Final Exam Quizzes and Assignments Guide
Final Exam Quizzes and Assignments Guide biol 208
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This 2 page Bundle was uploaded by Molly O'Neil on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Bundle belongs to biol 208 at Towson University taught by Dr Firestone in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 12/08/15
Quizzes and Assignment Notes Indeterminate and determinate development are both involved in the development of an embryo, and are both triploblastic Nerve cells evolved at the same time as true tissues Annelida, Mollusca and Chordata all have eyes. When mapped on the Animalia family tree this trait is polyphyletic indicating that it is a homoplasy, because each group evolved eyes independently In order for a closed circulatory system to develop, an open circulatory system would need to evolve Before a brain could develop, bilateral symmetry, ganglia and nerve cells needed to evolve Arthropoda have determinate development, open circulatory systems, eyes, and a mesoderm Ecdysozoa and Mollusca have complex digestive systems Similarities of hemoglobin (chordates) and hemocyanin (horseshoe crabs) are due to a homoplasy instead of a homology because hemoglobin transports oxygen using iron and hemocyanin transports oxygen using copper shows convergent evolution because the two molecules have two different ways of solving the same problem Hemoglobin has a very similar protein-folding pattern to hemocyanin Hemoglobin and hemocyanin evolved from the same cellular enzyme Hemoglobin and hemocyanin both help blood cells transport oxygen “Evolutionary restriction” means that the number of traits a species can evolve to deal with environmental challenges is limited by the traits they already have (Ex: gas exchange/getting oxygen in spiders and gas exchange in insects) Evolution can only manipulate things that are already present, it can’t create new traits out of nothing Exoskeleton and cuticle allowed both plants and ecdysozoans to adapt to the challenge of the land being dry because they help prevent the organism from drying out Xylem helps with gravity, while on land The fact that later dinosaurs walked on four legs is called a reversal ZPA was responsible for the chick embryo developing a limb with two sets of digits, mirror images of each other Cephalopoda have brains but no segmentation Segmentation in Chordata and Echinodermata is a homoplasy – segmentation evolved separately in each group, and their common ancestor was not segmented Echinodermata and Chordata are similar because they both have indeterminate development and an endoskeleton A broken gene can be from an insertion in the middle of the gene, which causes a change in the amino acid sequence for the second half of the protein Silent mutations are when you can have a mutation in the DNA that does not result in a change in the amino acid sequence Some of the best evidence for humans and primates being relatives is that we have the same broken gene sequences Humans continue to evolve today Homo sapiens are uniquely able to adapt to new environments due to their large brain Mass extinctions can be caused by glaciation, ocean levels rising or falling, algae booms and ocean acidification Ecosystem services can include flood, lumber, air filtration, water filtration and soil stabilization Dolphins hydroplane to hunt Plants adapted to land in the same way animals adapted to land (cuticle impermeable skin, seed amniotic egg, pollen tube internal fertilization) Reptiles use negative pressure to breathe, where air is pulled into the lungs instead of being pushed. The xylem also uses negative pressure Counter-current heat exchange keeps the temperature of the heart high, but the temperature of the fingers becomes very cold Plants and animals both deal with cold temperatures by burn glucose to generate heat, develop a thick layer of insulation, go into a dormant state such a hibernation We know Ardi is bipedal because the hip bone was short and broad Most primates are red-green colorblind The gene responsible for seeing color is opsin Primates have eyes in the front of their skull because it gives them better depth percepton, so they were better able to judge the distance between branches Notharctus’s hands were different from early mammals because they had opposable thumbs, nails and long fingers The Notharctus was able to live in smaller branches with these new features Before early homonids could develop the precision grip necessary for making and using tools, they needed longer thumbs and shorter fingers Cells in the ZPA (zone of polarizing activity) release the hormone retinoic acid, which tells the rest of the cells in the hand to form a pinky, ring finger, middle finger, index finger or thumb based on how much retinoic acid those cells receive The gene that makes retinoic acid is the sonic hedgehog When homonids started to walk upright, the spine became curved The coccyx is a remnant of ancestral tail Human brains are similar to sharks because they have the same segments Human brains are more complex than other primate brains because they have more nerve cells Mammals have canines The ectoderm gives rise to teeth, hair, and mammary glands The bones in our middle ear came from a reptile jaw Some of the symptoms of altitude sickness include dizziness, hyperventilation, headache, fatigue Some of the long term effects of living at high altitudes include reduced fertility Tibetans have a higher resting respiration rate, so they get enough oxygen by moving the oxygen through their lungs faster Physiological adaptations and cultural adaptations both can be passed down through generations, but cultural adaptations must be learned The adaptations of the Tibetans and the Andeans would be convergent evolution
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