Popular in PSY 110 - Introduction to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Amanda Green on Monday December 7, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 110 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Rod Gillis in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see PSY 110 - Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
Reviews for chapters 1-5
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 12/07/15
Basics of Psychology ▯ I. Definition of Psychology ▯ The scientific study of mind and behavior Mostly humans, sometimes animals (generally as a model to understand humans) Uses scientific method- so definitely a science (unlike astrology) Interested in scientific study between body and MIND (controls- actions, behaviors) Elements of mind- perceptions (smell, see, tastes), thoughts, feelings II. Six Approaches to Psychology ▯ A. Psychoanalytic (Freud) Personality is shaped by early childhood experiences o Dramatic experiences- sexual development i.e. walking in on parents, relationship w/ mom ▯ ▯ B. Behavioral (Watson, Skinner-most famous behavioral scientist) Shouldn’t be talking about egos, things we can’t measure (what Freud was doing) need to focus on things we can observe- BEHAVIOR Observing concrete data and info- forget about thoughts o + More like bio and physics (more scientific) o - Less creative Albert- orphan child used for study (some thought unethical) o Happy baby present rat and startle child Trying to induce phobia, and show how easy it is to be afraid of something counter condition phobia ▯ ▯ C. Gestalt (Kohler, Wertheimer) Gestalt= whole picture Whole is more than the sum of the elements that make it up (parts) o ex. Motion of light looking like one ▯ ▯ D. Humanistic (Maslow, Rogers) Abraham Maslow (most well known Humanist) Every person is motivated to reach their full potential but we get stopped along the way by the negativity of important people o Pyramid of needs o Motivated in everything ▯ ▯ E. Cognitive (thinking, memory, language, learning, problem solving, creativity) Say behaviorists are wrong study non concrete things o Hard to study thinking people (forget, lie, etc.) ▯ ▯ F. Biological/ Medical/ Physiological Psychology and bio overlapped- growing- modern psych Health Psychology III. Fields of Specialization Human Services Clinical o Psychiatrists- prescribes; studies psych but never practices o Psychologist (mom)- PhD, recommends prescriptions Counseling o Problems of everyday living Community School Applied Educational Forensic Sports Industrial /Organizational Health o Therapeutic touch Engineering ▯ ▯ Experimental (Basic) Social Personality Cognitive Developmental Physiological/Medical/Biological Therapists big part of psychology small part of the whole picture IV. History of Psychology A. Charles Darwin 1859 Origin of Species- evolution (basic theory of modern bio) Has to be variation ▯ ▯ B. Sir Francis Galton 1884 Darwin’s cousin (wealthy)- published Hereditary Genius Set up laboratory- collecting data on London streets o Measuring; height, weight, vision, grip, breathing, memory o Wanted to study whole family- genetics (if traits were inherited by family) ▯ ▯ C. Wilhelm Wundt 1879/ Founded lab in Germany- school of thinking/psychology o Structuralism- looking for elements (or basic structures) that made up consciousness Tried to model psychology off of physics or bio 1 scientifically minded psychologist Introspection- looking inside of yourself o Flawed b/c fact that you’re observing yourself changes your thinking- or social desirability st ▯ Titchener 1893- ( 1 American structuralist) ▯ ▯ D. William James ▯ 1890 Principles of Psychology (American) Summarized philosophical thinking School of Functionalism (schools don’t still exist)- wouldn’t have a stream of consciousness without it serving a useful function o Function of consciousness- biggest threat to humans= ourselves; so need to be consciously aware of each other Also used some introspection Stream of consciousness (free flowing)- writing w/o less organization; thought after thought blended together o Human brain flows from one thought to another Ex. mind like a river ▯ ▯ E. Sigmund Freud 1900 Neurologist in Vienna Austria- Jewish driven out by Nazi’s Unconscious mind- (not aware of it) but still important in how we act and think o Ex. Visual of lights turning into one- no reasoning or motive just happens ▯ ▯ F. Ivan Pavlov 1920’s Biologist working with digestion o Studies with dogs- ended up studying association (side tracked from original experiment) ▯ ▯ G. John Watson (1913) 1920’s (American Psychologist) Published paper in 1913 o Disagreed with Freud’s ideas of personality was made up of super ego Should only measure behaviors, not imaginary things V. Ethical Issues ▯ A. Institutional Review Boards (IRB) If you want to do research human subjects need an institution review board to review your proposal and approve your study is safe based on federal guidelines Only applies to institutions with federal funding o For publishing purposes ▯ B. Minimize risk Little Albert study wouldn’t work today- risk to high Can’t harm someone emotionally or physically o i.e lying and seeing how their reaction o minimizing deception- used in social situations sometimes ▯ C. Informed Consent Informs you about nature of experiment, what’s asked of you, how long it will last ▯ D. Right to Privacy Not allowed to look at individual responses- only if necessary not discussed ▯ E. Debriefing Right to learn a little more about experiment after the fact o may share results Could potentially ruin the study- if study is ongoing ▯ F. Record Keeping ▯ ▯ G. Animal Research Strict set of guidelines Still questionable studies Review board program ▯ VI. Overview of Scientific Method ▯ ------Modify--------------------------If No ▯ ▯ Observation Theory Testable Hypothesis (refutable)Test it ▯ -------------Support--------------------If Yes Good theory’s don’t have to been right but encourage research Testable Hypothesis must be proven wrong True Experiment -better Correlational Method 1) Randomly Divide Subjects into 2 1) Measure Two Variables or more groups (usually small) Wouldn’t divide into groups just measure 2) Calculate the Relationship ▯ 2) Manipulate the Independent Variable 3) Measure the Dependent Variable (changes in one variable effects another) ▯ Ex: Mean Coffee gp=75 bpm Ex: Pearson’s correlation= +.90 Mean no Coffee gp=65 bpm Have to test statistical significance Highest correlations= +1 & -1 May infer that coffee CAUSED an Support for hypothesis but increase in Heart Rate cannot infer Causality ▯ Remember: Correlation does not imply causation! ▯ ▯ Correlational studies often have Directionality Problems Third variable problems ▯ ▯ The directionality issue: causality may go in either direction Coffee leads to Heart Rate Heart Rate leads to Coffee rd The 3 variable issue: Any unknown variable may cause both correlated variables to move together Coffee Age Heart Rate I. Overview of The Nervous System ▯ ▯ II. The Neuron ▯ ▯ III. The Brain ▯ ▯ II. The Neuron ▯ ▯ A. The Synapse ▯ ▯ B. Neurotransmitters- go from neuron to neuron, some can go through bloodstream ▯ 1. Acetylcholine ▯ 2. Norepinephrine ▯ 3. Dopamine ▯ 4. Serotonin ▯ 5. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) ▯ ▯ C. Neuromodulators ▯ Natural Opioids (Endorphins)- Opium (drug) ▯ why plants mimic- coevolution- changes to accommodate changes in other organisms ▯ ▯ III. The Brain ▯ ▯ A. Imaging techniques ▯ 1. CAT or CT – x-ray of soft tissue; multi dimensional ▯ 2. PET – Positron emission tomography- see which part of brain is being used during specific task ▯ 3. MRI and FMRI- (Magnetic Resonance Image);(Functional Magnetic Resonance) Clearest, telling you what part of brain is most active at the moment (if Freud was alive would’ve used) ▯ 4. Lesions (slow with humans) (blow to the head) natural brain injuries stimulation and recording no pain receptors in your brain 5. EEG- electro ensufilo graph- put electrodes on your head, good for sleep studies. Sees wave lengths ▯ B. Overview of Brain ▯ 1. Cerebral Cortex,- left & right hemispheres connected by a bundle of corpus callosum sometimes called- Cerebrum, Neocortex(neo=new cortex) evolutionary new- not only in humans chimps too (mammals all have cerebral cortexes) 2. Corpus Callosum- connects Left & Right hemispheres ▯ 3. Contralateral Connection- left side of brain controls right side of body and visa versa ▯ images backwards and upside down(why babies have to learn to see can reach in wrong directions for things- learn to flip visual feel) ▯ 4. Cerebellum- visible structure left and right hemisphere reptiles only have cerebellum- reflexes- not a conscience process, things done on instinct humans have both- dreams more reptilian- instinctive ▯ ▯ C. The Cerebral Cortex ▯ 1. Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex frontal lobe- movement temporal lobe- hearing occipital lobe- vision parietal lobe- body sensations (feelings, touch) ▯ a. Broca’s area- language center (speech) ▯ French physiologist= Broca: did studies on man who had stroke (tom) and lost his speech, Boca used his brain and discovered speech center of brain Aphasia- lost the ability to speak o Controls mouth movement, typically in the left hemisphere ▯ b. Wernike’s area- in hearing section (responsible for language comprehension) has to be communication between Wernike’s and Broca’s area One area focused on nouns, separate from verb section, adj, etc. Front part dedicated to 1 language o Could have stroke that effects 1 language but not the other ▯ vision is best sense in humans ▯ c. Primary Visual Cortex (PVC)- sees exactly what’s there and records it the geography of the visual field is retained in the PVC if damaged could have a blind spot or tunnel vision- could still function ▯ d. Visual Association Cortex (VAC) recognition takes place damage in VAC bad- can’t recognize anything= visual agnosia o research done on cats o visual image of what you’re looking at actually appear in your brain o special cells that detect circles- featured detectors e. Central Fissure (Motor and Sensory regions) Facial expressions survival- evolution cues important ▯ f. Brain plasticity Brain cells don’t regenerate- relearn after stroke- part of brain adjacent takes over control- brain is flexible ▯ ▯ 2. Split Brain and Lateralization ▯ a. Left Hemisphere= Analysis, Verbal activity ▯ (talking, understanding, speech, reading, writing, grammar, math, almost everything in college) language- analysis- pieces are correct ▯ b. Right=synthesis, putting elements together, ▯ perceive whole, maps, 3D sketch, religion putting things together- seeing the whole picture One part sees the whole picture and part is focused on the pieces science vs. religion (science left brain, religion right brain) evolution one side quick decisions, other side see the pieces of everything (big picture thinking) o need both! A little misfiring can go through corpus collasum and cause firing in other side- seizures Sperry did split brain research in 1950, 60s o Temporal lobe epilepsy o If cut corpus collasum- stop seizures- cats were fine; then did to people (volunteered) it worked! Split brain research o Corpus Collasum- in charge of communication between both hemispheres- decisions go back and forth between both hemispheres- so only complications with study was feeling conflicted one side wanting to do one thing and the other trying to do something else ie. Picking out dress or turing stove on other hand turning it off He cant say he saw the snow storm but he can point to chickens head and the snow shovel no knowledge of why the other hand was pointing to the snow shovel o Might make up an answer ▯ I. Visual perception of form ▯ ▯ II. Depth perception ▯ ▯ III. Perceptual constancy ▯ ▯ IV. Other issues in perception ▯ ▯ Attention. Can shift your attention to left or right- without moving eyes o Attention- has nothing to do with eyes or hearing, you can listen one way or another- but more to do with neurons ▯ ▯ I. Visual perception of form ▯ ▯ A. Figure Ground- ability to tell the figure from the background why camo is hard to identify figure vs. background (separate figure from background) birds become water of fish and fish become air of birds white birds fly in night sky, blue birds fly in blazing sun o can’t see both- only focus on one MC Escher ▯ B. Illusory contours- line or boundary that doesn’t exist- imaginary missing pieces create lines or other shapes, brain imagines lines see change in color- even though not actually changing- brain imagines- and becomes brighter o optical illusions ▯ ▯ C. Grouping of elements (Gestalt laws of grouping)- Studied vision ▯ ▯ 1. Law of Proximity- objects that are close to each other are preserved as belonging together columns vs. rows (connect the dots that are closer) 2 people- opposite side of room less likely to know each other ▯ ▯ 2. Law of similarity- similar objects grouped together same shapes grouped together ▯ basic to human nature- we all do this- but why? Mosaics- this idea, or even dots on calculator ▯ 3. Law of good continuity- see things that make the most continuous sense straight line then wave vs. semi circle (start and stop) o see things and assume they continue o judge speed and connection of motion (animal in jungle) ▯ ▯ 4. Law of closure- Close missing pieces to make the simplest element fill in missing pieces- brain so good at filling in gaps sometimes even go unnoticed ▯ 5. Law of Common Fate- Objects that move together (or share a common fate) belong together no still drawings (talking about motion) fish ex. Camouflage only works until it moves- but when it moves you can see it o cant see shape with no movement but see it once it moves bc sand doesn’t move in huge shape together can move in camouflage too like octopus moving like seaweed to blend ▯ ▯ II. Depth perception See better in 3D than any other animal ▯ ▯ Binocular cues (require 2 eyes) ▯ ▯ 1. Binocular disparity- Fact we have 2 eyes we have 2 separate views of the world child learns to see 3 dimensionally when babies see they can focus- vision expands- just cant register- may try to reach for something that is out of their reach o leads to stereopsis in the brain not all people can do this lazy eyes, cross eyed (needs to learn to use both eyes) if isn’t corrected child can get Stereopsis - fusing both eyes into one image ex. Lining finger up with straight line and then switching eyes tested with stereograms- picture of daisies seeing other images in the bigger image seeing 3D world putting into 2D picture- painting- fooling people ▯ 2. Convergence- 2 eyes- focusing something long distance eyes farther apart, focusing on something close eyes seem to converge get closer together harder to see info about muscles in tendons of eyes ▯ ▯ Monocular cues (1 eye) Can get info even from just one good eye ▯ ▯ Motion Parallax – objects that are closer to us appear to move more objects farther away move less relative motion o through movement you can see where things are o examples: wall on t.v. you move while looking at it move see more of wall Person on train closer objects appear to move faster relative to you vs. say mountains in the background Used to think sun goes around the earth- optical allusions think sun following you ▯ Elevation above horizon- higher something is above horizon the closer it is height on a plane relative size- same size just different distances ▯ ▯ Interposition – blocking view of part of other image, closer to us overlap ▯ ▯ Linear Perspective- parallel lines appear to converge in the distance vanishing point- when taught to draw- but not taught its an optical allusion ▯ ▯ Aerial Perspective- objects in the distance are hazier, lighter in color mountains in distance- shading ▯ ▯ Relative brightness- objects that are closer are, clearer, brighter ▯ ▯ Texture Gradient- whatever texture you’re painting/ or object your looking at gets smaller in distance rocks get smaller in distance Shading- shadowing gives information about depth makes it more 3D gives it more shape Disney using technology- cartoons now have depth- shadowing more realistic ▯ III. Perceptual Constancy ▯ ▯ A. Size constancy- relative size ex. Baseball player pic o at a concert in nosebleeds look very small on stage ▯ ▯ B. Shape constancy- ex. a door is a door… whether it is open, shut, or viewed at an angle o magic- fool you with a door that does change shape because you’re so used to seeing it one way Aims room allusion ▯ ▯ C. Brightness constancy- aware of how much light there is in the sunlight paper looks lighter vs. if paper in dark looks darker but we know it’s the same color o no trouble identifying white- eyes correct light for you why art is so hard- to really see what you’re looking at vs. what you think you’re seeing ▯ ▯ IV. Other issues in Perception ▯ ▯ 1. Top-Down processing: 2. Bottom-up processing: 2 parts of your brain doing different things o Reading- One person can see word or one part sees whole phrase One part of brain seeing whole other part seeing pieces Reading is a race between the 2 Good reader is top- down you see the whole Bad readers- have to go word by word and sound out a word Ex. If you cna raed tihs… st o 1 and last letter reading o hard to detect your own spelling mistakes in paper- proofreading ▯ V. Attention (general discussion) ▯ what is attention? ▯ What happens when you pay attention to anything? ▯ ▯ Dichotic listening studies of 1950’s where participants “shadowed” one ear while ignoring input to the other ear. Completely focus on what you’re listening too and repeat- then ask what was said in the other ear o Only hear what was said in other ear when name, vulgar, or threatening words are mentioned- filtering until certain info that’s important gets said Can be completely engaged- once you hear you’re name stop o Cocktail party phenomenon ▯ I. What is consciousness ? Evolved a high level of consciousness (more aware in a different way) o Awareness of being aware Awareness of being aware and that you’re aware that others are aware and back and forth See where people’s eyes are going o “Oh look”- then you look- Joint attention The mark test (rouge and mirror test) o Put rough on nose (shouldn’t know it’s there) Put kid in front of mirror, might laugh at kid with something on their nose, don’t recognize with rouge Once realize it’s them become embarrassed What causes us to need to be aware of ourselves The Tarzan Syndrome (awareness of self in physical environment) o Animals that evolved like we did- large animals like Apes in treetops- need to be aware of next branch Why only certain animals can pass test- big animals in treetops cant fall Awareness of physical awareness in environment allows for social awareness Dolphins and elephants can- but no treetops convergent evolution ▯ ▯ II. What is Altered Consciousness? Anything but wide awake alert consciousness o Drugs, emotions, meditation, prayer, sleep ▯ ▯ III. Sleep, the best studied altered state. ▯ ▯ A. Brain activity varies during sleep EEG- produced brain wave patterns Deeper sleep lighter sleep patterns different o Alpha Waves- breath deeply, start to relax o Beta Waves- wide awake People go through stages while they sleep- start 1,2,3,4 and then back and forth dream sleep- agitated REM- rapid Eye Movement- watching something in your minds eyes ▯ ▯ B. Circadian Rhythms- “Circa” around day daily rhythm- regulated by the sun hormone from pital gland- our rhythms regulated by melatonin o jet lag, insomnia, not approved AM turns off melatonin- melatonin regulated by sun (light) o Day creatures- electricity only reason we stay up later ▯ ▯ C. Why do we sleep ? ▯ 1. Repair Theory we get tired we need to recover/ repair from physical recover from emotional stress o if was this theory would need more sleep if we worked harder not the case o or makeup lost sleep ▯ 2. Adaptive Nonresponding we’ve adapted to not be up at night o night vision- not very good- evolved that we get tired when sun goes down evolution- puts feeling in your head not idea amount of REM sleep decreases as we age and sleep less in general as we age o babies sleep over 40% in REM sleep- mental development consolidation- time to process info ▯ ▯ D. Sleep Disorders ▯ ▯ E. Why do we dream ? Freud said- we have an conscious awareness and unconscious awareness o Unconscious mind is the seat of repressed memories Bad memories, guilty feelings, things don’t want to remember o Our dreams are motivated by our unconscious mind Dreams are road to the unconscious mind Dreams represent wish fulfillment o Every dream image has 2 ways to look at it Ex. Train Manifest content- whatever you’re actually dreaming about actual object- train Latent content- hidden content- representation- some other meaning- what train represents o Dream landscape private property of the dreamer ▯ 1. Repression Hypothesis- dreams result from repressed thoughts, feelings, memories ▯ ▯ 2. Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis – when you go to sleep cerebral cortex turned off- not actively conscious reptilian brain remains conscious turn off cerebral cortex, not completely off there is still random activity other part tries to make sense of these random images try to make sense of patterns in life- sometimes answers are wrong- meaningless activity- why that story? ▯ ▯ 3. Problem Solving Hypothesis- when you go to sleep, in a sleep lab, where moment you start a dream you get woken up and asked to write what your dream is first dream is usually always about something that produced anxiety today pattern earlier dream has to be something today and subsequent dreams anxiety in the past dreams help us resolve, deal with anxiety ▯ ▯ 4. Memory Consolidation – one function is to help us consolidate memories create long term memory- help us choose the things to save don’t dream it will interfere with memory need REM sleep ▯ ▯ D. Sleep Disorders ▯ - Insomnia- insufficient sleep, unrestful sleep, inadequate sleep, physical and emotional trouble ▯ - Narcolepsy – sudden sleep attack any sudden emotion could bring on an attack ▯ - Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)- healthy baby goes to sleep in crib and dies, rare in U.S. back to sleep program (sleep on back) usually caused by air trap- die from inadequate breathing o get other objects that could cause blockage out death reduced ▯ - Sleep Apnea – people repeatedly stop breathing during the night, not getting enough sleep snoring associated with this o overweight or older people o corrected in sleep lab sometimes with forced air ▯ - Sleep walking (Somnambulism) ▯ - Sleep talking ▯ - Bed wetting (Enuresis) ▯ - Nocturnal Myoclonus – uncontrolled thrashing about unusual leg movements ▯
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'