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Date Created: 12/07/15
Chapter 6: Learning 10/19/2015 ▯ I. Six Different kinds of Learning 1. Habituation/ Sensitization Novel stimulant pay attention if nothing follows stimulant then- habituation If something does happen following stimulant- then greater reaction- sensitization o Phobia- irrational sensitization New stimulant- and becoming accustomed to it o Ex. Dog hears new noise outside (intruder) dog will bark- if nothing bad happens and noise continues dog will HABITUATE to that noise stop barking If something does happen greater reaction- sensitization 2. Classical Conditioning= Pavlovian Conditioning= Associative Learning Pavlov Ring bell bring meat dog will associate bell with meat and salivate at sound of bell Associative learning because connection between 2 stimuli Bell- conditioned; Meat- unconditioned 3. Operant Conditioning= Instrumental ▯ Conditioning = Skinnerian Conditioning Instrumental conditioning Operant- object must actually do something- operation Instrumental - E. L. Thorndike - B. F. Skinner – coined term operant conditioning unlike Pavlov- dogs behavior is instrumental in determining the outcome what learner does determines- rewards/punishment 4. Observational Learning = Social Learning ▯ = Imitative Learning = Modeling Learning by observing Newest learning Social learning- 2 or more individuals together ▯ ▯ 5. Insight Learning (Kohler’s apes)- learning by thinking didn’t observe anyone else do it no insight learning no advances in art in science no one teaching learning on their own Kohler- worked with chimps Something in room (sticks) and problem to be solved (hanging bananas outside)- tries to get bananas and either gives up or figures out on his own sticks can fit together and lengthen- solving the problem on their own o Trial and error studies- solves it with flash of insight ▯ 6. Taste (Flavor) Aversion one trial learning- flavor also deals with smell doesn’t need reinforcement if you eat something and get sick- nauseated by food after; never want again evolutionary response- don’t eat poison- life saving not a brain thing- stomach making you queasy ▯ ▯ II. More on Classical Conditioning ▯ A. Ivan Pavlov- biologist originally studying digestion- experiment turned into association ▯ ▯ UCS leads to UCR/CS leads to CR (chart) after completing 2 treat stimulus at the same ▯ ▯ Learning Curve- graphing some particular association levels off at the same amount of saliva as the unconditioned stimulus then dog now associates meat with bell o gap of time is important- more time in between bell ringing and giving meat- then less salvation from bell sound steeper curve- easier to learn o ex. McDonald’s worker steep learning curve vs. president not as steep variation of curve depends on intelligence and motivation ▯ Acquisition training: backwards conditioning: gave meat then bell wouldn’t work but tried doing lots of variations like this ▯ Extinction training: stopped pairing the 2 stimuli take trained dog and salivates to bell after extinction trials will stop salivating unlearning- cant unlearn so learning new information that there is no association ▯ Spontaneous Recovery: after extinction training and no longer salivating- learned no longer association dog was hooked up after gap of time and dog re-learned to salivate at bell ▯ ▯ Generalization: applying previous learning to a similar situation Train a dog with a tuning fork on day and next day use a different tuning fork another day slightly different it will still salivate Discrimination: lack of generalization because the situation is different enough in learning good thing; in social psychology bad thing color blindness unable to tell difference (unable to discriminate) ▯ B. Therapy ▯ -Phobias: irrational over reaction to a stimulus can’t be cured with info- not thought based (emotional) Watson- conditioned phobia of white rats o Put the rat in then startled kid and then showed how easy it was to create a phobia Counterconditioning- phobia’s can be learned, some acquired from experiences, or genetic component (more anxious) more easy for mother to pass on phobia to child -Systematic Desensitization: to cure phobia’s Wolfe- claimed he could cure 90% of phobias with systematic desensitization Can have fear of snakes and live with fear- not a problem unless it interferes with everyday life Think of all fearful stimuli that you can imagine o And organize by least fear provoking to most o Work on breathing, relax, and you start at least fearful scenario- set goal o Work your way up to the goal o Some go through easily- go at own pace ▯ -Aversive conditioning: change habits negative- could hurt you or end up backfiring making habit worse focusing on punishing side of something- and trying to make you repulsed by it ex. Smoker- could put you in a room with ash tray old cigarettes and ask you to smoke until you get sick to make you not like smoking -Drug addiction sometimes think your cured but then end up going back to drugs because didn’t think of all the stimuli associated with drugs get cured but go back to regular life- go back to addiction so classical learning is important part of rehab because you have to treat all associations that make you think of drug ▯ ▯ III. More on Operant Conditioning ▯ ▯ A. Thorndike and his Puzzle Box worked with cats; put them in cage (always something they could do to get out) put hungry cat in puzzle box- food outside cage (box)- try to get food o Engages in random trial and error behavior and typically accentually steps on level to get out ▯ Law of Effect- any behavior followed by a reward will be more likely to occur in the future any behavior followed by a punishment will be less likely to occur in the future ▯ Reward = Reinforcement: anything that makes the behavior of interest more likely to occur in the future no rewards or punishments in pavlovian conditioning; only operant consequence (annoyers/satisfiers) of behavior determines behavior Punishment: anything that makes the behavior of interest less likely to occur in the future; always something bad ▯ Negative Reinforcement: time off from prison guard, can be reward ▯ Primary and Secondary Reinforcement ▯ primary- something naturally reinforced (food, water, shelter) ▯ secondary- gain value because let you get something else that you really want ▯ ▯ B. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Chamber ▯ The Skinner Box- put rat in cage (box thingy) automated system- didn’t have to constantly be watching the rats could set it up come back later ▯ Manipulandum (lever)- something animal can do (learn to feed themselves) ▯ Schedules of Reinforcement: ▯ 1. Continuous Reinforcement- ratio 1:1; every trial is reinforced ▯ 2. Partial Reinforcement- different schedules ▯ a.) Fixed Ratio- 1:10 (percentage pay ex 10% of sales) dependent on ratio not time ▯ b.) Variable Ratio- same ratio 1:10 but varied scheduled (slot machine, addictive) ▯ c.) Fixed Interval- ex. 5 min gap in food from lever - TIME ▯ d.) Variable Interval- on average every 5 min ▯ - Resistance to extinction- stop reinforcing behavior but hope it continues ▯ - partial reinforcement- better against resistance, takes longer to learn ▯ - more exposure learner has had to non reinforcement trials more resistant ▯ - Shaping = Successive Approximation- reward bits and pieces along the way; take what they know and then complicate it ▯ - Chaining- string a number of separately taught behaviors into a much more complex pattern- only reinforcing at the end of the long behavior ▯ - Superstitious behavior as reinforcement (approaches random) - Skinner’s Dancing Pigeons put pigeons in reinforcement box (random reinforcement- food would come down lever had nothing to do with it) whatever pigeon was doing when food came it would do it more often thinking it was causing the food to come lucky something- superstitions ▯ - Acquisition/Extinction/ Discrimination and Generalization apply also- operian conditioning ▯ ▯ C. Applications to behavior problems ▯ - Behavior Modification- learning theory; bad habit was learned lets change it ▯ - Token economy – Biofeedback ▯ ▯ IV. Observational Learning = Social Learning = Imitative Learning = Modeling (Albert Bandura) ▯ - BoBo Doll studies (1965)- named after clown (blow up toy); kids would watch video of viciously hitting toy and said phrase, then left child alone in the same room- kid imitates video study in aggression- yes watching aggressive things makes kids more aggressive- more violent media more likely to end up in jail (correlational study) don’t know causality ▯ - No-trial learning true experimental test- ▯ one video praised lady at the end; other scolded the video at the end ▯ instead of rewarding or punishing learner they rewarded or punished the model and it effected the behavior of the learner possible to observe something complex, know how to do it, but never do it learn from other people’s behavior so you don’t have to do it ▯ - Vicarious reward and punishment ▯ - Distinction between learning and behavior ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ I. Time Frames of Memory ▯ A. Sensory Register (Sperling, 1960) ▯ Shorter than short term memory ▯ Tachistoscope 1/20th of a second etc. (outdated)-Sperling’s Study ▯ first study: set shutter speed- projected upper case letters to class for 1/20 of a second – and write down letters you remember (typically 4 or 5 out of 9) ▯ second study: heard a sound after image was gone- high pitch write down top 3 letters, medium tone middle row, low pitch bottom- students could get any 3 but not all (after image disappears rapidly- memory only stays long enough to get 3) ▯ subliminal advertising- message presented so briefly no conscious awareness but hits you at a sub conscious level ▯ Iconic memory (visual) image that represents something ▯ Echoic memory (auditory) after image of sound, longer than iconic ▯ “Ignoring someone let me finish.. what did you say.. oh lunch” ▯ Eidetic Imagery (photographic memory) perfect memory ▯ Look at a page and recall everything; even more detail than photographic ▯ ▯ B. Short Term Memory (1 minute or less) focusing of your attention ▯ - The workbench of memory- have to work to save, respond, or process it; if you don’t do something with it it’s lost ▯ - Serial Position Effect (4 related terms) ▯ horse, garage, bench, calendar, ship, puppy, apple, fire (my order) ▯ horse, garage, bench, apple, calendar, fire, puppy, ship (real order) ▯ ▯ “U shape” words in the middle usually forgotten.. (fire in ex.) primacy effect- more likely to remember words/ things in beginning recency effect- more likely to remember words/ things at end proactive interference- something that comes before interferes with what comes next; temporarly blocking retroactive interference- most recent things interfere with what came before it ▯ serial position effect- 2 interferences happening together ▯ ▯ - Very limited capacity (Miller, 1959 7+2) not experiment hired by telephone company; changing from operators to dial phone- wanted to know how many numbers people could remember (avg=7 pieces of information not just #s) ▯ - Evolutionary reason? Only remember idea we got from person- language Live in world with imaginary (time) idea of timeline- take recent past events and creating moments- create a moment with short term memory ▯ - Chunking (TVFBIJFKYMCA) allows us to put pieces of info together- process as 4 pieces of info memorizing phone numbers ▯ (handwritten notes) ▯ ▯ IV. The Reconstructive Nature of Memory Memories are not stored like tape recorders or movies, need to reconstruct and talk about it Cant just play back the memory Problem is every time you reconstruct might, reconstruct differently ▯ Eye Witness Testimony People remember what the want to, or what is expected, memories can change (why eye witness testimony is flawed) Some better at witnessing (police officers, trained at noticing) If weapon present testimony worse No correlation between certaincy and accuracy ▯ Elizabeth Loftus- studied eye witness testimony in classroom setting ▯ Implanted Memories- (legal setting) would show movie of car driving down country road to students car would come to intersection and would have an accident would ask questions ▯ 1. About how fast was the car going when car past the barn? ▯ Was actually no barn- but was actually implanted by question Implanted their schema of the barn Don’t reconstruct memories randomly- reconstruct them based on previous schema ▯ 2. Did the car stop at the stop sign actually no stop sign- people imagined, implanted ▯ 3. When the 2 cars crashed what happened? Would describe situation (broken glass because of the word crashed) Crashed causes people to think broken glass vs. collided Words used changes how we reconstruct memories ▯ Schema = mental framework organizational scheme like a file cabinet (more you learn easier to learn) ▯ False Memory Syndrome- (therapy) To recover memories (Freudan) Sometimes we recover memories that never happened (abducted by aliens) ▯ ▯ V. Miscellaneous Topics ▯ Search for the ENGRAM (Memory trace) with Planaria 1962 Form a new memory something has to be recorded What way is new memory stored? Memory is distributed throughout the body o Planaria grows new head and tail both end up with 2 organisms- both would turn right o Similar nervous system to us ▯ Old idea- DNA stores genetic; RNA stores memory– (wrong) ▯ Eric Kandel’s work with Aplysia (sea slug) 1989 Very big neurons and same neurotransmitters as humans Kandel uses sea slug wins Nobel prize Trained slugs with shocking them ▯ Memory involves gene expression Cells differentiate o continues until adulthood then stops (what they used to think) Discovered- memory not in RNA it was in turning on and off of genes ▯ Thus both learning & memory are extensions of the developmental process. In all other cell types development is finished by about age 12. In neurons developmental differentiation continues across the lifespan. ▯ ▯ ▯ I. Historical Theories of Motivation old topic in psychology (what motivates us to do what we do) why do we do what we do? Internal motivational systems (hunger, tiredness, thirst) Biological motivation (too much focus); more interested in social ▯ A. Instinct Theory (Evolutionary Theory) were popular in biology tempting to say things by instinct vs. learning the behavior robin builds robin’s nest- have to grow up in nest to build a nest maternal instincts- do something because of the instinct- cant explain cause- logic is circular- instinct not useful to study ▯ Freud's instincts: Eros (life instinct) and Thanatos (death instinct) ▯ Eros= all good things (sex, poetry); Thanatos= all bad things ▯ B. Drive Theories (Drive Reduction Theory) ▯ motivational theory evolution puts feeling in your body- not thought in your head many drives- (need to control)- but if everything we did is motivated by negative drive then the person would want nothing, needing nothing and do nothing (happy person not happy) ▯ C. Arousal Theory = Optimal Level Theory want optimal level of stimulation (arousal) ▯ (Yerkes-Dodson Law) ▯ anxiety isn’t bad; use anxiety to motivate- balance curves depend on task (easy or hard) ▯ D. Humanistic Theory (Maslow, 1970) ▯ Most psychologist focused on metal illness; Maslow looked for most successful and why they were successful All people are motivated to meet their full potential (self actualization) but get stopped along the way by negativity by important people Everyone starts out focused on meeting basic needs (food), then safety needs, then about others, then if people like them Renaissance man- succeeding at many things o Might seem as someone who is self activating but seems to have it all together on the outside (Oprah) Once basic needs met can go on and do other things Most people have had 1-many peak experiences Peak experience- moment of intense/incredible focus; time may seem to slow down; possibly a moment of oneness with the universe ▯ E. Social Learning Theory. ▯ Our motivations are taught to us socially (observational learning) Motivated by someone to do something Most of motivation done socially Didn’t create something on your own taught to us by someone o Why we don’t need as many instinct or drive theories o ▯ I. Personality: Scientific study of stable characteristics that differentiate people ▯ Not mood- stable (traits) ▯ A. Trait/State distinction ▯ Trait- internal factors- stable ▯ State- at the moment ▯ Personality Social Psychology ▯ Trait State ▯ Internal External ▯ Stable Unstable ▯ Typical Situational External characteristics- depends on situations Internal characteristics- depends on nature and nurture Work together social and personality psychologists ▯ B. Early attempts: ▯ 1. Astrology: allusion, zodiac signs, personality in the stars ▯ - Naïve: abandoned once they understood how the universe really worked ▯ - Theory conserverance: bias- search for data that supports bias and disregards conflicting data ▯ - Ecliptic: zodiac signs on this line ▯ 2. Phrenology: personality in your head ▯ - Bumps in head measure personality (not useful for ideas; but got us mapping the brain) ▯ 3. Somatotypes: body type determines personality ▯ Ectomorph: thin person (rigid) ▯ Mesomorph: muscular- not to skinny or fat ▯ Endomorph: obese (jolly) ▯ Rated on 3 scales of 1-7 (actually 7x7x7 scores)- not useful ▯ 4. Palm reading ▯ 5. Graphology ▯ ▯ II. Psychoanalytical Approach (Psychodynamic) ▯ A. Freud (Brief History) Born (1856) civil war ; died 1939) Raised in Vienna Austria, during WW2 moved, Jewish He was already world famous- allowed to leave go to London Died of Cancer- some type of mouth cancer (tobacco use) o Throughout this still writing Neurologist originally- realized problems were psychological ▯ 1. The structure of Personality personality like an iceberg (like an iceberg vast majority is underwater- can’t see it) ▯ a.) ID guided by (Pleasure Principle) first part of personality (babies only have this) want what they need don’t care about anything else animal side of you only cares about itself ▯ b.) Ego shaped by (Reality Principle) ▯ c.) Superego guided by (Morality Principle) ex. Man walking down the street with wife sees beautiful woman walking down the street ID says go for it ego says no don’t do it- consequences superego- I’m not interested in other women I love my life o Freud would say repressing ▯ 2. The (Ego) Defense Mechanisms constant conflict with each other defense mechanism from the ID ▯ - Repression: pushing into unconscious awareness unwanted thoughts or feelings Rationalization: where you seek a better explanation for something you’ve done (behavior you don’t feel comfortable about) Projection: imagine your thoughts and feelings belong to someone else o ex. walking past things in a store “wouldn’t you love that watch” in reality you want it though Displacement: shifting blame from true source of problem to a safer target o Ex. Mad at boss take out on someone else (most displaced aggression) ; wanted to get married got dumped meet someone new get married- rebound (displaced love) Regression: going back to previous states (infancy) o Ex. Talking like a baby (whining) (define reactance): doing the opposite of what someone tells you to do in order to maintain the illusion of independence Reaction Formation: Doing the opposite of natural impulses from some type of reaction from unconscious urges o Ex. Most passionate anti homosexuals are actually homosexuals in denial Denial: refusing to accept/admit you have a particular impulse o Ex. Easier to see small faults in someone else than huge faults in yourself Sublimation: converting primitive impulses into socially acceptable behaviors o How you transfer these urges o Freud said no culture without sublimation- all have aggressive and sexual instincts ▯ 3. Psychosexual Development sexuality emerges when you’re born ▯ 1) Oral (0-2) Oral Fixations can have too much or too little breast feeding baby sucks onto finger as soon as it’s born always putting something in their mouth- how they explore the world oral fixation resort from too much or too little breast feeding- person could talk too much; eat too much; drink too much ▯ 2) Anal (2-3) toilet training ▯ Anal Retentive- obsessed with rules order: today= OCD Can be obsessively neat or messy o Freud said toilet training could lead to OCD (not true) ▯ Anal Expulsive- excessively messy ▯ 3) Phallic (3-7) stage where boys and girls begin to realize there is a difference; ask questions phallic symbols- Washington Monument ▯ - Greek Tragedy reference- kills father and marries mother- bases ideas of… ▯ Oedipus Complex- Little boys strongly attached to mother see father as threat Freud though homosexuality was the result of never growing out of Oedipus complex ▯ Electra Complex- little girls strongly attached to father see mother as a threat (Penis Envy)- Freud thought when little girl saw little brother had penis and she didn’t have one was envious and wanted one ▯ 4) Latency (7- Puberty)- non stage Kids figured it out stopped worrying about it ▯ 5) Genital: emergence of true sexuality ▯ ▯ B. Carl Jung founded the School of “Analytical Psychology” ▯ - Swiss psychologist- Freudian- college of Freud but disagreed with him ▯ 1. Collective Unconscious said collective unconscious mind represents ancestral past not genetics ▯ a) Archetypes – elements of the unconscious mind- preconceived ideas (witch- broom, old, wears black; hero- cape) if you write a story that could tap into collective unconscious mind will be successful (ex. Star Wars, Harry Potter) b) Mandala- circular/symmetrical image typically done with sand, very detailed ▯ ▯ Jung said Mandalas are very appealing to the eye because of symmetrical nature- can be woven into blankets, etc. These designs represent finding other half ▯ c) Anima- feminine side in every person ▯ d) Animus- masculine side in every person ▯ C. Erik Erikson founded the school of Psychosocial Development ▯ Disagreed with Freud Agreed that psychosexual development was important like Freud but said psychosocial was more important ▯ ▯ III. Behavioral Model of Personality says ▯ (phobias are all learned) Personality is Learned through: ▯ A. Classical Conditioning ▯ B. Operant Conditioning ▯ C. Observational (social) Learning ▯ ▯ IV. Humanistic Models of Personality ▯ A. Carl Rogers (2 big ideas) Was 1 leading psychologist where psychiatrist worked for him ▯ 1.) Unconditional Positive Regard (unconditional love) said if you are raised with unconditional love you are more likely to reach your goals vs. conditional love o kid says to teacher- I know you must hate me because I got a D on my test focus on behavior not person ▯ 2.) Active Listening: ▯ We make 5 Common responses to hearing something emotional communications: -Reflect* : most useful (another word for active listening) -Evaluate -Interpret -Reassure -Probe (questioning) Ex. Friends bf leaves her Says actively listening is the best thing to do B. Abraham Maslow (Self Actualization) V. Biology affects personality ▯ There’s lots of evidence ▯ 1. Breeding animals can breed animals to have certain personality traits; suggests can do it with humans ▯ 2. Gender differences different genders have different personalities men are more aggressive than women (testosterone levels) women tend to be more nurturing ▯ 3. Drug induced changes ex. People can be happier or angry when drunk drugs can change personality ▯ 4. Jerome Kagen (shyness) said by watching a baby react to a stimulus (ex. Baby mobile) can tell if that child will grow up to be shy or outgoing o babies who kick their legs and get excited to baby mobile will be shy o babies who get scared or just sit there will be outgoing o most of us are somewhere in the middle personality is a combination of genetics and nature vs. nurture ▯ 5. Identical Twin studies in 1940s did studies on twins at birth to see if personality was based on genetics or environment who were separated ▯ religiosity has genetic component separated twins seemed to be similar when reunited discovered personality was based on a combination of genes (70%) and environment (30%) still not exactly sure on % (but largely genes over environment) ▯ ▯ VI. The Measurement of Personality A. Objective tests: scored with an answer key so anyone can take ▯ 1. MMPI-2- (Minnesota Multiphasic personality inventory) developed in the 1940s take 10 tests (subscales- ex. Depression, schizophrenia) get a graph that tells you something about your personality (illness) not for everyday people or finding jobs Clinical test: used to diagnose mental illnesses ▯ 2. 16-PF – (16-personality factors) used more everyday to discover personality traits 16 subscales (tests) to get a graph telling you about your personality – turn graph into paragraph (how enthusiastic you are, how self-disciplined, conservative, shy, etc.) hard to fake this test if you are crazy trying to act normal ▯ 3. MCMI (Ted Millon) – Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory created by Ted Millon- went to UM biggest competitor of MMPI more modern ▯ 4. NEO-PI (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Personality Inventory…… Agreeableness & Conscientiousness) 5 of them ▯ B. Projective tests (Ambiguity) Based on Freud’s theory of projection Projective hypothesis: when a person interprets an ambiguous stimulant what they see reveals the unconscious mind ▯ 1. Rorschach- free association with ink blob Swiss psychologist- dropped ink on paper folded it in half (showed it to people) had to have various people see different things No wrong answers- just use info from mind to further conversation ▯ 2. TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)- see pictures of people and ask what’s going on/what’s happening see themes and pictures make sense of them ▯ 3. Incomplete sentence (blank) finish the sentence as quickly as you can o ex. I wish I had ____ one person fills in blanks relating to grades, family, etc. use to talk ▯ 4. Word Association reads a list of words and you say first word pops into your mind ex. Tree- associated with bush but if someone says mother then.. ▯ 5. Draw-a-Picture more associated with children (ask kids what they drew- figure out why drawn certain way) ▯ C. Research measures ▯ ▯ 1. Type A/B ▯ Type A- always in a hurry (time urgency) typically angry (people not moving fast enough for them.. lines.. traffic); workaholic (pushing too hard) ▯ (A= Coronary (more likely to have heart attack) Prone Personality) constant state of anger causing heart attacks more than time urgency ▯ Type B- absence of time urgency (Not lazy bums though) Plans with a deadline but not stressed over it in the same way (can be equally successful) ▯ 2. Internal/External locus of control ▯ I ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- E ▯ Internal (Are you in control) External (others are in control) ▯ Takes charge Blames others/word cant change situations ▯ Internal locus of control by far the better characteristic to have- regardless of situation can find someway to maintain control of situations ▯ ▯ 3. Optimism/Pessimism scale of optimism or pessimism (optimism better way of life) optimism caused by parents especially mother ▯ ▯ 4. Need for Achievement some have higher need for achievement than others (tested with TAT) (Nach) higher need for achievement- achieve more (shaped by parents, role models) ▯ I. Intelligence= Ability to learn from and adapt to the environment Our ability to learn things (personality trait central to who we are) ▯ Don’t confuse knowledge (what you make of what you learn) vs. intelligence (ability to learn) Evolution vs. intelligent creator ▯ II. History of Intelligence (not in text) ▯ A. Darwin’s Origin of the Species 1859 Beginning of intelligence Individual differences in any gene pool nature selects ▯ B. Sir Francis Galton’s Anthropometric Lab in London 1884 Set about collecting differences (testing people- especially families) Mestured eyesight, memory, weight, height 1 person who attempted to measure intelligence differences in people- do in fact run in families ▯ C. Alfred Binet in Paris developed Binet-Simon Scale 1905 Developed more modern intelligent test (still around today) Wealthy didn’t have to work trained as doctor- trying to measure differences in intelligence in Paris Schools overcrowded- students not learning- didn’t have resources minister wanted to separate kids who could learn vs. kids who couldn’t (created special education) Binet made test- given 1 on 1: 30 questions; went from easy to hard; given to kids age 3-11; graphed distribution (age norms) ▯ D. Lewis Terman Stanford-Binet IntelligenceScale. 1916 Brought Benet test to states Renamed several times Age norms Still widely used One on one test IQ- intelligence quotient: mental age over the chronological age o 12(mental age)/ 10 (actual age)X100 o set average IQ at 100 o kid who has high IQ when their young decreases when they get older- makes no sense to talk about older people functioning as older o don’t use mental iq use standard deviation ▯ E. Army Alpha and Beta 1917 Created during war (needed group administered test) Messed up- average American male was a moron A lot of soldiers could not read; and testing conditions were not good Test giver readers directions out loud and person follows directions o Fill in pictures (what’s missing) ▯ F. David Wechsler published Wechsler scale. 1939 Created for publishing the Wechsler scale of intelligence Have pictures that you have to organize Lead to 3 tests ▯ WAIS-R (age16 and up) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale ▯ WISC-III (age 6-16) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Hard to interpret test when your younger but higher IQ ▯ WPPSI (age4-6): Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Kindergarten and first grade ▯ Most widely used tests ▯ ▯ III. Measurement of intelligence (Psychometrics- measurement) ▯ A. Reliability (Consistency)- doesn’t have to be right; could be consistently wrong Measure tests should be stable; intelligence-doesn’t very often ▯ 1. test-retest have students take test grade it; wait a week take same test grade it again- get correlation (r=.90) problem: could be sick one day and not the other o give tests to large group (hundreds) people do on going reliability tests- correlation goes down overtime ▯ 2. split-half (internal consistency) test with 60 questions- separate odd and even questions o correlation on odd and evens should be about the same- strong correlation (r= .80) should learn much more than test- test is just a sample ▯ Reliability is necessary but not sufficient for Validity Have to establish reliability but then it must be validated so that it is accurate ▯ B. Validity (Accuracy) ▯ Can question validity of item- if it’s related to the test ▯ Compare one test to a different well known measure- to determine validity ▯ 1. Content (Face, Item analysis) look at item analysis (test analysis easy vs. hard) positive correlation for hard question (correlation btwn “A” students getting the harder questions right) can look at individual items and get content value ▯ 2. Criterion ( Predictive, Concurrent) test suppost to predict how kids would do in college; wait and then measure grades in college to see correlation if don’t want to wait- concurrent- you correlate the test with something currently available (such as highschool gpa) ▯ 3. Construct measure physical property (height) no debate in psych not measuring physical properties but measure constructs (intelligence, personality, etc.) must determine the validity of what is on an intelligence test (what should be included; math, reading, what should be used to test intelligence) ▯ C. Standardization (exact testing conditions) ▯ Everyone took under the exact same testing conditions (SATS, GRE, other Intelligence Tests) –good lighting, AC, spacing- all standardized ▯ 1. same directions- read verbatim ▯ 2. same time limits ▯ 3. same testing conditions compare you to everyone else- only fair to compare if testing with all the same conditions Sometimes special accommodations to level playing field with those with disabilities- but contradicts concept ▯ ▯ IV. Theories of Intelligence ▯ Don’t really believe in single simple IQ number to test intelligence (overall assessment) but isn’t exact representation of intelligence… not that simple ▯ ▯ A. Charles Spearman’s 2 Factor Theory (s and g) ▯ General intelligence made up of many specific abilities 1 factor g- analogous to IQ- general intelligence score s- many specific abilities ▯ B. Thurstone’s 7 Primary Mental Abilities ▯ 1. Verbal Comprehension 2. Word Fluency ▯ 3. Number Ability 4. Spatial Ability ▯ 5. Associative Memory 6. Perceptual Speed ▯ 7. General Reasoning Ability C. J.P. Guilford’s Three Factor Structure of the Intellect (5 Contents x 6 Products x 6 Operations = 180 abilities) ▯ ex of ability. hearing notes on piano and being able to write notes ▯ D. Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences ▯ (Linguistic, Logical-Mathematical, Spatial, ▯ new tests of intelligence ▯ Musical ▯ Bodily Kinesthetic (bodily intelligence; athletic ability) ▯ Interpersonal (between people- relationships with others) ▯ Intrapersonal (ability to know yourself) ▯ Naturalistic (cooking abilities, medicine people- acupuncture (Dr. Shao); memory and knowledge for natural world around them ▯ ▯ V. Controversies ▯ Late woe be gone- imaginary- thinks every kid is above average ▯ People don’t want kids to be avg. or below avg. leads to controversies ▯ A. Nature/Nurture (50/50?? People liked that but not true) ▯ To what extent our mental abilities is due to genetics or to your environment ▯ 1. Arthur Jensen – (80/20) said 80% of intelligence was genetic- offensive said no point in head start programs or need for special ed. because genetically inferior ▯ 2. The Bell Curve, 1994 (60/40) both authors equally as offensive that raised controversies saying not provide extra help to those with lower intelligence ▯ B. Test Bias Group differences tell us nothing about individual performance People are still going to get different results based on groups (genetics not acceptable reason- explained by income- socioeconomic; generalizations) ▯ 1. Culture free or Culture fair tests- going to have different cultures do better on different test; depends on who made test; People in 60’s attempted to find test bias and remove questions that could’ve been considered bias ▯ 2. Bias = differential predictive validity different predictive validity coefficient- R lines of regression ▯ ▯ ▯ C. Current Term for Low IQ ▯ Technical term is no longer retarded- intellectual disability.
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