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Intro to Astronomy Chapter 7 Notes

by: Ean Savory-Booker

Intro to Astronomy Chapter 7 Notes ASTR 1345 - 001

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > Astronomy > ASTR 1345 - 001 > Intro to Astronomy Chapter 7 Notes
Ean Savory-Booker
GPA 3.0

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chapter 7 review
Nilakshi Veerabathina, Yash Sujal Shah
75 ?





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This 2 page Bundle was uploaded by Ean Savory-Booker on Friday April 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ASTR 1345 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Nilakshi Veerabathina, Yash Sujal Shah in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTORY ASTRONOMY I in Astronomy at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 04/01/16
Chapter 7: other Terrestrial Planets Chpt 7 Which pair of planets have atmospheres with the most similar chemical compositions? Venus and Mars Mercury is least likely to have ice or water on or under its surface. Venus and Earth are very similar in mass and diameter Mercury is difficult to observe because it has an exceptionally low albedo of 0.12which scatters 12% of incoming light. It is very bright as seen from earth because the sunlight scattering from mercury is very intense. We can only see it for a few hours after its sunset because its angle from the sun is less than 28 degrees however when found it is one of the brightest objects in the sky Mercury surface is alike by craters and highlands being formed by impacts 800 million years after these bodies condensed from the solar nebula. The impact craters both have ejecta blankets and central peaks. Both have low albedo. Unlike the moon however, mercury also has a variety of volcanic craters and created a smooth regions between the bigger ones. Mercury has a similar density to earth. Both are caused by their interiors being dense. However mercury is slightly less dense but is the most iron rich planet in the solar system which is found within the interior of the planet and not as much on the surface. Mercury also has a varying magnetic field which interacts with the solar wind. Sometimes its weaker than earths. Sometimes its stronger. Mercury also has a liquid iron core. And rotates 59 times slower than earth. The largest features found on mercury is the Caloris Basin which is three times the size of Texas and the giant volcano inside of it. The volcano is bigger than Delaware and it created hilly terrains twice the size of Wyoming. Mercuries Large iron core theory is that because of an especially intense outflow of particles form the young sun stripped mercury of its low—density mantle shortly after the sun formed. Another theory is that the iron rich minerals couldn’t withstand the primordial solar nebula. The third theory is that mercury was struck by a large planetismal or debris formed as the solar was being created. Both Venus and Earth almost have the same mass, diameter and density. It would’ve possibly been able to sustain life if it was located the same distance away from the sun as Earth. But its 30% closer to the sun. Venus is surrounded by light-colored highly reflected clouds this creates a greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide warms Venus atmosphere. It is also heated by the infrared radiation coming from within the planet which is then absorbed by the carbon dioxide and trapped on the planet’s surface producing the high temperatures. The major chemical compounds found spewed from our volcanoes from earth are found in Venus’s atmosphere. Among these compounds are sulfur. Because many of these molecules are short lived, they must constantly be replenished by new by new eruptions. Lighting is also a formed when volcanoes erupt and tis has been confirmed on Venus’s surface. Venus surface would be yellow and cloudy every day along with being very hot and riddled with a round interlocking-shaped rocks plus many volcanoes and lighting. Theories on Venus surface is that the thickening crust is thinned from below by the horizontal convective motion of mantle, like stripping layers off plywood. When thinned heat is able to rise from through crust and cause volcanoes. Another theory is the one plate surface of Venus is heated below enough to crack and begins an earth like tectonic plate motion until it cools again and becomes a single plate. So the surface is being erased and replaced. Another theory is that the mantle gets so hot that sections of crust melt simultaneously destroying the old crust nd craters. Mars is red because very fine dust also being spread across the planet by water, backed up by the presence of channels and ducts across the surface of mars The iron within the dust reacted with oxygen, producing a red rust color, while the sky appears red as storms carried the dust into the atmosphere. ( The greenhouse effect is a portion of sunlight penetrating through the clouds and atmosphere of venus heating its surface. The surface in turns emits infrared radiation which is absorbed within the carbon dioxide. The trapped radiation increases temperature of the surface and atmosphere. Mars can be seen the easiest when earth and mars are on the same side of their orbit and earth is between the sun and mars. You will be able to see more details this way as well. You can tell which craters on mars were formed by meteor impacts or by volcanic activity by identifying the volcanic craters because of the molten rock oozing from the interior. They are shield volcanoes like those on the Hawaiian Islands. The volcano also continues to vent molten rock to the surface Geological features showing Mars’s plates moved once before because the flow of molten rock under the planet’s surface. However a majority of that molten rock has cooled as shown because of the inactivity being recorded. Tectonic activity has also created islands and ocean currents which mars does not have.


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