) Permanent settlement Surpluses Moderate Usual Trade Moderate Very important Labor specialization Minimal Highest degree Class differences Moderate Highest degree Friday, March 11, 2016 Economics Focus on Economics Production Distribution Consumption Economic Anthropology …studies production, distribution and consumption comparatively in all societies of the world. …differs in formal science of economics. Look cross-culturally at a society’s way of producing food and goods Gather data and categorize society according to their mode of production o These categories blend and overlap Examine how a society’s economic system affects that societies perceptions of “culture” and “nature” Cross-cultural Examination of Economic Systems Regulation of resources Production Exchange Allocation of Resources Example: Individual property rights are strongly valued and protected in the US, but in some parts of the world they are more loosely defined. Pastoralists and Resources Because this group of East African pastoralists treats land as belonging to everyone in the society, you are not likely to find any “No trespassing” signs here. Production A process whereby good are obtained from the natural environment and altered to become consumable good for society Division of Labor Deciding which types of people will perform which categories of work Every society, whether large or small, distinguishes between the work appropriate for men and women and for adults and children. Labor Specialization According to French Sociologist Emile Durkheim, outlined two theories to explain how social order and solidarity are established and maintained. Solidarity describes connections between individuals that allows them to form a cohesive social unity. Mechanical Solidarity (Subsistence Societies)Collective consciousness Organic Solidarity (Industrialized societies) Inter-dependence Modes of Distribution Reciprocity – The exchange of goods and services (of roughly equal value) between parties WITHOUT the use of money o Generalized: Giving a gift without expecting one in return (Parents and child) o Balanced: Expectations that the values will be returned o Negative Redistribution o Goods and services are given to a central authority and reallocated to the people according to a new pattern. o Redistribution involves two distinct stages: inward flow/ outward dispersal. Market exchange – Involves the use of standardized currencies to buy and sell goods and services. o A form of distribution in which goods and services are bought and sold and their value is determined by supply and demand o Exchange is based on standardized currency (money) or barter. Globalization Since the 1980s the economies of the world have become globalized Tariffs are lowered and trading Informal Economy James Ferguson: Surplus population/people—left out of the rural agricultural production systems and not incorporated into urban industrial working class — excluded from any significant role in the system of production — now engaged as “engineers” of distribution of goods. Improvisation under conditions of adversity— at times can be seen as survivalist enterprises rather than micro-enterprises. Monday, March 14, 2016 Marriage and the Family Universality of Family and Marriage All societies recognize families and marriages Definition of Family Social unit characterized by: o Economic cooperation o Management of reproduction o Child rearing o Common Residence o Recognition of rights and responsibilities o Socially approved sexual relationship Tradition view of marriage Heteronormative Marriage Defined …as a series of customs formalizing the relationship between adults within the family …regulates the sexual and economic rights and obligation between a married couple …usually involves an explicit contract or understanding and is entered into with the assumption that it will be permanent. Non-ethnocentric view of Marriage A relationship between one or more men (male or female) and one or more women (female or male) who are recognized by society as having a continuing claim to the right of sexual access to one another. This recognized that gender is culturally defined Not all married couple live together Multiple spouses are accepted in many societies In no society do all marriages endure until death Social Functions of Marriage Creates relationships between partners that regulate mating and reproduction Provides a mechanism for regulating the sexual division of labor Creates a set of family relationships that provides for the material, educational, and emotional needs of children. Mate selection: Who is Out of Bounds? Incest Taboos: Theories Inbreeding (biological consequences) Family Disruption (negative social consequences) Expanding Social Alliances (incest avoidance) Mate selection: Whom Should You Marry? Exogamy: marriage outside of one’s own social or kinship group Endogamy: marriage within a specified social or kinship group Indian Aste System Race, class, ethnicity, religion What are examples of de facto endogamy in he United States? Wednesday, March 16, 2016 Marriage and the Family Marriage: Transfer of Rights Rights of sexual access Legal rights to children Rights of spouses to each other’s economic goods and services Economical Transactions of Marriage Bridewealth: Goods or money of some type that will be give from the broom to the family’s bride Bride service: In case the bride doesn’t have the money for the wedding… Dowry: Bride to broom Reciprocal exchange: Both partners exchange goods Mate Selection: Online Dating Mate Selection: Preferential Cousin Marriage Mate Selection: Levirate and Sororate Levirate: a man marrying the widow of a deceased brother Sororate: a woman marrying the husband of her deceased sister Number of Spouses Monogamy: Maritial practice with only one spouse Polygyny: Marriage of a man to two or more women Polyandry: Marriage of a woman to two or more men Friday, March 18, 2016 Marriage, the Family, and Kinship “Anthropologists use relationships to uncover relationships” —Marilyn Strathern Family Structure The nuclear family consists of a married couple and their children The extended family consists of a larger social unit, comprising relatives from three or more generations. US Family structures Divorce is more acceptable Woman in the workplace Individualism Kinship Defined Kinship: the social relationships that people are born into or create later in life, and are expressed through but not limited to, family member terms (i.e. mother, son, cousin, and so on). Can be visualized as a “network of relatedness” that radiates from each individual. Perspective of Kinship: By blood (descent) and law (marriage) Kinship is the recognition of a relationship between persons based on descent or marriage Consanguines: blood relatives Affinal: relatives by marriage Perspective of Kinship: Relationships Fictive Kinship: The socially recognized relationship between people in a culture who are or are held to be biologically related or who are given the status of relatives by designation or ritual. Function of Kinship Systems Vertical function: provides social continuity by binding together a number of successive generations Horizontal function: solidify or tie together a society across a single generation through marriage. Principles of Kinship Classification Generation Gender Lineality Versus Collaterality Consanguineal versu Affinal Kin Relative age Sex of the connecting etc… The formation of descendent groups A descendent group is a social unit whose members claim common ancestry. Rules of Descent: Two Types Unilateral o Trace their ancestry through mother’s line (matrilineal) or father’s lineal (patrilineal), but not both Cognatic (Multilineal) descent o Includes double descent, ambilineal descent, and bilateral descent. Unilineal Descent Groups Lineage: an unilineal descent group of up to approximately ten generations – can trace ancestry back (step-by-step) to a common founder Clan: A group of kin, usually comprising more than ten generations, consisting of members who claim a common ancestry even though they cannot trace step-by-step Cognatic or Multilineal Descent Groups A form of descent traced through both females and males Types of Multilineal Descent o Double descent – responsibilities from both sides o Ambilineal descent - you can choose the most important to you o Bilateral descent – egalitarian (un árbol familiar) Marital Residence Patterns -local=place Patrilocal – Live with the husband’s family Matrilocal – Live with wife’s family Avunculocal – they live close or near their husband’s mother’s brother. Almbilocal – They choose Neolocal – The couple is independent Monday, March 21, 2016 Sex & Gender Development of the study of Gender in Anthropology Anthropology of Women Anthropology of Gender Feminist Anthropology Defining Gender and Sex Sex as a biologically determined category Refers to an individual’s membership in one of two biologically distinct categories—male or female Gender as a socio-culturally constructed category Refers to the physical, behavioral, and personality traits linked to sex. Intesex A person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies. Gender: Masculinity vs. Femininity Social definitions of maleness/femaleness Gender Roles Defined as the expected ways of behaving based on a society’s definition of masculinity and femininity. Explanations for the gender division of labor The strength theory: men’s work typically involves tasks, (like hunting and lumbering) requiring greater strength The compatibility with childcare theory: women tend to assigned work activities that are compatible with caring for infants and young children. Expendability theory: the loss of men is less disadvantageous reproductively than the loss of women The economy of effort: o It may be advantageous for a gender to do tasks that follow in a production sequence o It may also be advantageous for one gender to perform tasks that are located near each other. Human Sexuality The sexual practices of humans, usually varying from culture to culture Includes sexual thoughts, feelings and behaviors. Sexuality in Anthropological Research Sexual culture: the system of cultural meanings about sexuality and the social practices of sexuality Sexual identity: an element of some sexual cultures, the intentional sense of having a sexual desire around which you social identity is built Sexual life way: A culturally constructed expression of sexuality and gender roles. Wednesday, March 23, 2016 Sex and Gender Gender Ideology A system of thoughts and values that legitimizes gender roles, statuses, and customary behavior Exploitation Cause by gender Ideology Male Gender Biased Female Infanticide Nutritional Deprivation Infant Mortality Honor Killings. Power to get something/ or over something Gender is competitive instead of collaborational Hierarchy Dichotomies Language and culture are really embedded Phallic symbol powerful Friday, March 25, 2016 Gender Stratification The hierarchical ranking of members of a society according to gender Influences work: Women, on average earn less than men with the same levels of education and years of experience Inequality at Work Gender Segregation Job Mobility o Glass ceiling and “sticky floor” o “Mom jobs” Sexual harassment Institutionalized Sexism Discrimination Gender and Industrialism Gender roles changing rapidly in the United States Both men and women constrained by their cultural training, stereotypes, and expectations The Feminization of Poverty Gender-Based Violence “Violence Against Women” (1993) Wednesday, March 30, 2016 Social Stratification What is America? Land of Opportunity o Can anyone become rich? o Are all jobs open and equal for everyone? Social Class can be achieved o Do Americans decide which class they belong to? Horatio Alger: rags to riches o Work hard and you will achieve? Social Stratification Social stratification is defined as a system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy These categories lead to patterned social inequality—the unequal sharing of resources and social rewards Stratification persists because it is backed up by an ideology Principles of Stratification It is a characteristic of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences It persists over generations It is universal but variable It involves not just inequalities but also beliefs Social Inequality Saying that inequality is patterned indicates that the differences occur: o On a wide-scale basis o With regularity o And along lines of certain specific, identifiable characteristics (e.g. race, class, and gender) Social inequality is a structured and systematic phenomenon. Dimensions of Social Stratification/Inequality Max Weber Wealth: the accumulation of economic resources Power: the ability to impose one’s will on others Prestige: the respect given by others These dimensions can be interrelated or operate independently. Types of Societies Egalitarian — few or no groups have greater access to more wealth, power, or prestige Rank — unequal access to prestige or status, but no unequal access to wealth or power Stratified societies — considerable inequality in all forms of social rewards (power, wealth, and prestige) o Class system: social stratification is based on individual achievement Social mobility Achieved status o Caste system: social stratification is based in ascription (from birth and lasts throughout one’s lifetime). Limited or no social mobility Ascribed status ______________________________________________________________________________ Friday, April 1, 2016 Social Stratification Caste systems shape people’s lives in for crucial ways: Powerful cultural beliefs underlie caste systems Determines occupation Mandates endogamy Limits outgroup social contacts Race and Ethnicity Race — classification based on physical traits. o Race is social construction: people interpret physical differences which are endowed with social meaning. Ethnicity — classification based on cultural characteristics. Prejudice is an attitude, which predisposes an individual to prejudge entire categories of people unfairly. Discrimination is a behavior, or and the unfair and harmful treatment of people based on their group membership Racism is the belief that race determines human ability and as a result, certain races deserve to be treated as inferior while other races deserve to be treated as superior Institutional (prejudice, discrimination and racism): integral part of the social practices and institutions of a society. Intergroup Relations Pluralism Assimilation Legal protection of minorities Population transfer Long-term subjugation Genocide Social Stratification: Theories Functionalist (Conservative Perspective) o Social inequality exists because it is necessary for the maintenance of society o “it serves as a mechanism for allocating rewards and motivating the best people to fill the key jobs in the society.” Conflict (Liberal Perspective) o Explains social inequality as the result of benefits derived by the upper classes using their power and privilege to exploit those below them. Conflict Theory Bourgeoisie o Karl Marx’s term referring to the middle class (those who own the means of production) Proletariat o The term used in conflict theories of social stratification to describe the working class who exchange their labor for wages. Inequality in the United States Us society is highly stratified, but many people underestimate the extent og structured inequality in US society Question: How is inequality structured? Question: What kind of traits/dimensions interact to produce a person’s place in society, the manner in which people are treated, and their self identity? Intersectionality and Inequalities Connected You are not unequal just because you are a woman, or because you are black; there is other things you need to take into account when you study people that are marginalized.
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