Final Bundle EDU 2100
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This 0 page Bundle was uploaded by Thomas nelson on Monday December 7, 2015. The Bundle belongs to EDU 2100 at High Point University taught by Dr. Sarah Vess in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Nature of the Learner in Education and Teacher Studies at High Point University.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
Thomas Nelson 0 John B Watson is considered the founder of American Behaviorism 0 Experimented on an 11 month old baby named Little Albert to see if he could 0 condition fear to generalize other stimuli Little Albert learned to fear a white rat not because it was a rat but because its presence was paired with a loud unpleasant sound 0 Ivan Pavlov 18491936 was a Russian physiologist who experimented with dogs and their salivation O Helps us to understand test anxiety and phobias in children today 0 Behavioral View Learning is a relatively enduring change in observable behavior that results from experience 0 O 0 Mental process not observable and therefore not considered Based on animal based research Uses for Behavioral principles I Classroom management I Can help teachers address students misbehavior and social skills deficits gt Promoting appropriate behaviors gt Social or motor skills gt Selfregulation gt Discouraging inappropriate behaviors 0 Classical Conditioning There is a stimulus that elicits a response 0 O 00 000000000 Innate involuntary re exesbehaviors This involuntary behavior is elicited by an antecedent environmental event I Ex If air is blown into your eye you will blink Antecedent Signal to the students that reveals which behavior will be reinforced Stimulus will naturally elicit a re exive response Unconditioned Stimulus UCS A stimulus that automatically elicits a response without learning Unconditioned Response UCR Automatic unlearned reaction to UCS Neutral Stimulus NS Doesn t produce unconditioned response Conditioned Stimulus CS Elicits Conditioned Response Transforms from NS Conditioned Response CR Involuntary response as UCR UCS food gt UCR salivation NS sound gt No Response NS sound UCS food gt UCR CS sound gt CR salivation In the area of classroom learning classical conditioning is seen primarily in conditioning of emotional behavior Things that make us happy sad angry etc become associated with neutral stimuli that gain our attention 0 Teacher behaviors may be stimulus for positivenegative emotional responses from students I EX The school classroom teacher or subject matter are initially NS that gain attention I Operant Conditioning Study of impact of consequences on behavior 0 0 00000 0 Based on work of psychologist BF Skinner Operants Deliberate actions to operate on environment to change it in a certain way Law of Effect Behaviors that are followed by positive outcomes are strengthened and behaviors that are followed by negative outcomes are weakened Voluntary behaviors Antecedents gt Behavior gt Consequences ABC s Give attention especially for good behavior Specific praise Positive Behavior Support Way of helping students gradually decrease classroom behaviors disruptive to themselves and others I Starts with an analysis functional behavioral assessment of a student or group of student s behavior Contingency Management Decision to reinforce or not reinforce a behavior 0 Positive reinforcement O O O O Desirable behavior is displayed Reinforcer is immediately after the behavior Reinforcer is contingent on behavior Reinforcer is a desirable consequence 0 Positive reinforcement in classroom 0 O O Token economics I Token lacks inherent value stickers tickets etc and are used in exchange for itemsactivities with inherent value I Often tokens are accumulated and later cashed in for reinforce computer time prize box etc Contingency contracts I Agreement between students and teacher where students agree to behave in mutually acceptable way and teacher agrees to provide mutually acceptable reinforcement I Can be used with individual students groups or whole class Premack PrinciplesGrandma s Rule I Use an activity a student prefers as a reinforce to complete a less preferred activity O O I Asking students what they d like to do I Observing students during free time I Determining what might be expected behavior for particular age group Let student choose reinforcers Use praise and other types of positive reinforcement to increase academic and behavioral performance Provide reinforcers immediately after a task or behavior Negative Reinforcement O O O O Negative doesn t mean bad it means removal Removing an aversive consequence when desirable behavior is displayed Examples I Making a final exam optional for students who achieve an average score of at least 80 on all other tests I Dropping students lowest grade when they submit all classroom assignments on time I Removing a stare at a student after heshe starts working at an assignment Negative reinforcement is not a punishment Schedules of Reinforcement O O O O 0 Continuous A particular behavior is reinforced every time it occurs I Most effective for helping students acquire new behaviors Intermittent Reinforce every so often I Once student masters a behavior this works better Fixed Student knows exactly when and how the consequence will be provided Variable Reinforce sometimes don t reinforce other times Student doesn t know when or how consequence will be provided because there is no specific time Ratio Reinforcers are delivered based on number of responses Interval Reinforcers are delivered after a time interval Primary Reinforcers Stimuli that are a necessity and therefore naturally reinforcing such as food and water Secondary Reinforcers Stimuli or events that we learn to value such as praise money and opportunity to play 0 5 kinds can be used easily in the classroom I Consumable candy gum popcorn I Social praise smile attention I Activity free time movie computer time I Exchangeable token points money I Tangible toys favorite chair favorite sweater Operant Conditioning Methods OO Shaping Reinforcing each form of behavior that more closely resembles final version of target behavior I Select desirable behavior I Obtain reliable behavior I Select potential reinforcers I Reinforce successive approximations to target behavior I Reinforce target behavior every time it occurs I Reinforce target behavior on variable reinforcement schedule Fading Diminish reinforcement over time Cueing Setting event Prompting Adding familiar antecedent that signals desired response rather than waiting for it Chaining Technique for connecting simple resources in sequence to form more complex response that would be difficult to learn all at one time I Ex Teaching someone to go to bathroom by himherself through steps Effective use of reinforcement should make the use of punishment less necessary 2 conditions when punishment may be used effectively 0 0 When undesirable behavior is so frequent that there is virtually no desirable behavior to reinforce When the problem behavior is so intense that someone may get hurt Types of punishment 0 Presentation Punishment Use of aversive or painful events to decrease incidence of behavior Removal Punishment Taking away a student s access to positive reinforcers to decrease incidence of behavior I Time out I Detention I In School Suspension I Response Cost Taking something away phone token etc Ineffective forms of punishment 0 O O 0 Physical punishment Psychological punishment Extra credit work Out of school suspension 7 principles in which operant conditioning can be applied to teaching 0 0 Provide for an active response by the learner Give positive consequences for correct responses You are correct Good answer Positive immediate and frequent reinforcers to correct responses Continuous at first then intermittent 0 Maximize likeliness of correct responses and minimize likelihood of errors by shaping behavior through the use of small instructional steps 0 Avoid aversive control use promise of reward instead 0 Use cues to signal and prompt the correct response 0 Reinforce the exact performance you want the learner to learn 0 Remind students of rules by 0 Having them read the rules every morning 0 Making praise comments contingent on their being followed and referring to the rule in the praise comment I called on Tim because he raised his hand 0 Attending to only behavior within limits of the rules 0 Principles for effective classroom management 0 Specify the rules that are basis for reinforcement I Rules serve as prompts I As children learn to follow them they can be repeated less frequently faded 0 Praise desirable behavior I Teachers should catch children being good rather than waiting for them to misbehave Improvement should be rewarded Ignoring minor misbehavior is preferable to punishing it Reinforcement should be immediate Every correct response should be reinforced until it is mastered Teachers must be aware of themselves or else they won t be able to use these OOOOO principles effectively I Superstitious Behavior Behavior that occurs in response to accidental reinforcement 0 If a child finds money while walking home from school any behavior that happened to precede this will be reinforced and is likely to be repeated may continue to follow the same route home or may walk looking down 0 Social Cognitive Learning Theory Theory learning created by Albert Bandura that emphasizes the cognitive components of social learning 0 Social Learning Learning by observation particularly of other people s behavior 0 Both a cognitive and behavioral process 0 Often considered a bridge theory between behaviorism and more cognitively oriented learning theories 0 Model An individual who is imitated or whose behavior others learn from 0 Students learn a lot through observation I 5 things observers can learn from models 0 New cognitive skills such as reading and new behaviors such as how to operate a new piece of software 0 Strengthen or weaken observers previously learned inhibitions over their own behavior Learn what they can and cannot get away with I Inhibition Deciding not to perform a behavior after seeing a model perform it and suffer unpleasant consequence I Disinhibition Becoming more likely to exhibit a behavior after seeing a model do it and not suffer any adverse consequences 0 Models can serve as social prompts or inducements for observers Learn what benefits of performing an act are How to use their environment and the objects in it 0 Seeing models express emotional reactions often causes observers to become 0 aroused and express the same emotional reaction 0 Process of learning by observation is governed by 4 processes 0 Attention I People can t learn by observation unless they attend to and accurately perceive the modeled activities I To gain attention teachers should Emphasize the essential features of performance to be learned Split activities into parts Highlight the component skills Give students opportunities between observations to practice what VVVV they have seen 0 Retention I Observers must code info into images or abstractions or into verbal symbols and then store it in their memories I Rehearse practice immediately after 0 Production I Converting the idea image or memory into action I Performance Feedback Reviewing behavior and evaluating for performance progress 0 Motivation I More likely to enact a modeled behavior if it results in a valued or desired outcome than an unrewarded or punished one 0 Moral Development Development of moral judgment 0 Moral Judgment Children s conceptions of rules and the respect that children acquire for these rules 0 Intentionality Whether or not an immoral act was intended to deceive someone 0 Stages of moral development 0 Stage 1 Moral Realism ages 27 I Child believes in object responsibility being responsible for one s transgressions regardless of the intentions behind them I The bigger the lie the worse it is I Children regard moral rules as sacred and fixed as being created and handed down by authority figures and as being changeable only by authority figures heteronomous morality I Expiatory Punishment Punishment that is strong and arbitrary and thereby allows the wrongdoer to pay for rulebreaking I Retributive Justice An eye for an eye a tooth for a tooth I Immanent Justice Idea that if you do something bad something bad will happen to you 0 Stage 2 Mutuality ages 711 I Mutuality Equality or following the golden rule Reciprocity or taking turns or sharing equally cooperation or cheating is bad because it is not fair to others I Distributive Justice A way of treating everyone the same and restoring equality punishment is neither automatic an absolute nor a means of making one pay for one s sins 0 Stage 3 Autonomy ages 1115 I Rules are seen as social conventions set by mutual agreement and changeable through mutual agreement I They are made by people and can be changed by people I Equity Not automatically treating everyone exactly the same but rather taking into account each individual s particular circumstances 0 Lawrence Kohlberg Developmental Stages of Moral Reasoning 0 Moral Reasoning Stages of reasoning achieved by encountering moral dilemmas O Moral Dilemmas Situations in which a choice must be made between 2 desirableundesirable alternatives where no choice is either absolutely right or wrong I A man s wife is dying There is one drug that could save her but it is very expensive and the druggist who invented it will not sell it at a price low enough for the man to buy it Finally the man becomes desperate and considers stealing the drug for his wife What she he do and why 0 Level 1 Preconventional Moral Reasoning Young children s judgment of right and wrong is based on doing what is good for them egocentrism 39 Stage 1 PunishmentObedience Orientation gt Individuals are limited in their own actions only by fear of punishment gt Without appropriate role models some children may never leave this stage 39 Stage 2 PersonalReward Orientation gt You scratch my back and I ll scratch yours gt Might try to make a deal with the druggist or with law enforcement to ignore himher stealing it 0 Level 2 Conventional Moral Reasoning Individuals look beyond personal benefits and consider the effects of their actions on other people 39 Stage 3 GoodPerson Orientation gt Emphasis on Being nice Being approved of Pleasing others Peforming appropriate behavior Fulfilling mutual expectations Conforming gt Would say it s alright for the man to steal the drug because he is trying to help his wife 39 Stage 4 LawandOrder Orientation gt Morality is focused on Respecting authority Doing one s duty Maintaining the social order for its own sake gt Would say that stealing the drug is wrong under any circumstances because it is wrong to steal O Level 3 Postconventional Moral Reasoning Not attained until high school years and even then not attained by many Might say that stealing the drug isn t wrong as long as the man is willing to pay the price and would also see a need to protect right of druggist and so a better solution might be gained through legal recourse I Stage 5 SocialContract Orientation gt While laws are necessary they are relative gt They may be changed democratically if they no longer meet society s needs I Stage 6 UniversalEthicalPrinciple Orientation gt Only very few reach this stage such as Jesus Gandhi and MLK Jr gt Have a clear vision of abstract moral principles such as justice and fairness gt Not only teach these principles to others but sacrifice their lives if need be 3 limitations of Kohlberg s theory 0 It is important to recognize that moral reasoning and behaving morally are not the same thing I Even though moral reasoning has been associated with moral behavior it doesn t guarantee that mora behavior will occur 0 There is an inevitable overlapping between stages as well as occasional tendency to appear to move in backward direction 0 Theory is biased in favor of Western cultures and particularly among the highest social and educational levels of Western culture Carol Gilligan stated that women and men used fundamentally different approaches to making moral decisions 0 The male approach to morality is Morality of Justice individuals have certain basic rights that have to be respected O The female approach to morality is Morality of Caring because people have responsibilities toward others morality makes it imperative for people to care for others 0 Created 3 stages in the moral development of women 39 Stage 1 Selfish Morality Female children focus exclusively on themselves 39 Stage 2 Conventional Morality Progress from selfish to social morality believing it is wrong to act in their own interests rather than in the interests of others 39 Stage 3 Principled Morality Learn that neither their own nor others interests should be ignored All students respond to reinforcers Effectiveness of specific rewards and deterrents of undesirable behavior can be in uenced by students individual differences 0 Interests 0 Needs 0 Values 0 Goals 0 Differences in perception of what is punishment 0 History of previous reinforcers and punishment 0 Special needs students may respond differently 0 Teacher biases and assumptions about students 0 Kounin Approach 0 Kounin studied practices of teachers who could increase engagement of learners vs teachers who struggle to gain and maintain students attention 0 Effective learning environments planned in advance amp proactive better than reactive O 4 behaviors from these observations that help teachers to be effective practitioners I Withitness Teacher knows what is going on in classroom at all times I Overlapping Teacher monitors and supervises at least 2 activities at one time I Maintaining smoothness and momentum gt Smoothness Teacher transitions students between activities or locations without sudden breaks Don t be stimulus bound responding to every little stimulus which takes time away from learning Thrust Suddenly interrupting a child s activity without preparing the child for the interruption Dangle Involved in an activity stops it for a brief time to do something else then returns to the initial activity Truncation Same as dangle but teacher never returns to original activity Momentum Maintaining an appropriate pace during learning activities Overdwelling Too much time spent dealing with materials of activity instead of activity or focusing on an issue for a longer time than necessary I Maintaining group focus gt Group Alerting Teacher asks questions to whole class then chooses one student randomly gt Accountability 0 Assertive Discipline Approach 0 Students have a right to learn and a right to have classroom free from behavior problems O 4 basic competencies I Observable classroom rules that clarify behaviors vital for success in classroom I Consistently respond to appropriate behaviors gt catch them succeeding and being good I Respond without bias when students disrupt their own learning and learning of others I Work with families and administrators to gain support help and expertise when needed 0 3 response styles I Nonassertive Response Style Passive approach Teacher doesn t have clear expectations Inconsistent with responding to behavior I Hostile Response Style Teacher interested in controlling students instead of helping them learn strategies to regulate their own behavior Authoritarian and in exible I Assertive Response Style Students are aware of teacher s expectations for behavior Students understand consequences Teacher viewed as secure and fair 0 Positive Recognition Students gain teacher s attention by behaving appropriately 0 Teacher should spend more time giving positive comments than negative comments at least a 41 ratio 0 Research shows teacher praise increases student achievement Types of development 0 Moral Development Mechanism by which children and adolescents learn different between right and wrong I Children and adolescents learn difference between right and wrong I Moral Judgment Children s conceptions of rules and respect that children acquire for these rules 0 Personal Development Refers to way young people interact with their environment and learning experiences that result specifically as in uenced by teachers parents and peers O Psychosocial Development Process by which a person s sense of self emerges as the result of interactions between his or her social and personal side Piaget s Theory 0 Stage 1 Moral Realism 27 years old 0 Stage 2 Mutuality 711 years old 0 Stage 3 Autonomy 1115 years old 0 Piaget was concerned with intentionality 0 Kohlberg s Theory 0 Expanded Piaget s Theory into 6 stages I Level 1 Preconventional Moral Reasoning gt Stage 1 PunishmentObedience Orientation gt Stage 2 Personal Reward Orientation I Level 2 Conventional Moral Reasoning gt Stage 3 Good Person Orientation gt Stage 4 LawandOrder Orientation I Level 3 Postconventional Moral Reasoning gt Stage 5 SocialContract Orientation gt Stage 6 UniversalEthicalPrinciple Orientation O Moral dilemmas Situations in which a choice must be made between two desirable or two undesirable alternatives where no choice is either absolutely right or wrong 0 Strengths I Valuable insights into nature and development of children s and adolescents moral reasoning I Supported by reasoning 0 Limitations I Subjective scoring on moral dilemma tests I Underestimates young children s moral reasoning ability I Moral development seems to follow trends rather than progressing systematically through stages I Gender bias 0 Studies have shown that 3 strategies are positively correlated with change in moral reasoning 0 Active learning 0 Re ection O TeacherStudent Interaction 0 Negative interactions with other students has a negative impact on moral reasoning no change to positive direction 0 Students low in moral judgment are more likely to behave poorly in school gt teachers should try to stimulate moral growth 0 Promoting moral development 0 Moral education programs crossaged groups within 0 Character education an instructional approach 0 Values clarification 000 OO 0 Cognitive moral education Service learning Provide forms of student selfgovernment safe environment for learning and sharing Structure learning environment to model democratic values Encourage selfdiscipline through cooperative interactions with others in classroom Encourage students to think in complex ways about moral issues 0 Erikson s Psychosocial Theory 0 Mainly interested in how people develop their ego identity Sense of who they really are Person s identity is formed as the result of a series of developmental crises that occur naturally within the social environment at different stages of life While attempting to master the challenges that each of these crises pose people either grow toward greater selfactualization mastery unity of personality accuracy of perception or regress toward a more infantile resolution Each crisis represents a chance for someone to develop another aspect of identity in a healthy or an unhealthy way 8 Stages I Infancy Basic Needs Trust vs Mistrust I Toddlerhood SelfControl Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt I Early Childhood Purpose Initiative vs Guilt I School Age Productivity Industry vs Inferiority I Adolescence SelfDiscovery Identity vs Confusion I Young Adulthood Sharing Intimacy vs Isolation I Adulthood Parenting Generativity vs Stagnation I Old Age SelfAcceptance Integrity vs Despair 0 Social Cognitive Learning Theory O 0000 Theory of learning that emphasizes cognitive components of social learning Social Learning Students learn by observing others behaviors Model Individual who is imitated or whose behavior others learn from Inhibition vs Disinhibition Bobo Doll Experiment B andura
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