APK3110c - Exam 2 Bundle
APK3110c - Exam 2 Bundle APK3110c
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Date Created: 12/07/15
Lecture 1 Notes Exercise Physiology 82715 Metabolism the process of breaking down the foodenergy you consume catabolic process when you take fuels that store energy and break it down releasing the energy to produce work AND taking energy from things we consume or things we have in the body to build something new anabolic process taking energy creating new proteins reassembling amino acids to make proteins l muscle repair o Is the sum total of these two processes catabolic and anabolic Energy the capacity to do work Work the process where we are able to exert force over a distance doesn t always have to be physical Forms of Energv Heat Energy comes from the sun formation or breaking down bonds metabolizing fuels Ex walking around campus you feel heat not only from the sun but also metabolizing fuels 0 Chemical Energy Food that we consume that stores energy CC bonds CP bonds when broken down produce energy Example Glucose Nuclear Energy Comes from the sun light energy or solar energy 0 Mechanical Energy potential and kinetic energy storedmechanical energy the potential to do work allows the muscles to contract 0 Electrical Energy electrical center that comes from higher centers that tells your heart to beat nerve impulses to allow you to move your ngers 0 Transformation of Energy ALL FORMS OF ENERGY ARE INTERCONVERTABLE Exercise Physiology matter of transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy Energy Diagram 0 Nuclear Energy comes from the sun translates to Solar Energy which then translates to UV Light or Light Energy 0 On this Earth we have plants water etc The light energy sheds its rays upon plants and creates Chemical Energy 0 In the consumption of foods we are able to take in Chemical Energy which is then stored in the form of carbs fats and proteins in the body 0 We then break it down using Mechanical Energy Lecture 1 Notes Exercise Physiology 82715 Photosynthesis occurs and produces oxygen With the help of stored foods and oxygen we can do things ex metabolize do work etc 0 Doing work then results in taking chemical energy and transforming it into mechanical energy allowing us to perform some effort with the presence of oxygen With doing this we produce carbon dioxide and water 0 C02 then allows plants to make more fuels and make more oxygen Nuclear Energy sun l Solar 39 Light Sheds rays across plants 39 Chemical plants A b coz V Mechanical 4 CH0 02 FAT PROTEIN A V us gt WORK ATP Adenosine Pi Pi Pi triphosphate The energy stored in these bonds can be drawn upon to do work 0 When we hydrolyze this ATP reversible reaction we get ATPase ATP lt gt ADP Pi Energy allows work Took the chemical energy in ATP released it converted it into mechanical energy WORK some heat energy is released as a result of this Lecture 1 Notes Exercise Physiology 82715 ATP is produced in the mitochondria powerhouse of the cell l where we can produce vast amounts energy but requires oxygen to do that doesn t need oxygen to be degraded or hydrolyzed anaerobic process reaction is one simple step occurs very quickly Myosin ATPase helps with providing a substantial amount of energy immediately and helping it all to occur in one step ATP is locatedstored in the cytoplasm of the cell close proximity to the myo laments contractile proteins that allows the muscle to contract some small amount is produced in the krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondria anaerobic provides energy quickly but doesn t sustain it for long close proximity needs oxygen to replenish it Don t have that much ATP lasts for 23 secs other energy storage forms donate energy since ATP doesn t last very long Creatine Pi creatine phosphate When we hydrolyze ATP we create energy phosphorous ow and we create ADP The cells monitor the ratio of ATP to ADP CK is regulated by CK the ADPATP ratio Creatine Pilt gt Cr Pi Energy When the ADP levels get high or ATPADP ratio gets out of whack the system knows very quickly there is a demand for energy so creatine kinase enzyme is activated breaking the bonds between Cr and Pi creating more energy allows us to perform another several seconds of work this energy is then involved in muscle contraction ATP and CP are used for immediate energy systems Cr Pi like ATP is also stored in close proximity to contractile elements lts another simple one step reaction and anaerobic in nature But there really isn t enough Cr Pi either Coupled with ATP you can probably get only a hard maximum 12 sec of effort 1 Mammy modulation Lecture 1 Notes Exercise Physiology 82715 Both sources of CP and ATP r run out of energy pretty fast ATP slime m l But a combination of the mm 5yfmquotl two helps us form an amazing array of efforts such as sprinting or powerlifting E seat 11153 E miin E hrs Primary Concern How can we replenish ATP Chemical energy being converted into mechanical energy in the form of work in the muscles has to come from the derogation of ATP Anaerobic Glycolysis Lactic Acid System occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell because anaerobic Glycolysis breaking down glucose to make more ATP don t need oxygen to do that o 2 places to draw glucose from Liver glycogen stored to maintain blood glucose and Muscle can be taken into the muscle cell and subjected to the glycolytic process 0 Every molecule of glucose from the blood going into the cells cost about 1 ATP The glucose will then be stored as glycogen The glycogen stored in the liver can then be released into the bloodstream and travel to other tissues that need it 0 But glucose from the muscle is different lts already there and has been paid for to get it across the cell in ATPs It will then be stored in the cell as glycogen Once it s in there it cannot get back out because there is no enzyme to help It is then used for metabolic processes that occur in the muscle Glu Glu Glu Glu Say we break this bond we then start to engage in the Anaerobic Glu Glu Processes 0 Then goes through a series of steps to result in pyruvate Lecture 1 Notes Exercise Physiology 82715 0 Glycogenolysis carving off one monomer glucose 6 C in length at a time Anaerobic Glycolysis end product lactic acid 0 Took a 6 carbon molecule and cleaved it in half to form a 3 carbon molecule 0 Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell 0 Primary concern To take whatever substrate we have available that enables us to continue to perform work in a long term basis to release energy so we can take that energy from the derogation of this 1 mole of glucose to allow ADP and Pi to be coupled to form ATP 1 mol 2 mol ATP Glucose Lactate 6 C Mg 3 C gt High Energy Energy State PFK inducible enzyme to increase or reduce reactivity of the enzyme Gatekeeper enzyme if you don t instigate its actions or don t have enough of the ingredients it could inhibit the glycolytic process 0 Key enzyme in the whole process 0 Levels of ADP PH etc act on the enzyme to turn reaction on or off If we don t have the availability of oxygen anaerobic the NADH is used to reduce the pyruvate to then create lactic acid l Acids interfere with the PH balance Occurs in the CYTOPLASM of the cell 1 ATP Blood Glycogen ATP n ADP I 6 c Glucose gt Glucose6Phosphate Entry point into the glycolytic pathway When we are functioning I anaerobical y this DOES NOT occur Wher you are doing an V all out inte se run you are not Fructose6 Phosphate 391 ATP drawing glu ose from the blood PFK V ATP I ADP ONLY when ou shift to more aerobic Lecture 1 Notes Exercise Physiology 82715 type work that this occurs Fructose 16 Diphosphate Phosphorous on the I 1st and 3rd C V 3Phosphoglyceraldehyde Phosphate on the 3rd C of 2 3C molecules OxidationReduction reaction I I NAD I NADH V V 13 Diphosphoglycerate I I ADP ATP 2 V V I 3 Phosphoglycerate One Phosphorus has been removed V V Phosphoenolpyruvate I I ADP n ATP f3 END PRODUCT Pyruvate I I I NADH Lactic Acid If the blood transfers in the glucose it will cost 1 ATP so the total would then be 2 ATP Lecture 2 Notes Exercise Physiology 83115 What s available right away AT P CP 39 Fuel can be available under extreme immediate conditions can be exhausted in a few minutes 39 The glycogen stored in the muscle will be used in the muscle can be depleted b c the glycogen is going to only be used in the muscle can t be taken anywhere else in the body Glycolysis 39 Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell 1 mol 6C degraded until we have 2 3C molecules 39 in the two reactions NADNADH is a transporter in the ETC used in oxidation acceptors reduction donors reactions this is what happens when we have proficiencies of oxygen when oxygen is abundant different events occur 39 Almost all steps are reversible Carbohydrate Metabolism Glycolysis breaking down glucose can get it from glycogen stores We can also get glucose from the blood but only in AEROBlC conditions NOT under ANAEROBlC conditions doesn t happen quickly don t normally depend on blood as a source of fuel so NOT immediate 39 importance of glycogen stores in the muscle 0 If you run out of glycogen stores before you are able to do anything then you have ran out of energl and you are exhausted o Lactic Acid changes the PH 9 cell usually functions under a ne range PH and if you disrupt that range cell doesn t work as ef ciently I Lactic Acid coupled with running out glucose fuel 9 you will start to walk NO longer at an intense pace Tremendous benefits from the glycolytic process when oxygen is available 0 3 ATP from Anaerobic Glycolysis don t have to have oxygen to get ATP through the process but because of this there is a little bit of lag time in terms of minutes biochemical and circulatory takes time to get through the whole process 39 An interesting thing about Aerobic glycolysis is that pyruvate doesn t produce lactic acid 0 Pyruvate will go into the mitochondrial membrane 0 Couple events occur 1 Remove a carbon consume oxygen to give off carbon dioxide photosynthetic process and that s where the carbon goes Acetate with coenzyme A to produce Acetyl CoA so the 3C pyruvate is converted to a 2C acetate which couples with coenzyme A to form Acetyl CoA 39 Krebs Cycle Acetic Acid CyclePCA Cycle 0 You take the 2C molecule and chemically attach it to a 46 molecule 0AA to make a 6C molecule citric acid9 high energy state O 0 Lecture 2 Mates Exercise Physiology 83115 in the Krebs cycle we will take the 6C compound reconfigure it pull some electrons off cut off carbons until we end up with 0AA or a 4C compound Beginning of Krebs take Acetyl CoA and couple it with citric acid Alphaaketoglutarate is no longer a 6C molecule its now a 5G molecule which means that we have removed 1C and that C is let off as C02 NAD then comes in and takes off another electron and AK G is oxidized to Succinate Acid 4C compound once again we removed a C last C we will remove When you break off the last C we get a release of energy in the form of 1 GTP that is the same as ATP energy that we can use to contract muscles Bevitamins involves in creating energy 9 FAD Riboflavin NAD Niocin For every 6C compound G6P we get 2 ATP from the Krebs cycle compared to glycolysis starting with glycogen gets us 3 ATP Electron Transport Chain System Respiratory Chain how we produce energy in the mitochondria each electrons is transported to the ETC 0 Need oxygen for this to effectively work 0 Ex Like a waterfall You can watch the beauty of the waterfall and it FAD 2 ATP NAD 3 ATP looks great but that s all it is But if you figure out a way to fUnnel water through a channel something like a tube and if something inside the tube rotates and churns the water you can generate power electricity So when the water falls over the waterfall and if you harness it properly you will generate energy This is essentially what is happening here You take the electrons and you take it to the top of the falls and it falls over and goes through specific chemical channels that release energy to form ATP Krebs 30 ATP Aerobic ll Glycolysis f 9 ATP 39 ATP FAD comes in a little later and misses the first set of reactions This is why it produces less ATP The electrons transferred by NADH when oxygen is available no longer oxidizes pyruvate with lactate These electrons are taken into the mitochondria and they too will produce 6 more ATP Lecture 2 Notes Exercise Physiiol cgy 83115 P9 Ua39fe 5C 1 gmp r NAD N A ETC NA DH 0 2y 7 ARON oH ric NAB 0 ETCquot 514 PM i c Aquot i 1 Icoci m Acid Ho nTP f NA D 1 E r c K QNADH 0AA ZATP FAD f 4W39suwnw Acid MW lg aL Kef39balul39araj39e 7 C 50 2 1 r e l L gt ATP Jr 3 V201 ATP 1 H LD m Triglyceride FA cm 439 FA Cacti J L aw Jr 4quot HDH Q lEE 1 NA D i 1 4a NADH 9E g cm 9 H man an Acciyl coA 2c Total 12 Krebs 5 Beta oxidation 2 17 ATP CCIl snm CCID a Hmong M39P Lecture 2 Notes Exercise Physiology 83115 FAs come in all different lengths 4C 1 8C etc and these FA will chemically couple with glycerol to form a triglyceride There are times when we can only form a monoglyceride 1 FA or a diglyceride 2 FA Consume fat in the form of triglycerides digest them absorbed from the small intestine into the intestinal membrane where we reassembled them as triglycerides and then we take them into the body where they are transported in the form of chylomicrons then eventually used for energy or stored in the form of triglycerol for later use in adipocytes The conditions have to be perfect for fat to be used as an energy source Fats do supply energy as quickly or as well as glucose there is going to be a lag time chemical and circulatory you ve got the first trigger of releasing the fat by activating the enzyme lipase to tell the adipocyte to break down these fats triglyceride diglyeride release of the FA FA is then transported through the blood to the cells doing the work taken up into the cell by a series of chemical reactions taken into the mitochondria where oxygen has to be available FA CANNOT be used under ANAEROBlC CONDITlONS Once you get it into the mitochondria it goes through a series ofchemical reactions beta oxidation fatty acid oxidation like glycolysis Glycolysis degrades glucose from a highenergy state to a low energy state Fatty Acid synthesis is pretty much the same a By taking this activated FA 16C and taking it through these reactions removing the electrons 9 Already reduced the potential for 5 ATP C16 becomes a C14 cleaved off two C The C2 that is cleaved off is called acetate couples with coenzyme A making Acetyl CoA 0 So this is what happens when 2 C are cleaved off C169C14 plus acetate 39 17 ATP from taking C16 and removing 21 C 0 When starting with C16 cleaved off 2 C the C114 goes back through again starts over again yielding another 17 ATP etc keeps going for a total of about 145 ATP Takes a while to trigger the whole process to use fat as a fuel you re probably looking at minimally 15 minutes and the conditions have to be perfect Lecture 2 Notes Exercise Physiology 83115 What conditions may inhibit fat from being an important source of energy Takes time 2 Oxygen has to be available in proper amounts 3 Intensity of ones effort the more intense the effort that more the body will depend on PA as a substrate the more intense the effort the more lactate you produce lactic acid inhibits the mobilization of FA synthesis 39 individuals use FA up to 50 of maximal oxygen consumption amount of oxygen you consume when you are preforming work for an extended amount of time9 gets less the more intense you get intensity plays a role in addition to duration 39 At heavy intensities the body will NOT use fat you will burn calories COMPARISON BETWEEN CARBOHYDRATES AND FATS GHQ V W FAT 7 7 7 quot0 D lFFERENCE Per carbon atom r ATP 82 ATP 30 greater in fat 7 Per unit weight if ltcal 7 9 lgcal 2x greater in fatm 1 Total stores Limited Abundant amount 7 a 7 7 ATP per unit of l 6 moles 02 26 moles 02 CHO 12 more 02 consumed 3 38 or 39 ATP 3 147 ATP efficient when we 3 are based on limited 7 amounts of QZ 39 Protein can provide energy but it really isn t really used as an energy source b c it is very expensive to use and replace 9 will be used under extreme conditions such as starvation So usually when we talk about substrates we talk about carbohydrates and fat 0 FAT is the better fuel You begin to do more energy when you start to use fat as a fuel When you train the body aerobically your body shifts to using fat as much as it can under the natural conditions 0 Fats burn in a carbohydrates flamequot so carbs are necessary to produce the reducing equivalents that we find necessary to go through the Krebs cycle As long as we have the carbohydrates then we can burn the fat If you run out of those reducing equivalents then you burn less fat 0 The amount of fat you have grossly outweighs the amount of carbohydrates you have in the body even in the skinniest and leanest people 39 When we are dependent on limited amount of oxygen ClID are more efficient o This would be important during endurance because when you are doing endurance type activities you are depending more on oxygen consumption Lecture 2 Notes Exercise Physiology 83115 0 When you are working at your max levels oxygen is limited so you would rather use a fuel that is using the least amount of oxygen possible 9 CHO 39 Respiratory Quotient RQ VCOZ V02 Volume C02 producedVolume OZ consumed V norm 2 070 RQCI lO 100 l3rotein isn t used as a respiratory fuel When you preform work you consume oxygen especially in endurance worli And the process that s doing the work transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy you produce i002 39 RQ tells you how intense the exercise is because of how much C02 is produced Because the more intense the exercise the more C102 you produce Even though the more intense the exercise the more 02 you will consume So we can measure this in the body lay putting sensors on the cell to measure how much 02 is coming out and how much 02 is going in We can do that but we usually don t Respiratory Exchange Ratio RER or R measure gases that you inhale or exhale from the lungs collect those gases in bagsballoons and run them through an analyzer that tells us exactly how much 02 you consumed and how much C02 has been produced 0 lust as accurate as going into the cell 0 When you are operating at 50 your body is using some mixture of CH0 and Fats 139 But the more intense the effort the more ofa contributor CHO becomes and the less of a contributor FAT becomes 39 if you intend to burn fat you need to do it with consideration of mobilizing fat and intensity needs to be there as well Lecture 3 Notes Exercise Physiology 9415 RQ Volume of 02 produced Volume of 02 consumed RQPROTElN e 085 RQCHO 100 no FAT 070 39 We don t worry about protein as much because it is not a primary fuel As we get closer and closer to the maximal oxygen consumption the higher the RQ becomes 39 Rest using a mixture of fuels 9 ex measuring the RQ at rest and coming up with 082 you can actually determined the percentage of C atoms producing energy from carbohydrates vs fats 0 Can actually calculate the energy you are V02 deriving from each source by knowing what the RQ is at any point Eventually you will get to the point where you are using carbs and only carbs 9 bc it doesn t require as much oxygen to degrade carbs 0 When you are working at intense levels with N0 oxygen 9 you need a fuel that isn t dependent on oxygen the most ef cient fuel The body makes these adjustments for you 0 Body uses fats at lower intensities of effort The higher the intensity the body knows that it will have a harder time picking up oxygen from the mitochondria so we switch to a more efficient fuel under those circumstances9 carbohydrates more carbs and less fats o The more intense the effort in glycolysis the body always produces some lactic acid But it gets to a point where the body produces more lactate than the body can handle I The more intensity9 produces more lactate9 more lactate in the blood9 inhibits the mobilization of FA in the body You use some protein even when you are at rest Maybe 5 of your energy is coming from protein just sitting there 0 The amount of protein is new 7 ll 77 ibleat rest o However when you exercise the alanine and glutamine AA levels rise in the blood I GlucoseAlanine cycle Alanine 9 pyruvate 9 LIVER 9 used to make new glucose gluconeogenesis 9 can be taken up by the various skeletal muscle tissue and used in the body I The more intense the exercise the greater the levels of alanine is released from the muscle Lecture 3 Notes Exercise Physiology 9415 I Protein extremely very important fuel under conditions of desperation when glycogen levels are depleted STARVA39l l DN o Glucose is the brains primary fuel source so we always need glucose in the blood so that we can survive Q So you take these AA that start as protein precursors in the liver to make new glucose 4 so you will use protein more predominantly for that reason I lsoleucine another AA can enter the Krebs cycle directly and produces energy under severe exercise conditions concentration is better in people that are untrained As a result of chronic training and when you become more conditioned you see the body start to depend more on proteins or AA 39 ATP is our energy currency 0 You take the chemical energy stored as ATP and you can turn it into work 0 Three sources that produce energy so it can be broken down into work 1 CP 2i Anaerobic Glycolysis 3 Aerobic Metabolism K ATP ADP Pi ENERGY gtWORK 39 Anaerobic Aerobic Glycolysis Metabolism CHO CHO Fat Protein CP Compare the rate of ATP produced in a given amount of time and max capacity of energy produced independently time NOT being a factor 1i ATP PC fastest allows it to occur almost instantaneously 3 moles 2 Lactic Acid System Anaerobic Glycolysis 16 moles 39 Maximum capacity of ATP produced 1L Aerobic Metabolism 100 moles of ATP capacityswise Anaerobic Glycolysis 12 moles 3 ATPPC system 07 moles 0 Comparing different levels of exercise work compare working at a maximal level of a very short duration to submaximal effert ofa longer duration usin rest as a point of reference looking at 3 important features food stuff metabolizel relative contribution of each pathway and the production of lactic acid HLF Lecture 3 Notes Exercise Physiology 9415 0 Short duration exhausted in 2 minutes maximum intensity sprinted as hard as you could ATPPC Anaerobic Glycolysis some aerobic contribution under this condition you will never ever just get aerobic metabolism supporting that 2 min worth of max intensity carbohydrates in the form of muscle glycogen will use the energy stored ATP very quickly you will use the energy stored in GP to make more ATP very quickly and you will depend on anaerobic glycolysis to provide energy that is released by the derogation of blood glucose from muscle glycogen also very quickly And as time goes on you will have a little more contribution from aerobic metabolism i The longer the event the more aerobic the event will be 0 Long duration exhausted in 60 minutes submaximal intensity DIDN T GD OVER 0 Rest point of reference Aerobic Glycolysis Beta oxidation using a mixture of all three fuels Cll0 protein plays a small amount and fat a mixture of AQUA60 fats vs carbs seems like there will be NO lactate produced but in reality there is some lactate being produced 10mg per 100 mi of blood always some leaking in the system so it does produce SD ME lactate 0 Role of the liver and the muscle glycogen 0 Muscle glycogen stored in the skeletal muscle serves as energetics in that muscle 0 Liver glycogen NOT necessarily from energetics it serves as maintaining blood glucose levels REST SHQRT DURATION MAX ENERYGY FAT CHO ATPPC and Cl l O glycogen Anaerobic some aerobic HLA 175 mgdl Absence of oxy is the main contribution Aerobic Metabolism l lLA 392 10 mgdl small amount UNTRAlNED INDIVIDUAL How much does the level of training effect the amount of lactic acid Lactic Acid vs Oxygen consumption Start off on a treadmill with a fairly light pace measure how much oxygen is being consumed during that pace and then drawn a blood sample to see how much lactate was produced rest do it again and again until you exhaust I Lactate levels climb a little bit not a lot until we get to about 40 45 our maximum then goes higher and higher after that 39 Point of anaerobiosis H LA Lecture 3 Notes Exercise Physiology 9415 You train according to your lactate consumption point and you can effectively train better based on what that is You are able to manage the lactate up until that point and some people manage it better than others 0 We have the ability to buffer the acids and at the FDA we monitored it until buffer capacityquot Accumulated more and more bc you increase the max amount of energy 0 And when you increase the max amount of energy you begin to depend on another source of fuel Can you train and improve it We will take measurements and then you will train for several months aerobically come back and measure again What is happening at the point of anaerobiosis it has shifted direct result of the conditioning you have gone through for buffering capacity mm Passive Recovery Active Recovery 39 How do we manage the lactate we produce when we begin to recover from the exercise Pedaled all out for 60 sec and at the end they either sat on the bike with their legs propped up passive while they had blood samples taken or kept pedaling slowly on the bike active 0 Active Recovery is better if you want to get rid of lactate faster Significant differences I Active is superior removing lactic acid from 39 the system I 7 Le a 3 exora ce 3 we cover do Why is Active better B c you are circulating more blood that can pass lactate from the blood away from this system away from the muscles involved and take the lactate away to other places Lecture 3 Notes Exercise Physiology 9415 oxygen that we quJd quot ha w it Red A aonrumd Oxygen De cit period during which the level of oxygen consumed is below the level to supply all the ATP needs for any speci c intensity of exercise 0 You would prefer to have oxygen but due to the intensity of the activity it is impossible b c it takes time What enables us to go from rest to max ATPPC Anaerobic Metabolism and some contribution from aerobic Will always be in deficit when you conduct a max effort Never provide Z W i r I r l 5 2 large amounts of oxygen to support the OXV G V E 0531ij 7 C hu n activity and you have to rely on MED W mui dog 7 39 anaerobic sources to do so U9 l m Blood Lactate levels are severe Lactate main contributor to exhaustion in muscle if if glycogen 1 H Lack of fuel Inhibits muscle a contraction FATIGUE Exercise Physiology Lecture 4 Notes 9815 Oxygen Deficit 39 Work green Aerobic System o How much oxygen you need consume to do the work 0 As the exercise extends in time your begin to provide more and more energy 0 We use some combination of fats and carbs to get from point A to point B to support Aerobic energy production 39 Rest bottom red line 1 ATP PC anaerobic glycolysis 0 Always doing some kind of work even at rest 39 Deficit blue what you can t provide 0 There is a difference between what you need to do the work and what you can actually provide 0 We just cannot engage in the aerobic system fast enough to do this kind of work right away 0 NEVER will be able to provide all the energy aerobically 0 Will ALWAYS be in Deficit the difference between oxygen you can consume and the amount you actually consume Start accumulating lactate when we are in de cit 9 depends on the intensity of the exercise so lactate amount varies Long duration submaximal effort last for 60 min 9 suggest that the deficit may in fact disappear during that long submaximal effort 9 which also 7 wed suggests that you should be able to provide the bulk of your energy from L05 7M a m AEROBlC METABOLISM W Mm e a h we K w d Anaerobic amenm 1 f l l T ATPPC and CHO glycogen l w W liLA 175 mgdl V 0 L What energy system is bein used to get from rest red line to work top of green 9 Anaerobic Glycolysis l I ATTP PC Anaerobic Metabolism g I LL LHLL l L l Lactate will be produced when we REST 7 TI 739 39 il are in deficit The more intense the 39 7 l quot 39 7 quot 7 effort the more lactate we will 3 g o a D accumulate Tim min Always start out with ATP and work to provide energy to replace ATP 0 ATP can be formed by breaking down CP so it will release its energy to reform Pi ADP 9 ATP which then can be hydrolyzed in the muscle so it can continue to contract 9 provides a shift towards anaerobic glycolysis Exercise Physiology Lecture 4i Notes 9815 I If the event is a longer amount submaximal you will see a great dependence of aerobic metabolism 39 Starts with Anaerobic glycolysis 9 Aerobic Glycolysis 9 Glucose from Glycogen 9 Glucose from the blood 510 FA from the cell into the mitochondria 1530 min 0 All based upon the intensity of the effort I Too intense9 provides lactic acid VjiiLactic acid inhibits the mobilization of W 7 The demand providing Anaerobic Metabolism to the fullest as quickly as you can while the supply isn t able to do it o Steady State Rate Heart boat will stay the same through your event until you start to work harder or increase the intensity I Biochemically and physiology meeting your demand I You can supply your energetic needs anaerobically to meet your needs aerobically Will have a crossover in terms of energy system predominance and that takes a little bit of time 9 usually 24 minutes l 00 quotV Q You can typically achieve a steady state of condition from 264 min 9 Aerobic 90 or Anaerobic 2 8W9 0 ATPPC Anaerobic Glycolysis 5 39 3 lonirillui39lol39l The longer the effort the greater the contribution of aerobic metabolism 39 The longer the effert the less P 7 r 7 WJ 7 contribution of anaerobic o J 110 secs T m in n metabolism I a 7 77 39 or y D m l Amara bl c Glynn lycus Start to depend less and less on anaerobic metabolism and more A vbl and more on aerobic metabolism 00 GF WW 9 jouiTl 0 A T f ATPPQ f f Exercise Physiology Lecture 4 Notes 9815 Recovery Period Exercise 9 Rest what is the transition from exercise and returning back to rest 0 What is happening metabolically through exercise 0 increasing energy needs used muscle glycogen some depleted so will try to replace later 0 Depleted muscle glycogen 0 Created lactic acid created through anaerobic means 0 ATPPC is depleted NOT replaced while in exercise ONLY happens in recovery 39 Remember reason from recovery metabolically and physically o Physically when you stop exercising your heart rate and breathing was high but in recovery it starts to slow down 0 Oxygen Debt Amount of oxygen consumed during recovery excluding the amount of oxygen which would have been consumed at rest during that same time i B c we have gone from point A to point B bc we equated lactate and depleted fuels you have a debt to pay to replace it Debt in the form of excess oxygen being consumed during recovery 9 EPOC o EPOC Excess Post Oxygen Consumption I 2 components in respect to oxygen debt 1 How long does it take to recover to get back to baseline 39 The time of recovery timeplace it takes to get back to the baseline 2 How much oxygen you consume during that time Oxygen consumed during recovery excluding the amount of oxygen which would ve been consumed during rest during that same time 0 Recovery how much oxygen you consume over and above that resting metabolic time 139 Relationship between the de cit and the debt occurred because you weren t able to supply what you need immediately b c it took 24 minutes to do that 0 Debt will always be larger than the de cit What you borrow from the bank will always be a larger amount than what you borrowed o Deficit ALWAYS to the left of the oxygen curve increase lI ions 9 increase lactate 9 Decrease muscle glycogen 399 Decrease ATPPC Exercise 0x7 7 wt 1 Exercise Physiology glzuxxsuwr Lecture 4 Notes X l 98 15 l O Excess oxygen consumed during this time is all for the purpose of l algae Debt reconciling the deficit V0 2 jansumod f i am OUM39 9F Even though you take some time to cons umd 0 E l39 get back to the baseline the amount 9 e rc 53 of oxygen you consume dramatically drops so it could look like the other line 7 i 9 The curve of oxygen debt drops off so a t dramatically because it replenishes Exercise 0 ReCouery lie S quickly 7 Wquot l TimPCWnc l 39 DMMAT C DROP Concentrate on the red line Exercised for 395 min Depleted ATP P levels from 25 mv kg of muscle to about 5 mvkg 399 Not unusual 0 Can t replace ATP PC can only make more of it to be used again Cannot replace its stores until the exercise is over and you are in recovery 3 By 30 see you have replaced about 80 ofy our ATPPC at 60 sec you have replaced about 90 and beyond that you have just about all of it replaced I You restocked the shelves Replenished within a couple of minutes of recovery 39 This is why you can do a maximal lift rest for a couple of minutes and then come back and do a near maximal lift again 9 because you replaced it so quickly 25 l l l quot o x need 2 33ch 0 ATP blood How uaxygen lT P PC exercise WWW 30 W so 77 JD Exercise Physiology Lecture 4 Notes 9815 I What s the relationship between the rapidity which you replace ATP and the rate of decay or drop in this curve o What if we brought the same people in on a different day depleted their ATP PC levels again with the same type of exercise Except this time we put a blood pressure cuff and put it around their leg and inhibit blood ow in that region which means we cannot get oxygen into the muscle o Very distinct relationship between the oxygen needs and the replenishment of ATP Without oxygen we don t replace ATP rapidly But with it in addition to blood flow oxygen will be abundant and ATP will be very quickly replenished Slower line what s going on here that wasn t going on in the first 7 minutes of recovery 0 Replenishing glycogen stores 0 Taking lactate to convert it to glycogen via the KREBS cycle makes oxygen levels stay high for some time 39 Had people exercise at a very consistent amount of time and measured their muscle glycogen content before and after exercise 39 In one case they took the subjects depleted their muscle glycogen levels and then they measured how much lactate accumulated during exercise 9 1510 mg of lactate 39 They did it two different times under two different conditions a couple weeks apart both times depleting muscle glycogen levels the same amount and creating the same amount of lactate 0 One time they allowed the people to recovery with high carb diet 0 The other time they had a high fat high protein diet i As you can see the replenishment of muscle glycogen with the carbohydrate diet was clearly more effective in re lenishing muscle glycogen radioacth WED C W 7 W Go fl cl n e 1 04 HLA PYRUUATE abroad 39 liver L Glued a 1 f prawn it cm s a 7 a 7 C02 comes from the r r a a V a 7 Lac 5 ac 139 d a labeled lactate so it must Prentice u 12 1 To i maquot come from HLA to help Mawn5 7 i in i M WWW replenish the energy 0 7 N process am am nu m awesome Exercise Physiology Lecture 4 Notes 9815 Oxygen Deficit 39 Work green Aerobic System o How much oxygen you need consume to do the work 0 As the exercise extends in time your begin to provide more and more energy 0 We use some combination of fats and carbs to get from point A to point B to support Aerobic energy production 39 Rest bottom red line 1 ATP PC anaerobic glycolysis 0 Always doing some kind of work even at rest 39 Deficit blue what you can t provide 0 There is a difference between what you need to do the work and what you can actually provide 0 We just cannot engage in the aerobic system fast enough to do this kind of work right away 0 NEVER will be able to provide all the energy aerobically 0 Will ALWAYS be in Deficit the difference between oxygen you can consume and the amount you actually consume Start accumulating lactate when we are in de cit 9 depends on the intensity of the exercise so lactate amount varies Long duration submaximal effort last for 60 min 9 suggest that the deficit may in fact disappear during that long submaximal effort 9 which also 7 wed suggests that you should be able to provide the bulk of your energy from L05 7M a m AEROBlC METABOLISM W Mm e a h we K w d Anaerobic amenm 1 f l l T ATPPC and CHO glycogen l w W liLA 175 mgdl V 0 L What energy system is bein used to get from rest red line to work top of green 9 Anaerobic Glycolysis l I ATTP PC Anaerobic Metabolism g I LL LHLL l L l Lactate will be produced when we REST 7 TI 739 39 il are in deficit The more intense the 39 7 l quot 39 7 quot 7 effort the more lactate we will 3 g o a D accumulate Tim min Always start out with ATP and work to provide energy to replace ATP 0 ATP can be formed by breaking down CP so it will release its energy to reform Pi ADP 9 ATP which then can be hydrolyzed in the muscle so it can continue to contract 9 provides a shift towards anaerobic glycolysis Exercise Physiology Lecture 4i Notes 9815 I If the event is a longer amount submaximal you will see a great dependence of aerobic metabolism 39 Starts with Anaerobic glycolysis 9 Aerobic Glycolysis 9 Glucose from Glycogen 9 Glucose from the blood 510 FA from the cell into the mitochondria 1530 min 0 All based upon the intensity of the effort I Too intense9 provides lactic acid VjiiLactic acid inhibits the mobilization of W 7 The demand providing Anaerobic Metabolism to the fullest as quickly as you can while the supply isn t able to do it o Steady State Rate Heart boat will stay the same through your event until you start to work harder or increase the intensity I Biochemically and physiology meeting your demand I You can supply your energetic needs anaerobically to meet your needs aerobically Will have a crossover in terms of energy system predominance and that takes a little bit of time 9 usually 24 minutes l 00 quotV Q You can typically achieve a steady state of condition from 264 min 9 Aerobic 90 or Anaerobic 2 8W9 0 ATPPC Anaerobic Glycolysis 5 39 3 lonirillui39lol39l The longer the effort the greater the contribution of aerobic metabolism 39 The longer the effert the less P 7 r 7 WJ 7 contribution of anaerobic o J 110 secs T m in n metabolism I a 7 77 39 or y D m l Amara bl c Glynn lycus Start to depend less and less on anaerobic metabolism and more A vbl and more on aerobic metabolism 00 GF WW 9 jouiTl 0 A T f ATPPQ f f Exercise Physiology Lecture 4 Notes 9815 Recovery Period Exercise 9 Rest what is the transition from exercise and returning back to rest 0 What is happening metabolically through exercise 0 increasing energy needs used muscle glycogen some depleted so will try to replace later 0 Depleted muscle glycogen 0 Created lactic acid created through anaerobic means 0 ATPPC is depleted NOT replaced while in exercise ONLY happens in recovery 39 Remember reason from recovery metabolically and physically o Physically when you stop exercising your heart rate and breathing was high but in recovery it starts to slow down 0 Oxygen Debt Amount of oxygen consumed during recovery excluding the amount of oxygen which would have been consumed at rest during that same time i B c we have gone from point A to point B bc we equated lactate and depleted fuels you have a debt to pay to replace it Debt in the form of excess oxygen being consumed during recovery 9 EPOC o EPOC Excess Post Oxygen Consumption I 2 components in respect to oxygen debt 1 How long does it take to recover to get back to baseline 39 The time of recovery timeplace it takes to get back to the baseline 2 How much oxygen you consume during that time Oxygen consumed during recovery excluding the amount of oxygen which would ve been consumed during rest during that same time 0 Recovery how much oxygen you consume over and above that resting metabolic time 139 Relationship between the de cit and the debt occurred because you weren t able to supply what you need immediately b c it took 24 minutes to do that 0 Debt will always be larger than the de cit What you borrow from the bank will always be a larger amount than what you borrowed o Deficit ALWAYS to the left of the oxygen curve increase lI ions 9 increase lactate 9 Decrease muscle glycogen 399 Decrease ATPPC Exercise 0x7 7 wt 1 Exercise Physiology glzuxxsuwr Lecture 4 Notes X l 98 15 l O Excess oxygen consumed during this time is all for the purpose of l algae Debt reconciling the deficit V0 2 jansumod f i am OUM39 9F Even though you take some time to cons umd 0 E l39 get back to the baseline the amount 9 e rc 53 of oxygen you consume dramatically drops so it could look like the other line 7 i 9 The curve of oxygen debt drops off so a t dramatically because it replenishes Exercise 0 ReCouery lie S quickly 7 Wquot l TimPCWnc l 39 DMMAT C DROP Concentrate on the red line Exercised for 395 min Depleted ATP P levels from 25 mv kg of muscle to about 5 mvkg 399 Not unusual 0 Can t replace ATP PC can only make more of it to be used again Cannot replace its stores until the exercise is over and you are in recovery 3 By 30 see you have replaced about 80 ofy our ATPPC at 60 sec you have replaced about 90 and beyond that you have just about all of it replaced I You restocked the shelves Replenished within a couple of minutes of recovery 39 This is why you can do a maximal lift rest for a couple of minutes and then come back and do a near maximal lift again 9 because you replaced it so quickly 25 l l l quot o x need 2 33ch 0 ATP blood How uaxygen lT P PC exercise WWW 30 W so 77 JD Exercise Physiology Lecture 4 Notes 9815 I What s the relationship between the rapidity which you replace ATP and the rate of decay or drop in this curve o What if we brought the same people in on a different day depleted their ATP PC levels again with the same type of exercise Except this time we put a blood pressure cuff and put it around their leg and inhibit blood ow in that region which means we cannot get oxygen into the muscle o Very distinct relationship between the oxygen needs and the replenishment of ATP Without oxygen we don t replace ATP rapidly But with it in addition to blood flow oxygen will be abundant and ATP will be very quickly replenished Slower line what s going on here that wasn t going on in the first 7 minutes of recovery 0 Replenishing glycogen stores 0 Taking lactate to convert it to glycogen via the KREBS cycle makes oxygen levels stay high for some time 39 Had people exercise at a very consistent amount of time and measured their muscle glycogen content before and after exercise 39 In one case they took the subjects depleted their muscle glycogen levels and then they measured how much lactate accumulated during exercise 9 1510 mg of lactate 39 They did it two different times under two different conditions a couple weeks apart both times depleting muscle glycogen levels the same amount and creating the same amount of lactate 0 One time they allowed the people to recovery with high carb diet 0 The other time they had a high fat high protein diet i As you can see the replenishment of muscle glycogen with the carbohydrate diet was clearly more effective in re lenishing muscle glycogen radioacth WED C W 7 W Go fl cl n e 1 04 HLA PYRUUATE abroad 39 liver L Glued a 1 f prawn it cm s a 7 a 7 C02 comes from the r r a a V a 7 Lac 5 ac 139 d a labeled lactate so it must Prentice u 12 1 To i maquot come from HLA to help Mawn5 7 i in i M WWW replenish the energy 0 7 N process am am nu m awesome unseat I muoglobm Exercise Physiology Lecture 5 Notes 91015 Biological Systems 0 You make these adaptions when you force the system to do something it is not used to doing9 effects energetics 0 Ex Lifting weights 9 see a result when you activate the system properly I You will get these biological changes that occur because you stimulated the system to do something that it is not accustomed to doing your overloading it and as a result it will have to adapt will adjust to it o Adaptation for strength conditions 9Muscles get largerstronger move more rapidly I Biochemically men are able to perform better run longer run farther lift more weights build their muscles so they can look good 0 But in order for you to advance in terms of improving strength and duration you have to chronically overload the system c ontinue to overload Biochemical adaptations relevant to the aerobic system to Myoglobin like hemoglobin an oxygen binding figure that is found in the muscle cell transporter of oxygen within the muscle cell can also store oxygen 9 Stores and transports oxygen to the mitochondria o if we have more myoglobin then we Will have more oxygen picked up and transported to mitochondria to make more oxygen available for aerobic metabolism I Aerobic capacity increases VOZ consumed you will be able to consume greater amounts of oxygen at maximal levels 0 More myoglobin more oxygen picked up more transferred to the mitochondria more available for aerobic metabolism 39 If you consume more myoglobin you can make more oxygen available for the production of energy 9 more energy you can run longer or faster M o lobin vs 39ll rainin Cross transference of trainln c Took males and females trained them for 10 weeks and plotted muscle myoglobin in the blood two different times Protraining and Posttraining Found that it dramatically increased 0 Biological adaptation to aerobic training improvement to the musclemyoglobin content o More myoglobin more storage more transport more oxygen consumption more energy produced aerobically I TWIST Trained only using their dominant leg nonadominant leg 2 served as a control a Even though it s the same individual same body same set of legs there was no crossover from J 7 V I i training r7 N 39 p o if you train the muscle to improve them 9 PM P0 increase myoglobin 9 no crossovers have Ev a I f I l h quotV m 1 to train BOTH legs all the muscles involved NH I UWWIUTIG Eize Exercise Physiology Lecture 5 Notes 91015 Cross transference of trainin 1 0 CH0 Oxidation what can we do training wise to increase the capacity of skeletal muscle to oxidize glycogen through CHO water and energy from a biochemical standpoint o Stimulate the enzymes involved by vulture of training forces systemto increase the energy via the Glycolysis Krebs mitochondriaav by forcing the system to chronically produce energy r it will adapt and adjust Ii lf you force the enzymes to do more you will start to see the activity and concentration of the enzymes increase i Increase the enzymes involved in the reaction more enzymes more reactions More mitochondria GRAPH 1 I This is where we generate energy 391 Have to specifically train the muscle I There is a physiological hiochemical rational for mitochondria but quotif you don t use it you will loose it improve the size of the glycogen stores by carb loading depleting and then carb loading GRAPH 2 i Biological adaption with regards to CHO stores through aerobic training 9Glycogen S y nthase NOT INCLUDED BECAUSE PHYSIOLOGICAL but the same concept you could also lncrease the capillary density i Trained the muscle start with X amount of capillaries and end up with 2X that amount of capillaries I Improve the number of capillaries E have a greater ability to bring in more oxygen 3 0 Comparing pre post workout 2 The size and the number of the mitochondria increases from pre to post 5 g I You could see these changes relatively quickly 3 But you have to specifically train the muscle Fxgroisc C or I am Exercise Physiology Lecture Notes 91015 QRAEHLB i Compared the pre and post training for a long i term study by pedaling on a bicycle 639 0 Muscle glycogen stores in the human skeletal muscle 1315 g kg of muscle In Exercise conditioning by itself can vastly 0 increase glycogen stores g I How does this happen o Enzyme Glycogen Synthase 2 training lgg M increases the intensity and 7 I 77 concentration of this enzyme 9 greater PM m we aim LR ailpara assessor a are i g 0 Normally when you train you deplete the g ycogen levels The b dy C Mrtowr recognizes that and then does what it can to replace it You train over and over again depleting the levels over and over again which makes your body start to adjlust lt realizes that it needs to start storing more I Bottom line you have these adaptions associated with the muscle biochemistry i in this case Glycogen Synthase Gate keeper ensyme can increase the activity and the concentration which allows for the ability to store more with time a You can deplete the glycogen levels through exercise and then replace glycogen by eating Cl lO in your diet 0 If you don t have the carbohydrates you need its not likely you will see the glycogen levels go back to normal 0 You work to perform some amount of exercise and your glycogen levels go down Then goes somewhere else to take in fats proteins for a couple of days Body realizes the depletion and tries to fix it Then you go to the olive garden and eat more carbs 9 lncrease the CHO stores the body 0 More energy more carbohydrates I Depletion is more effective because you can clearly store more SUMMARY i Bigger energy factories mitochondria more energy factories more raw materials in the form of carbohydrates to produce energi in these factories All we need to do is make sure we get adequate amounts of oxygen for these factories so we can take these carbs and produce energy in the form of increased myoglobin ln training you will also decrease hemoglobin levels which means you have more oxygen in the liver more oxygen taken up more oxygen put into the mitochondria so the factories can do their thing to produce energy so you can run longer or faster Exercise Physiology Lecture 5 Notes 91015 Oxidation of Fats 39 Oxidizes more fats as a result of training 0 When you look at some maximal levels of fat oxidation you will see increases beta oxidation activity increases enzymes involved more larger mitochondria if you get fat in you will have a greater ability to oxidize etcBut the conditions must be appropriate I If you are looking at intensities then you will have less fat contribution Whereas if you are looking at lower intensities you will have higher fat contribution i 40 50 optimization of fatty acid oxidation 0 You will also see an increase of capacity fer fat oxidation because its related to your ability to increase an enzyme calledllormone Sensitive Lipase to release of fatty acids from the adipose cells so you release more 0 If you increase the amount of carnatine by artificially inducing it by supplementation we should be able to take more fatty acids into the mitochondria make them available for fueli energy production 0 increases the activity of enzymes that transport fats Takes into the mitochondrial membrane 2 Takes from the mitochondrial membrane into the mitochondria 1 More FA into the mitochondria to make them available for fuel energy production 0 Did a study that supplemented 4 different groups of mice with different amounts of carnatine in the body and trained them on the treadmill o Carnatine by itself didn t do anything 0 But they did find out that I Training improves the ability to mobilize and oxidize fats I Adjustments in the body automatically prefer to use fat as fuel in submaximal exercise Anaerobic Chan es 0 ATPPC training might be a little different for making alterations in these biochemical processes The best Way to improve ATP PC is to challenge that system over and over again by doing interval training sprinting 0 As a result you will improve ATPPC system faster o Can be used for aerobic metabolism but if your goal is to be a sprinter then you don t really care about aerobics Exercise Physiology Lecture 5 Notes i 91015 I 0 Best way to improve is to train the system specifically t a Engage the system by y 39 7 o Interval training ATP PC 7 7 o logging at a longer duration I o Aerobic training degree probably less than anaerobic and interval l training a An increase of enzymes ATPase and increase in Creatine Kinase 0 Training will improve the concentration of these enzymes Ererci 5 Cum tour Giycoly sis PFK F 6P F 1 6Bisphosphate 39 PFK Very important REGULATORY enzyme 0 Regulates the events beyond this step 0 Effected by levels of ADP and pH 0 Can either turn on or shutdown glycolysis 39 Depending on ifyon need energy or if you already have too much 0 Increases with physical aerobic activity AND anaerobic activity but only when you are challenging the anaerobic glycolytic system Tendon Bone Epimysium Perimysium Endomysium Muscle fibers 39 Sarcolemma Myofibrils Blood Sa rcoplasmic reticulum Nucleus Filaments o Muscles are striated striped because of the arrangement of the proteinsmyo laments o Myo laments actin and myosin l helps muscle actually develop tension 0 Myosin red very large thick protein 0 Actin blue thin protein less weight Actin is anchored to the 2 discs Myosin and Actin are contractile proteins Sarcomere the smallest fL unit of the myo ber o Spreads from zdisc tc o Helps determine what can actually do Actin is shared by conjoinil sarcomeres o lband Lighter in appe made of actin Located right dom center of the zdis o Aband Darker in app more content made AND myosin 5 LI different helix IL L Th lrl actin fllamal Think myosin iiila 0 Looking at Ac 0 Actin blue pr 0 Active binding on the actin o Tropomylt the activi covered by this protein that runs the full length of the actin o Troponin complex Tropomyosin periodically runs through this protein that is Exercise Physiology Lecture 7 Notes 91715 Misc Epimysium o Connective tissue surrounding the entire skeletal muscle Perimysium o Connective tissue runs parallel to the muscle 0 Surrounds bundles of muscle bers Fascicles surround the individual muscle bers Endomysium o Surrounds individual muscle bers Tendon muscle to bone 0 Nerves innovate muscle I LL l39l zone 2 disc Myofibril 2 line Sarcomere l Filaments of actin Myosin thick filaments Actin thin 7 filaments Islm mulecl le If you take a closer look at myosin will look like this 0 Myosin Crossbridges or heads 0 Crossbridges myosin heads come with physical contact form a chemical bond with actin l important because it s the only way we will be able to develop tension in the sarcomere HeadsTails spring loaded ready to found along the actin Exercise Physiology Lecture 7 Notes 91715 il rnpmimmmplex ll39mpuyusin Actirl a Portian of a lm lament Sarcoplasmic reticulum allows the I muscle to act very quickly and Tll39llnkfrllama sarCOIemma Triad consists of the terminal cisterna lend Mind lband Zdlsc Triadofthereticulum O TTUbUIE SUFFOUHdEd 0ngitUdina l Terminalcistern store calcium on either sides of the ttubule Transverse tubul lband Sarcoplasmic reticulum I39ll Lnngitu linajl Bi f a ma b il Zline Mitochondria lt aarcnplasmlc reticulum Nucleus Terminal cisterna lth sarcoplaamlc rellculum Waldrop T lleUIE Skeletal Muscle Contraction In order for to contract a skeletal muscle must 0 Must be nerve stimulation that innovates muscle activity comes through the muscle from a nerve ending 0 An action Potential propagation of an electrical current will then run along the sarcolemma An increase in intercellular Calcium levels if contraction occurs FINAL trigger for contraction ExcitationContraction excite the nerve stimuli release Ca through that excitement l contraction of the muscle Exercise Physiology Lecture 7 Notes 91715 Motor neuron fiber Nerve fiber branches Muscle fiber nucleus Motor end plate Myofibril of muscle fiber 39 Synaptic vesicles Synaptic cleft Folded sarcolemma 7 Motor end plate This all starts right here at the neuromuscularjunction Neuromuscularjunction skeletal muscle contraction starts here 0 Synaptic vesicles transfer of electrical signals to the muscle bers sarcolemma o Nerve ber branch doesn t make direct contact with the sarcolemma There is an opening called the synaptic cleft o Synaptic cleft where the synapse actually occurs There is a connection between the synaptic cleft and the synaptic vesicles l where the synapse occurs 0 When that nerve ber electrical signal comes there are changes to the membrane permeability which causes Ca to be released The voltage change allows the Ca to move into this region 0 When the electrical signal allows Ca to enter into this region it activated the synaptic vesicles 0 Vesicles become fused with the outer membrane of the nerve ber 0 When they become fused they pop open and their contents are released into the synaptic cleft l a neurotransmitter called Ach On the other side of the synaptic cleft there are receptors that are speci cally sensitive to Ach Ach passes across the synaptic cleft and binds with the receptor located in the walls of the sarcolemma or the muscle Exercise Physiology Lecture 7 Notes 91715 When the Ach binds to the receptor it opens some gate that allows the K to move OUT of the sarcolemma and Na to move INTO the sarcolemma 0 Electrical signal Chemical signal Electrical signal 0 So the action potential that allows a membrane change that allows the release of Ca which triggers the fusion of the synaptic vesicle with the synaptic cleft that releases Ach which passes quickly and comes in contact with the binding sites interchange of K going out and Na coming into the sarcolemma I I Axon terminal Amen terminal of a motor neuron Miteehendrien Synaptic vesicle Ea i quotV 7 In 5 Synaptic cleft V 2 at J saw 1 D Mfg tquot quot r r 7 F Synaptic i V cleft 39 pm me a ag Binding of Arch myefibril quotquotquotquot j V g in a g to receptere pene i quot 39 Natht ehennel b c T tubule June enal fieIds all the sarcolemma at meter end plate Creates another action potential Relationships between troponin tropomyosin myosin crossbridges and calcium 0 Here we have our myosin and actin again 0 We can see that the crossbridges literally form a bond with myosin heads 0 Binding sites are the only place where the crossbridges myosin heads come in contact Which means that something must have happened to move the tropomyosin out of the way to expose the binding sites Exercise Physiology Lecture 7 Notes 91715 The Sliding Filament Theorv of Contraction ExcitationContraction Coupling Once generated the action potential stimulus taking the electrical signal l chemical signal Ach l electrical signal on the muscle side of the neuromuscular junction o Is propagated moves along the sarcolemma o Travels moves down the T tubules kind of hollow inside 0 Triggers Ca2 release from terminal cisternae on either side of the ttubule Ca2 binds to troponin changes the con guration of the troponin and causes 0 The blocking action of tropomyosin to cease moves the tropomyosin 0 Active binding sites on actin are exposed Myosin cross bridges alternately attach detach and develop tension Thin laments actin move toward the center of the sarcomere Hydrolysis of ATP powers this cycling process powers this process Ca2 is removed into the SR tropomyosin blockage is restored and the muscle ber relaxes Exercise Physiology Lecture 7 Notes 91715 Neurotransmitter released diffuses across the synaptic cleft and attaches to ACh receptors on the sarcolemma 1 SynapUc Synap I v v 39 9ft Sa rcolemma i quot 7 quotE entry of Na Initiat 7 an action potential which i is propagated along the ACh sarcolemma and down theTtuhules 39 u quot 39 SR tubules c i n potential in i 39 ubule activates voltagesensitive receptors 39 g 39 which in turn triggerC 3 a in a ACh ACh 7 release from ter39 I 39 a V39g ro a 6 39 icisternae o I caZaI quot a quot 7quot a a Ca2 myosin blockage resto39nelm kg Ca2 Ca2 b cking myosin binding sites on I actinlcltCirgtractIon ends and V V I m ions bind to troponin musc e er re Xes39 f troponin changes shape removing the blocking action of tropomyosin actin active sites exposed 1 39 val of Ca2 by active transport 39n o the SR after the action potential ends caz C ctiom myosin heads alternately attach to actin and detach pulling the actin laments toward the center of the sarcomere release of energy by ATP hydrolysis powers the cycling process Role of Ionic Calcium Ca2 in the Contraction Mechanism At low intracellular Ca2 concentration Tropomyosin blocks the binding sites on actin may Ifquot Myosin cross bridges cannot attach to binding sites on actin Tim rnlavnnl ciain n39F Hm mumIn nnFnr39rnnl sample quot Myosin hiead Calciumactivated troponin undergoes a conformational change This change moves tropomyosin away from actin s binding sites a Myosin head can now bind and cycle This permits contraction sliding of the thin laments by the myosin cross bridges to begin Exercise Physiology Lecture 7 Notes 91715 A Actomyosin complex occurs when the myosin heads bind o Allows for the cross bridge to form 0 Then the hydrolysis of ATP occurs 0 Tension on full range of motion we have to have the attachmentdetachment shorten that muscle over and over again It Seduential event of Contraction Cross bridge formation myosin cross bridge attaches to actin lament Working power stroke myosin head pivots and pulls actin lament toward M line Power stroke work of the muscle When the myosin head pulls the actin lament towards the mline Energy comes in to detach the myosinactin connec on Process occurs over and over again as long as we are developing tension Cross bridge detachment ATP attaches to myosin head and the cross bridge detaches quotCockingquot of the myosin head energy from hydrolysis of ATP cocks the myosin head into the highenergy state ExcitationContraction EC Couolind 1 P P FP N Action potential generated and propagated along sarcomere to T tubules Action potential triggers Ca2 release Ca bind to troponin blocking action of tropomyosin released Contraction via crossbridge formation ATP hyrdolysis Removal of Ca2 by active transport Tropomyosin blockage restored contraction ends 3 sources of ATP the enerdv currency of the muscular contraction CP quickest ADP Pi gt AT n 7 Exercise Physiology Lecture 7 Notes 91715 Glycolys is Xidative Phos horylation Exercise Physiology APK31108 92415 The Heart Fourchambered organ that lies to the left of the sternum 0 Chambers located on the left and right side of the heart Beats approx 40 million times a year providing 500000 gallons of blood The heart muscle is known as the myocardium Pathways of the Heart 0 Right atrium where blood from the peripheral circulation comes into the heart lnier afrial Left atrium where blood enters from the lungs septum Interatrial septum piece of connective tissue Left that separates the right and left atrium the two Right C Hum chambers alrium 0 Sometimes there are damages and other problems associated with the septum 0 Like a hole but relatively easy to repair The lower chambers are referred to as the ventricles l so we have right and left ventricles Commonly when something happens on the 3um right side it happens simultaneously on the valve left side Valves if there are two rightleft chambers then they must be separated somehow o Tricuspid valve what separates the right atrium from the right ventricle Pressure dictates whether the valve is open or closed l when the pressure in 39 the RA is greater than the pressure in Tricuspid the RV the valve will be opened and WM vice versa III1I nl I IJ 1 LL 0 Blood from the peripheral or systemic circulation enters the heart at the right atrium o Inferior vena cava the large vein blood drains into the RA from the lower part of the body 0 Superior vena cava the large vein blood Exercise Physiology APK31108 92415 Supenor vena cava Right atrium So blood enters the heart through the vena cava superior or inferior into the RA and moves then into the RV o The amount of blood here will exert pressure volume of uid NOT contraction Common chamber when blood is lling the 533 heart before it is ready to contract the RA and R39ghl the RV will become common chambers because ventricle the tricuspid valve will be open Tricuspid valve 0 Once the pressure made the RV exceeds the pressure inside the RA the Tricuspid valve is forced shut 0 When the valve is shut on the right side the valve is shut on the left side as well lub dubquot sound due to pressure 0 We will also start to contract force develop tension going to squeeze this tight space creating more pressure 0 When we get more pressure we get more force exerted against the uid that is contained in that chamber 0 Causes the pulmonic valve to pop open Pulmonic Valve separates the RV from the Left pulmonary trunk or the pulmonary artery Gh39mm 0 Pressure is exerted in a couple different ways 39 fviitml I through volume and through minimizing valve the space between contraction of that volume increasing pressure to a greater Le GXtent ventricle 0 Pulmonary trunk l Pulmonary artery l Lungs pick up oxygen 0 Arteries carry blood away from the heart commonly fully oxygenated o Veins carry blood to the heart commonly low oxygenated EXCEPTION 0 Pulmonary artery carries blood away from the heart BUT its low in oxygen content Exercise Physiology APK31108 92415 0 Lungs l Pulmonary veins Left atrium Left ventricle boilipdrls 0 Pressure in the LA forces the Mitral valve open and blood ows into the LV Aorta lquot 0 When the pressure is greater in the LV the mitral valve is forced shut o Tension is again developing pressure in the LV Tali2 builds up forcing the aortic valve open and blood is ejected from the heart into the EH 1I L Al I IL ventricle How the heart generates pressure form contractions o The heart has very unique property 0 Spontaneous activity Ventricular contractions Circumstances where the heart generates a beat in a noncommon pathway 0 Heart tissue can still become excitable is the heart doesn t do what it is suppose to do normally 0 Functions 1 The conduction system is interesting because it functions to generate electrical impulse 2 We can then take those impulses and convey them to all the heart bers 0 There are several different types of specialized conduction tissues 0 These specialized connection tissue have to go in and create electrical impulses at different rates of speed SA Node commonly where the heart beat originates in normal circumstances 0 Located just south of the superior vena cava Common referred to as the pacemaker sets the pace of the heart established here AV Node another piece of specialized conduction tissue 0 Located next to the AV valve bicuspid valve Bundle of His extends between the left and the right ventricles to the Bundle Of His Purkinje ibers Exercise Physiology APK31108 92415 Afrio ventricular V node 0 Left and right bundle branches A Conduction of an electrical impulse 0 SA node l AV node lBundle of Hid l Bundle branches l Purkinje bers 0 What would happen if the pacemakerjust stopped working 0 We have a back up pacemaker l AV node capable of maintaining heart beat between 4060 beats per minute at rest that s enough to get by 0 There are ways to rectify the problem if the SA node quit working inserting pacemakers into the heart will maintain a heart beat and people will maintain a verv normalhealthv life lllUbLle 39 rking correctly it will generally Regulation of the heart in terms of its electrical activity a 50100 times a minute ANS controls the hearts ability to do what it does ep with changing your resting helps regulate the activity of the heart virtue of aerobic conditions to be 0 Sympathetic and Parasympathetic bers innervate the heart in different places but they 1ing and alter the heart rates overlap dramatically low normal oSympathetic Fibers innervate the heart along the SA irdia slower heart rate than and AV node also innervated in a c 39 39 39 which is important just in case sor and we need a backup oSympathetic nerve is also referred o lnnervates pretty much the same places accelerator may not be as many bers but the 0 mgr l39noccraefdsiir igentfraerg location is pretty much the same y o Operates antagonistically in uences on the rate of conduction and the heart Will be the oppOSIte of the myocardial contractility sympathetic 0 occurs durmg work or exert o Slows the heart beat decrease the rate of Vagus nerve the nerve the lnnervates the heart at the parasympathetic nerve bers in the adrenal medulla I Sympathetic Input SNS releases catecholamines EPI and NOREPI o Catecholamines neurotransmitters Epi and Norepi 0 Primary one released directly from the cardiac accelerator nerve and the vagus receptor on the heart l Norepi causes the things that accelerate the heart beat 0 Epi released from the adrenal medulla circulates through the blood and exerts the same in uence except it lasts longer then norepi and is not as powerful But does the same thing as norepi l accelerates the heart beat 0 Two major in uences o Chronotropic effect makes the heart beat faster or an increase in the heart beat chrono means time IJ LC 1 I LL IL IJ II 1 Exercise Physiology APK31108 92415 ElectricalChemical Phenomena 0f the Heart Depolarizati Depolarized lIIAA Phenomenon of the speci c tissue Cardiac muscles have this junction between the cells that varies in the location very important 0 Polarity in resting position very polar Positive outside Negative inside because the concentration of the ions is less inside than outside Impulse spread of JAnA gun A A Depolarization Sympathetic in uence Norepi stimulus which changes the permeability of the cell membrane l usually more K inside more Na outside open the gates l ow of concentration of K moves out of the cell and Na into the cell l shift to equilibrium l changes the polarity no longer negative outside now its positive and vice versa Depolarization leads to contraction o lmpulses spread throughout the atrial myocardium even pass into the left atrium depolarization 0 Taking an impulse generates at the SA comgmon node l quickly moving it to the AV node depolglmhon Looking at an EKG contraction 0 We aren t looking a the contraction we are looking at the depolarization events Exercise Physiology APK31108 92415 Repolarizatio Repolarization The cell has to come back to rest again Was negative outside and positive inside so you actively pump the K back in and the Na back out EKG Electrical Current a ow of charged particles We want to be able to determine a ow of charged particles electrical current an impulse from the SA node through the atrial myocardium to the AV node 0 Current ow is vindicated by the change in polarity We are exciting the cell changing the permeability of the cell membrane and polarizing the cell so this impulse current ow or ow of charged particles will move from the SA node to the AV node 0 All negative NO ow NO difference 0 Negative and positive there is a difference signifying a ow of charged particles and this electrical charge can in fact be negative We can take these negative and positive electrodes and hook them up to a voltmeter 0 When we have the current ow we will see a something greater than zero The ow of current from one place to another in the heart exhibits a current all around the body 0 We can measure the current ow by putting electrodes in arms and legs and will have the same current as in the heart Lead one cardiac event one heart beat Single EKG lead useful in arrhythmia recognition Standard 12 lead EKG needed to appreciate other problems 0 12 lead EKG 1 2 limb leads look at the heart from the anatomical position 2 3 augmented limb leads 3 6 precordial leads 0 Different angles allows you to see different DIFFERENCE if ELECTRlCAt EXESTS CURRENT FLOW Exercise Physiology APK31108 92415 EKG continued Pwave atrial depolarization 0 Movement of the current from the SA to the AV 0 Causes the atria to depolarize contract which then encourages the ow of blood into the ventricles thereby increasing the pressure QRS complex ventricular depolarization o Rapidly moved an impulse down through the bundle branches purkinje o The impulse has speed up greater contraction resulting from more muscle mass So more muscle mass in the ventricle Exercise Physiology APK31108 92415 o PR interval 010020 seconds 0 Heart blocks If something is preventing the normal transfer of impulse from the SA to the AV Delayed time or PR interval lower than 010020 seconds If the time is delayed long enough then the AV will eventually pick up its own signal I survival mode backup pacemaker ST segment the distancetime it takes from the end of the ventricle being polarized to go back to normal again or to repolarize takes longer to repolarize o Blockage somewhere in the coronary arteries Not enough oxygen when the S doesn t go like normal and sags down not repolarizing quickly enough STsement Where most of the problems occur in the left ventricle in particular A heart attack is coming pretty soon 0 QRS complex 004009 seconds Exercise Physiology AP KSI 109 92915 What causes the increase uptake of oxygen during exercise 39 Cardiac output amount ofblood pumped out ofthe heart o This increases with exercise 0 Referred to as or CO 0 Women have lower than men 46 vs 547 o Shooting 2 getting oxygenated blood through to the muscle groups 39 FICK Principle 0 Done in a controlled environment 0 Q V02 av02diff arterial vena cava oxygen difference 0 lood collected from an arterial artery pulmonary trunk o Arterial difference venous low oxygenated blood vs arterial oxygenated blood o 5 L of blood must pass through the heart to pick up the whole 250 mL with each uptake being 50 ml 93 V02 V avOEdiff 39 Blood from the superior vena cava and blood from the inferior yena cave is deoxygenated 1quot The pulmonary truan pulmonary arteries delivers low oxygenated blood back to the lungs 39 Oxygenated blood comes back into the heart through the pulmonary vein 0 To measure this parameter you need a sample from the vena cava and a sample from the pulmonary trunk so you can get a good mixture of venous blood and by going to the brachial artery you can get a good sample of arterial blood represents the avOZ difference 39 avDZdiff difference between the oxygen content in the arterial blood and the venous blood 0 Makes sense bc arterial blood was delivered to the tissues with the exception of the pulmonary artery we take what we need extract as much oxygen as we need depending on the metabolic effort of the cell and the rest is returned back to the heart Usually at rest when not a lot going on 939 usually 45 ml of blood 0 So you can measure the amount going to the tissues and you can measure the oxygen content prior to entering the lungs 0 F 01 Cells Exercise Physiology A PKBTIOEQ 92915 This drawing represents the left and right side ofthe heart skeletal muscle at the bottom and at the top is the lungs 0 Oxygen consumption V012 250 mL per min 0 So from the lungs we are bringing blood in using 250 mlL o In the right side of the heart 1 liter ofblood 1000 mL contains 150 mi of OZ We know that the circulatory tract allows this liter of blood to ow back to the heart into the pulmonary arteries through the lungs where it picks up oxygen arbitrary number 200 mL ofDZ which means it picked up 50 mi This liter of hlood that passes through the lungs picks up 50 mL 0102 This same liter of blood then works its way to the arterial system carrying 200 mh of OZ This same liter ofhlood goes to the cells and in this case the cells need 50 mL so they extract 50 mL of 02 which means that when it exits through the venous system this time it will be 150 ml of 02 ArterialVenous Oxygen Difference avOZ it accounts for what is extracted at the cell How many L of blood carrying 150 mh of 012 that must pass through the lungs to be fully loaded 0 What we know I We know that every minute we are consuming 150 mL of 02 i We know that at the muscle we are extracting 50 ml We also know that when we fully load the blood with oxygen it only contains 200 mL which means if we pull out 50 we have 150 the venous blood going through the pulmonary artery and the lungs again picking up another 50 mL 0 5 L of blood must pass from the heart into the lungs in order to consume that amount ofoxygen or 200 mL ofOZ i The V02 is 25UmLmin150mLmin or the difference between the oxygen content in the arteries and the veins 39 Dr 5 mL of blood o This represents the way we can literally calculate cardiac output Q During Exercise 39 When you being to exercise you extract more instead of extracting 5 mL at rest you may be extracting 15 ml at rest and instead of consuming 250 not you maybe consuming 3200 mL Exercise Physiology APKBllDQ 92915 0 So you can take these numbers and manipulate them to better understand the principle of blood flow in respect to the oxygen consumption relationship 39 Cardiac output related to oxygen consumption V02 from rest to maximum M 39 Cardiac outputs rise in untrained individuals from i 5 to about 25 mL at minimum and that at maximum 0 Can push it up significantly 4 or 5 times 39 With chronic aerobic training we see increases in oxygen consumption V0 2 and if we plotted them we would see values going from 5 to 35 ml per minute at minimum 0 Untrained max around 25 ml per min 0 Trained max around 35 ml per min 0 Highly trained max up to 40 mi per min L a We 39 RELATlONSHIP1As cardiac output Q increases so 1 I max does oxygen consumption m 3 e 51 39 Cardiac Output 39 As maximum oxygen consumption increases so does cardiac output 39 At rest and submaximal effort you cannot see a significant difference in trained and untrained individuals 0 At rest everyone s cardiac output is close to the same 0 Really no difference between trained and untrained individuals 39 Men and women respond the same to training increases but NOT at the same levels at maximum training 0 EXCEPTION A woman has a greater cardiac output at a given V02 I Women have less hemoglobin than men do so they deliver less oxygen 39 Men 1416 39 Women 12 14 I if hemoglobin levels are the same cardiac output Q will he the same also 39 But generally because they are not we find that women require a little more blood ow 39 What accounts for the rise in cardiac output Q Q We know that I That the muscles are working I We know that the more that they work the more difficult the more we will have to consume more 02 I Certainly the amount of cardiac output will foliow 0 increased HR beats per min increased SV milbeat or Lbeat Exercise Physiology APKBZLlDg 92915 39 Q SV 5 HR 1 Cardiac output stroke volume at heart rate 0 Cardiac output is a product of these two factors 1 Stroke Volume Heart Rate I Whatever you do to one or both of those wiil help carry the amount of blood flow out of the heart cardiac output Examples 39 lfwe are pushing out 051 L of blood per beat and the heart is beating 175 heats per minute what is the cardiac output 0 Stroke volume 051 Lbeat 0 Heart beat 175 beats per minute 391 Q 151 x 175 I Q 26 Cardiac output 2 26 0 If the heart rate goes higher the cardiac output goes higher if the stroke roiume goes higher the heart rate stays the same then the cardiac output goes higher 9 HR per volume of untrained individuals 0 Females 5070 millbeat o Males 80a100 nahbeat 439 So if we plot stroke volume against increasing oxygen consumed it may look like this for an untrained person 0 What about this relationship immediately catches your attention I You reach peak stroke volume before you reach maximal oxygen consumption 139 Commonly you will see the maximal stroke volume at 4045 ofVOZ max 39 Frank Starling Mechanism 0 One of the things that happen when you load l blood into the ventricles the ventricles expand a or stretch Q As they stretch they are able to generate more contractile force when they comeback to their old position again 3973 I You can stress myocardium around the 5 blood and you increase the rate of Cm L K i contractile forces causing it to contract quott 0 But you can only stress it so much and when you stretch it beyond a normal response it doesn t contract with that same contractile force quot anymore I When you stress it too much it won t 39 7 39 a a contract around 4060 of V02 max Relt M a So you can add more and more blood but the contractile response doesn t increase heyond that Exercise Physiology APK S 1 109 929 1 39 With training we make the assumption that things happen a little different 0 Female values increase from 7090 mL at rest 0 Men values increase to 100120 ml at rest With training and at rest BOTH females and males increase 0 When plotted 9 SAME curve SAME relationship except resting and sub maximum values are higher Chronic overload training 0 Maximal values are higher too I Females values increase to 100 120 mh at rest I Males values increase to 150 170 ml at rest 0 What chronic overload training do that allows that to happen I Increase in heart volume increase in ventricular volume taking in more and more blood an increase in that musculature ofthat region I You can go and measure the diameter of the musculature of those ventricles before and after chronic training and you will see an increase more muscle more muscle mass more force more heart volume more blood 399 stretch more force bc more muscle thereby increasing the volume 39 Lets look at the other part this equation Q 0 HR can be increased with decreasing oxygen consumption I Ex Can go from 70 beats per minute at rest to 200 beats per minute at exercise max I Looks like a linear relationship but its really not I lfyou look closer itls a linear relationship until about 7075 maximum velocity consumption but it tends to change a little bit after 0 And if we were to train these individuals for a month or two do that same work load and then plot their HR response to the work load at maximum you will see this the second line 0 So looking at this graphrelationship what do we conclude 0 Through submaximal work HR in commonly reduced as a result of aerobic training 0 We cannot see any significant changes in maximum HR as a result of training 9 if anything you are more likely to go up but that would mean that cardiac output would go up which increases SV which allows you to deliver more blood and contain more 02 So what is the advantage 0 The greatest and most significant change occurs as a result of increasing SV associated with training 100 H t thaws5 Nun Exercise Phygiolo APKB 1109 92915 Training DECREASES HR 0 At rest iIR commonly decreases with aerobic training submaximal work 39 Advantage o The greatest most important change occurs with an iNCREASE in SV quot Maximum INCREASE in cardiac output Q 2 maximum iNCREASE in SV HE gong 13 a1nls heat We 0F me g Rest i ll 5 l 39 quot max V0 391 Remember m L n Q There is no apparent difference in rest and submaximal work in terms of cardiac output 0 But there is an increase in SV and rest and at maximum o Because of the training involved HR goes down resting and submax39imal effort 0 Maximum increase in Q is attributable to maximum increase in SV How do we account for the fact that submaximal and rest of cardiac output don t change 0 O 0 It s a balance between the two Even though S V increases at rest and increases from submaxirnal work HR goes the other way But yet you are still able to consume the same amount 0102 The heart is a muscle and if you work it requires oxygen The more it works the more it beats the more frequently it beats ad you exercise the more oxygen it requires Ex measure individuals HR and SV Whiie they are performing work O 0 Train them for 6 months bring them back and do the same work load and same conditions and measure their HR and SV before and after You will see 5V increase and HR increase but at the same time Q stays the same So the trade off is that you are still consuming the same amount of oxygen you are still pumping out the same amount ofblood but you are able to pump out the same amount of blood now because 5 increases through that training of submaxirnal work The HR decreases with submaximal work So the heart doesn t have to beat as frequently to produce the same amount of oxygen consumed or to produce the same amount of blood ow Exercise Physiology APKB 1 109 92915 0 Because the increase SVF increase musculature increase in contractile forces increased blood flow I Heart beats more requires more oxygen 39 Heart beats less requires less oxygen 39 Advantage o The extra oxygen saved can go to the skeletal muscles to perform more work 0 Thereby allowing you to use more oxygen than you were theoretically aisle to extract Q i x SV a Untrained individual 70 mLb eat Trained li itiiuitlual 72 milbeat 5i i iiLi fJUEil Mil i39nilieat Calculate Q Untrained Individual Q 3972 x 70 5040 39 quoti iainctl il39id ththiEii Q Si LDU 0 Training vs Not training V02 For a given Q there is a DECREASE in HR and an iNICREASE in SV 39 Requires less oxygen 0 Deficiency 39 Factors for allowing an increase 39 Training influences the following at rest 0 INCREASE in vagal in uence DECREASE sympathetic drive DECREASE HR 0 SW increases in hiooti flow increases in strength of contraction increases in strength of muscle Ha iall Exercise Physiology APKSllOg 92915 Factors affecting 39 Nervous system response 39 HR 0 Parasympathetic Ach DECREASES o Sympathetic Norepinephrine INCREASES SV 0 Sympathetic Norepinephrine INCREASES I Myocontractility contractile force 0 Frank Starling stretches the myocardium INCREASES I Stretches the myocardium increasing EV o End Diastolic Volume INCREASES The more EV you have the more blood you have i In uenced by Frank Starling and Venus Return 39 More blood more EDV more stretch greater the contractile movement greater the strength of contraction allows Q to decrease I The greater the blood ow the more 02 you can deliver to the tissues the more you can extract from the hlood circulating to the tissues the more you can extract the more you can consume 0 Venus Return INCREASES I The amount of blood returned to the heart 39 Ex you return 10Lrnin you wont pump out more than 10L min I You are only going to pump out as much as you have Lmin beatsmin mLheat or Lbeat Q HR x Strengt of EDV contr action 4 Venus Return Parasympathetic Ach Sympathetic Stretch 1 Frank Starlin g Exercise Physiology 1010 10115 EF SV EDV Ex 72110 1 63 measures of efficiency of heart to pump blood Healthy 5065 Poor ventricular function 50 02 Content m d l J Amer 1m 1 hope a with A a o g onvierir i was loaarmu n run if upth u f Mind venous 021 1 I I u l39 I 3 H V01 C The more intense the exercise mixed venous 02 decreases because you are extracting more blood arteries Less 02 in veins Shaded area difference avOZ difference Increase V02 more 02 needed V02 2 Q x aVOZdiff Venous return to the heart 4 Mechanisms f i One way value encourages flow of blood back to the heart Muscle that surrounds them and the musclepumping activity when you do any movement contractiverelation allows blood to ow back to the heart A significant amount ofpressure greater than blood pressure Respiratory pump Pressure differences moves the air abdominal and thorax have opposite pressures o All deals with pressure differences You create a pressure gradient when you breathe When you inhale thoracic pressure decreases when you inhale thoracic pressure returns the movement of air High in thoracic Low in abdominal and vice versa always opposites to force blood hack into the heart 0 Exercise Physiology APKB 1 1 Us 10 10115 39 When you take air into the lungs take a breath pressure in the thorax is less than pressure in the ambient air 0 That decrease in thoracic pressure allows blood to move from the abdominal cavity with higher pressure to out of the bronchial cavities into the thoracic cavity quot important for heavy intense activity o Glycolytic component in muscles 39 Several different muscles involve diaphragm intercostal muscles sternocleidomastoid etc 0 Have a huge influence on pressure differences 39 A way we can continuously move blood 4 Venoconstrictionr constricting veins reflexing response that encourages that drainng ofthe blood from the muscles important because it reduces the volume of capacity 4 changes pressure and then encourages the flow of blood back to the heart Allowing an increase the oxygen consumption quotshunting of the bloodquot or blood flow redistribution 39 We can increase oxygen with shunting 1020 times greater than rest 39 Cardiac Output must increases for you to do this but there is also a pretty dramatic shift where blood goes 39 2 things can happen that control the distribution or redistribution of BF Dilation or constriction of the EV arteries or veins 39 Dilation of the vein of the working muscles becomes important 9 any artery that leads to a tissue has a greater metabolic demand for oxygen 0 Constriction of blood vessels in the tissues other than working muscles is important 0 Think about it o Ex if you are bicycling at a 20 mph pace You have decrease metabolic demands in the legs 399 it doesn t make much sense to have a lot ofblood flowing to the arms You prioritize Your body makes those adjustments 39 That shift redistribution occurs to shift will take place that encourages more blood flow to the muscles tissues that actually need the blood 139 What we might expect to see with respect to blood flow to working muscles o Plotting blood flow against exercise from rest to mas o If we looked at the response or flow of blood from low point to a more intense point o Mean arterial blood flow would be an average between the pulse pressure Exercise Physiology APK31 1040 10115 39 Has to do with the muscle pumping activity 0 Contract and re lax Q When they contract you find that the ow of blood drops off And when they relax they the flow of blood increases Will continue to do this until it hits the max amount of blood So pumping at rest we can anticipate SmL 100 g of muscle muscle distribution at rest quot39 During heavy exercise we may see values increasing to about 75mL 100 g of muscle 3915 BF lmLlco aF muscle I This may represent as much as 85 of blood 539 39k 39 ow F i 39 39 39 39 l quotl 3 You go from about 15 at rest and it increases malt a considerable amount to 85 at mas o Metabolic demand for oxygen is greater Elevated EP to working muscles are caused by a couple of different factors 1 Muscle pumping activity 2 increase of ow of blood or cardiac output 1 o Creates pressure dramatically increases the volume ow of blood due to circulation 0 You will see the opportunity of more blood to be pushed towards the working muscles 0 You will see dilatation ofin the arteries leading to the skeletal muscle that have a high metabolic demand 0 And constriction of the arterial that leads to the arms that don39t have a high metabolic demand 3 Relaxation of the smooth muscle that surrounds the capillary beds arterials that lead to the capillaries o Venous and arterial side 0 You have these muscles dots around these capillary beds that control the flow ofblood 0 These activity of these smooth muscles or capillary sphincters will change predicated on metabolic demand 39 At rest you find that blood flow in this region probably only means that you have to have one of these capillary beds open The others are shut to satisfy your blood ow and oxygen needs 39 From rest to a heavier form ot activity9 blood ow increases metabolic demand begins to change and things become disrupted o Muscle will contract push out excess amounts of Potassium o All have an effect on the capillary sphincters 9 the friction of constant contraction relation causes heat increase in H ions decrease in pll hypoxia etc Vei n Exercise Physiology APKBllOil 10115 When the capillary sphincters relax blood flows freely into the capillary sphincters locally controlled 0 Monitored by the different effects 0 The capillary sphincters are locally controlled through the disruption of metabolism or increased contraction that alters the biochemistry 39 important Most people have about 6 quarts ofblood in your body lfall the blood Vessels in the circulatory system were open or dilated and at the same time veins and arteries didn t constrict you only have the capacity to hold about 1520 quarts ofblood o So what you have and what the capacity is dramatically different o IF that was the case all ofthe blood vessels being dilated you would probably go into circulatory shock I Just like when people in the military are standing for a long time they go on their toes a little bit to keep their blood circulating in their body Blood Flow to the viscera 39 Blood flow to the viscera liver kidneys intestine when we are exercising He doesn t need a lot 39 You literally can REDUCE the flow ofblood when you are exercising in the visceral tissues by 8 still gets plenty gets what it needs 0 Blood should be sent to a level of high priority I Coronary BF blood flowing into the coronary arteries nerves muscles itself 0 We know that the blood flow through the heart increase because of cardiac output 1 Heart is like any muscle demands energy oxygen nutrients for it to function 0 Anticipate it will lNCREASE 5 6 greater than at rest I Fart of the whole blood flow redistribution 39 BF to the lungs INCREASES needs 02 BF to the brain STAYS SAME in terms of but INCREASES in terms of volume it gets what it needs unlike that liver kidney where we can dictate if they need it or not o All that signaling that goes on in the brain to maintain control of our environment or the event is very important o If BF increases by 50 to the legs BF to the brain will increase that much as well because it controls all these actions 39 BF to the skin ECREASES and then INCREASES 0 increases because it s a mechanism where we dissipate heat 0 If we plot blood flow in the skin from rest to heavy exercise we will see a decrease and then an increase a 239 95 BF 00 a mrdiae 5 7quot ll Exercise Physiology APKSIIDl 10115 Why do we see this occur Takes a while to accumulate heat with timeeffort Once this decrease occurs to gather the heat it needs you will start to see an increase o lNCREASES ow of blood Takes warm blood from the core of the body brain heart etc to the skin at which at a point we create sweat and when sweat evaporates we create heat removes heat from the body 0 ONLY when seat evaporates is when we create heat 0 Changing that into a gas is what removes the heart from the body Ke v D rga n S Re I el M u so i e Wl Plotting blood ow percentage of cardiac output vs V02 Comparing the BF to the organs vs the BF to the skeletal muscles 1585 Usually see about 15 of BF in the skeletal muscle at rest and see about 85 of RF in the organs at rest With heavy exercise they switch 0 Shunting of the bloocl from an area of low priority to an area of high priority occurs TQ 1 V02 Exercise Physiology APK31 10110 10115 HR 5V T Skeletal muscle blood ow I Vasodilation r TSympathetic H activity 1 Vasoconstriction l Parasympathetic activity Venus quot Return if T Skeletaln luscle activity T Respiration Exercise Physiology APKSl 10qu 10115 Pl emodyjna mics the study of the systole wall that is governed byrthe ow of blood 39 MAP and R are the two hemodynamic factors that will dictate Cardiac output a a what cardIac output receives many one place in the body Q 2 102 avgzdiff 39 BP the pressure observed throughout the walls in the blood 39 vessels Q 2 MAP R o It is the force the moves blood through the circulatory system Q E HR X 5V 0 That s what the body is all about 39 R 5 Peripheral Resistance things that resist the flow of blood 0 Antagonistic but its that will compromise cardiac output 3395 mmHg 20 minHg 39 We have a vessel with a pressure at 35 mmHg on the left and 20 mnng on the right 9 pressure will flow left to right Q Will ALWAYS flow from a higher pressure to a lower pressure quot E o SBP contraction of the ventricles top curve 0 DBP relaxation of the ventricles bottom curve 1quot 39 Aorta and the large arteries are in diastole to keep the pressure it needs to encourage the ow of blood to the i 03 systems I mm 7 o V More blood increase the pressure of the system 39 Capillaries NQT elastic one single layer of endothelium mm 9 j cells 0 You don t want to encourage the flow of blood in the capillaries because this is the cite where nutrients are exchanged 0 We not only have very laminar smooth flow to the 2mm capillaries we also have the RBCs which contain r 39 oxygen l I I W I I 74 39 As you get from the large vessels to the small vessels by 7 g 39 39 quot399 39 i T 39 l r the heart you will see a pressure change from 103 cap Han we minilg to about 192 mmHg a lot to a little Lat mg l 39 As exercise more pressures go up vein 0 Because of the decreasing ilow ofblood and because of dilation and constriction of the vessel Exercise Physiology APK31 1040 10115 Resistance is the flow of blood created by friction in blood and the wall of the blood vessel 0 Friction will be increased and it is related to how it will come in contact with the walls of the blood vessels What increases friction 0 Whatever increases friction will increase resistance 391 Viscosity of the blood 0 Viscous or thick I Ex you take Heinz and llnnts ketchup Heinz will flow slower because it is thicker Q Can be changed something you add to the blood 9 by adding proteins more RBC etc 9 which INCREASES the thickness of the blood o increases the thickness increases the friction Length of EV surface area Diameter of the EV 0 Most influential factor 0 D ECREASING the diameter INCREASES frictional resistance 0 More surface area Greater portion of blood will come in contact with the wall I Elasticity plays a factor in the diameter 0 There is an inverse relationship between diameter ofblood flow and peripheral resistance I NM N2 change in diameter 5 Es take a EV that s 4mm and reduce it to a B V that s 2mm 2mm change or N Mi ZXZXZXZ 16 We have taken take the blood vessei and increase the resistance 16 times you have impacted the flow ofblood by increasing the resistance by 16 fold 0 Very subtle changes in the diameter ofthe vessels could cause changes in a very significant magnitude Exercise Physiology APKBilZlDill 10615 Redistribution of ow of blood flow from areas of low to high priority I F low of blood result of you dilating or constricting the blood vessels 39 Inverse relationship between the diameter and the flow of blood or amount of blood that runs to that blood vessel 0 Cardiac Output 9 Q MAPR 0 Peripheral Resistance for maximal exercise PQ I Peripheral RESIStanCB R 0 At rest we have a MAP of 90 and Q of 5 beatsmin 9 R z 1839 mmHgmin 20 39 At maximal energy we have a MAP of 130 mmHg and a Q of 30 beatsmin 399 R Zll mrnllg min 39 What we see 0 At rest R is high and in maximal activity R becomes really low quot We are talking about the importance of reducing resistance to the ow of blood to maximize the volume of blood into a region 39 39 o Commonly see this in skeletal muscle i V A h quotg 7 7 ALA Overtime when metabolism increases above I D W may rest you will see common changes in the resistance in the ow of blood V02 2 min Mean arterialwpressure in response to work maximumheavy exercise 39 MAP increases with increase of metabolism by increasing the work Pmdllced buy increasing the oxygen consumption X 17 m Systolic Blood Pressure M ea n Arte rial Pressure l i a t i l i c B l o od P i s u re Systolic Pressure INCREASES the flow of blood out of the heart 0 Systolic pressure changes because of an increase of pressure which increases the flow ofblood to the heart 39 Diastolic Pressure doesn t change 0 Veryminimal effect DECREASES in R in response to dilation more blood will drain From the arteries from the arterioles into the capillaries 39 MAP change by vulture of an increase in systolic I 7 a a a pressure where diastolic pressure maybe holds R6 max firm ground around 80 mmHg E Exercise Physiology APKB 1 O 1 1 10615 Plow gas is transported in the blood How gas is exchanged at the membranes simple diffusion high to low concentration 0 Simple diffusion allows 02 to move along its pressure gradient high 9 low Q Minute ventilation one minutes worth of breathing 39 Purpose of ventilating load the blood with oxygen also to get rid of some metabolic factors CO 2 H ions 0 When you breath you breath for that sole purpose 0 Breathing dynamics change the rate of breathin g changes and minute ventilation changes as you perform more and more activity 39 issue ofexchange and process ofdiffusion o Load takes place at the alveolar capillary membrane load the blood with oxygen 0 Unloading of oxygen takes place at the tissue capillary membrane pick up carbon dioxide 39 Capillaries are one single layer of epithelial cells importance it puts the RB Cs in extremely close proximity to its heart or place where the gas is exchanged 39 Gas moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a process of diffusion the more concentrated the more pressure it exerts o In order for a gas 02 to move out of lungs into the blood concentrationpressure has to be higher in the lungs than in the blood And as the blood reaches the tissue skeletal muscle you must also think that the concentrationpressure ofOZ in the blood must be greater than in the tissue moves from a higher to a lower pressure 0 The concentrationpressure ofC02 must be greater in the tissue than it is in the blood to take it back to the lungs and the concentration pressure of C02 must be greater in the lungs than it is in the alveolar high 1 low pressure 39 Remember Gas can move along a concentrated and pressure gradient Partial Pressure of Gas oxygen and C02 9 PgasPoZ expressed in mmHgl 39 Most interested in the PP ofOZ and C02 39 Partial pressure of a gas that moves the gas 0 PP ofOZ moves 02 and the PP of 02 moves C02 02 never moves C02 and vice versa quot What do we know about gases 0 Compressible 17 made up of molecules that are moving when they move they bump into things when they collide and concentration is greater the greater the collisions the greater the pressure 0 Exercise Physiology APK311011 10615 Pressure is depended on the number ofcollisions and therefore the number of meieculesThe sreater thenumbsrofccmeiecuies the greater the number of collisions the greater the pressure 39 We can calculate PF 0 0 Need to know the concentration of a gas All gases combined 2 Barometric pressure 939 in uenced by humidity and where you are on the planet I But everyplace has a barometric pressure Barometric pressure the sum total of all the gases in that environment 1 Dalton s law the sum total of PP the sum pressure The PP ofthe gas depends on the total barometric pressure and the fractional concentration of the gas Barometric Pressure 0 2 O 1 39 At sea level Pb 760 mmng 39 Canister filled with oxygen 3 1 139 39 Calculation oFPP ofa gas P02 Pb x Fe Fe frational concentration ota gas 39 P02 760 s 1 760 mmHg N 1 1 0 N1quot 39 Determine What the PP of those gases are l 39 1 Daltonfs Law N 1 em 760 x 020 152 N g N 1 1 Phil 760 x 080 i 6081 Pb 15239 see 760 01 N N 139 5 N a Di 1 Exercise Physiology APKBTll li 10615 I The partial pressure of that gas moves that gas ex PP of 02 moves 02 no other gas Whatever happens to the barometric pressure will have a bearing on the PP of the gas 0 Ex when we go in altitude the barometric pressure goes down j will influence PP ofthe gas The PP of the gas does change but the barometric pressure does change significantly 39 Because the fractional concentration of that gas never changes but the barometric pressure changes significantly 39 What physiological things can be affected 0 When the air you would inhale is taken into the lungs you will see pretty substantial changed in the PP of a gas 939 trachea PP decreases in 1015 minilg because of moisture lungs PP increase I lfyou determine the PP ofOZ in the lungs at 100 mmHg going to be greater than the PP of the blood that comes into the lungs at 40 mmHg 0 C02 is dramatically less Lungs 40 mmHg Tissues 46 mmlig blood coming into the lungs in tissueblood I Substantial changes in PP of a gas 9 trachea 159 mmi lg lungs 100 mm Hg Gastrans ort I Gas is transported by blood Blood function of the circulatory system is to transport gases blood serves as the vehicle and the circulatory system fvessels serve as the highway How blood ispiclted up and transported 0 Hemoglobin molecule made up of proteins proferrin compounds and a mineral called iron I Oxygen loves Pe if you can fully saturate the hemoglobin 02 combining with all the Fe consistently each gram of hemoglobin has the ability to transport 134 mL of 02 constant 39 Oxyhe moglobin transports 985 96 of oxygen 02 binds to Hgb 24 dissolves in the plasma 39 Hemoglobin levels are vital for maximization of oxygen transport lfyou have 15g of hemoglobin how much 02 can you transport per 100 ml of water 15g x 134 mL ofiDZ 201 mL of02 Assuming that you are completely saturated I Oxygen carrying capacity how much 02 you can actually carry Exercise Physiology APllt3110 11 10615 When you begin exercise tissues become in need of proper hydration Take liquid from plasma to keep cells hydrated 0 Changes the ratio of RBCs to the blood itself plasma 0 Artificially increasing the concentration of RBCs bc you are not pulling out the RECr just the liquid9 see an increase of how much 02 can be delivered 39 Ex lfyou have 10 hernoconcentra tion and your hemoglobin is 15 So 10 ofthat would be 15 15 15 2 165 x134 39 Rises from 201mm ofDZ to 2211 mm of02 Shift that happens in your body when after a few minutes of exercise 3939 Hemoconcentration pulling liquid out ofthe plasma into the cell artificially changing the concentration of ratio of Hgb to 02 o you can deliver more 02 you have more to extract if you extract more you have to consume more lfyou consume more then you have the ahilityto preform faster for longer 0 02 carrying capacity is z 134 x hemoglobin Hg bl Hgb 02 HgbOZ 39 Does it make a difference in the lab yes in competition no 39 Saturation in hemoglobin wOZ 9 SOZ quot 00 Saturation amount of oxygen that has actually been combined with hemoglobin the 02 carrying capacity 0 S02 1020 50 I There are several places along the circulatory system when 502 changes 1 Abrupt change as blood enters exits the tissue 39 Several factors that will effect saturation of Hgb w oxygen 1 pH effect on how much 02 on hemoglobin 2 PP ofCOZ 3 Temperature 4 PP ofOZ 9 most influential ofall four factors Exercise Physiology APKBllD ll 10615 Oxygen Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve P01 n55 Red line you can see the curve is kind of odd A m39 Elquot l I 9 Sshaped J 9 o Rises and then at 80 mmHg it levels off 00 39 39quot 39 3910 o Shape is important V x m 02 Carry i1 7 10C mml lg ofOZ in the lungs 601 ED c 7 p Q a which means blood mores Pam 7 through the lungs picks up 02 g i 391 m0 and PP of arterial blood is 100 I 7 7 3 mmll g as it delivers to the tissue km BUHEEFFECT 1 Arterial Blood P02 e 100 mmHg 7 q quot Venus B P02 at the skeletal muscle3 40 20 39 l quot mmHg 391 i I 7 i 0 You can see how easily the diffusion of a 20 Vg u 0 e a We llama 02 takes place into the cell of the msz Am rmly skeletal muscle PO 2 m m 3 0 Relationship between P02 and saturation o Loading of blood ifyou measure the PP of OZ in the alveolar sacks 9 100 mmHg 0 Look at the blood going into the lungs passes through the alveolar capillaries you will see the PP of 02 in that blood is less high 399 low 0 The blood that exits the lungs into the pulmonary veins back into the ventricles is going to be fully saturated and represents the left side of the heart or arterial blood 0 You have blood coming in at 100 mmng V02 and it is easy to see how that gas can diffuse from the blood into the cell 39 Relationship between P02 and 02 carrying capacity 0 You can go to the PP ofClZ at 100 mmHg to 80 mmHg and still not compromise someone s oxygen ow to the blood 39 Would be important for places with different elevations O The steep portion at 40 mmHg you can see that it is about 7 saturated but then 50 02 capacity I Not only fully saturated but partially saturated and no longer carries 20 mL but now it carries 15 mL which tells you have extracted 5 mL 2 indication ofavOZdiff I lMPORTAl lT You can see decreases in barometric pressure that influence the PP of the gas 02 and you don t have dramatic losses in your ability to saturate or carry 02 39 Very subtle changes in PP at the cell influence dramatic changes in what you can extract Exercise Physiology APK3110511 10615 39 Exercise Increases temperature Increases H ions increases C02 tension 0 Curve shifts to the right Bohr Effect 1 PP ofOZ remains the same in the cell at 40 mmeg no effect on the shift 0 Exercising heavily loading as much as we could ifwe were loading at rest and still carrying 20 mL 9 BUT because of the shift there are increase in enzymes to do that activity I Again you have extracted more 9 indication of avDZdiff 39 Starts out w 20 goes up to 7 5 extracted 13 mL 0 important in regards to where you are on the planet different altitudes Exercise Physiology AP KBl 10 13 101515 Pulmonary Ventilation 0 Ve Vi 39 VezRRxTV 0 We lmin RR of breaths you take per min TV the amount of air you take in a breath 4 similar to Q HR R EV just like blood flow o Minute Ventilation at rest you will see values at 710 Lmin Plotting Ve to V02 39 If the increases of We are not proportionate to the increases ofVOZ at least when we get to about 6039 l 70 of maximum then it must not he the amount of air you take in that drives regulates limits the amount of oxygen consumed o if they did they would he proportionate The fact of the matter is it is NOT proportionate so therefore minute ventilation does NOT limit your ability to consume oxygen 0 Comparing minute ventilation in an untrained person with a trained person 0 Untrained 100110 Lmin o Trained 160180 Lmin Shows a relatively dramatic V79 7 1 RES quot3quot improvement 39 ma 39 Due primarily to the fact that the respiratory V 0 1 muscles improve What limits your aloility to consume oxygen NOT ventilation 39 If you were to plot the volume of C02 produced and We you would see the relationship is a little different 0 LlNEAR response I Suggests that the more oxygen you consume the more C02 you will produce and the more you need to ventilate to get rid of it 39 The amount of C02 produces drives ventilation o The C02 produced is what causes you to breath more frequently V001 Exercise Physiology APKBI 1013 101515 Energy Costs ofVe Any muscle from the body requires oxygen to function 39 At rest you are probably required 1a2 of your oxygen needs of ventilation 0 At rest respiratory muscles have to work contract overcome the restrictive fOrCES of the thorax 9 all require energy and oxygen to transpire that energy 0 The oxygen cost of breathing 39 The 02 of Vie against Ve le At rest 23 of your oxygen is going to be ventilated 39 Suggests that the harder you work the more work you perform the more intense the work the more you ventilate the greater the oxygen required to support those respiratory muscles involved taking in more air 39 Trained individuals commonly have lower submaximal x ventilation I Max max 39 Ex lfyou are in a lab and train on a bike work at a certain 295139 force 9 observe that you are ventilating 50 of V02 max at SOLmin 39 Then you are brought back into the lab after several months of training some workload same conditions not ventilating SOLmin anymore now ventilating 65 illmin 1K 39 So if We look at this in context to the energy cost of breathing o So if you follow this over to 50 of V02 E requiring you 6 of oxygen to support ventilation 0 But not as a trained person you are ventilating less and only require 3 39 The less ventilator requirement for oxygen due to training the more can be made available to the working muscles If at Exercise Physiology APK311013 101515 Respiratory Control I Everything is monitored in some fashion and is feed back to the brain which then make the decisions about what processes need to he enabled 0 Hypothalamus where a lot of this control is exerted 0 We can regulate cardiovascular respiratory center o Where the process goes on and decisions are made to stimulate the body s response 0 Input from o Lungs 0 Heart I N 7 All feed in to the cardiovascular 0 Blood Vessels respiratory center in the O Bram hypothalamus o MusclesJoint stretch 0 Temperature The way you signal these centers Neural stimuli takes place in the higher brain systems 0 More importantly mental conditions neural stimuli stretch to the lungs limb movement 0 Ex ifwe are going to run we start thinking about and anticipating the activity 39 Humeral stimuli stimuli that changes the physical or chemical properties of the blood 0 Changes in pH Change of the chemical property of blood Change in concentrations Change in 02002 content Change oftemperature Change of pressure Change in H ion content All change how the cardiorespiratory center responds I Most are indirect sensed through senses throughout the hody quot Ex Sense BP haroreceptors sense the amount of DZCOZ that flows around sense the amount of H ions accumulated g sends more feedback to the brain 39 Increase pressure Increase stimulated Increase sensory feedback in the hypothalamus 39 Temperature works both indirectly and directly 0 Directly receptors that monitor temperature throughout the loody o Indirectly feeds back to the hypothalamus OOOOOD Exercise Physiology APK311013 101515 I Blood hathes hypothalamus and the blood that passes through the hypothalamus can sense the temperature of the blood LUNGS Increase TV RR and Vlz 39 Increases all three through the sematic motor neurons that innervate the lungs 39 Release Ach 39 Ach will dictate which needs to he more active Hypothalamus Heart 1 Increase BPMi and 5V 39 Both dictated by increasing norepinephrine O Sympathetic effect accelerates the heart beat and increases the strength of contraction Increase in epinephrine quot increase in Hemoglobin 4 Strengthens contraction Blood Vessels I constriction and dilation 39 just not the amount of blood that you push out of the heart it is also how you selectively increase the flow of blood to areas on importance and minimize areas that are less important 39 Motor nerves that innervate the smooth muscles of the blood vessel and also belong to the autonomic nervous system Sympathetic vasoconstriction go to almost all the body s arterioles and veins and stimulates 9 either causing venoconstriction or vasoconstriction 0 Through norepinephrine and epinephrine adrenal medulla Sympathetic 39vasod ilatation only innervate the arterioles of skeletal and cardiac muscles 0 When Ash is released causes vasodilation I Muscle of the skeletal system in the heart that you would need to dilate Exercise Physiology j APK311013 T1102 Muscle Contractmn 101515 gt T02 blood Blood ggw A i ACH J Brood How Kidneys Liver GM Tract ACH Nonworking muscle A NE Err NE EP Hypothalamus 39 EPI l e Adrenal Medu a Cardio Respiratory Center What is ATP Applied Exercise Physiology Review Guide Exam I September 22 2015 How does it function How is ATP formed What is the role of PCr in the formation of ATP 0 ATP Adenosine Pi Pi Pi triphosphate the main energy currency of the body the only energy currency for muscles to do work 0 Think of ATP as money that can be used to power your muscles 0 Function splitting phosphate bonds to produce large amounts of energy 0 O O The energy stored in these bonds can be drawn upon to do work ATPase ATP ADP Pi Energy allows work lt gt Here we took the chemical energy in ATP released it converted it into mechanical energy WORK some heat energy is released as a result of this ATP is an adenosine molecule one of the bases of DNA attached to three phosphates When one phosphate is cleaved energy is released during the cleavage One thing you will notice is everything in the body is controlled via adding a phosphate to something or taking a phosphate off Formed glycolysis D citric acid cycle D ETC phosphocreatine CK D ATP and creatine breakdown of carbsproteinsfats ADK 2AP D 1ATP 1AMP O 0 ATP is produced in the mitochondria powerhouse of the cell D where we can produce vast amounts energy but requires oxygen to do that doesn t need oxygen to be degraded or hydrolyzed ATP is locatedstored in the cytoplasm of the cell close proximity to the myo laments contractile proteins that allows the muscle to contract some small amount is produced in the krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondria anaerobic provides energy quickly but doesn t sustain it for long close proximity needs oxygen to replenish it 0 Role of PCr 0 Don t have that much ATP only lasts for 23 secs so other energy storage forms donate energy since ATP doesn t last very longlj Creatine Pi creatine phosphate When we hydrolyze ATP we create energy phosphorous ow and we create ADP The cells monitor the ratio of ATP to ADP CK is regulated by the ADPATP ratio Cr Pi Energy CK Creatine PK gt 0 When the ADP levels get high or ATPADP ratio gets out of whack the system knows very quickly there is a demand for energy so creatine kinase enzyme is activated breaking the bonds between Cr and Pi creating more energy allows us to perform another several seconds of work D this energy is then involved in muscle contraction 2 Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism Aerobic Metabolism quotwith oxygenquot or quotslow glycolysisquot since it takes a long time to utilized but provides much more energy 0 O O O O Occurs in the mitochondria Sole purpose is to produce energy large amounts using 02 Starts 34 min into activity End product is pyruvate in anaerobic metabolism it goes an extra step to lactate Pyruvate is in the cytoplasm of the cell During rest mainly using aerobic metabolism Substrate fat Lactate Production minimal 10mg100mL of blood 02 consumption 250 mLmin can vary by size of person Acetyl CoA An interesting thing about Aerobic glycolysis is that pyruvate doesn t produce lactic acid Pyruvate will go into the mitochondrial membrane A couple events occur 1 Remove a carbon consume oxygen to give off carbon dioxide photosynthetic process and that s where the carbon goes 2 Acetate with coenzyme A to produce Acetyl CoA so the 3C pyruvate is converted to a 2C acetate which couples with coenzyme A to form Acetyl CoA Anaerobic Metabolism quotwithout oxygenquot or quotfast glycolysisquot since it supplies energy fast and is used when we need energy right away 0 O O O O Occurs in the cytoplasm 1mol 6C molecule D 2mol 3C molecules known as lactate D ATP Generates ATP End product Lactic acid NADH reduces pyruvate to create lactic acid AKA Lactic acid system because that is the nal byproduct Lactic acid can cause pain lower pH and also be used for energy production Lactic Acid changes the PH D cell usually functions under a ne range PH and if you disrupt that range D cell doesn t work as ef ciently Lactic Acid coupled with running out glucose fuel D you will start to walk NO longer at an intense pace Ends with 3 ATP from Anaerobic Glycolysis but if the blood transfers in the glucose it will cost 1 ATP making the end total now 2 ATP o Glucose stored in the muscle can be quickly broken down and used 0 Primary concern To take whatever substrate we have available that enables us to continue to perform work in a long term basis to release energy so we can take that energy from the derogation of this 1 mole of glucose to allow ADP and Pi to be coupled to form ATP ATP production starts with glycolysis in the cell s cytosol The sixcarbon molecule is cleaved over many steps into two threecarbon molecules called pyruvate This is known as anaerobic respiration since oxygen is nowhere in the equation At this point the pyruvate can form lactate to keep glycolysis running if ATP is needed fast during intense exercise or it can enter the cell s mitochondria Once it enters the mitochondria it is committed to aerobic respiration and it is known as such This process is very lengthy but produces much more energy than glycolysis alone Oxygen is the nal electron receptor for this Describe glycolysis Glycolysis breaking down glucose to make more ATP don t need oxygen to do that o Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell 0 Start with glucose go through a bunch of reactions end with pyruvate Anaerobically intense exercise glucose becomes lactate Aerobically glucose becomes acetyl coA 0 Rate limiting enzyme PFK Inducible enzyme to increase or reduce reactivity of the enzyme Gatekeeper enzyme if you don t instigate its actions or don t have enough of the ingredients it could inhibit the glycolytic process Key enzyme in the whole process Levels of ADP PH etc act on the enzyme to turn reaction on oro o 1 mol 6C degraded until we have 2 3C molecules 0 In the two reactions NADNADH is a transporter in the ETC used in oxidation acceptorsreduction donors reactions this is what happens when we have pro ciencies of oxygen when oxygen is abundant different events occur 0 Almost all steps are reversible 0 We can also get glucose from the blood but only in AEROBIC conditions enters into glucose6phosphate NOT under ANAEROBIC conditions doesn t happen quickly don t normally depend on blood as a source of fuel so NOT immediate Anaerobic glycolysis ends with 3 ATP from but if the blood transfers in the glucose it will cost 1 ATP making the end total now 2 ATP Describe the Krebs Cycle and ETS Krebs Cvcle Acetic Acid CvclePCA Cvcle o Occurs when oxygen is available 0 If energy isn t required right away endurance exercise Instead of forming lactate pyruvate will enter the cell s mitochondria Once it enters the mitochondria known as the powerhouse of the cell it has committed to aerobic respiration Once inside it will form acetylcoA along with a NADH this is irreversible As acetylcoA it will go through many reactions which release C02 this is what we exhale and they will also form NADH and FADH2 along with a GTP In the Krebs cycle we will take the 6C compound citric acidD high energy state recon gure it pull some electrons off cut off carbons until we end up with OAA or a 4C compound Beginning of Krebs take Acetyl CoA and couple it with citric acid Alphaketoglutarate is no longer a 6C molecule its now a 5C molecule which means that we have removed 1C and that C is let off as C02 NAD then comes in and takes off another electron and AKG is oxidized to Succinate Acid 4C compound once again we removed a C last C we will remove When you break off the last C we get a release of energy in the form of 1 GTP that is the same as 1 ATP energy that we can use to contract muscles Bvitamins involves in creating energylj FAD Ribo avin NAD Niocin For every 6C compound G6P we get 2 ATP from the Krebs cycle compared to glycolysis starting with glycogen gets us 3 ATP All ATP molecules are produced by substrate level phosphorylation TOTAL 4 NADH 1 FADH2 and 1 GTP but remember that we have two pyruvates so we double everything to give 6 C02 8 NADH 2 FADH and 2 GTP 3638 ATP depending on the starting point 0 Electron Transport ChainSystem Respiratory Chain how we produce energy in the mitochondria each electronsH s is transported to the ETC 0 O O 0 Need oxygen for this to effectively work NADH and FADH are thought of as quotenergy vouchersquot they don t have any energy until they reach the ETC They produce the bulk of ATP that cellular respiration yields There are four complexes that make up the chain and each complex takes away electrons from the NADH and FADH The very last complex takes all the electrons and uses them to form an ATP molecule Oxygen is the nal electron acceptor and this is why we need to breathe oxygen to live Think of the complexes as a tower the NADH enters the top tower and then enters the second complex underneath it and so on till it reaches the last one and forms energy At each complex electrons are pumped out of the NADH At the last complex there is enough electrons to form 3 ATP So each NADH forms 3 ATP FADH2 enters the second complex so it skips the rst one This means that fewer electrons are pumped out of FADH2 so the last complex only forms 2 ATP So each FADH2 forms 2 ATP Eventually the electrons combine with hydrogen ions and oxygen reduction to produce water It is the nal stage or aerobic respiration 0 Ex Like a waterfall You can watch the beauty of the waterfall and it looks great but that s all it is But if you gure out a way to funnel water through a channel something like a tube and if something inside the tube rotates and churns the water you can generate powerelectricity So when the waterfalls over the waterfall and if you harness it properly you will generate energy This is essentially what is happening here You take the electrons and you take it to the top of the falls and it falls over and goes through speci c chemical channels that release energy to form ATP Krebs 30 ATP Aerobic Glycolysis 9 ATP 39 ATP FAD 2 ATP NAD 2 ATP 5 Compare and contrast the three energy systems ALWAYS go through the same sequenceljl ATPPC Anaerobic Glycolysis Aerobic Metabolism o The intensity and duration will determine the prevalence of that energy system to supplying energy for that effort 0 Always start out with ATP and work to provide energy to replace ATP 0 ATP can be formed by breaking down CP so it will release its energy to reform Pi ADP ATP which then can be hydrolyzed in the muscle so it can continue to contract D provides a shift towards anaerobic gycoysis If the event is a longer amount submaximal you will see a great dependence of aerobic metabolism 0 ATP CP 0 No reliance on oxygen Supplies energy for no more than 68 seconds To get its power it uses quothigh energyquot stored body chemicals Ex power and weight lifters Anaerobic Glycolysis quotwithout oxygenquot 0 When quotsteady statequot is breached by increasing our efforts and using more energy 0 Produces lactate o Supplies energy for up to 90 seconds Aerobic Metabolism quot with oxygenquot 0 Called quotsteady statequot because the body s energy demands are balanced by energy supply This allows us to continue to exercise hence the quotsteady statequot 0 Provides a base of tness 0 Ex distance running 0 Fat is a fuel source Aerobic training increases the body s ability to mobilize fat as an energy source at submaximal intensities as well as improving carbohydrate metabolism 0 As the exercise extends in time your begin to provide more and more energy 0 We use some combination of fats and carbs to get from point A to point B to support Aerobic energy production Ranking Energy Systems by Exercise 0 By Rate 1 ATPPC fastest allows it to occur almost instantaneously 3 moles 2 Lactic Acid System Anaerobic Glycolysis 16 moles 3 Aerobic Metabolism By capacity of ATP produced 1 Aerobic Metabolism 100 moles of ATP capacitywise 2 Anaerobic Glycolysis 12 moles 4 ATPPC system 07 moles 6 Describe oxygen de cit and oxygen debt during light and heavy exercise 0 Oxygen De cit The difference between 02 consumed and 02 that would have been consumed had an individual had reached steady state immediately 0 It is critical to understand that prior to reaching steady state the body must produce energy anaerobically until steady state is reached 0 Our body uses a certain amount of oxygen while we are resting The once we start to exercise a gap between the amount of oxygen that our body needs to be in quotsteadystate and the amount that we currently have since we were resting is created our body has to ll this gap So we have to get this oxygen from increasing our core body temperature increasing our metabolism ventilating faster etc This gap is called the oxygen de ciency we are de cient in the amount of oxygen that our body needs to exercise 0 There is a difference between what you need to do the work and what you can actually provide 0 We just cannot engage in the aerobic system fast enough to do this kind of work right away 0 NEVER will be able to provide all the energy aerobically 0 Will ALWAYS be in De cit the difference between oxygen you can consume and the amount you actually consume Start accumulating lactate when we are in de cit D depends on the intensity of the exercise so lactate amount varies o De cit Increase H ions D lncrease lactate D Decrease muscle glycogen D Decrease ATPPC Exercise 0 Oxygen Debt Amount of oxygen consumed during recovery excluding the amount of oxygen which would have been consumed at rest during that same time 0 So right after exercise our body has this oxygen debt to settle Physiologically our body is recycling lactate lowering its core temperature making enzymes replenishing glycogen etc This all results in an elevated metabolism post exercise and the period where your metabolism is elevated is called the EPOC excess post oxygen consumption 7 speci cally the alactaid and o Bc we have gone from point A to point B bc we equated lactate and depleted fuels D you have a debt to pay to replace it 0 Debt in the form of excess oxygen being consumed during recovery D EPOC E EPOC Excess Post Oxygen Consumption o 2 components in respect to oxygen debt 1 How long does it take to recover to get back to baseline 0 The time of recovery timeplace it takes to get back to the baseline 2 How much oxygen you consume during that time 0 Oxygen consumed during recovery excluding the amount of oxygen which would ve been consumed during rest during that same time Relationship between the de cit and the debt occurred because you weren t able to supply what you need immediately bc it took 24 minutes to do that 0 Debt will always be larger than the de cit o What you borrow from the bank will always be a larger amount than what you borrowed Durinq light vs heavv exercise 0 During light exercise the oxygen de ciency is smaller as expected less oxygen is needed since the intensity is lighter During heavy exercise the de ciency is much greater and is actually never closed completely Describe what occurs in the phases of oxygen debt lactaid portions There are two phases of oxygen debt Fast and Slow Recovery from strenuous exercise with higher lactate levels body temp and hormones levels increase substantially this is the slow phase which also induces the fast phase and can last up to 24 hours for complete recovery Train subjects have a faster recovery rate Lactate accumulation from anaerobic component represented the use of glycogen so the ensuing 02 debt served two purposes 0 Reestablishing the original glycogen stores by synthesizing approx 80 of lactate back to glycogen in the liver Cori Cyle o Catabolizing remaining lactate through pyruvateTCA cycle pathway ATP generated presumably powered by glycogen resynthesized from lactate Alactacid 02 debt rapid phase oxygen debt without lactate buildup fast replenishment 0 Amount of oxygen required to replenish stores of ATP and PC in muscle tissue It is replaced by Aerobic Metabolism which is why it happens so quickly 23 min 0 Restoration of ATP and CP using energy provided from breakdown of stored macronutrients carbs fats proteins 0 Small restoration of hemoglobin and myoglobin 8 9 and heavy exercise Rest Aerobic Glycolysis Beta oxidation using a mixture of all three fuels CHO protein plays a small amount and fat a mixture of 4060 fats vs carbs seems like there will be NO lactate produced but in reality there is some lactate being produced 10mg per 100 mL of blood always some leaking O Alactaid is just the portion of the oxygen debt that does not involve anything with lactate so this is mostly with light exercise Lactacid 02 debt slow phase oxygen debt associated with elevated lactate levels slow replenishment O O O O O Lactate removal in addition to other things requiring energy Amount of 02 required to remove lactate from the muscles With 02 available majority of lactate is converted to pyruvate and oxidized to C02 and H20 while also releasing the remainder of energy from lactate Some converts back to glycogenglucose small portion to protein Active recovery aids in lactate removal by maintaining greater supply of blood to muscle may take an hour This phase is responsible for converting lactic acid to glycogen in liver Cori cycle Updated theory of EPOC lactate removal in addition to other things requiring energy Lactaid portion is the recycling of the lactate to the liver This is mostly during high intensity and heavy exercise How is lactate formed during glycolysis What are the conditions under which it is formed Lactate is produced to keep glycolysis running but the breakdown of lactate produces H ions The buildup of these cause the blood around the muscles to become more acidic and once enough ions buildup our body has a buffer to clear them but once the intensity gets high enough the buffer can t keep up enough the high acidity leave 0 O 0000 NADH gives electrons to pyruvate to produce lactate Lactate will be produced when we are in de cit The more intense the effort the more lactate we will accumulate Inhibits the mobilization of fatty acids Occurs during Anaerobic Glycolysis in the absence of oxygen 5570 will be converted back to pyruvate to use as a fuel Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell Lactate is the main contributor to exhaustion A decrease in muscle glycogen D lack of fuel D inhibits muscle contraction l FATIGUE An increase in H l inhibits muscle contraction l FATIGUE What is the primary fuel for rest light to moderate exercise REST FAT CHO Aerobic Metabolism HLA 10 mgdl small amount in the system so it does produce SOME lactate 0 Light to Moderate Exercise Long Duration exhausted in 60 minutes submaximal intensity rst anaerobic until it reaches 23 minutes in then turns into aerobic metabolism fat is used as a fuel quotsteady statequot suggest that the de cit may in fact disappear during that long submaximal effort Heavv Exercise Short Duration exhausted in 2 minutes maximum intensity sprinted as hard as you could ATPPC Anaerobic Glycolysis some aerobic contribution under this condition you will never ever just get aerobic metabolism supporting that 2 min worth of max intensity carbohydrates in the form of muscle glycogen will use the energy stored ATP very quickly you will use the energy stored in CP to make more ATP very quickly and you will depend on anaerobic glycolysis to provide energy that is released by the derogation of blood glucose from muscle glycogen also very quickly And as time goes on you will have a little more contribution from aerobic metabolism The once we start to reach hard and maximal exercise our body shifts to using carbohydrates for fuel Even though fat produces much more ATP than carbohydrates SHORTEDNIIJEIEENMAX carbohydrates are preferred Carbs are superior when oxygen is limited ATPPC 39d CH0 glycogen The longer the event the Anaerob1c some aerob1c more aerobic the event HLA 175mgd1 will be Absence of oxy 13 the mam 10 Describe active and passive recovery What effect do they have on lactate removal 0 Active Recovery 0 4060 of activity 0 Recovery after hard exercise where the muscles are moving so jogging at the end of a track workout or race 0 Active recovery stimulates lactate removal By contracting your muscles blood ow is increased and this increases lactate clearance o Lactate is recycled in the liver and reforms glycogen and by increasing blood ow more lactate will enter the liver and by recycled to produce energy for 4060 of active recovery This is called the Cori Cycle 0 Passive Recovery 0 ldle rest no movement 0 Simply just standing still after exercise Presuming that total inactivity reduces resting energy requirements freeing oxygen to fuel recovery process ex massage cold showers body positions consuming cold liquids 11 What is the fate of lactic acid 0 8090 goes to the Krebs cycle for energy production 0 Can also go to the Cori Cycle 0 Becomes pyruvate D glycogen goes back to the blood D liver makes new glucose 0 Lactate is converted to pyruvate which can then become glycogen in the blood where it is transported to the liver to make new glucose to begin the set of reactions again OR once converted to pyruvate can then be converted to acetyl coA to enter the Cori Cycle 0 Can interfere with PFK rate limiting enzyme slowing down glycolysis 0 CH0 in the diet are critical for replenishing glycogen stores 0 45 days to fully restore HLA D glycogen not dependent on diet o It is recycled in the liver and actually forms a lot of glycogen So lactate is actually pretty useful in the body 12 Draw a segment of the myo lament showing two sarcomeres A bands Z lines thin laments thick laments and H zones Explain the difference between the appearance of a relaxed versus contracted muscle l quotI Miss Hanna 2 ism I TTITTTTfquotZI TTZ39ITTTT39II39 r K 3911 f A quot7 quot quott 7quot r T w 7 a 39 3quotquot Thlrllaclln llamalit L 39 Thick m39lilnsinHilaIrnerll g Remus fracas L111 Ed HE MT l fig m Ti a l l CTI TquotquotquotVquot39Z39ZIIINST r TTCTT ZZCCTTETCeTZ ICCT Aband Mlma l I MVW l I I 39 77 mg A r F SErcunmere h 39I 311 Overview of the muscle 0 Myo laments actin and myosin D helps muscle actually develop tension Myosin red very large thick protein Actin blue thin protein less weight oActin is anchored to the zdiscs o Myosin and Actin are contractile protein Sarcomere the smallest functional unit of the myo ber Spreads from zdisc to zdisc oHelps determine what the muscle can actually do 13 o Actin is shared by conjoining sarcomeres Iband Lighter in appearance made of actin oLocated right down the center of the zdisc Aband Darker in appearance more content made of actin AND myosin oRight in the center of two zdiscs Hzone all you can see is the myosin oRight down the middle of the A band o The sarcomere is the smallest structural unit if the muscle ber Its boundaries are known as Zdiscs Striations are due to light disbursement on muscle myo laments dispersed by the proteins actin and myosin is contained in the sarcomere and actin is anchored to the Zline and overlaps the sarcomere In the middle is the Hzone The A band is darker than the Iband due to density and actin and myosin are present here on the Mline Appearance of relaxed vs contracted muscle 0 Upon contraction the A bands do not change in length whereas the Ibands and the Hzone shortens causing the Zlines to come closer together During rest the A band is visible as dark transverse lines across myo bers the Iband is visible as lightly staining transverse lines and the Zline is visible as dark lines separating sarcomeres at the lightmicroscope level During contraction the Zline discs move closer together with Actin and myosin being the protein laments responsible for contraction The Z disks on the sarcomere are literally pulled closer together they contract and thus the I band will decrease size in length since being pulled together The H zone will disappear as it is covered via the sliding action How does nerve stimulation lead to contraction What is the role of calcium in this process Skeletal Muscle Contraction In order for to contract a skeletal muscle must 0 O O 0 Must be nerve stimulation that innovates muscle activity comes through the muscle from a nerve ending An action Potential propagation of an electrical current will then run along the sarcolemma An increase in intercellular Calcium levels if contraction occurs FINAL trigger for contraction ExcitationContraction excite the nerve stimuli release Ca through that excitement l contraction of the muscle In order for contraction to occur there must be stimulation by a nerve ending It then propagates an electrical current or action potential along the sarcolemma The action potential results in a change of voltages and membrane permeability it moves to the axon terminal at the neuromuscularjunction where the synaptic vesicles contain ACH a neurotransmitter Via exocytosis ACH moves across the synaptic cleft binds to the ACHtransferase receptors and the NaK channels open Na is abundant on the outside and then changes inside outside ligand gated channels Propagating an action potential and countering fatigue depends on maintaining steep NaK gradients Decreased gradients severely affect muscle ber excitability and contractile performance 0 The muscle action potential depolarizes the ttubule causing Ca2 to be released from the terminal cisternae of the SR which in turn binds to Troponin on the actin causing a conformational change Once it binds to troponin tropomyosin is signaled to move from the gactin binding sites so the myosin head can bind Once attached the head pulls the laments together This is called excitationcontraction coupling The Z disks on the sarcomere are literally pulled closer together they contract and thus the I band will decrease size in length since being pulled together The H zone will disappear as it is covered via the sliding action Contraction will occur as long as the intramuscular concentration of calcium remains high as this is removing the typomyosin When the stimuli is over Ca2 is pumped back into the cisternae via CaATPase pump 14 Describe the difference between a muscle ber myo bril and myo lament Muscle Fiber cylindrical multinucleate cell composed of numerous myo brils that contracts when stimulated Myo bril any of the treadlike brils that make up the contractile part of a striated muscle ber 0 The sarcomere is another name for the myo bril and it is the smallest contractile unit of the ber and it repeats many times along the muscle and this gives origin to the striated patterns Myo lament any of the ultramicroscopic laments made up of actin and myosin which are structural units of a myo bril 0 Looking at an individual sarcomere you will see proteins called the myo laments These are the actin thin band and myosin thick band that you will hear so much about The sarcomere is separated into different segments depending on the presence of different myo laments The l band meaning isotropic contains just actin and the A band meaning anisotropic contains both actin and myosin Now in the middle of the A band is the H zone which is just myosin Then further dissecting the H zone is the M line which is just proteins to keep the actin and myosin in the correct spatial arrangement during contraction Then the Z disks separate each sarcomere since the ber is composed of hundreds to millions 15 What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum Explain how the SR is involved in contraction 16 contraction and relaxation 17 The sarcoplasmic reticulum SR is an extensive longitudinal laticelike network of tubular channels and vesicles It provides structural integrity to the cell It allows the wave of depolarization to spread rapidly from the bers outer surface to its inner environment through the ttubule system to initiate muscle action 0 The SR that surrounds each myo bril contains biologic pumps that take up Ca2 from the bers sarcoplasm producing a calcium concentration gradient between the SR higher and the sarcoplasm surrounding the laments lower Ca2 is released from the terminal cisternae of the SR Explain the role of troponin and tropomyosin in muscle Now to learn how the muscles actually contract So right now imagine two rows of sarcomeres just sitting at rest so there is no contracting going on and the muscle is not generating force The sliding lament theory is the theory of how a muscle contraction occurs Actin which is also called the thin lament is a globular protein The globes of actin wrap around each other to form a coil shape Each individual globe has a myosin binding site for the myosin head to attach to for the contraction but this is covered by a regulatory protein called trypomyosin So the trypomyosin wraps around the globe covering all of the myosin binding sites So how does myosin bind during contraction On every 7th globe there is another regulatory protein called troponin that is positioned on top of the trypomyosin When Ca2 is present and binds to troponin it will literally pull the trypomyosin out of the way exposing the binding sites for the myosin head Overview 0 Troponin sits apot Tropmyosin on the actin lament The attachment of Ca2 to Troponin allows Tropomyosin to move exposing the myosin binding sites Tropomyosin is the skinny protein that wraps around each actin lament Both Troponin and Tryomyosin are regulatory proteins Cause muscle contraction How is ATP involved in skeletal muscle contraction ATP binds to the myosin head forming ADP P When the Ca2 exposes the binding sites on the actin laments the myosin heads bind to the actin to form cross bridges ADP and P are released causing a change of shape of the myosin heads generating the sliding motion of actin toward the center of the sarcomere This pulls the zdiscs together effectively contracting the muscle ber to produce a power stroke ATP causes the cross bridge to unbind when a new ATP attaches to the myosin head the cross bridge between actinmyosin breaks recocking returning the myosin head to its unattached position Without adding new ATP the cross bridges would remain attached this is why corpses become stiff with rigor mortis 1 The quicker the myosin hydrolysis ATP the faster the cross bridge turnover leading to quicker shortening velocity 18 What is the role of ATPase in muscle contraction 0 ATPase breaks down ATP so energy is released and used to form actin myosin bridges It also breaks down ATP so energy is used in breaking the actinmyosin bridges o This is also the enzyme that determines if a muscle ber is slow or fast twitch o It is stimulated by calcium ions 19 What are the main ber types in skeletal muscle and how do they differ The three ber types are type 1 2a and 2X They are also called Slow twitch type 1 and fast twitch type 2a and 2x and this refers to the speed of contraction of the ber 0 When looked at in vitro the muscle was stimulated isometrically and this enabled the time to peak tension to be recorded Fast twitch bers took 1215 mmsec to reach peak tension and slow twitch took 5070 mmsec Tvoe 1 bers RED 0 Considered the slow twitch bers 0 Rely on oxidative enzymes to supply energy 0 They are rich in mitochondria l thus take a while to fatigue 0 They are rich in capillaries and myoglobin which make sense to supply them with all the oxygen they need for oxidative metabolism Many mitochondria and many blood capillaries 0 Have a slow contraction velocity very resistant to fatigue 0 Have high capacity to generate ATP by oxidative metabolism processes 0 These muscles are small compared to its fast twitch counterparts O 0 Type 2a 0 An intermediate of type 1 and type 2X o It is a fast twitch ber 0 Some oxidative properties so it has a high amount of mitochondria 0 Contains large amounts of glycogen 0 Unlike type 1 it is larger less blood capillary density and less myoglobin o This ber is also called the fast oxidative ber TVDe 2X WHITE 0 Opposite of type 1 o It is very fast contraction velocity and very fatigable Generates ATP anaerobically not able to supply muscle bers continuously wit suf cient ATP Relies mainly on glycogen and CP those immediate energy sources lts muscles are large have low capillaries myoglobin and mitochondria This is also called the fast glycolytic ber Because of its glycolytic reliance it has a highly developed sarcoplasmic reticulum Found in large numbers in muscles in the arm 20 What is the relationship between ber type distribution and performance Based on someone s muscle ber percentage we can predict what sport 21 they compete in 0 Slow twitch muscle bers A long distance runner These bers favor long endurance events Fast twitch bers It is reversed in sprinters 5050 ratio of fast to slow twitch Weightlifters and sedentary individuals What is a motor unit and what is its responsibility in muscle contraction It is made up of a motor neuron and skeletal muscle bers that are innervated by that axon Groups of motor units often work together to coordinate the contraction of a single muscle All of the motor units in a muscle are considered a motor pool Basically its responsibility is to innervate the muscle bers by way of an action potential Source Lectures lab and textbook chapters 57 18 and 21 pp 46467 Physiology of Exercise Review Guide Exam ll October 29 2015 Chapters 12 13 1517 20 lab and lecture notes 1 Know what factors explain a high percentage of fat use at low intensities with a low use of carbohydrates and the opposite occurring during high intensity exercise Rest Aerobic Glycolysis Beta oxidation using a mixture REST FAT CHO Aerobic Metabolism HLA 10 mgdl small amount of all three fuels CHO protein plays a small amount and fat a mixture of 4060 fats vs carbs seems like there will be NO lactate produced but in reality there is some lactate being produced 10mg per 100 mL of blood always some leaking in the system so it does produce SOME lactate primary source of fuel FAT Light to Moderate Exercise Long Duration exhausted in 60 minutes submaximal intensity rst anaerobic until it reaches 2 3 minutes in then turns into aerobic metabolism fat is used as a fuel steady statequot suggest that the de cit may in fact disappear during that long submaximal effort Heavy Exercise Short Duration exhausted in 2 minutes maximum intensity sprinted as hard as you could ATPPC Anaerobic Glycolysis some aerobic contribution under this condition you will never ever just get aerobic metabolism supporting that 2 min worth of max intensity carbohydrates in the form of muscle glycogen will use the energy stored ATP very quickly you will use the energy stored in CP to make more ATP very quickly and you will depend on anaerobic glycolysis to provide energy that is released by the derogation of blood glucose from muscle glycogen also very quickly And as time goes on you will have a little more contribution from aerobic metabolism The once we start to reach hard and maximal exercise our body shifts to using carbohydrates for fuel Even though fat produces much more ATP than carbohydrates carbohydrates are preferred Carbs are superior when oxygen is limited i The longer the event the more aerobic the event will be SHORT DURATIONMAX ENERYGY ATPPC and CH0 glycogen Anaerobic some aerobic HLA 175 mgdl Absence of oxy is the main A A1A111A A1 2 Know the two general ways hormones signal physiological and metabolic changes in the body eg differences between lipid soluble and lipid insoluble signaling 0 There are two classes of hormones lipid soluble and lipid insoluble o Lipid soluble or Steroid Hormone Made from cholesterol Diffuse through membranes right into the cell and act directly on a receptor near the nucleus Once bound to the receptor it can act directly on the DNA to regulate mRNA synthesis Secreted by four major glands Adrenal cortex ovaries testes placenta Ex testosterone aldosterone cortisol and estrogen o Nonsteroid Hormones Not derived from a steroid Cannot cross membranes Act through a second messenger system receptors are on the cell membrane Divided into two groups Peptide protein hormones 0 Most nonsteroid hormones insulin and glucagon 0 From pancreas hypothalamus pituitary gland Amino acidderived hormones o Thyroid hormones T3 T4 0 Adrenal medulla hormones NE Epi 3 A Be able to describe how catecholeamines raise blood glucose levels 0 Both catecholeamines and glucagon have hyperglycemic effects increasing blood glucose levels 0 Stimulation of gluconeogenesis o Stimulate glycogenolysis o Antagonize insulin Epinephrine o The majority of the catacholamines that the body releases during exercise around 80 of the total 0 We should all be able to see this since epinephrine is also called adrenaline and we know adrenaline is always releases during exercise 0 Heart rate blood pressure glycogenolysis and lipolysis all increase 0 Epinephrine will stimulate glycogenolysis to occur in the liver and the muscles thus increasing blood glucose levels to raise blood sugar 0 Epinephrine acts to increase glycogen breakdown Insulin o Lowers your blood sugar by causing glucose to enter the cells 0 When you want to raise blood sugar the catecholamines and glucagon the other hormone released by the alpha cells in the pancreas accomplish this 0 They do this by stimulating glucoeogenesis to make glucose from nonglucose molecules glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen and to inhibit insulin only glucagon does this meaning that the two hormones of the pancreas do opposite things One raise blood sugar glucagon and the other decrease it insulin B How catecholeamines increase fat metabolism during exercise 0 The catecholamine response to exercise by stimulating lipolysis of triglycerides In addition increases in adipose tissue and muscle blood flow decrease fatty acid reesteri cation and facilitate the delivery of released fatty acids to skeletal muscle 0 Acute endocrine responses during exercise which result in changes to hormone secretion primarily serve to meet the physiological demands imposed by exercise stresses 0 Response and function during exercise 1 Vascular function for muscle blood flow 2 Fat metabolism 3 Glucose metabolism 4 A Know the two different receptors they work through 0 Beta 0 Stimulateslipolysis o Vasodialation o Epinephrine binds to these receptors to stimulate lipolysis fat break down via the enzyme hormone sensitive lipase and that second messenger system 0 At LOW EPI levels eg REST the Breceptors will be primarily bound because EPI has a higher af nity for these receptors Thus the predominant effect at low EPI levels is vascular smooth muscle relaxation vasodilation Alpha 0 Inhibits lipolysis o Vasoconstriction oAt HIGH EPI levels eg EXERCISE the dreceptors will be primarily bound because there are more of these receptors Thus the predominant effect at high EPI levels is vascular smooth muscle contraction vasoconstriction o Epinephrine inhibits it 0 Beta cells what we need for exercise 0 Beta 1 gycolysis 0 Beta 2 vasodialation B Know how caffeine and green tea enhance catecholeamine signaling 0 The study compared green tea with caf nee 0 Green tea and Caf nne showed NE in urine and increaed energy expenditure 0 Induces the lypolytic pathway 0 Green tea extract 0 Inhibits the enzyme that works to break down the epinephrine 0 So it binds to the beta receptor longer to cause increases lipolysis o This enzyme that it inhibits is called COMT 0 Green tea impares the degragation of NE which causes it to be around longer Caffeine 0 Causes the same effect but through a different mechanism 0 Works to inhibit the cAMP degrading enzyme so that the cAMP s can keep on causing Iipolyis o This enzyme is called PDE o Caf nee stimulates NE release l which stimulates the beta receptor to increase heart rate increases energy expenditure end up burning more calories 0 Conclusion O O 0 Would taking both maximize fat loss over the long run One does indeed signi cantly increase lipolysis but it is maximized within a day Meaning it works but it is an acute effect and doesn t cause more and more fat loss with time The take away message is that exercise leads to weight loss and increases your insulin sensitivity 4 Be able to describe the effect of glucagon on the Cori cycle and what factors cause stimulate its release Glucagon is the antagonist of insulin 0 O O O O Glucagon upregulates the Cori Cycle Works to raise our blood sugar by increasing the rate of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis Glucagon released from the alpha cells in the pancreas Serves to raise blood glucose Gluconeogenesis will increase and glycogenolysis will increase It will also increase fatty acid breakdown by stimulating the enzyme HSL hormone sensitive lipase T Glycogenolysis gluconeogenesis Increases glucose in 3 ways 1 Gluconeogenesis 2 Glycogenolysis 3 Antagonizes insulin Glycogen is the storage form of glucose and during exercise it is broken down as fuel is needed 0 During exercise the release of epinephrine will stimulate the muscles to breakdown muscle glycogen This is hormonally mediated since epinephrine is stimulating it Another mechanism is by the Calcium concentration in case he talked about this But epinephrine is the main one It turns on the enzyme that breaks down the glycogen B Describe insulin s actions and general response to exercise Insulin O O O 0 Released from the beta cells in the pancreas Lowers blood glucose Stimulates all of the cells to absorb glucose Causes glucose to enter the cells so the cells can break down the glucose for energy Stimulates the GLUT 4 receptor to translocate come to the surface OO This lets glucose enter the cell Exercise will also cause this to happen Stimulate glycogen synthesis since this will lower blood glucose level it will promote triglyceride synthesis and protein synthesis Insulin is mainly an anabolic hormone it will increase synthesis of most everything Insulin in inhibited during exercise T Glucose transport into cells T Synthesis of glycogen protein fat Inhibits gluconeogenesis C Be able to describe the role of thyroid hormones and growth hormone in fat metabolism and growth hormones effect on carbohydrate metabolism 0 Growth hormone O O O O O O Stimulates protein synthesis and lipolysis fat breakdown Suppresses carbohydrate metabolism A major anabolic hormone Responsible for building tissuebone and promoting hypertrophy Increases fat metabolism It has been shown to rise proportionally with exercise Thyroid basal metabolism 0 Permission its presence allows other hormones to do its job Allows growth hormones to do its job Affected by increase in temp TH increase Exercise will stimulate the release of TH Exercise in uences Thyroid chronically more than acute 0 You will see an increase 7 Know how cortisol increases gluconeogenesis and understand its role in overtraining whole body protein breakdown Cortisol O O Stimulates amino acid release from the muscles during prolonged exercise So cortisol will work to provide your body will more glucose for fuel It will do this through glucoeogenesis Known as the stress hormone as our body releases it during stress Increases with exercise intensity higher intensity means a higher stress for the body 0 When released it will cause gluconeogenesis increase fatty acid mobilization and increase protein catabolism o In extreme instances it will cause protein breakdown which can also be used to form glucose 0 So this is what happens when you hear that stress makes people fat When you are not exercising and you are stressed you release cortisol Your body will increase its glucose stores because it thinks you need energy If you have an increase of glucose when you are not breaking it down it will be stored as fat 0 Training preseason vs season 0 Look at level of corisol and testosterone vs V02 0 Too much cortisol indicative of overtraining breaks doen muscle impairs performance 8 Know what hormones effect uid regulation and blood pressure regulation during exercise with particular attention to angiotensin 2 aldosterone and ADH s role in uid regulation 0 As one exercise they lose sweat right Sweat is water so as exercise intensity increasingly causes one to sweat more they get dehydrated Blood is also mostly water so as you get dehydrated your blood volume also decreases this lowers your blood pressure And we don t want that to happen so our body needs a way to counter this effect 0 Our body releases certain hormones to counteract this uid loss 0 Being released from the posterior pituitary the adrenal cortex and the kidneys these hormones work to correct uid balance 0 The posterior pituitary o Releases the hormone ADH 0 Works to increase uid level by causing the body to reabsorb water from the kidneys The ADH will travel to the collecting ducts in the kidney and signal the body to reabsorb more water This is the urine before it leaves the body so since more water is being reabsorbed the urine will be more concentrated with solutes This will then increase the uid in the body 0 ADH o A stimulus is a lower plasma volume this tells the body that it needs more water so it will act by releasing ADH O Increases osmolality means the same thing technically means there are many solutes in the blood compared to water Aldosterone 0 Released from the adrenal cortex in response to a low plasma volume of sodium a low blood volume or a high plasma level of potassium This indirectly causes the same plasma volume increase as ADH but through a different mechanism The pathway for how aldosterone is signaled to be releases actually starts in the kidneys with a molecule called Renin Renin travels to the lungs and activates an inactive enzyme called angiotensinogen to angiotensin 1 This is then cleaved to angiotensin 2 via the ACE enzyme The nally angiotensin 2 causes the release of aldosterone and aldosterone cause more sodium to be absorbed from the collecting ducts of the kidney Then via osmosis water will follow the sodium so blood plasma increases Angiotensin 2 O O 0 Extreme vasoconstriction Increase the blood pressure This is how ACE inhibitors work they inactivate the ACE so that angiotensin 2 can t be formed so there is no vasoconstriction and thus no increase in blood pressure 9 What are the expected training effects from aerobic exercise on HR SV and Q 0 Heart rate how fast the heart beats every minute 0 0 Heart rate is one of the two primary determinants of Q which rises linearly with work rate The gradual withdrawal of vagal parasympathetic nervous system in uences and the progressive increases in sympathetic nerve activity which occur during exercise are largely responsible for the observed increases in HR At or near V02 max HR begins to level off and is referred to as maximal heart rate The equation 220age provides a rough estimate of an individual s maximal heart rate with standard deviation of 1012 bpm As implied the maximal heart rate will decline with increased age As work increases HR increases to deliver more oxygen to skeletal muscle At maximum of 20yo HR200bpm After several months of training there will be an increase in max cardiac output lower resting rate and an overall decrease in response Training not only increases hemoglobin levels but is more of a physiological response During submaximal effort anything less than max it will decrease as well NEVER an increase in max HR Stroke volume is the volume of blood that the left ventricle pumps with every beat 0 Stroke Volume is the other primary determinant of Q and represents the amount of blood ejected from the heart with each beat Unlike HR Stroke Volume does not increase linearly with work rate SV increases progressively until work rate equivalent to approx 40 V02 max is reached Thereafter continued increases in work rate cause little or no increase in SV Exercise induced increases in SV are believed to be the result of factors that are both intrinsic and extrinsic to the heart According to the Frank Starling Law a greater stretch placed on the muscle bers of the heart due to greater venous return of blood to the heart during exercise resulting in a more forceful contraction of those bers and consequently a greater SV Extrinsic factors such as increased nervous sympathetic or endocrine release of adrenal hormones EPI amp NE stimulation to the myocardium can also contribute to increased SV that occurs during exercise Men 80100mlbeat Women 5060mlbeat Ventricles can only ll so much therefore SV reaches max around 40 of maximal aerobic capacity If overstressed they will stretch and generate less force This is called the Starling Law of the Heart Cardiac output the total amount of blood that the heart pumps every minute 0 Q Cardiac Output the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute is explained by this term This measure is indicative of the rate of oxygen delivered to the peripheral tissues skeletal muscles Cardiac Output which is the product of HR and SV increases linearly as a function of work rate At rest Q is roughly 45 Lmin but can rise due to the alterations in both HR and SV 0 QHRXSV Now let s look at a welltrained runner Their resting heart rate will be much lower due to the greater vagal tone this is parasympathetic input so probably around 4045 As a result of the low resting heart their stroke volume will be greater at rest The cardiac output is the same at 5 Lmin cardiac output is the same for everyone AT REST Then once they start exercising their heart rate will increase much slower compared to the un t individual So at the same intensity of exercise of the un t their heart rate will be much slower meaning that their body is working less to maintain the intensity With heart rate though the thing you have to understand is that max heart rate will never increase This decreases with age via 220age and no amount of training will increase it The t athlete will reach it at a much higher intensity than the un t but this number does not change Stroke volume will much substantially higher with training and cardiac output will also be much greater 0 So depending on what he is asking resting heart rate decreases with training heart rate at any given intensity will be lower in the trained athlete but regardless of training max heart rate will not change SV will be greater at rest and during exercise CO will be the same at rest it is always 56 Lmin at rest unless there is some coronary heart disease present and it will be substantially greater with the trained athlete Think that their heart which is a muscle so it gets stronger and bigger just like any other muscle can pump more blood with every beat because it is stronger Summary 0 Resting HR decreases with training HR at any given intensity will be lower in a trained athlete but regardless of training Max HR will not change trained individuals will reach it at a higher intensity Also Max HR will decrease with age 220age SV will be greater at rest and during exercise Q will be the same at rest always 56Lmin unless disease is present and it will be substantially greater with trained athletes The heart a muscle once trained will be bigger hypertrophy and stronger so it will pump more blood with every beat because it is stronger 0 Exercise increases HR due to an increase in sympathetic NE This meets a demand for 02 Parasympathetic activity decreases ACHinhibits Sympathetic activity also increases myocardial contractility increasing the strength of contraction thus increasing SV Due to Starlings Law stretching ventricles causes it to contract more forcibly Venous return can only pump out what you return Cardiac Output drives 02 consumption and therefore a trained heart is more ef cient and improves ability to consume 02 This is also predicated on the amount you can extract 10 How are the electrical impulses passed through the heart What are the physiological events associated with the beat of the heart First to explain the anatomy of the heart The heart is a main organ in the cardiovascular system as well as the body It has four chambers that work together to supply blood to the body The two upper chambers are the right and left atrium and the two bottom chambers are the right and left ventricle The atria are the upper chambers that are essentially blood reservoirs for the ventricles which pump the blood out Since the right side of the heart propels blood to the pulmonary circuit lungs and the lungs are very close to the heart the right ventricle is not as muscular and strong as the left ventricle The left propels blood throughout the systemic circulation whole body so it is much more muscular and stronger The SA node is the main pacemaker in the heart and this usually determines heart rate as it beats regularly at 60100 BPM This node is in the upper area of the right atrium During a heartbeat the SA node will conduct an AP which will travel throughout the heart to cause contraction of the myocardium Think of the heart of one muscle when one cell gets depolarized and contracts they all do The pathway for the conduction system is as follows The SA node conducts an AP and this will spread to the left atrium via bers that you don t need to now Then it will reach the AV node and the signal will actually stop here for a second to let to ventricles ll with blood completely After the atria have contracted the signal will then travel down the bundle of His and slit to the right and left bundle branches to their respective ventricles Then it will travel down the purkinje bers to depolarize the back of the heart So it has thus spread from the SA node at the top of the atrium to the bottom of the ventricle 0 Physiological P Wave atrial depolarization QRS Complex ventricular depolarization ST Segment Ventricular repolarization A depression here indicates an upcoming heart attack as the heart isn t receiving enough oxygen T Wave ventricular repolarization QT Interval ventricular depolarizationrepolarization 11 Understand these relationships a Q b HRxSV Equation A is the formula for cardiac output Heart rate in BPM is multiplied by the stroke volume in ml to get the cardiac output in either Lmin or mlmin This number is the total volume of blood that the heart is pumping out every minute so a greater number is bene cial to aerobic exercise At rest everyone has a cardiac output Q or C0 of around 5 6 Lmin The values that change with training are the HR and the SV Training will lower ones HR at rest and raise their SV to maintain that 56 Lmin 0 During submaximal all these values will increase SV will increase at the onset of exercise to accommodate the greater need the muscles have for blood HR will also increase as the intensity increases During sub maximal exercise HR will not contribute the greatest increase to the Q though SV will HR will increase exponentially after 5060 of ones V02 max measure of intensity SV is what will increase greatly before this intensity is reached Then at maximal SV will stop increasing past 5060 of ones V02 max and HR will now increase greatly Since HR is increasing Q will increase Q V02 aVOZ diff An increase in aV02 difference during exercise is due to an increase in the amount of 02 taken up and used for production of ATP by skeletal muscle c V02 Q x avOz diff Equation B is the same as Equation C and I don t like equation B so we will talk about the latter This is the Fick equation for V02 max It is equal to ones Q x av02 difference This is either expressed in units of mlkgmin or Lmin Well Q is equation A so this means that V02 will increase as the exercise gets more intense V02 max is a great measure of cardiovascular health as this is the number of oxygen that the body heart can supply to the working muscles Av02 difference is the difference between the volumes of oxygen is the arteries minus the volume of oxygen in the veins If you recall the circulatory system blood and oxygen travel from the arteries to the capillaries where gas exchange occurs then travels back to the heart via the veins So the amount of oxygen left in the blood in the veins is the amount of oxygen that the muscle did NOT take up meaning a greater av02 difference means the muscles are being more ef cient at using the oxygen 0 For example the arterial concentration of oxygen is around 20 mldl If 5 ml is taken up at the capillaries then the venous concentration will be 15 mild thus the av02 difference is 5 ml Now during intense exercise the capillaries become more ef cient at taking up oxygen so now say 15 ml is taken up at the capillaries Now the venous concentration is 5 ml and the av02 difference is 15 ml With intensity the av02 difference will increase as the body takes up more and more oxygen but this value doesn t really change with training So you can understand the concept of what this number is or just know that a great av02 difference means the capillaries are taking up more oxygen so the muscles are getting more oxygen d QPR Equation D is another formula to get the Q but it is used mostly to get the TPR or the total peripheral resistance R is the total peripheral resistance which is the resistance of the whole circulatory system to blood ow and P is the pressure difference is the systemic circulation The resistance to the blood ow is controlled via the diameter of the vessels This is just a plug and chug as I don t think he wants concepts for the way the circulatory system beats One thing to know during exercise is that the TPR or R as represented in the equation will decrease because the body will lower the resistance to blood ow during exercise so it will increase ow to the muscles If you look at the formula QPR if you decrease R Q will increase which happens during exercise Blood pressure decreases throughout the circulatory system starting around 100 at the heart and going close to 0 once it gets back to the right atrium 12 What is blood ow redistribution and which tissues are affected How Blood ow redistribution is how the body changes the amount of blood that it supplies to different parts of the body during exercise At rest most of blood is shunted to the liver GI tract and not a large percentage is pumped to the muscles mostly because at rest the muscles don t need all the blood to contract Then once exercise starts the brain senses the need for more blood to be delivered to the working muscles and skin to dissipate heat generated from exercise so now the ratio will shift during exercise around 7080 of the blood is shunted to the muscles and more blood than before to the skin now Less blood is supplied to organs not important to exercise such as the liver and the GI tract Blood ow to the brain and the heart itself will not change though if anything it will increase These vital organs will need the greater supply of blood to function So as the body transitions to exercise blood is redistributed to the working muscles During exercise the total blood volume will also increase so not only is a greater percentage of the whole going to the muscle around 80 there is also a much greater volume of blood circulating the body The percentage to the brain and heart may decrease but since the total volume increased the amount of blood will be the same of greater 0 This can be interpreted from chart the events that cause this are vasodilation to the arteries going to the muscles Vasodilationgreater blood ow As arteries to muscles dilate the arteries to other organs constrict lowering blood ow The capillaries also have their own autoregulatory method to increase blood ow to muscles sphincters will relax in response to certain byproducts of metabolism Hions heat and C02 Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction are controlled by neurotransmitters ACH and NEEPI and their release 5 ultimately controlled by the brain 0 Physiologically the events that cause this are a vasodilation to the arteries going to the muscles Vasodilationgreater blood ow As the arteries to the muscles vasodilate the arteries to the liver and GI tract will vasoconstrict lowering blood ow The capillaries also have their own autoregulatory method to increase blood ow to the muscles the sphincters will relax in response to certain byproducts of metabolism such as H ions heat and C02 The vasodilation and vasoconstriction are controlled by the neurotransmitters Ach and norepinephrine and their release is ultimately controlled via the brain o If all vessels are dilated at one time then there is enough vascular surface area to contain 20qts of blood So if they are open at one time then venous return is lower and causes fainting Body will prioritize the ow of blood to where it is needed most 0 At rest working muscles get only 15 of cardiac output while the organs get 80 of cardiac output This switches during exercise 0 Blood Flow to Heart Increases during exercise Not only through but also to the heart remember myocardium is a muscle 0 Blood Flow to Lungs More blood through the lungs and to the respiratory muscle as well 0 To Brain By volume it will increase due to cardiac output but percentage wise it stays the same 0 To Skin The body strives to maintain internal core temp for organs Initially it drops but then it increases past resting levels in order to dissipate hear and maintain the core temp This change usually happens within minutes Hypothalamus is the thermostat In the event of dehydration the blood ow to the skin would reduce in order to eliminate excess water loss through the skin Blood ow to the skin greatly increase during lightmoderate exercise but during maximal exercise blood is shunted to active muscle 0 Visceral Organs During exercise blood is reduced to these organs to make available roughly 600mL of blood for skeletal muscle 13 What is venous return What factors in uence venous return 0 This is the amount of blood that is being returned to the heart via the veins and since the circulatory system is a closed loop meaning the amount of blood that leaves the ventricles will always equal the amount of blood that enters the right atrium so more blood returning means more blood pumped out Venous return is actually what contributes the greatest factor in increasing blood volume and Q by increasing EDV end diastolic volume thereby increasing SV This is in uenced by the muscle pump which is when the veins recoil during contraction which means every time the muscles contract blood is propelled back to the heart Another factor is the respiratory pump meaning every time our lungs in ate blood is propelled through the veins Then we have the oneway valve anatomy of the veins blood cannot ow backwards only forwards With high resistance pressure in the arteries following systole doesn t rapidly dissipate but remains elevated for a longer portion of the cardiac cycle 14 Describe the immediate acute adjustments made by the heart and circulatory system to allow for physical activity Give neural and hormonal mechanisms Give changes from rest to submaximal to heavymaximal exercise With each heartbeat ventricles pump out a certain volume of blood called the SV Since the left ventricle supplies blood to system circulation whole body this is the one to note When exercise starts the ventricle immediately stretches to accommodate the increase in blood ow The amount of blood entering the left ventricle is the EDV End Diastolic Volume The ventricle stretches and holds more blood with stretch also comes tension More stretchmore forceful contractions Just like a rubber band the more it stretches the more force is generated during contraction During exercise the chamber increases in size and thus contracts stronger meaning more blood is propelled out increasing SV This is the FrankStarling Mechanism The heart also increases contraction strength inotropically via calcium This is independent of the Starling Mechanism An increase in calcium in the heart will increase strength of contraction lnotropic means affecting heart rate directly Obviously HR increases as exercise starts but not as much as SV SV increases until roughly 40 of ones V02max Starling mechanism is responsible until then This is because the ventricle can only stretch so much After SV maxes out HR then increases considerably until max is reached 0 Mechanisms For an increase in HR is a withdrawal of vagal tone parasympathetic in uence until a HR of lOObpm the sympathetic system will kick in and increase HR This is with the neurotransmitter EpinephrineNE HR will slow with ACH i Contractile Strength will increase with an increase in calcium The Starling Mechanism is due to a greater venous return which increases EDV stretching the ventricles leading to more forceful contractions due to the greater length of the sarcomeres more actin and myosin binding Since more actin and myosin binding requires more calcium separating the Starling Mechanism and the intropic effect of contractility from calcium is fuzzy Weight lifting increases SBP Resistance increases DBP or stays the same 0 Always the best answer l stays the same DBP doesn t change as much as systolic 15 De ne cardiac output Explain How is cardiac output measured Fick method 0 Cardiac output expresses the amount of blood pumped by the heart during a 1minute period The maximal value re ects the functional capacity of the cardiovascular system Output depends on the rate of pumping HR and the quantity of blood ejected with each stroke SV QHRXSV Three methods to measure cardiac output of a closed circulatory system in humans 1 Direct Fick 2 indicator dilution 3 C02 rebreathing 0 Direct Fick Method 0 Two factors determine the output of uid from a pump in a closed circuit Change in concentration of a substance between the out ow and in ow ports of the pump Total quantity of that substance taken up or given off by the uid in a given time o For cardiovascular dynamics calculating Q requires knowledge of two variables 1 average difference between oxygen content of arterial and mixed venous blood aV02 difference and 2 oxygen consumption during 1minute V02The question is then how much blood circulates during the minute to account for the observed oxygen consumption given the observed aV02 difference V02 Q x aV02 difference V02max Qmaxx a V02 differencemax 0 Measuring oxygen consumption involves open circuit spirometry Measuring aV02 difference is a little more dif cult requiring a sample of arterial blood from any systemic artery femoral radial brachial This has high risks and only provides a sample for the area that it drains Therefore an accurate estimate of all venous blood has to be taken from a mixing chamber for an accurate read such as the right atrium right ventricle or pulmonary artery Arterial and mixed venous blood are then sampled simultaneously with measurement of oxygen consumption The invasive nature of the Fick method can alter normal cardiovascular dynamics during the measurement period that may not re ect the persons usual cardiovascular response 16 Give the mechanisms controlling stimulation in the heart rate prior to and during activity HR is controlled by the vagus nerve at rest This is the main parasympathetic input to the heart This nerve will slow down heart rate via the neurotransmitter ACH Then once exercise starts vagal tone to starts to decrease the heart increasing HR to lOObpm The sympathetic input takes over to increase it more with EPINE Then sympathetic input takes over to increase it more via epinephrine o The SA node sends an AP by itself every 60100bpm so the vagus nerve slows that down even more which is why it is possible to have a heart rate of 4050bpm So the rst vagal tone has to decrease which will bring the HR to lOObpm then sympathetic takes over So rst the vagal tone has to decrease which will bring the heart rate to 100 BPM THEN sympathetic will take over NE and EPI binds to beta 1 l respiration bronchial dilation via beat 2 0 Once exercise ceases sympathetic input will decrease and this will decrease HR Extrinsic Controls Accelerate the heart in anticipation before exercise begins then rapidly adjust to intensity of physical effort changes made by nerves that directly supply myocardium and chemical messengers NT hormones that circulate in the blood Intrinsic Controls heart maintains its own rhythm spontaneous activity Muscle nerves of heart can be excited 17 Describe the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves on cardiac function Sympathetic Cardio Accelerator Nerves arise from the spinal column They innervate the entirety of the heart but mainly around the SA and some around the AV HR Excitability Rate of Conduction Force of contraction will all increase The SNS releases catecholamine s EPI and NE EPI lasts longer but is not as strong as NE The two major in uences of EPI and NE 0 Chronotropic Effect makes the heart best faster 0 lnotropic Effect makes the heart neat harder meaning it increases contractility Parasympathetic comes from the vagus nerve Both innervate the heart From the medulla to the vagus nerve lnnervates entirety of the heart mainly the AV and SA nodes Antagonistic to SNS bers HR Rate of Impulse and Rate of Conduction through AV DECRASE PNS releases ACH PNS response is mediated by the cranial nerve vagus The PNS effectively slows heart rate by decreasing the rate of discharge from the SA Node Summary Parasympathetic decreases HR and contractility of the heart So the parasympathetic via the vagus nerve relaxes the heart The sympathetic will increase the HR and contractility so the heart pumps more forcibly 18 Explain the indirect method of measuring blood pressure What is systolic diastolic pressure What changes occur during exercise Explain peripheral resistance and factors which modify resistance to blood ow in exercise Auscultation Method This is with a cuff and stethoscope The cuff is place on your brachial artery and this is in ated to a suf cient pressure to occlude the artery and cut of the blood ow Then the pressure is slowly released and this as it starts to ow through the vessel you can hear the blood as it pounds on the wall with a stethoscope The rst sound you hear is the systolic and the last is the diastolic o SBP is the pressure of the blood on the arteries when the heart contracts systole So it is when the heart contracts 0 DBP is the lowest pressure of the blood on the arteries when the heart is resting in diastole During exercise 0 Systolic blood pressure will increase since this value is the pressure of the blood during contraction So it makes sense that the pressure will be greater since the heart is contracting faster o Diastolic blood pressure will remain the same or slightly decrease The reason is because since the DBP is the pressure of the blood during diastole heart lling with blood there is no reason it should increase Peripheral resistance was explained above as the TPR This is controlled via the diameter of the vessels vasoconstriction and vasodilation The vessel diameter also plays a role but the biggest change is via the diameter During exercise all the arteries to your muscles will dilate to allow more blood to be shunted to them and all the arteries to less active organs will constrict to lower blood supply to them With higher resistance pressure in the arteries following systole doesn t rapidly dissipate but remains elevated for a longer portion of the cardiac cycle 0 Arterioles have smooth muscles that can open and close 0 Need more BF during exercise open the areas that don t need BF close 0 Capillary density increase 0 The direct of BF shunted to the arterioles The more RBCs the more oxygen Increase BF l opening to the capillaries 19 Describe the microcirculation blood ow through the capillary bed Explain av02 difference in exercise and rest Give 02 values This is how the capillaries control the blood ow to the muscles Capillaries branch into multiple beds and most of these beds are blocked by sphincters at rest Since they are blocked blood ow will be restricted at the muscles and thus less blood will go to the muscle Once we start exercising by products of exercise force the capillary sphincters to relax and open Once open much more blood can get to the muscle Some products are H ions from lactate C02 increased respiration from more breathing increased heat via muscle contraction This is known as the autoregulation of the capillary beds as it is not controlled through nerves This value was explained in question 11 This is the difference in the arterial oxygen content and the venous oxygen content A greater difference means that more oxygen diffused at the capillarieshappens with exercise AS intensity increases oxygen consumption increases Makes sense Some numbers to use are 5 ml 02 at rest up to 15 ml 02 at max exercise So as the intensity increases the body uses more of the oxygen in the arterial end 20 What is the CR center How and from where is it stimulated How and to what doesitrespond The CR is the master area in the brain stem mostly in the medulla oblongata This is where the cardiovascular system is ultimately controlled 0 During exercise the cardiovascular system has to regulate blood pressure and the increased blood ow to the muscles The massive increase in blood increases the blood pressure and the CR has to control the blood pressure of the body through the vasoconstriction and vasodilation of the blood vessels Ultimately the control of blood pressure wins and the brain decrease blood ow to the muscles This is the purpose of the CR center 0 It responds to neural and hormonal I don t know why he has humoral on the guide responses The neural is all that we went over with the effects of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves on the heart the increasing the contractile strength of the heart and speeding up the heart rate along with the changing of the diameter of the blood vessels and depressing the heart The hormonal is the effects caused by epinephrine on the blood vessels The CVC speeds up heart rate constricts blood vessels causes dilation of the vessels and slows heart rate This sends to signal to start causing these affects Vasodilators innervates only arterioles of skeletal muscle and cardiac muscles ACH from the vagus nerve 21 What are neurotransmitters How do they exert their in uence and on what organs These are the chemical messengers of the nervous system They are how the body communicates The main ones are epinephrine and acetylcholine The effects of these have been explained multiple times Epinephrine is the main NT of the sympathetic nerves so it will speed heart rate increase heart contractility and constrict the blood vessels everywhere but the beta receptors on the skeletal muscle in case he mentioned the type of receptor Acetylcholine exerts its effect through the vagus nerve to slow down heart Neurotransmitter variety of molecules within axon terminals released into synaptic cleft in response to nerve impulse that change a membranes potential of the postsynaptic neuron Packaged into synaptic vesicles clustered beneath the membrane in the axon terminal on the presynaptic side of a synapse They diffuse across the synaptic cleft binding to speci c receptors in the membrane on the polysynaptic side of the synapse Usually followed by an AP at the synapse Ach stimulates muscle contraction in the receptors which stimulates muscle contraction 22 What are humoral and neural stimuli Neural stimuli is the sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation Hormonal stimuli is with EPINE and ACH Can override Endocrine system to maintain homeostasis Preganglionic sympathetic nerve ber stimulate adrenal medulla cells affecting CR Center Neural changes are more direct and happen in higher brain centers Humoral is responding to concentration of ions or molecules in the blood stream bile other body uids stimulate hormone release An example such as insulin This hormone responds to an increase in blood sugar The molecule is the sugar that affects insulin release from the pancreas Target cells uptake glucose Sugar levels drop in capillaries inhibiting insulin release Temp pH C02 etc Humoral stimuli send info back to CR to respond to an event mostly indirect with exception of temp 0 Temp changes can be picked up by warm blood owing through brain indirect and by receptors direct o In the case of the heart more calcium in the heart increases contractility myosinactin binding lnotropic effect independent of the Starling Mechanism Calcium concentrations increase with intensity I don t know if he made a mistake but the heart is controlled via neural and hormonal stimuli not humoral The rst two stimuli were explained already neural is the sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation and the hormonal is with epinephrine and acetylcholine Humoral means something is responding to a concentration of ions or molecules in the blood stream An example is with insulin This hormone responds to an increase in blood sugar The molecule is the sugar that affects the insulin release 23 What is the partial pressure of gas and how does it in uence the diffusion of gas at the lungs and tissue Partial Pressure of a gas is the pressure of the solution that is that speci c gas The partial pressure does not depend on other gases present For example the partial pressure is the barometric pressure x the percentage of gas in the solution So since the percentage of oxygen in air is 20 math gives it as 160mmHg This is vital to breathing Everything involving oxygen involves diffusion So high partial pressure diffuses because of the low pressure in the lungs o Inhalation the partial pressure of oxygen we are inhaling is 160mmHg it will diffuse into alveoli sacs in lung for gas diffusion The pressure is roughly 105mmHg here Once in the lungs it diffuses into blood pulmonary vein going to the heart with oxygenated blood because of the lower partial pressure in the blood stream In arteries the partial pressure of oxygen is 100mmHg Once passing the capillaries the oxygen will diffuse out of the blood into organs since the partial pressure is lower in the capillary beds Then in veins the partial pressure is 40mmHg for oxygen 0 So if the partial pressure of oxygen was lower the diffusion will not be that great and breathing will be hard Gases move via diffusion Oxygen travels on hemoglobin Once oxygen binds it is called oxyhemoglobin 24 Explain the gas laws of Dalton Boyle and Henry Gas exchange by diffusion takes place across membranes from high concentration to low concentration Gases are diffusible can be compromised tension made of a mix of molecules spread apart have high KE and gas is in motion colliding with one another The more gas molecules means the pressure will be increased when enclosed in a space this is due to the molecules bouncing around Pressure exerted is dependent upon the collisions which is dependent upon the amount of molecules Daltons Law goes as follows Pb 760 mmHg Pb P02 PCOZ PNZ The PP of OZ moves from OZ C02 moves COZ etc With this said some gases move at different rates PP in the lungs must be greater than the PP in the blod of OZ OZ is lower in the tissue than the blood arriving to the tissue C02 in blood going to lungs must be higher than C02 in lungs so that it may diffuse For a xed amount of an ideal gas kept at a xed temperature pressure and volume are inversely proportional Or Boyle39s law is a gas law stating that the pressure and volume of a gas have an inverse relationship when temperature is held constant In chemistry Henry39s law states quotAt a constant temperature the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in equilibrium with that liquidquot Boyles Law Emlubility I 120 Henry 5 Law 100 Pressure 00 0 Ch 0 4O 4O 45 50 Fania Pressure 2 i i i i i 0 15 20 25 30 35 Volume 25 What are the different respiratory volumes and capacities One s breathing capacity is explained using different terms and this is how respiratory disorders are diagnosed Tidal volume TV is the amount of air that one inhale with a normal breathe This is normally around 500ml The after a normal inhale as we all know we can forcibly inhale much more air This is called the inspiratory reserve volume IRV Think of it as reserved air This can be anywhere from 21003200 ml depending on the strength of your intercostal muscles Then just as we can forcibly inhale more air we can forcibly exhale more air This is the expiratory reserve volume ERV around 10001200 ml extra Even if we exhale as much air as possible we will always have air left in our lungs This prevents the lungs from collapsing as there needs to be air to keep them in ated This volume that is stuck in the lungs is called the residual volume RV around 1200 ml The inspiratory capacity is the capacity that one has to inspire air so it will include the normal volume you inhale from the TV So mathematically it s TVRV The functional residual capacity is the amount of air left in your lungs after a TV So we know we can forcibly exhale more air plus there s air always left in the lungs so it is the ERVRV Then the vital capacity VC is the total amount of EXCHANGLE air meaning the RV is not included Then Total lung capacity is the sum of all the lung volumes now including RV usually 6000ml A portion of air never reaches the alveoli and this is called the anatomical dead space Around 150ml must be subtracted from the 500ml TV meaning we only passively so no muscle is used to inspire more air than normal use 350ml of air 26 What effect does exercise have on the oxygen cost of breathing With exercise we breathe faster or ventilate faster Ventilation is just like cardiac output it increases with exercise intensity Ventilation or VE is equal to TV x f this is tidal volume multiplied by the frequency of breathing every minute What does this look like CO HR x SV TV is synonymous to SV as they both measure an amount of air or blood like each breathe or beat produces So with exercise just like with CO VE increases Frequency of breathing increases just like with HR TV like SV will increase up to around 5060 of one s v02 just like SV Then the frequency of breathing will increase substantially just like the HR will as the intensity increases The respiratory system is a lot like the cardiovascular system o If you begin to exercise are you using muscles for respiration Do those muscles work harder Do you use more muscles Do the muscles use energy 0 Your body uses thes muscles at work and you use more during exercise 0 They increase during training 0 Know the BF at rest vs at exercise 27 What are the expected training effects from aerobic exercise on V5 hemoglobin blood volume etc 0 With training VE doesn t really increase as you can t increase the frequency of breathing with exercise So unlike CO VE does not increase with training our lungs do not get bigger or better at breathing o Hemoglobin doesn t really increase with training either you are born with a max amount of hemoglobin Of course we can lose hemoglobin via diet but you can t increase beyond what men usually have and women usually have This is why we cannot carry more oxygen with being in better shape Women will always have less hemoglobin that men women are around 12 gdl and men are up to 16 gdl Every gram of hemoglobin can contain 134 mL 02 98 of 02 is transported by hemoglobin with the remainder diffused into the plasma of the blood This is way all factors equal training enzymes lactate threshold etc men will always be faster than women 0 Hemoglobin has Fe2 which oxygen has a high af nity for 0 Even though the amount of hemoglobin doesn t change the solution content can creating a hemo concentration 10 hemo concentration on a 15gdl blood would give 155gdl blood This would be an advantage because it increases 02 carrying capacity Normal adaption 510 hemo concentration increases the ration making exercise more ef cient 0 Blood volume is the thing that increases with training 0 Etc does not change with training 28 Understand the importance of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve at rest and exercise 0 This is a curve that shows how saturated hemoglobin is with oxygen at certain pressures It is a sigmoidal curve showing that at a pressure around 70mmHg that the hemoglobin is almost 100 saturated Since the pressure of oxygen in the arteries is 100mmHg as explained above this means that the hemoglobin is nearly 100 saturated here which is what we expect 0 On curve you can also see at 40mmHg the hemoglobin is still around 60 saturated and since the pressure in the veins is 40mmHg there is still a lot of oxygen on the hemoglobin How can we use more of that oxygen Once we start exercising our body needs more oxygen so this curve has to change Certain factors will shift this curve to the right thus facilitating hemoglobin to unload more oxygen The factors are a higher body temperature an increase in PC02 the pressure of carbon dioxide so you basically have more in your blood to cause an increased pressure a lower pH and an increase in a molecule called BPG This all are results from exercise or from an increased metabolism This is a positive effect since it causes the hemoglobin to release more of its oxygen This is called the Bohr Effect 29 What is the Bohr effect 0 States that hemoglobin39s oxygen E hr Eiffest curves binding affinity see Oxygen m39 hemoglobin dissociation curve is High CUE low pH D E inversely related both to acidity and to the concentration of carbon dioxide 0 Relationship between P02 and saturation 0 Loading of blood if you measure the PP of 02 in the alveolar sacks I 100 mmHg 0 Look at the blood going into the lungs passes through the 5 E quot5 a Nurmal CUE normal pH Hh it 02 saturatiun Luw CUE high pH M E Erng Lungs tissues alveeli l I I ll ll I I ll l I Eli all ll El 1l illl Oxygen pressurer mm Hg alveolar capillaries you will see the PP of 02 in that blood is less high l low 0 The blood that exits the lungs into the pulmonary veins back into the ventricles is going to be fully saturated and represents the left side of the heart or arterial blood 0 You have blood coming in at 100 mmHg V02 and it is easy to see how that gas can diffuse from the blood into the cell 0 Relationship between P02 and 02 carrying capacity 0 You can go to the PP of 02 at 100 mmHg to 80 mmHg and still not compromise someone s oxygen ow to the blood Would be important for places with different elevations o The steep portion at 40 mmHg you can see that it is about 7 saturated but then 50 02 capacity Not only fully saturated but partially saturated and no longer carries 20 mL but now it carries 15 mL which tells you have extracted 5 mL l indication of av02diff IMPORTANT You can see decreases in barometric pressure that in uence the PP of the gas 02 and you don t have dramatic losses in your ability to saturate or carry 02 0 Very subtle changes in PP at the cell in uence dramatic changes in what you can extract 30 What factors shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the right 0 When the curve shifts to the right this causes the hemoglobin to unload more of its oxygen This is a good thing All the factors that shift the curve to the right are a cue to the body that it is exercising High body temp increase in C02 pressure lower pH and increase in BPG Only thing that shifts it left are high altitudes Exercise Increases temperature Increases H ions Increases C02 tension 0 Curve shifts to the right Bohr Effect PP of 02 remains the same in the cell at 40 mmHg no effect on the shift 0 Exercising heavily loading as much as we could if we were loading at rest and still carrying 20 mL l BUT because of the shift there are increase in enzymes to do that activity Again you have extracted more indication of av02diff Starts out w 20 goes up to 7 l extracted 13 mL 0 Important in regards to where you are on the planet different altitudes Know what shifts the curve 31 What is the role of 23 diphosphoglycerate 23DPG A threecarbon isomer of the glycolytic intermediate Li bisphosphoglyceric acid 13BPG Present in human red blood cells 0 It binds with greater af nity to deoxygenated hemoglobin than it does to oxygenated hemoglobin due to spatial changes 0 It interacts with deoxygenated hemoglobin beta subunits by decreasing their af nity for oxygen so it allosterically promotes the release of the remaining oxygen molecules bound to the hemoglobin Thus enhancing the ability of RBCs to release oxygen near tissues that need it most 23BPG is thus an allosteric effector 32 How can avOz difference be determined from the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve What is the practical importance of this information o This is a simple calculation You draw a line from the original curve to the curve shifted to the right The difference of the volumes will be the av02 difference 0 Have to know how to come up with an actual number 0 Right side of the curve you need to estimate av02diff based on your knowledge of the curve 0 P02 of 30 and of 50 l CO 0000 O Venous 4O mmHG Arterial 100 mmHG This is critically important when you are exercising at altitude because your blood can still operate at different pressures With changes in P02 there are minimal changes in OHbg During exercise shifts down and to the right Cause by increased metabolic heat Ph increase C02 Opposite low body temp and everything else l shifts curve up and to the left Able to upload oxygen better when exercising more ef ciently With the lactate l lactic acid l H ions effect oxygens binding with Hgb At rest binding 4 02 to Hemoglobin During the same thing during exercise with the presence of other things C02 and H ions wit prevent the binding of 02 and Hgb so the release occurs faster With each decrease it goes 98756050 etc Things are just unloading to tissues and this occurs with the increase in exercise Aerobic Capacity ch quotit pp 234 242 l Exercise Physiology EXAM lll Expiain the concept of V02 max include what it measures how you determine if a subject has reached it and explain clearly how this information can he used V02 max is the maximai oxygen uptake or maximal aeroloic capacity It integrates aspects of the oxygen transport system Pulmonarya de llb Blood Volume and Q Blood Flow Aerobic Metabolism integrates respiration Cardiovascular System and Neuromuscular System Provides a quantitative measure of an individuais capacity for aerobic ATP resynthesis This is an important marker of physical fitness This is also defined as the region where oxygen consumption plateaus or increases only slightly with an increase in workload It is widely accepted as the single best measure of cardiovascular tness and maxquot aerobic power men 40 60 higher than women V02 max does provide important information about the capacity of the long term energy system and also conveys important physiologic meaning because attaining a high V02 max requires integration of high levels of pulmonary cardiovascular and neuromuscular function This makes V02 max a fundamental measure of physiologic functional capacity for exercise Criteria A lack of increase of 21 mllltg l mlni with an increase in workload o RER offstid o Attainment of age predicted max llR i 10 bprn o Blood lactate levels of 8 10 mmol or higher What are some of the factors that can affect V02 max Mode of Exercise 0 Exercise modality affects V02 max by the amount of muscle mass activated during the activity This may change the V02 max for instance from hike to treadmill there is a 101 200 difference because on a treadmill you engage more muscle mass Treadmill tests are more common for evaluating fitness as they can easily quantity as well as regulate exercise intensity Modality criteria includes Activation of large muscle groups intensity and Duration lndependent of subject skill strength size and speed Hereditary o Changes seem to be related to genotype genetic makeup in other words how they respond to physiologic stimuli and thus how they perform Genetic effect for V02 max is 25 40 50 for HR and 7DOO for physical working capacity Research regarding Identical Twins vs Fraternal Twins shows 93 variation in V02 max StDohomogeneity in short term glycolytlc energy system and 86 homogeneity in max heart rate Therefore most of the physical characteristics that are demonstrated area resuit of high incidence of lnheritability Difference between a responder and nonresponder and the fact that if one sibling can respond to training the other will respond likewise Component A I Genetic Contribution in V02 max r MES40 r Subrnax Response 7 2000 H Muscular Fitness 7 W 2030 Blood Lipid Profile 7 r 3050 Resting Blood Pressure 7 r r 30 V Total Body Fat I 25 77 Regional Fat Distribution 0 r 7 in 30 Habitual Activity Level 77 r 3000 Heart Rate W V r i 50 So what contribution does genetics play in aerobic capacity or is itjust a result of training o Research indicates that there is a genetic dependency for the sensitivity in response to aerobic and anaerobic training as well as intramuscular enzymes 0 State of Training 0 Can contribute between 5520 of variation in V02 max improved training can affect Aerobic Enzymes Capillary Density Cross section of ST fibers Oxidative capacity of FT fibers Glycogen Stores a Gender o Women have 1530 untrained 15 trained lower than men Dn chart hemoglobin is not accounted for Women by virtue of being women have more body fat lower hemoglobin levels etc however excluding these is virtually nonexistent Men on average have less body fat and more muscle mass therefore requiring more oxygen than women in addition men have on averag 10 14 more hemoglobin and can facilitate increased oxygen transport Therefore factors in uencing body composition and hemoglobin can affect V02 a Body Size and Composition Cl Variations in body mass explain nearly 70 of the differences in V02 max scores among individuals This limits interpretations of exercise performance or absolute values for oxygen consumption when comparing individuals who differ in body sizelcomposltion There is a 43 difference in V02 max Lt mln for an untrained man and woman differing considerably in body sizelcomposition but when expressed per unit of body mass mLkgmin the V02 max of the woman remains about 20 lower than the man Expressing aerobic capacity by FFlVl reduces subject difference even more 09 Expressing oxygen consumption per unit of appendicular skeletal muscle mass negates the differences between men and women of similar training status The size of contracting muscle mass activated in exercise largely accounts for gender differences in aerobic capacity Even when corrected for FFM there is still a difference between males and females This is because men have more muscle mass and more hemoglobin 2045 years of age have the highest aerobic capacity Over time V02 max tends to decrease due to deterioration of tissue enzymatic activity of cells compliance Issues with lungs issues with vessels This may be offset in people who are more aerobically active than sedentary people however the slope of the line will not change it will always decline as you age After 25 years of age V02 max declines about 1 per year so at 55 the an V02 max is about 27 below that ofthe average 20 year old This is Independent of activity level lt is still a possibility to maintain high levels of fitness and a higher V02 max than a sedentary counterpart Explain some of the factors responsible for the improvement in V02 max through exercise lnlcude the cardiovascular changes one might expect to see with exercise training 3 G O 3 Cardiovascular Changes HR Endurance training creates an imbalance between tonic sympathetic accelerator activity and depressor parasympathetic neurons in favor of greater vagal dominance This is mediated by an increase in parasympathetic activity and decrease in sympathetic discharge Training also decreases intrinsic firing rate of SA node tissue These adaptations contribute to the resting and submax bradycardia in conditioned endurance athletes or aerobically trained individuals 3V Endurance training causes the heart39s stroke volume to increase during rest and exercise regardless of age or gender Max stroke volume occurs between 4050 of V02max l l O l20bpm untrained Four factors produce this i increased internal left ventricular volume due to plasma volume expansion and mass ii Reduced cardiac and arterial stiffness iii increased diastolic filling time training induced bradycardia iv Possibly improved intrinsic cardiac contractile function 0 Q An increase in maximum cardiac output represents the most significant adaptation in cardiovascular function with aerobic training Max heart rate generally decreases slightly with training thus increased cardiac output is a result of increased stroke volume 4 How does the concept of specificity apply when talking about V02 max here include mode of exercise subject fitness status and different types of equipment one might use to measure V02 max a Training is specific while runningfbiking for a swimmer may improve cardiovascular health it will not improve through the particular range of motion needed for competition Therefore the mode of exercise needs to be adjusted to fit the needs of said athlete Regarding Fitness level sedentary individuals could see 30 improvements in aerobic capacity in 1012 weeks because they have more room for improvement as opposed to an in shape person who already has a higher V02 max less room for improvement A treadmill bike swim flume or arm crank may be used to test 9 Physiological Adaptations After subjecting the body to training over time the body will become more efficient by making adjustmentsladaptations For example increasing storage fuels capillary densities enzymatichormonal influences These allow you to run farther and utilize foodfuelr39OZ Biochemical hormonal and muscular heart lungs skeletal adaptations also occur a Research shows that the Treadmill produces the highest V02 max Bench stepping has produced results that are virtually identical to the treadmill and are significantly higher than those on a cycle Arm Crank is 70 of treadmill swimming only 80 of treadmill running Research also shows that elite athletes in their respective sport can achieve values similar to the treadmill on modes such as the cycle and in the swim flume 5 What factors account for gender differences in V02 max e Women usually have more body fat and less hemoglobin Vocabulary e V02 Peak peak oxygen consumption Applies when leveling off does not occur or max performance appears limited by local muscular factors rather than central circulatory dynamics it is the highest value of oxygen consumption measured during a graded exercise test often occurring in the last minute of exercise Secondary criteria include attainment of age predicted HR RER gt MS blood lactate 8 10 mmol or above Absolute lern o mim mlrkgl39rnin generally better to use when comparing individuals as to exclude any discrepancies of weight and is therefore more accurate Overview of V02 and VOZmax An important principle in exercise physiology any work performed requires energy and in order to maintain a specific work rate or running velocity over a long distance ATP must be supplied to the cross bridges as fast as it is used As duration increases there is a greater reliance on ATP production yia oxidatiye Phosphoryiation to maintain cross bridge cyciing Consequently the rate at which oxygen is used during prolonged submax exercise is a measure of the rate at which ATP is generated VO2max is defined as the max amount of oxygen that can be taken in or consumed and used at the cellular level during maximal exercise The paradigm postulates that there is an upper limit to oxygen uptake there are interwindiyidual differences in VOZmax and a high VDEmax is a prerequisite for success in middle and long distance running The general indication is a plateau in oxygen consumption during exercise despite an increase in workload There are times when a plateau is not reached but there are other variables that are used that reflect discomfort 10 beats of max heart rate 220 age RPE e18 RER over 11 The RER should be over 11 because C302 is formed from buffering tactic acid this is nonmetabolic 302 and is produced at a much greater rate at max exercise when we are relying more and more on anaerobic energy pathways Factors influencing O E gl w V02 Q x a VOZ difference VOZmax Qmax x aa VOZ difference max o The Fick Equation states that V02 is influenced both centrally and locally by cardiac output and a VOZ difference respectiyeiy Central Factors are representative of the ability to deliver oxygen to the working musctes during a particular activity if we cannot effectiveiy deliver biocd to these tissues we wilt not be able to consume or take up the oxygen for use Cardiac output is the central factor in the Fisk Equation o Cardiac Output is the volume of blood pumped by the ventricles per unit of time typically expressed in Lfmi n It is also expressed as the product of heart rate and stroke volume Q l lR x 8V Average at rest is 5 Ltmin The layerage adult has a total blood volume of about 5 liters so at rest all blood is pumped through the circuit once per minute During exercise untrained people can have a Q of 20 25 Li lmin 3935 Lmin in trained athletes H rt aie first component of cardiac output and is defined as the number of times the heart beats per unit time per minute Heart rate is influenced by thought breathing emotions posture and exercise Heart rate is controlled internally SA Node and externatly cerebrum hypothalamus and brainstem in response to said factors c wise Volume Volume of blood ejected per beat EDVESV Frank Starling Law increase in venous return amount returned to heart Muscle Pumps when contracting muscle pumps compress vessels Respiratory Pumps respiratory muscles compress vessels when contracted during inspiration I Increase in EDV volume in left ventricle at end of ventricular diastole 1 l Increased stretch of ventricle resulting in greater pressure in the ventricle resulting in a stronger contraction and increased stroke volume In The opposite is true with decreased venous return At the cessation of exercise muscle and respiratory pump activity decreases sympathetic activity decreases thereby resulting in a decrease in venous return and a decreased stroke volume CardiacContractility is the ability to contract the heart With training the heart muscle may hypertrophy increase in size increases the ability to contract resulting in a higher stroke volume Trained athletes will have lower heart rate due to stronger muscle contractions and a higher stroke volume with cardiac output remaining the same Remember heart rate and stroke volume are components of cardiac output a very important central factor influencing VOZmax An increase in Qmax may result in an increased VOEmaxf o LocallPeripherat Factors even with adequate oxygen delivered to tissues we still must be able to extract it from blood a VOZ difference is representative of the ability of muscles or other tissues to consume oxygen af vFOZ Difference a Arterial venous oxygen difference Difference in oxygen concentration in the arteries and veins just outside the tissue examined muscle Venous oxygen concentration is less than arterial oxygen concentration due to extraction of oxygen by muscle On average as 100 mL of blood passes through the capillaries and 20 ml of oxygen are carried 5 mL out of the 20 mL of oxygen carried are used at rest with 15 mL of oxygen remaining bound on the venous side Thus average a VO2 difference at rest is 5 mL The average a VOZ difference during heavy exercise is higher than at rest The greater the difference the more oxygen the muscle excreted from the blood This is influenced by a multitude of factors Mitochondria a important in meeting metabolic demands aerobically With endurance training there is an increase in both number and size of mitochondria This allovvs for the ability to use more oxygen to meet metabolic demands aerobically thus potentially needing an increase in a VOZ difference gagiilary Beds Endurance training also increases capillary density increased number of capillary beds near the trained muscles Capillaries are located closer to the muscles themselves These two adaptations ailovir for more blood to flow past the muscles at one time as well as a decreased distance for the oxygen to travel before entering muscle increasing the amount of oxygen consumed Myoglgbjg acts as hemoglobin in muscle lt transports oxygen from the surface of the muscle to the mitochondria vvhere it can be used for producing energy Training increases myogiobin count allovving for an increased ability to transport oxygen to mitochondria This may also result in a greater asVOZ difference a VOZ difference is the local factor effecting V02 or V02max The greater the anVOZ difference at maximum work the greater the potential for an increased V39O2max NOZmax is dependent on both central and local factors ln other words it is in uenced by both the ability to deliver oxygen to muscles as well as extract it from blood anth training the individual will be abie to increase workload requiring a larger cardiac output A persons abiilty to increase the cardiac output to a necessary ievel will be partially indicative of their VOZmax o 4 Factors Limiting VOZmax c Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity I At sea level the lungs do a great job of saturating blood with oxygen Even during max work the arterial blood is about 95 saturated For most the pulmonary system is not a limiting factor unless the exercise is performed at an altitude or they have asthma or COPD o Cardiac Output i it is estimated that 7580 of increases in VOZmax after training are exclained by increases in cardiac output This suggests the ability of the body to deliver oxygen to muscles is the main limiting factor to VOZmax Since HR does not change with training increases in VOZmax are a factor of SV 0 Oxygen Carrying Capacity I ls a factor of how many REC an individual has thus how much hemoglobin With training there is an increase in oxygen carrying capacity which is partly responsible for the increase in VOEmaxz That is why blood doping which increases REC volume is illegal At 9 increases in V02mam Skeletal Muscles I Abiiity to extract 02 is a factor of increases in muscle mitochondria as well as the capillary density surrounding muscles But increases in mitochondria account for only a small increase in VOZmax instead increases in mitochondria increase performance by allowing athletes to use more fat and spare glycogen and thus produce less lactate However increases in capillary density does increase VOZmax by increasing the amount of biood passing a particular muscle in a given time thereby allowing greater exchange of gases Even without these adaptations under normal conditions the muscle has a much greater ability to extract oxygen than the circulatory systems ability to deliver it so these are not necessarily limiting factors Training Principles for Aerobic Exercise ch 231 1 Be familiar with factors which affect the aerobic training response intensity duration etc o FITT 0 Frequency Intensity o Time c Type a Frequency 6 With 2 days a week 3045 minsession one can see improvements The key principle for improvements is intensity However people who frequently train 7 days a week may see oyertraining issues above normal RHR physiological factors While extra time may not produce VOZmax gains it wili result in greater caloric expenditure to produce weight loss one should have 60 minute sessions at sufficient intensity to expect 300kcal or more Typical aerobic programs take place 3 days a week with single rest days separating them o Intensity o Measured through Heart Rate radial artery is the best but also determined by calories consumed and percentage of oxygen consumed At 50 of V02 HR is roughly 60 of max The higher the intensity the higher the cardiovascuiar improvement a TimeDuration o The longer the duration the greater the improvement in oxygen consumption Duration Threshold 2 12 mins obviously with lower duration there is a higher intensity However if you were to train at twice the daily volume you wouldn39t see any better results a TypeMode o Training is specific For instance if you compete freestyle you wouldn t practice using the backstroke While it does improve cardiovascular it will not improve through the particular range of motion needed for competition MTThe stimulus for aerobic training probably links closely to exercise intensity and total work accomplished rather than sequencing of training days 2 Maintenance of aerobic fitness gains a By not working as hard as it took to get there Significant improvement training 5 daysfwk at training threshold then after 4 daysrwk still improvements seen 3 dayswk wouid maintain o 2 daysfwk some drop off o i dayfwk drastic drops a With intensity held constant the frequency and duration of exercise required to maintain a level of aerobic fitness remain considerably lower than that required to induce improvement in contrast a small decline in intensity reduces V OZmax Thus intensity plays a principal role in maintaining the increase in aerobic capacity E D 3 Understand various cardiovascular adaptations that occur with chronic training a Long term aerobic training generally increases the hearts mass and volume with greater left ventricular end diastolic volumes during rest and exercise Moderate cardiac hypertrophy secondary to longitudinal myocardial cell enlargement reflects a fundamentai and normal training adaptation of muscle to an increased workload independent of age This enlargement is characterized by an increased size of the left ventricular cavity eccentric hypertrophy and modest thickening of its walls concentric hypertrophy Exercise also increases contractile properties with increased sensitivity to activation by Ca2 changes in forcealength relationship and increased power output Myocardial overload stimulates greater cellular protein synthesis with concomitant reductions in protein breakdown increasing trained muscle s RNA content accelerates protein synthesis individual myofibrils thicken and the number of contractile filaments Increases Aerobic athletes average a 25 larger heart volume than sedentary individuals Duration also affects cardiac ales and structure so Some research shows no change in cardiac dimensions with short term training despite gains in V02max and submax exercise heart rate response As intensity increases the left ventricle volume increases but also decreases with a decrease in intensity therefore enlargement is not a permanent adaptation o increases in Plasma Volume RBC Mass Total Blood Volume Ventricular Compliance internal Ventricular Dimensions Venous Return Myocardial Contractiiity End Diastolic Volume Ejection Fraction Maximum Stroke Volume Maximum Cardiac Output Effectiveness of Cardiac Output Distribution Optimization of Peripheral Fiovv Blood Flow to Active iviuscie c 7 Regarding Plasma Volume afterWSPB exercise bouts iZ ZUDo increase in volume in fact a measurabie change occurs within 24hrs ofthe first exercise bout with expansion of ECF volume vvithin several weeks This means that cardiovascular adaptations occur with short term exercise training S v increases during exercise refiect the combined effects of increased left ventricular and diastolic dimension preload and increased systolic ejection lntravascuiar volume expansion directly relates to increased syntheSls and retention of plasma albumin Plasma voiume increases enhance circulatory reserve and increases EDV SV Oxygen Transport VDZmax and temperature regulating ability during exercise 4 Explain the concepts of overload reversibility where it applies to training Understand different ways you can apply the overload principie Regular application of a specific exercise overload enhances physiologic function to induce a training response Exercising at intensities greater than normal stimulates highly specific adaptations so the body functions more efficiently Achieving the appropriate overload requires manipulating training frequency intensity duration with a focus on exercise mode Regarding Reversibility detraining loss of physiologic and performance adaptations occurs rapidly when a person terminates participation in regular physical activity Only 1 or 2 weeks of detraining reduces both metabolic and exercise capacity with many training improvements fully lost within several months Even in highty trained athletes the beneficial effects of many years of prior exercise training remain transient and reversible For this reason most athletes begin a reconditioning program several months prior to the start of competitive season or at minimum maintain some moderate level of offseason sport specific training to slow the decline in physiologic functions from detraining What is the Kar vcnen forumla What is an optimal target heart rate for cardiovascular adaptations use the Karvonen formula to calculate Aerobic capacity improves if exercise intensity regularly maintains heart rate between 55 and 70 of maximum During lower body exercise this heart rate increase equals about ifUPS UDo ofthe V02max for college aged people this is 1201t40 bpm The Karvonen formula is used to determine training threshold it requires that subjects exercise at a heart rate equal to 60 of the difference between resting and maximum 713 of maximum can be done without discomfort for most people This is known as conversational exercise achieving sufficient intensity to stimulate a training effect yet does not produce discomfort As aerobic fitness improves HR will decrease by 10 20 bpm To keep pace with physiologic improvement the exercise level must increase periodically to achieve desired exercise The greater the training intensity above threshold the greater improvement for V02 max More fit people require higher threshold levels to stimulate a training response than less fit persons This ceiling for intensity remains unknown although about 85 V02 max 90 HRmax probably represents the upper iirnit THRHRmax HRrest 60 RHR o THR 392 Target HR o HRmax max HR ZZOage o HR rest a measure radial pulse at rest a RHR resting HR Need to achieve THI R in order to maximize improvements of training Ifthe heart is not stimulated enough then you will not see effects Training at a higher HR than THR then improvements are more likely to occur As RHR lowers the range will differ as age increases there will also be changes in THR 17 What are the advantages of training at the lactate threshold quot Lactacte threshold is the level that our bodies buffer system can no longer keep up with the amount of lactate that it is producing As you know you produce lactate with intense exercise and our body has a mechanism to clear it as soon as is produced At a certain level though the blood lactate is created faster than it can be cleared this is lactate threshold At this point Blood lactate will skyrocket and exercise will most likely cease very soon 9 By training at this level we can train our body to slowly adapt to higher and higher levels of blood lactate The body adapts to the environment With a higher blood lactate one can exercise at a higher intensity for longer periods So take two athletes in similar fitness level so similar V02 but one has a higher lactate threshold This means that at the same intensity the one with the higher lactate threshold will be working less so they can outperform the other 3 What is interval training and what is the rationale for its use 139 interval training is a set workload with a set rest period repeated for a set repetition An example would be running a mile w 3 min rest 4 times or 200m x 12 times w a min ret between This training is the best method to increase lactate threshold and V02 max as opposed to long distance training or steady state Another very positive use is that this is the BEST type on training to burn fat mass This is me speaking outside of his notes that I know of He might of talked about it though Interval training does not directly burn as many kcal as long distance since the amount of time working is less but it evokes the EPOC effect This goes back to the first test with oxygen debt since you enter an increasingly larger deficiency with each repetition you don39t have enough rest to recover 100 the oxygen debt is very larger depending on the intensity This means that your metabolism will be significantly elevated post exercise sometimes as much as 6 hours so you will burn fat much more effectively versus with long duration exercise 5 Understand task specificity 9 When training for specific aerobic activities the overload must be 1 engage the appropriate muscles required by the activity and 392 provide exercise at a level sufficient to stress the cardiovascular system Little improvement occurs when measuring aerobic capacity with dissimilar exercise the greatest improvement occurs when the test exercise duplicates the training exercise This also applies to patients with coronary disease Vocabulary Overload regular application of a specific exercise overload enhances physiologic function to induce a training response Exercising at intensities greater than normal stimulates highly specific adaptations so the body functions more efficiently Achieving the appropriate overload requires manipulating training frequency intensity duration and exercise mode Planned systematic and progressive increase in training to improv performance Exercise Training Specificity a adaptations in metabolic and physiologic functions that depend upon the type and mode of overload proposed Specific Adaptations to imposed Demands 3MB specific exercise elicits specific adaptations to promote specific training effects RPE Rate of Perceived Exertion can be used in addition to oxygen consumption heart rate and blood lactate to determine exercise intensity RIPE of 13 714 somewhat hard coincides with 70 l lRmax 11 12 coincides with the lactate threshold it is effective in estimating blood lactate limited if repeated bouts of exercise are done in the same session o MOne important distinction between Li HRmax and lactate threshold is that toHRmax establishes a level of exercise stress to overload the central olrculation QSW whereas the capability of the peripheral vasculature and active muscles to sustain steady rate aerobic metab dictates exercise intensity adjustments based on lactate threshold Lactate Generating Capacity To improve energy transfer capacity by short term lactic acid energy system training must overload this aspect of energy metabolism Blood lactate rises to peak levels within t minute of anaerobic exercise rest 3 5 minutes before another bout is known as lactate stacking producing a higher blood lactate level than just one all out exhaustive effort Anaerobic conditioning should be done at the end of session as to not to hinder aerobic training yeirtraining can relate to increased incidence of infections muscle soreness general malaise and loss of interest in training plus an increased chance of injury Two forms o Sympathetic Form less common characterized by increased sympathetic activity hyperexcitabiiity restlessness impaired performance iviay reflect psychologicalliemotional stress from training competition and normal life o Parasympathetic Form dominance of vagal activity during rest and exercise Termed overreaching in the early stages Excessive and protracted exercise overload with inadequate recovery and rest leads to overreaching Symptoms include poor performance altered sleep patterns and appetite frequent Infections persistent fatigue altered immune and reproductive functions acute and chronic alterations in systemic inflammatory responses mood disturbances maiaise and loss of interest in training Overreaching Unplanned excessive overload with inadequate rest Poor performance is observed in trainingi competition Successful recovery should result from short term interventions Overtraining Syndrome Untreated overreaching that produces long term decreased performance lv lay require medical attention Aerobic Training a proper endurance training overloads all components of oxygen transport and use 0 cardiovascular overload must be intense enough to sufficiently increase overload stroke volume and cardiac output cardiovascular overload must occur from activation of sport specific muscle groups to enhance local circulation and the muscles metabolic machinery O Types of Aerobic Training interval Training Permits completion of intense exercise without appreciable lactate buildup because intramuscular high energy phosphates anaerobic glycolysis provides the primary energy source The intensity must activate the particular energy systems that require improvement Prescription evolves from four considerations 0 Intensity 0 Duration o Length of Recovery 0 Number of reps relief interval Continuous Training long slow distance training involves steady paced prolonged exercise at either moderate or high aerobic intensity 6080 VOZmax Pace may vary but it must meet a threshold intensity to ensure aerobic physiologic adaptations Ideally suits novices looking to maximize caloric expenditure for weight loss when applied to athletes usually represents overtraining Allows endurance athletes to exercise at nearly the same intensity as actual competition motor recruitment depends on intensity so it may best apply to endurance athletes desiring adaptations at the cellular level in contrast interval training places stress on fast twitch motor units not slow twitch units predominantly recruited in endurance competition Fartlett Training Billean of continuous and interval training using alternate running at fast and slow speeds over level and hilly terrain It is manipulated by the individual on how it feels RPE When properly applied it overloads one or all of the energy systemsquot Provides ideal general conditioning and off season training strategies although it lacks systematic and quantified approaches of interval and continuous training but it does add freedom and variety to workouts tieuromuscular Adaptations to Resistance Training ch 22 1 What are the goals of strength training 0 In simple terms resistance training is putting a stress on your muscles 3 weight and providing muscle contraction to overcome that stress lift it This process eventually overloads your muscle breaks down the sarcomeres and then your muscle will go through a shit ton of responses to rebuild stronger This is the point of resistance training 39 Here is a lot more detail on resistance training This is defined as high frequency of motor unit firing with a major force production Resistance training acts to increase the cross sectional area ofthe muscle to a great extent and has a little effect on the oxidative capacity of the muscle unlike endurance training Your muscles will adapt to produce a greater force production with an increase in its myofibrils its contractile protein actin and myosin and the development of its SR 2 What factors modify strength Neural Adaptions Recruitment frequency and synchronization o Muscular force capacity or strength can improve due to enhanced neural activity Typical enhancements in neural activity and strength are a result of resistance training The neuromuscular system determines the capacity in which a muscle can produce force Enhancements to motor unit recruitment and firing patterns are the most prominent neural adaptions observed All or None Principle when a motor neuron tires all its associated fibers contract maximally o On the neural level improvements in muscular force capacity or strength is due to increased i Motor Unit Recruitment especially Type ll Motor Unit Firing Rate frequency II Patter of Motor Unit Firing synchronization quot Muscular Adaptions Hypertrophy 0 Resistance training increases the size and strength of whole muscules through 2 mechanisms Hypertrophy increases in the size of the individual muscle fibers Causes whole muscle growth Hyperplasia increase in the number of individual muscle fibers still debatable in humans Hypertropth Mechanisms 0 Protein synthesis the body s protein status is a balance of protein synthesis and degradation Resistance training increases synthesis with a minor effect on protein breakdown increased protein content within the muscle cell expands the size of the beh o Myonuclear Genesis Myonuclear Domain Theory it is common to see increases of 30 40 in strength with resistance training yet the muscles usually don t increase to this extent What gives The rest of the strength comes from neurological adaptations Basically your body gets better at using the muscles that it has Your body recruits more motor units by increasing the electrical stimulation of the neurons which lead to faster quotfiring rates this is what recruitment is It also becomes more efficient at using its highthreshold units or its type 2a and 2x fibers Motor units will learn to fire faster and will start to fire together be synchronized Think of someone benching for the first time in their life What do they look like during the lift Their arms are shaking and they seem to be lifting uneven Then after a week of training they look much smoother with lifting This is because of motor units learning to fire together This all occurs significantly within the first 34 weeks of introducing the body to new stimuli so its neurons will adapt first and lead to a huge increase in strength TH E N the muscles will undergo hypertrophy o This is why some people don t get results when they work out They lift for a few weeks and don t see any results but they are gaining neural adaptations so they stop before the hypertrophy starts 0 Muscles respond to stimuli by adapting and two theories are hypertrophy and hyperplasia Hypertrophy occurs when the muscle fibers increase their cross sectional area so they increase in size This happens when muscle breaks down and increases its number of actin and myosin in the sarcomeres via increased protein turnover Just know that you have a protein pool in the muscles and you want protein synthesis obviously to create new actin and myosin Hyperplasia is when the actual fiber number increases Both of these make sense as adaptations to training yet ONLY hypertrophy occurs in humans Hyperplasia has been evidenced in other mammals such as cats and birds but it does not occur in human muscle cells Although it d be col if it did The myonuclear theory is just that first a muscle nucleus there are many on a muscle will grow in proteins actin and myosin then once it gets too large for its area the muscle will create more nuclei and continue to grow This is done though satellite cells chemotaxic muscle stem cells 39 It is very important to remember that adaptations are clue to neural and muscle gains Neural gains always come first 3 Know different methods used to assess muscle strength Tensiometrv O 0 Measures static strength One end of the cable is attached to an immovable object and the other to a limb segment The tensiometer is placed somewhere between the two xated points increasing the force on the cable depresses the riser over which the cable passes Tensiometer is attached to a gauge that measures force in relative units Dynamometry O O Q A device that measures power force or torque Handgrip and back leg lift dynamometry An external force is applied to the dynamometer which compresses a steel spring and moves a pointer The force required to move the pointer a given distance determines the external force applied 391 Onerepetition maximum 0 O O O O A dynamic procedure that measures maximal strength The maximum amount of weight lifted 1 time Can be tested on any lift to establish strength 39 Squat bench deadlift shoulder press biceps curl etc increased risk of injury compared to submaximal t RM can also be estimated 39 Computerassisted force and power output determinations 0 Force plates I Measure external application o39l force by a limb o Electromechanical resistance instrument I Isok inetic dynamometer 0 Biodex Contains a speedcontrolling mechanism that accelerates to a preset constant velocity with force application The machine adjusts loading automatically to provide a counterforce to variations in force generation by muscle throughout the entire ROM 4 Outline procedure for assessing 1 RM 39 Warm up neuromuscular and muscular system Q But not enough to cause fatigue or truly achieving 1 RM is compromised 39 Warmup Guidelines Estimate subject s 1 RM Set 1 510 reps of light or easy load Set 2 4 3 5 reps of increasing weight Still easvl 39 10 20 lbs 13 10 for U3 30 401 lbs 10 20 for LB 0 Set 46 single repetitions with weight slowly approaching estimated max 0 Change in weight is relative to estimated 1 RM OO O 0 Rest 13 minutes between sets 39 1 1RM test 0 Use the last warm up lift and EYE test to decide the first attempt 0 Example i lF last lift was 2015 and it looked like the lifter could barely complete the lift 205 is probably the 1 l ilVl or only 510 lbs away I OR did the lifter push up the weight quick and make if look easy This could justify a 20 40 lb increase in weight for 15quot 1FiM attempt Test is continued until lifter can not successfully achieve the lift 9 Rest between sets 3165 minutes 0 Ensure ATPEPC restoration No more than 3 5 attempts MAX should he should be taken otherwise volume will compromise achieving TRUE 1 RM o More than 5 attempts means you are horrible at estimating What if the lifer FAILS o 24 minute rest 0 Decrease the load subtracting weight I 5 10 lbs ZS 5 for U8 ll 15 20 lbs 5 10 for LB 139 Reasons for estimating lRM with subamaximal effort or Injury recovery 0 Age 0 Disease Ways to estimate 1 RM 0 Multiple repetitions 5 1RM 0 Training load Chart 0 Equations Table l Estimating 39l strength in a given liftsexercise can he achieved by performing a set to failure with suhmaximal weight and then calculating the LRM using 1 table like this Table adapted from 1 l Number of Percent of Multiply Weight Repetition 1Repetlrtlon Lifted By Performed 1 H77 100 7 H 10 l m we smeww39 on U1 3 all 4 Lu w 11 Hiref f f quot l 143 12 fiiim yer 149 715 65 f 154 39 Calculating lalRM o When calculating maximal strength different equations are used for untrained v5 trained individuals 0 RET alters the relationship between submaximal performance 7 10 reps and maximal lift capacity 1 rep I Untrained 1RM 155411 rep s 5181 I Trained 39 1RM 1172 x reps 7704 5 Define concentric eccentric and isometric muscular movements 391 Concentric muscle shortens and joint movement occurs as tension develops Eccentric external resistance gt muscle force therefore muscle lengthens while developing tension isometric muscle generates force and attempts to shorten but cannot overcome external resistance 6 Name and give examples of different muscle actions Staticn muscle activation but no change in fiber length aka isometric 0 Example When a barbell is held at the midpoint of39the bicep curl the biceps exert force but do not change in length As in the graphic where the athlete places resistance against the curling movement the biceps neither overcome the resistance nor are they overcome by the resistance The muscle length does not change even though it is contracting Dynamic oppositel change in muscle fiber length Produces movement of skeletal system 0 Concentric muscle shortening I Example Bending the arm at the elbow from straight to fully flexed as when performing a Biceps Curl movement taking the hands from your hips to your shoulder causing a concentric contraction of the biceps brachii muscle the muscle attachments draw closer together 0 Eccentric muscle lengthening I Example The opposite of a concentric muscle action The downward phase of a bicep curl requires the eccentric action of the biceps muscle The muscle exerts force to control the speed of the downward movement but its length increases 7 Describe the metabolic neural and musculoskeletal adaptations that occur with strength training In initial phases neural adaptions contributes to strength gains As training duration increases hypertrophy of muscles becomes more contribut irve of strength gains After plateau is reached then periodization can be used to increase strength During typical 8 week training period 0 During first 2 weeks 90 of strength gains attributed to neural adaptions 0 ln the next 2 weeks 4050 strength gains die to neural adapt ions o Thereafter majority of strength gains due to muscular adaptions hypertrophy 8 Describe plv ometric training and its application 39 P lyometrics also known as jump training are exercises in which muscles exert maximum force in short intervals of time with the goal of increasing power speed strength This training focuses on learning to move from a muscle extension to a contraction in a rapid or explosive manner such as specialized repeated jumping 39 Used by athletes such as sprinters and high jumpers to improve their performance and are uses in the fitness field to a much lesser degree 9 Describe the differences that exist with strength training between gender and age Be able to compare absolute and reiative uppers and lower body strength between men and women 39 Gender Differences O 0 Muscle cross sectional area CSA Human muscle generates 21530 N of force per sq cm of muscle area regardless of gender individuals with the largest muscle CSA generate the greatest absolute force Men have more muscle than women BUT little difference in strength exists between men and women with the same size muscle Absolute muscle strength E Total force exerted in lbs or kgs I Men gt Women 39 50 difference in upperbody strength 30 difference in lowerbody strength Relative muscle strength C A comparative ratio calculated by dividing maximal strength lifted weight by a measurement of body mass total body weight FFM or muscle CSA I Levels the playing field for comparison Allosteric Scaling Ii Allosteric scaling mathematical procedure used to establish relationships between body size height body mass RPM and another factor of interest strength endurance power jump height speed Differences reported between sedentary and trained males and female upper and lower body strength 10 Explain differences in RET goals and programming for athletes us non athietes and young as old 391 Children 0 Can they benefit from strength training O Undeveloped and still growing Risk for injury I Epiphyseal fracture ruptured interyertebral disks lower back bony disruptions acute lower back trauma Lower anabolic hormone profile rarepubescent Supervised training I using only CON contractions I Low intensity high reps Gains in strength most likely from neuromuscular adaptations I Older Adults O O O O Baby Boomers are getting into their 60 s I Families during this time had more children than subsequent generations 19461964 Why should older adults 2 65 yrs lift I Sarcopenia I Frailty I increased dependence I Falls I Hospitalizations GOAL maintain muscle or slow atrophy prevent falls increase BMW and maintain independence Can older adults benefit I YESlli 1 muscular strength and power I Upper and lower body 1 muscle volume and size improved physical performance I Gait speed I Chairistand time I Balance I Handgrip strength PRE used to minimize skeletal muscle injury Greatest strength gains during high intensity training 280 LEM Greatest improvements in performance with power training 39 Athletes 0 O 0 GOAL optimize muscle strength power and hypertrophy 1 6 RM training loads Higher training frequency higher intensity higher volume o Skill specific exercises o Gains in strength dependent on initial training status ll 40 untrained 20 moderately trained 15 trained 10 advanced 2 elite athletes 39 NonAthletes c GOAL increase muscle lose fat improve health Dr s Rxl o ACSM Recommendations for RET I Minimum of 2 nonmconsecutive days per week I 1 x 812 for healthy adults 810 exercises that target all the major muscle groups 0 PRE to minimize injury in novice and sedentary adults 11 Know the different models of strength training Explain progressive resistance training 0 Say you lift run or whatever you do You willl improve but eventually you will reach a plateau in your training and with perioditatlon you can get around it The GAS is the general order that one goes through in response to a stress exercise training 0 First there is the alarm phase This is when the muscle encounters a new stress This causes the muscle to break down and you will momentarily get weaker till your muscle repairs itself This is when you are sore after lifting for the first time or when you change your workout to shock your muscles This is good by the way because you have successfulin overloaded the muscle 0 Then after the muscle adapts to this stress it will rebuild itself or compensate for that stress and getter stronger This will keep happening up to a point 0 The plateau phase will be reached when the muscle is no longer stressed to overload The muscle no longer as a need to hypertrophy and adapt to the old stress thus you will stop gaining strength Well you are done getting stronger But since muscles are adaptive if you place a higher stress on them increased weight or intensity you will continue to have gains This is the concept of periodization Train till you get all the benefits and then switch up the program in some cases the athlete might enter exhaustion This is also referred to as overtraining Basically your muscles get tired and decline in strength 39 Then you just have to look at the different types of periodization 1 Progressive resistance training provides a practical application of the overload principle and forms the basis of most resistancetraining programs 12 What is training specificity Specificity is the principle of training that states that sports training should be relevant and appropriate to the sport for which the individual is training in order to produce a training effect An isometricallv trained muscles shows the greatest strength improvement when measured isometrically similarly a dynamically trained muscle tests nest when evaluated in resistance athletes that requires movement In dynamic exercise muscles trained through movements over a limited ROM show the greatest strength improvement when measured in that ROM Even body position specificity exists Resistance training specificity makes sense because strength improvement blends adaptions in two factors o The muscle fiber and connective tissue harness itself 0 Neural organization and excitability of motor units that power discrete patterns of voluntary movement 13 What is muscle soreness and how is it caused What is the current model used to explain DOMS Muscle soreness is the soreness and stiffness in exercised joints and muscles following an extended layoff from exercise or performing unaccustomed exercise Temporaryquot soreness may persist for several hours immediately after such unaccustomed exercise whereas delayedonset muscie soreness DOME appears later and can last for 3 or 4 days Any of the following seven factors may produce DOMS 0 Minute tears in muscle tissue or damage to its contractile components Osmotic pressure changes that produce fluid retention in surrounding tissues Muscle spasms Overstretching and tearing of the muscles connective tissue harness Acute inflammation OOOOO Alteration in the cell s mechanism for calcium regulation 0 Combination of above factors Current mode Unaccustomed exercise using eccentric muscle actions downhill running s lcnrorlrlr lowering weights etc 39J39 High muscle forces damage sarcolemma causing rlease of cytosolic enzymes and myoglobin Damage to muscle contractile myofibrils and non contract ile structures Metabolites ex calcium accumulate to abnormal levels in the muscle cell to produce more cell damage and reduced force capacitv iv39w Delayedaonset muscle soreness considered to result from inflammation tenderness pain The inflammation process begins the muscle heals the adaptive process makes the muscle more resistant to damage from subsequent exercise 14 Understand the force development and forcevelocity and relationship The isometric lengthtension curve represents the force a muscle is capable of generating while held at a series of discrete lengths When tension at each length is plotted against length a relationship is obtained Force velocity relationship The force generated by a muscle is a function of its velocity Historically the forcevelocity relationship has been used to define the dynamic properties of the cross bridges which cycle during muscle contraction 39 The forceavelocity relationship like the lengthtension relationship is a curve that actually represents the results of many experiments plotted on the same graph Experimentally a muscle is allowed to shorten against a constant load The muscle velocity during shortening is measured and then plotted against the resistive force Muscles are strengthened based on the force placed across the muscle Higher forces produce greater strengthening Therefore exercises performed with muscle activated in a way that allows them to contract at high velocities necessarily imply that they are also contracting with relatively low force This is intuitively obvious as you lift a light load compared to a heavy loadathe light load can be moved much more quickly However these rapid movements would have very small strengthening effects since the muscle forces are so low Body Composition Chapters 28 and 30 lecture notes and lab 1 Know and understand the principle of Archimedes and how it applies to the procedure of human body volume measurements This is the trick that Archimedes found out when he had to figure out if a crown was made of solid gold When an object is submerged in water it will displace its volume in water This means that to find the volume of an object it is placed in water Then the volume of the water that is displaced is equal to the volume of the object So when a person is placed in water the volume of the person is equal to the volume of the water that they displace This is useful because there is a formula to find percent fat mass from the density of an object Density is equal to massvolume Finding the mass of a person is easy just weigh them but this is the easiest way to find the VOIleE of a person The density is also called the specific gravity 2 Understand the differences and usefulness of different body composition and anthropometric assessment procedures discussed in the text and class What are the general assumptions used by indirect measures Different procedures exist to measure body composition Among these is the skin fold the bioelectrical impedance BIA underwater weighing explained in question 1 x ray and calculating BMI Direct means that they are taking it at an autopsy Clearly not too practical These are all indirect and they assume that all mass in the body is either muscle or fat they don39t take into account water mass bone weight or air volume Skin folds are the most common and this is based on the fact that most of our fat is subcutaneous meaning that a majority is found at the surface of the body Using this knowledge seven skin fold sites are pinched with caliper andl these numbers are plugged into a formula to get percent body fat All the pinches should be made on the right side of the body This method is not that accurate depending on if the tester sucks and can be affected by many things like exercise this will increase the thickness of your skin being dehydrated decrease thickness of the skin and age As you age fat moves to being more visceral so an old person would be calculated as having less fat Then we have the underwater weighing This is the gold standard and yields the best result but it isn t that practical like the skin fold is Fat is less dense than water so the more fat that someone has the less they will sink The Bills is a hand held device that sends a current from one hand to the other Fat does not contain electrolytes so it doesn t conduct current as well as lean mass which has electrolytes So the lower the current reaches back to the machine the more fat a person supposedly has As you can probably see a lot of things can affect this If you are dehydrated then you will have more electrolytes in your blood because of less water and will conduct the current faster and your body fat will be underestimated if you are hydrated the opposite will happen and the fat amount will be overestimated if your skin is warm then the current will travel much faster and underestimate it then if your skin is cold the current will travel very slow This had me at 2 ones time Clearly not right Xaray will reveal bone mass and you can calculate fat mass from this and BMW is an anthropometric measurement taken from one s weight in kg and height in mAZ It is in the units of kgmAZ This will put someone in ranges of underweight normal overweight and obese lt185 is underweight 185 249 is normal 25293 is overweight and above 30 is obese But this is not the best measurement for fit people as it doesn t take into account muscle which weighs more than fat Another anthropometric is waist circumference girth This is a really good measurement for the amount of fat that is in the abdominal region Fat in this region is bad The two common classes are android and gynoid shape Then you can get fancy with the bod pod a 1000 machine The machines measures the volume of the machine and then measures the volume with you in it and finds the difference This is fairly accurate yet expensive o So the best one is underwater weighing and waist circumference for anthropometric But underwater weighing is the gold standard for measuring body fat o The norms are around 15 for men and 26 for women 3 What are the body composition differences between males and females Males have less body fat because only 3 is essential whereas 12 is essential in females This is due to the fact that females need fat for their menstrual cycle and all that good stuff El Understand the difference between essential and storage fat and the difference between FFM and LBM Essential fat is what the organs need to function properly This is needed for the bone marrow nervous system for example 39 Storage fat is just that storage This is extra fat you accumulate from your lifestyle It can be subcutaneous right under the skin or visceral surrounding the organs 5 How does energy balance and weight loss affect body composition lfyou consume more kcal than you burn off or metabolism than you will store those kcal as adipose or fat simple The things that determine your metabolism are the thermic effect of food this is the energy that your body uses to actually digest and absorb the food protein has the highest your activity level and your resting metabolism to the highest impact based on your muscle mass A pound of fat is equal to 31500 kcal 16 Understand the potential impact of diet and exercise on obesity eg what are the differences of dieting alone as compared to dieting and exercise combined Exercise is not as effective as cleaning one s diet Exercise is great and all but no matter how much you exercise if your diet sucks you will not lose as much weight Diet is also great by itself but you will not gain lean body mass muscle without exercise Both of these have to be prescribed to have the best effect on obesity The best plan is the exercise 30 min a day four times a week The diet only group will lose weight but not as much as if combined with exercise If you exercise alone you will lose weight and gain lean body mass but you will lose more weight if you combine this with diet but combined you will not gain as much lean muscle Moral of the story Exercise and control your diet to get the best results on weight loss Understand the concept of the energy balance equations The equations give you the basal metabolic rate which is the amount of kcal that your body burns to complete its normal functions This is normally around 15002500kcal it depends on your age weight and height There are two formulas one for men and one for women to calculate this They are called the harrisbenedict formula Look it up if he asked to memorize this Know the changes that occur in fat cells during weight gain and weight loss Fat cells called adipocy tes get smaller with weight loss With weight gain they will first hypertrophy and then increase in number called hyperplasia Remember from the last test that muscles don t undergo hyperplasia EXCEPT for fat cells So you will increase the number of fat cells to accommodate the added fat Here s the catch though once you increase this number they will never disappear unless you have surgery So once you gain weight and make more fat cells even if you lose a lot of weight you will always have the same amount of fat cells They will just all shrink This is why obese people have problems keeping weight off 9 What is BMI 10 11 This is body mass index taken by weight over height This number is based on the population so it s not the best number to go by if you have muscle and our fit since the majority of the population is overweight Muscle weighs more than fat so a body builder or even someone with a lot of muscle will be considered overweight maybe even obese Now if someone is clearly obese or not fit this number is important if above 302 you are considered obese and you need to change your lifestyle Fat is stored in the abdominal region and this can lead to a lot of problems insulin resistance is one and this will contribute too many other problems So a high BMI doesn t necessarily mean trouble but if they are not fit then pay attention to it A high number means more disease risk What are the common techniques used to assess body composition Explained already in question We have the underwater weighing skin fold BIA BMI and xiray Underwater weighing is the best not the most practical skin fold is easy to do but not the best and Blejust plain sucks How do skinfolds and girth measurements provide meaningful information about body fat and its distribution Skinfolds measure the subcutaneous fat so this number is good but remember that this test is not the most accurate Girth or waist circumference is a really good test since it measures the size of your waist Fat stored in the abdominal region is what leads to all the problems of obesity Waist circumference is a much better anthropometric measure than BMI Waist circumference should be done first to classify someone in a risk category there s categories for the number then BMI should be done This is my opinion not what Dr Moffatt said 12 Identify the anatomical locations for frequentlyP measured skinfolds and girths All the skin folds are to be taken on the right side of the body Skiniold is done with the calipers that pinch the skin The theory that most of our fat is subcutaneous shifts ratio with age There are seven standard areas to take measurements and also a three area test Always take measurements on the right side Can have up to a 4 error more it the person measuring it sucks 0 measurement is taken diagonally at the chest One is talcen at the subaxillarv vertically middle of armpit and hip One is at the abdominal vertically One is suprailliac diagonally above the hip bone One is in the middle of the tricep vertically One is on the thigh vertically The last in on the subscapular diagonally GOODGO
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