Final Exam Bundle: Units 1 & 2
Final Exam Bundle: Units 1 & 2 BIOL 1108
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Date Created: 12/08/15
82115 Phylogenetic Trees Friday Auust 21 2 15 1222 PM Learning Objectives Understand what phylogenetic trees do and do not communicate Be able to construct a simple phylogenetic tree based on either set of morphological or molecular data Be able to interpret a tree to inform one about the evolutionary history of a group of organisms Be able to properly interpret bootstrap values as well as branch lengths and nodes IN THE NEWS Cyanobacteria formerly called quotbluegreen algaeII are relatively simple primitive life forms closely related to bacteria Typically much larger than bacteria they photosynthesize like algae Depending upon the species cyanobacteria can occur as single cells filaments of cells or colonies Cyanobacteria contain a characteristic pigment which gives the group their bluegreen coloration 0 Common in freshwater environment39s 0 Microcystin aeruginosa is an example and was found in Toledo OH drinking water 0 Exposure to large amounts enlarged liver and spleen Liver toxin Inhibits protein phosphatases by binding covalently to protein phosphatases and disrupting cellular control processes I Microcystins are hepatotoxic able to cause serious damage to the liver Once ingested microcystin travels to the liver via the bile acid transport system where most is stored though some remains in the blood stream and may contaminate tissue 0 Active boiling will only decrease M levels by about 50 and it will create an aerosol Harmful Algal Blooms 0 High light warm conditions when elevated levels of Phosphorus present Caused by agricultural and urban runoff 0 Why do some years have very low HABs and then some really high 0 Less runoff into lake because those years had a drought so there wasn t excess agricultural runoff from fertilizer This tells us agricultural runoff is the main cause for HABs over any type of runoff Biomagnification O Toxin becomes more concentrated as it moves up the food chain 0 Fish gt Birdsducks gt Eagles Eagles are most affected and die Primary consumers of toxin were not significantly impacted 0 What makes cyanobacteria so toxic We don t know Bioaccumulation 0 As one organism ages the toxin becomes more concentrated because it builds up faster than it is excreted Phylogenetic Trees 0 Lebensbaum Tree of Life 0 Taxa a major grouping of living organisms 0 Node Intersection Common ancestor 0 Root Origin of tree 0 Clade monophyletic group A group of organisms of a common ancestor and all its lineal descents 0 In constructing a phylogenetic tree only use homologous structures otherwise you will create a tree that reflects convergence when using analogous structures not the evolutionary history of the organisms Biology Page 1 nallngeuis Structures StreamlineAppendegesj Hemulegnus S39truetures Penfedeefy imhsj Shirk Hungulni Ddlphln lihi Hindi vimnmrnil39 Fllpmr Human Eat Whale Ell 0 Tree shows relative timing of nodes only when nodes are on same path from root SO even if one comes before another that does not mean it happened first Cemperi ihg hiohnelegies end elnellogies interestingly thugh bird and bat wings are analogous as wings as ferelirnbs they are hemelegeus Birds and hats did not inherit wings from a common anteater with wings but they did inherit forelimbs frem e emrnein ancester with ferellim Us Sell hieuee Eiiricll Creeerlile F i elimbg E will WE i3 inte Wings Fijlur limbs re lywed 0 Mitochondria have their own DNA which has to do with the theory that mitochondria evolved separately from cells mDNA is only inherited through the mother whereas nuclear DNA is inherited through both parents 0 Bats are not just flying mice because their clades split from a common ancestor in the morphological topology tree and they are in very different clades in the mitochondrial topology tree 0 Bootstrapping way of quantifying the likelihood that a given clade on a phylogenetic tree is well supported 0 Tells you what percent of the time other trees will show the same clade grouping Tells you how many trees agree Only trust trees with 85 bootstrap values 0 Branch lengths are a second way to evaluate evolutionary relationships Short branch recent common ancestor Biology Page 2 82415 Viruses Monday August 24 2 15 1222 PM IN THE NEWS Are Georgians worried about contracting the Bubonic plague 0 Dengue fever quotBreakbonequot fever Symptoms high fever rash muscle and joint pain 0 Viruses are the simplest biological entities o Retrovirus has RNA instead of DNA and uses reverse transcriptase to make a DNA copy of the RNA genome More enzymes allow the DNA to splice into the host genome of the host cell and can control the host Ex HIV HPV 0 ERVs are viral material that is incorporated into the genome They stay put so we can determine where in the genome the ERV is placed and compare DNA similarities between species They are like genetic signatures o Viruses mutate and evolve muchhhh faster than prokaryotes and eukaryotes They can also jump between species Flu typically pass between pigs fowl and humans 0 Bacteriophage are viruses that bind to and attack bacteria Can these eliminate antibiotic resistant bacterial infections 0 Question Will bacteria quickly develop resistance to bacteriophage therapy NO because the phages can mutate faster than bacteria so they can adopt new ligands that will match 0 Ligands on virus bind to receptors on bacteria break their cell wall and insert their genome into the bacteria cause bacteria to lyse and die 0 Penicillin is complex molecule but resistance can be built up to it rather quickly 0 Even if receptors on bacteria are evolving and changing the viruses39 ligands can evolve and change too o Recombinant phage therapy viruses are constantly modifying themselves to keep up with the changes in bacteria Biology Page 1 8262015 Prokaryotes amp Eukaryotes Wednesday August 26 2015 1228 PM Learning Objectives Know the defining features that distinguish eukaryotes and prokaryotes Eukaryotes have a nucleus more complex DNA larger ribosomes and organelles Be able to define the Archaea and know how to distinguish them from bacteria Bacteria have peptidoglycan cell wall archaea don39t Archaea have backwards glycerol in cell membrane which phosphates on outside What roes do bacteria play in human biology Gut flora protective barriers to pathogens What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a bacterial cell wall Cell wall gives it rigidity and prevents it from bursting due to osmotic pressure Rigid cell walls prevent them from ingesting food so they release digestive enzymes t hen absorb it o What is meant by antibiotic resistancequot and by what mechanisms can bacteria become resistant to antibiotics Bacteria replicate by binary fission rapidly reproducing more successful mutated resistant copies 0 Antibiotic may be destroyed by an enzyme 0 Be sequestered or inactivated by a different enzyme 0 Be actively pumped out of the cell by a third enzyme 0 Prokaryotes no nucleus or major organelles Appear simple but are actually complex 0 Bacteria and Archaea 0 Eukaryotes nuclei and organelles 0 Animals plants fungi protists 0 STUDY SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GROUPS Biology Page 1 Table k2 W I characteristicg 39 w 239Ix39 39a xquot r a 9 Size of Cell Nucleus MembraneEnclosed Organelles Flagella Glycocalyx Cell Wall Plasma Membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes Chromosome DNA Cell Division Sexual Recombination fpmk AVAHW u w Xhquot V Typically 0220 um in diameter No nuclear membrane or nucleoli Absent Consist of two protein building blocks Present as a capsule or slime layer Usually present chemically complex typical bacterial cell wall includes peptidoglycan No carbohydrates and generally lacks Sterols No cytoskeleton or cytoplasmic streaming Smaller size 708 Usually single circular chromosome typically lacks histones Binary fission None transfer of DNA only D Etikaryo c Han in n 3 39n uk Mrs Principal Di emnees between Prokaryotle and Eukaryetic Cells r Typically 10100 pm in diameter True nucleus consisting of nuclear membrane and nucleoli Present examples include lysosomes Golgi complex endoplasmic reticulum mitochondria and chloroplasts Complex consist of multiple microtubules Present in some cells that lack a cell wall When present chemically simple includes cellulose and chitin Sterols and carbohydrates that serve as receptors Cytoskeleton cytoplasmic streaming Larger size 808 smaller size 708 in organelles Multiple linear chromosomes with histones Involves mitosis Involves meiosis Ccmrght 2010 Pearson Educalon inc 0 Prokaryote haploid Eukaryote diploid O Prokaryote smaller less genes per cell less complexity less DNA than eukaryotes o Prokaryote single nucleoid bundled DNA Eukaryote nuclear envelope 0 Archaebacteria vs Eubacteria Prekewefe p11 1 quothefere iniurzleus reheeiteeierie ari i l lt beeferisquot First living nrgenisims en earth They peredueedi semen en earth Ui iieelluier iuiieinephs er HTeiereirephs Hiebiieis were extreme 1 Heleenees sleep eeeerl senile lhett springs Hi iFEl peptideglycen iri eeil wells Elflie is eliesesl is the Eu ksrymes Me39ll39ieinegens Helephiles l39 t l l Eiubeeierie quottrue bacteriaquot Minieellluiler Aiuieiirephs er Heterelrephs ilebiieis are varied Henri inside living ezrgsinisrns fresh water saltwater Largest grasp ef the E besieris Hingdleme fess Hears peptideglyeen in cell wellis Rhisetiiurri Le eimsilius Edit is In line 1with text Fixed Fusiliers I Plasma membrane of archaea phosphates are on outside Ether link instead of ester Membranes of bacteria and eukaryotes are very similar whereas archaea is different III Archaeal cell membranes have a quotbackwardsquot glycerol molecule and isoprene derivatives in place of Biology Page 2 fatty acids I Bacteria Cell wall and peptidoglycan wall located outside plasma membrane Peptidoglycan wall gives rigidity to cell wall and is permeable to small molecules Archaea no peptidoglycan III Primary role of bacterial cell wall prevent cell from bursting due to osmotic pressure that us caused as water molecules cross the membrane 0 Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic ribosomes I Eukaryotic ribosomes have much greater molecular weight than prokaryotic ribosomes I Based on sequences of genes that code for SSU small subunit ribosomal RNA Carl Woese proposed that Archaea were significantly different from the bacteria and were closer to the eukaryotes III Why did he choose SSU ribosomes to develop a phylogenetic tree for all living things on earth These molecules each have over 1000 data points Also the ribosomes function the same way in each class meaning it s a homologous structure that every living thing has III His Goal What classification was the last universal common ancestor LUCA III Ester and ether links deny the hypothesis that eukaryotes evolved from archaea 0 Clicker Question What is not a function of the prokaryotic cell wall 0 prevent small molecules from entering the cell 0 Rigid cell walls of prokaryotes prevent them from ingesting food Instead they release digestive enzymes which break down quotfoodquot which can go through the cell wall and are taken up by the cell 0 Bacteriophages Viruses that dissolve bacterial cell wall and inject their genome into a host cell 0 Antibiotics such as penicillin block the formation of the peptidoglycan wall 0 Drug Resistant Bacteria O Antibiotic may be destroyed by an enzyme 0 Be sequestered or inactivated by a different enzyme 0 Be actively pumped out ofthe cell by a third enzyme 0 Prokaryotes can exchange genes directly between 2 cells 0 Conjugation One way in which genes can be exchanged between bacteria is conjugation When this occurs a physical connection conjugation tube or pillus is made between two cells The DNA on a plasmid is duplicated and the copied DNA is transferred Pilli are needed to exchange genes because the bacterial cell wall prevents two bacterial cells from fusing their membranes and exchanging genes Biology Page 3 8282015 Eukaryotic Origins Friday August 28 2015 1229 PM What are the evolutionary relationships between Archaea Bacteria amp Eukaryotes Eukaryotes came from some combo of archaea and bacteria Chloroplasts were a cyanobacteria that was ingested by an archaebacteria Mitochondria were alpha proto bacterium ingested by archaea Be able to distinguish between the four competing hypotheses regarding the origin of eukaryotes How would you describe the chimeric nature of the eukaryote cell The quotHydrogen Hypothesis suggests that before there were eukaryotes with nuclei that could ingest bacteria a union was formed between a bacterium and an archaean cell Under anaerobic conditions the bacterium produced gaseous hydrogen as a waste product which in turn was a food source for the archaean This led to a symbiosis between the two as the archaean became dependent on the bacterium The two partners now functioned as a single organism The eukaryotes were born Are mitochondria and plastids the descendants of bacteria How and when did they become established in eukaryotes 2 billion years ago The conventional endosymbiosis model of eukaryote origins suggests that early in evolutionary history a protoeukaryote existed complete with nucleus ER and the ability to ingest prey This protoeukaryote next ingested a bacterium that became a mitochondrion and later on a subset of these protists ingested a cyanobacterium that became the chloroplast Answer to in the News Are Georgians worried about contracting Bubonic Plague O Buboes swollen inflamed areas around lymph nodes Where it derives its name Yersina Pestis is a gramnegative anaerobic bacteria that causes plague Black Death may be traced back to gerbils from Asia gt fleas gt people Fewer than 20 cases Bubonic plague per yr Squirrels can carry plague too and fleas transmit to campers People who camped in Yosemite this summer contracted it 0 Disease prevalence is related to the close proximity in which you live with small mammals 0000 0 Eukaryotic Origins 0 Prokaryote vs Eukaryote o Symbiogenesis merging of two separate organisms to form a single organism a Threewdomains E I hypothesis dLI E39M C Eocy te hypothesis 7 L k Eubactcria 777 quotW3939391 a e Woese 7 r AlLiIdEbduletld 19 r Other Eullsaiwota Archaebacteria E u kalyola Focytes d Rin of life h othesis b Eukaryoteseady 9 yp EUbaCter39a hypothesis Eukawota Lake amp Rivera 2004 Eukaryota Arc haebacteria Eocytes I Other u Edema Archaicbacteria The Eocyte hypothesis suggests that euka ryotes evolved from a subgroup of the Archaea the eocytes Milnerneyet II 2014 Todayf this subgroup is known as the Crenarcha eota Three domains hypothesis Woese 1977 Biology Page 1 Eocyte hypothesis Lake 1984 O The Eocyte hypothesis suggests that eukaryotes evolved from a subgroup of the Archaea that post dates the diversification of Archaebacteria the eocytes Today this subgroup is known as the Crenarchaeota Ring of Life hypothesis Lake and Rivera 2004 O The ring of life hypothesis postulates that eukaryotes arose from two lineages of prokaryotes one of which was archaebacterial and one of which was eubacterial and consequently it is the only monophyletic group although with symbiogenic origins 0 Also implies that eukaryotes are late to arise and are a secondary grouping of life whereas the two prokaryote groups are primary groupings Eukaryotes early hypothesis 0 The eukaryotesearly hypothesis implies that prokaryotes are derived from a eukaryotic ancestor We don39t know which hypothesis is correct 0 One thing that makes it hard to figure out is bc prokaryotic cells do LGT lateral gene transfer Genes change through transformation conjugation and transduction Plamid Donor V I j 7 39 L I 39 quotquotag 39 l Anon Ange JJQAJION 39 Q Q r Flam 0 39 u I transfer 4quot resistant quotGene goes 391 v dead 9909 toplasmid bacterium quot 039 b 4 chromosom AlVni Biotehum receiving 39 1 Transformation the uptake of naked DNA is a common mode of horizontal gene transfer that can mediate the exchange of any part of a chromosome this process is most common in bacteria that are naturally transformable typically only short DNA fragments are exchanged Conjugation the transfer of DNA mediated by conjugal plasmids or conjugal transposons requires cell to cell contact but can occur between distantly related bacteria or even bacteria and eukaryotic cells can transfer long fragments of DNA Transduction the transfer of DNA by phage requires that the donor and recipient share cell surface receptors for phage binding and thus is usually limited to closely related bacteria the length of DNA transferred is limited by the size of the phage head All chloroplasts we know today share a common ancestor with ONE cyanobacteria One ancient eukaryote ate a cyanobacteria and didn t digest it giving rise to all plants and algae we have today Evidence for bacteria becoming mitochondria o Ancestral cells wo mitochondria couldn39t utilize oxygen bc mitochondria use oxygen for oxidative phosphorylation to turn glucose into ATP How did an anaerobic species come in contact with aerobe They are facultative species that met in an anaerobic environment Facultative Can do anaerobic or aerobic respiration Biology Page 2 0 Once the bacteria turned into a mitochondria and realized it could make ATP it wanted to keep the ATP it made so the cell could use the ATP too 0 How did this symbiosis between bacteria and cell get established in the first place I We don t know I Hydrogen hypothesis III Anaerobic methanogen methaneproducing archaea formed symbiosis with facultative alpha proteo bacterium to give rise to mitochondria III Ancient earth marine ecosystem was anaerobic but cyanobacteria pumped out oxygen as waste of photosynthesis so there was increasing amts of 02 Also there was lots of H2 as a waste product from the bacteria that archaea liked to eat Archaea became dependent on bacterium under anaerobic conditions for its H2 food Eventually the connection became complete and the archaean completely encompassed bacterium Bacterium could still function over anaerobic or aerobic conditions They met under anaerobic conditions I Chimeric model Archaean Bacterium eukaryote bc the arcahaean was feeding off the bacterium I Endosymbiont Hypothesis most widely accepted III mitochondria and chloroplasts arose from bacteria entering a eukaryotic cell to form a symbiotic relationship THE ENDOSYMBIOTIC ORIGINS OF THE MITOCHONDRION predatorych internal membranes lnfolding of plasma r f membrane Prokaryote Mitochondria Discover Biology Se Figure 621 0 2012 W W Norton amp Company Inc I We also have to account for the fact that the genomic evidence from mtDNA and chNA strongly sugports the endosvmbiotic hypothesis that mitochondria are derived from a single alphaproteo bacterium and chloroplasts are derived from a single cyanobacterium Genes present in mitochondria are similar if not identical to genes in alphaproteo bacteria I Flaw How did they get ingested but not digested Ancestral host cell Modern cell a I O r 2 7quot 39 39 A er many 139 39 generations 0t evolution Aerobic bacterium Cyanobacterium Mrtochondrion Chloroplast Biology Page 3 8312015 Fungi Monday Auust 31 2 15 1224 PM What distinguishes fungi from other eukaryotes Fungi are absorptive heterotrophs that digest then ingest cell walls made of chitin immobile Why were fungi traditionally studied along with plants in botany departments They have cell wall What are some of the ecological roles played by fungi Decomposers and symbiotes What is the evolutionary history of fungi Of animals What links the two together Fungi and animals share a common ancestor IN THE NEWS Why does Dr Kyong Sup Yoon want to kill all the mutants 0 Head lice are mutating and spreading Pyrethroids are active ingredients in most over the counter head lice treatments Lice were developing mutations to be resistant to pyrethroids Pyrethroids work by blocking sodium channels and kill hosts Opisthokonts 2 kingdoms Fungi and Animals single posterior flagellum O Fungi digest then ingest Animals ingest then digest I Fungi use saprotrophic nutrition by absorbing nutrients from the environment Hyphal tips release enzymes that break down carbohydrates in environment Once they39re broken down the fungi can absorb them Fungi characteristics 0 Absorptive heterotrophs 0 Cell walls made of chitin not peptidoglycan or archaean carbs Chitin is a carbohydrate found in animal exoskeletons amp beaks 0 Most have no flagella O Immobile o Hyphae root like structures that absorb water and nutrients gas exchange waste disposal Increases surface area to volume ratio 0 Mycelium loosely woven mat of hyphae feeding structure 0 Reproductive Structure make spores either by mitosis or meiosis Called fruiting bodies This is the part of the fungus that you see above ground 0 Roles decomposers the break down dead wood and organisms Symbiotes partner with green algae fungi extracts nutrients and alga provides fixed carbs Mycorrhizae symbiotic association composed of a fungus and roots of a vascular plant fungi living on or in plant that enhance absorption of plant Biology Page 1 922015 Animal Origins Wednesday September 2 2 15 1222 PM 0 LEARNING GOALS What distinguishes animals from other eukaryotes Multicellular Ingest then digest blastula development Why are choanoflagellates thought to be closely related to metazoa Choanoflagellates are protists that look just like choanocytes in metazoa sponges DNA sequences indicate they are sister groups Signaling and adhesion genes thought to only be in animals were discovered in choanoflagellates What are some of the ecological roles played by metazoa ALL What is the evolutionary history of animals How does the symbiosis between protists and animals affect the marine ecosystem Zoozanthellae live in cytoplasm of coral and photosynthesize for it releasing fixed carbons to the coral They use over half of this carbon to make coral snot which feeds many organisms protects it from UV light cleans off sediment protects it from harmful bacteria 0 Opisthokonts 1 cilia and flattened mitochondrial christae 0 Animals share this basic structure with fungi r3 Distinguishing features of animals from other eukaryotes O Multicellular feature of all animals but not animals only ingest then digest extensive nervous system blastula stage of development 0 Deuterostomes are distinguished from protostomes by their embryonic development in deuterostomes the first opening the blastopore becomes the anus while in protostomes it becomes the mouth 0 Humans are deuterostomes meaning our anus develops before our mouth 0 Zooxanthellae single celled protists responsible for most of production in coral reef 0 Form symbiosis with marine invertebrates and live inside their tissues They live in cytoplasm of animal host cell 0 Coral snails upside down jellyfish use zooxanthellae for food by taking the energy it makes in photosynthesis to l r m 19quot 341m ll quot 55 Ennxnmi hElllae PllmtosylitlriEslis E l f w Flagging ll To C all i on Hugf 115 mi R Epif lli ll Mums Luna5 Calci cation mu m l 91 G Wll 3 0 Corals let out up to half of the carbons assimilated by their zooxanthellae as copious amounts of mucus a complex mix of polysaccharides WHY O Mucus traps sand and gets the sediment off them so their zooxantellae can see the sun 0 Mucus is filled with helpful bacteria that may protect them from pathogenic bacteria or viruses Biology Page 1 O Helps moisturize them in low tide 0 Some mucus are UV protecting mostly mushroom corals 0 It is food for many fish Coral bleaching when corals get stressed they eject their zooxanthellae and the entire reef ecosystem collapses Linked to higher temps We think ancient animals developed in PreCambrian era then Cambrian radiation occurred Why 0 Mesoderm became possible Sponges are considered to be the simplest form of metazoic life 0 Sponges are very closely linked with the protists choanoflagellates are protists that look just like choanocytes in sponges macro and microscale 0 They have gene synteny arrangement of 4 key genes are the same Cell adhesion proteins allow organisms to go from single celled to multi celled to blastulas Choanoflagelletes have these Are they our ancestors Individual choanoflagellate Is Choano agellates 0TH R E EUKARYOTES Sponges swwguv choanocyte Other animals The closest living relatives to Animalia are the colonial protist choanoflagellates These cells possess a collar choanos in Greek around a flagellum They resemble the specialized choanocytes of multicellular sponges Biology Page 2 942015 Plants Friday September 4 21315 1221 PM o What are the features that distinguish the green algae from other protists What are the features that unite the green algae and the land plants How do plants and green algae differ Similar plants and algae all have chlorophyl A B and no cell wall Plants have sturdy upright structure roots and mechanisms to absorbdistribute water and nutrients What features allowed plants to become established on land What were the major obstacles in moving onto the land They stuck on rocks and got splashed Obstacles transport water to all cells undifferentiated cells support upright structure cellulose keep from drying out lignin Biggest challenge distributing water and nutrients to all its cells How did the colonization of land by plants change the Earth They sucked up C02 and froze the earth 0 Archaeplastida organisms that first acquired chloroplasts Descended from the first eukaryote to acquire a chloroplast from a symbiosis with a cyanobacterium 0 Chloroplasts of all green algae and land plants have basically the same structure and photosynthetic pigments o Chlorophyll A and B all the same except for an ester bond on B CHO vs methyl group on A CH3 Glaucophyte Algae yr hn39n Jv Chlorophyll a amp peptidoglycan wall Archaeplastida Red Algae Chlorophyll a and c 8 no cell wall Green algae Chlorophyll a and b amp no cell wall Chlorophyll a amp peptidoglycan wall Land plants Chlorophyll a and b amp no cell wall 0 Transition from aquatic to terrestrial plants 1 How to transport water to all cells 2 How to support upright structures 3 How to keep from drying out 0 Plants have undifferentiated cells in their roots that can become specialized 0 Roots can spring from cut stems or even leaves and plants can grow back Undifferentiated meristematic cells that can become different structures I Apical meristem tip of plant I Intercalay meristem growing with the plant I Lateral meristem run around periphery 0 Cellulose makes up cell walls Most abundant biochemical on the planet 0 Made up of sugar molecules in linear fashion Form microfibril chains which form bundles Chitin in animals and fungi is a long chain polymer of glucose monomers makes up exoskeleton of insects Plants with thick cell walls can39t do endocytosis or exocytosis Cell walls are inflexible strong and nearly waterproof Lignin is the second most abundant polymer on earth Hydrophobic and makes certain cell walls 0 OOO Biology Page 1 impermeable to water Makes making paper difficult we found a way to dissolve it 0 Plants colonized land by coming out of freshwater we think 475 MYA in the Ordovician Period Arose from green algae that had the ability to migrate onto land 0 How did algae extract nutrients from soil Fungi helped them 0 Coleochaete is the closest ancestor of land plants bc it could stick to rock That s what the first plants did They hung on rocks and got splashed 0 Mosses began to cover the earth and they pulled SO much C02 out of the atmosphere that they caused global freezing We think the earth froze over pretty quickly Ordovician era lst great extinction 60 of marine invertebrate died Biology Page 2 9112015 Soils amp Plant Nutrition Friday September 11 2015 1222 PM Learning Objectives What challenges do plants face that animals do not They cannot move when limiting factors become scarce Most limiting factor to most plant land growth Nitrogen they need it to make Rubisco from amino acids To reproduce they sometimes produce fruit that animals then spread the seeds of What specializations do plants have to acquire needed resources How are resources shared throughout a plant Which partners help plants in acquiring nutrients Mycorrhizae helps plants suck Nitrogen out of the ground Rhizobia bacteria in soil fix nitrogen from the air especially in legumes 0 What is most of the weight in trees Water from roots and gases in atmosphere 0 Oxygen emitted from plant is the result of splitting of H20 not C02 0 Know how different deficiencies affect plant health Normal leaf V4 Severe nitrogen de ciency whiteyellow tiny New Growth I leaves 3 Gelsiymsisfisisecy or might be K Mg overdose twisted pale new growth Old 5th quot fe ron de ciencyl yellowing of entire plant 39 If fiagnesium deficiency dark veins Ii hter leaf tissue Early signs of nitrogen de ciency old leaves yellow and are reabsorbed from tip to stem Phosghate deficiency older leaves 39 yellow and parts of the leaf is f reabsorbed leading to dead patches 39i the leaf falls off rather quickly looks similar to early nitrogen deficiency Limiting factors for plant growth 0 Sunlight temp water competition minerals nutrients 0 Most limiting factor needed for most plant land growth Nitrogen O 0 Important because they need it to make Rubisco from amino acids If plants aren39t fixing nitrogen entire food source collapses O The nitrogen travels through ecosystem in Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Cycle 0 Lightning can create high temp and pressure conditions in which N fuses and makes ammonia We do this in factories too fertilizer 0 Biological fixation animals feeding on plants and their waste gets in soil 0 Nitrogen in the air is nonbio accessible N2 we need NH4 ammonia N02 nitrite and N03 nitrate Some bacteria can take gaseous nitrogen out of air and turn it into ammonia they fix it in other ways too Microbes are responsible for converting N to different forms Plants only use N as ammonia NH4 and nitrate N03 nitrite N02 is toxic to plants I NZ gt NH4 gt N02 gt N03 gt N20 gt N2 We are consuming too many plants with our growing population If we run out of Nitrogen we will have to make it using fossil fuels I Haber Process Produces ammonia directly from nitrogen and hydrogen under high pressure Powered by fossil fuels Plants get help from mycorrhizae to suck nitrogen out of ground in return they give them sugars Biology Page 1 0 Rhizobia bacteria in soil fix nitrogen from air 0 Symbiosis they get fixed carbon malate sucrose from the plant plant gets biocompatible nitrogen 0 They especially work with legumes O Leghemoglobin is found in root nodules which acts as an oxygen trap Which allows for bacteria to efficiently fix nitrogen because they don39t like oxygen 0 Clicker Question What is the source of leghemoglobin in plants Ancient gene duplication and divergence Globin genes long time ago in common protistan ancestor Could also just be horizontal gene transfer 55999995 M Human Munch Cow Human Human Whole subunit 5 subunit CHM kc Chutkml lPEQHM0 LQ LNl Snylnmn Insmzx 0 How did bacteria and roots find each other Plants excrete flavenoid molecules that chemically attract bacteria I Bacteria binds to root hairs and enter tissue of plant thru infection thread I Lectin coats root hairs and recognizes specific rhizobacterium and lets them in I Bacteria are making NodD genes which activate the genes in plants to produce leghemoglobin The Nodulation Process 0 Root hair curling Chemical recognition of roots and Rhizobium Formation of infection thread Invasion of roots by Rhizobia Cortical cell divisions and formation of nodule tissue 0 Bacteria fix nitrogen which is transferred to plant cells in exchange for fixed carbon Aquatic fern Azolla are symbiotic with cyanobacteria so it can fix nitrogen Palm Welfia regia has an epiphyllic relationship with cyanobacteria on its leaves Bacteria transfer a of N through leaf surfaces Some plants can do it themselves carnivorous ones 0 O O 0 Biology Page 2 9142015 Carbon Cycle Monday September 14 Z 15 1221 PM How is carbon cycled among life on Earth In what forms is carbon bioavailable How have carbon dioxide levels varied during Earth s history How are levels varying now It39s been increasing exponentially in the last 200 yrs and is now increasing at 2ppmyr What mechanisms have plants evolved for acquiring carbon C4 bundle sheath cells stoma and guard cells ls carbon a limiting factor for most plants IN THE NEWS Why might your grandparents be celebrating with a glass of red wine It has Resveratrol which is a polyphenol It activates the SIRT1 gene that protects the body from diabetes and aging Combats diabetes by preventing insulin resistance Also combats Alzheimers by protecting nerve cells from buildup of plaque Combats heart disease and cancer triggers apoptosis cell death Manufacturers are now selling resveratrol supplements with have extracts from a Japanese plant or red grapes But the dosage in supplements have not been effective too low People would have to consume 58 L of red wine a day to get the good effects found in animal studies New study says that low doses of resveratrol might be more effective than high dose The mice that were pre disposed to colon cancer did better with low doses than high 0 Carbon comprises less than 12 of 1 of the atmosphere 004 0 Carboniferous Period lasted from 360 300 mya 0 There was more coal being made back then from all the trees whereas none is being made now Why There weren39t termites or wood digesting fungi back then I Symbiosis in termites termite eats wood and bacteria and protists inside its gut have enzymes that break wood down and produce fixed carbon products which are returned to atmosphere 0 Atmospheric C02 observatory on top of Mauna Loa in Hawaii 0 2 ppmyr increase of atmospheric C02 0 There is more variability in the Mauna Loa data than the NZ data bc there are more plants in the northern hemisphere so the C02 output is greatly influenced by the seasonsphotosynthesis 0 Where does atmospheric C02 come from o Petroleum coal natural gas cement production 0 It39s not necessarily all bc of fossil fuels though 0 Marine organisms pull out most of C02 from atmosphere so do terrestrial organisms and trees Oceans absorb more C02 than they release 0 Plants get the C02 out of the atmosphere bc they have an enzyme with a high affinity for C02 RuBisCO o Rubisco is most abundant enzyme 0 C02 diffuses thru stomata primarily in leaves and rarely in stems Stoma also release waste products and water vapor O Stoma surrounded by guard cells whose cell walls can change shape depending on how much water they have Advantageous Retain water when they need it Guard cells close to keep water in o Floating aquatic plants only have stoma on upper surface I No stoma on fully submerged plants bc they don t worry about absorbinglosing water They get C02 directly thru diffusion of their thin leaves 0 Henry39s Law ckPgas I C the solubility of a gas at a fixed temperature in a particular solvent in units of M or mL gasL k Henry39s law constant often in units of Matm Pgas the partial pressure of the gas often in units of Atm I As the concentration of gas above solution increases the concentration of that gas dissolved in solution increases too Biology Page 1 I As atmospheric levels of C02 have increased dissolved levels of C02 has increased too I C02 is not the only thing that affects plant growth temp does too I Even though crop plants grow bigger under high C02 conditions they are less nutritional 0 C4 plants are more efficient at acquiring C02 0 Mesophyll cells and bundle sheath cells 0 C4 metabolism has independently arisen several times from C3 ancestors 0 As we increase C02 we increase temp Higher temp and C02 are beneficial to a point but then photosynthesis decreases and plants are less nutritional c pquot Com OI W 6 39 orquot raw C Plant Elm Wuquot 0 quot0 Memphle cell Photosynthetic cells ol C plant Bundle laal sheath coll Vein vascular tissue c4 loaf anatomy The c pathway Copyright 0 Pearson Emma Inc pw shlng u Bangamm Cummings 0 Commonly missed Exam 1 questions 0 Green algae has cellulose cell wall 0 Kdr mutations cause resistance to pyrethroids through A Pump pyrethroids out of nerve cells as fast as it comes in B Break down pyrethroids as soon as it enters the nerve cell C Keep sodium channels in nerve cells open D All of the above E None of the above 0 Chlorophyll C is ONLY found in red algae 0 Methane is powerful greenhouse gas on Earth that is almost always the product of anaerobic metabolism of Biology Page 2 bacteria and archaea Ex methane gut bacteria let out methane in animal waste 0 Clicker Question Largest source of methane in US Livestock farming amp frackingcoal mine leaks 0 Another source rice farming The flooded fields create anaerobic environments for methane bacteria Rice 0 even has aerenchyma tissue to let methane out from the bacteria in soil thru their leaves I Aerenchyma is a spongy tissue that forms spaces or air channels in the leaves stems and roots of some plants which allows exchange of gases between the shoot and the root Volcanoes release a ton of C02 but they are erupting at a steady rate over time Miniscule compared to fossil fuels 0 Global Warming 0 O Caused by C02 methane and other gases Clicker Question How do greenhouse gases lead to increased temps Greenhouse gases temporarily absorb heat coming from land and water infrared radiation that strikes Earth is reflected by gasses As molecules absorb infrared radiation the bonds bend and stretch IR spectra Most molecules in our atmosphere play no role in Greenhouse Effect bc their bendingstretching patterns do not do not absorb IR at the proper energy level like C02 does Radiative Forcing difference of radiant energy received by the Earth and energy bounced back to space I Water vapor has remained constant but C02 and CH4 are responsible for most increase in IR absorption For all human history the average rate of increase of C02 is 1ppm1000 yrs with a max rate of 1ppm100 yrs TODAY 2ppmyr That s 200x faster than the normal fastest rate of the last 1200 yrs Biology Page 3 92115 Animal amp Stem Cell Development Wednesday September 16 2 15 13 3 PM Learning Objectives What are the earliest stages in human development How do all animals use a similar pattern of development What are stem cells How do different types of stem cells differ from one another How does one determine the beginning of human life Clicker Question What is the earliest age that brain waves can be registered on an EEG 24 weeks Even though there were neurons previously they weren39t organized into ways that could produce waves Embryogenesis 1 cell divides into 2 2 cells divide into many 0 Humans this takes 34 days 39l23b l iff 0 Around day 5 or 6 the blastocyst forms Trophoblast is exterior that gives rise to placenta Inner Mass cells embryoblast will develop into fetus T39 P as39 0 By week 2 recognizable tissues have differentiated 0 Week 3 Human heart forms and beats 0 Where does life begin on this spectrum 3842 weeks is fully developed fetus 3050 of all fertilized eggs are lost before the process of implantation B39astoc m39e 1020 of known implanted pregnancies end in miscarriage more than 80 of these losses happening in the first 12 weeks 5070 of first trimester miscarriages are thought to be random events Life begins at conception but conception only rarely leads to life Interactions between trophoblast cells and maternal cells during implantation collectively form placenta which is a mass of blood vessels where oxygenated blood of mother mixes with deoxygenated blood of fetus However the blood vessels of fetus and mother are not physically connected but are in close proximity 0 50 how does fetal blood system 39take39 oxygen from maternal blood cells Fetal blood cells are better at soaking up oxygen than maternal blood cells bc their fetal hemoglobin has a different subunit which gives it a higher affinity for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin I Necessary for placental mammals I Shortly before birth gene expression for fetal hemoglobinHbF drop off and expression of adult form HbA of hemoglobin is upregulated I Different forms of hemoglobin are result of gene duplication and divergence It can result in partial loss of gene function subfunctionalization degeneration pseudogenes or give rise to modified or new functions neofunctionalization Evolution of hemoglobin can be traced back to jawed fish I Myoglobin is an iron and oxygenbinding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals Only found in human bloodstream after muscle injury 0 Monotremes Egglayers O Egglaying mammals with fur and mammary glands O Humans are descended from egglaying mammals 0 Do monotremes and marsupials have the gene for fetal hemoglobin I Both have a variant of hemoglobin subunit that is not found in placental mammals 0 Stem Cells 0 Cells that can rejuvenate themselves indefinitely selfrenewal The Blastocyst Biology Page 1 They can remain unspecialized or give rise to differentiated cells Totipotent each cell can develop to a new individual cells from inner masses of blastocysts Pluripotent can give rise to any of the 200 types of body cells cells from blastocyst14 days Multipotent partially differentiated can form some tissues but not every tissue adult stem cells cord blood 0 Embryonic Stem Cells can come from blastocysts donated from nVitro clinic In the past they came from aborted fetuses but that is not allowed anymore and it is more difficult 0 Adult Stem Cells are found in blood bone marrow liver muscle skin etc 0000 Stem sell type Description Examples mama Each s sin teemP quotis Get fem 93 H a new l dWlElLlal days embryes Cells can fsrrn artyr ever same Balls 0f Pluripsteint r 39 39 I 39 quot 39 blastscyst 5 ts M 200 sell types days Cells differentiated but Fetal tissue ssrd Multipotent can fsrml a number of ether bleed and adult tissues stern sells Clicker Question What percentage of the cells in your body today were there a year ago Less than 10 Skin and lining of stomach is regenerated in 57 days Fat cells 8 years Central nervous system eye lens female eggs lifetime We know how long cells live based on measuring the amounts of radioactivity still present in different cells Radiation came from nuclear bomb testing in WW2 Human Embryonic Stem Cells hESCs are from blastocysts that failed to develop into viable embryos via IN vitro fertilization At least 20 embryos are used but most do not develop normally gt incinerated or donated to medicine Nondisjunction event in meiosis can result in trisomy O Trisomy 21 Down Syndrome O Trisomy 18 Edwards Syndrome survive 12 months with physical and mental retardation O Trisomy 13 0 XY Trisomy AdvantagesDisadvantages of Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells 0 OOO Biology Page 2 Embryonic Adult P I i can become any eel I Multiputent can become many but not anyquot Stable Con undergo many cell divisions Less Stable Capacity for sailf r enewal is limited Easy to obtain but blastocyst is destroyed Difficult l o isolate in adult tissue Possibility of rejection Host rejection minimized 0 Stem cells can be chemically cued and differentiated into a certain type of tissue which can then be used to medically help people Ex heart tissue 0 Bone marrow stem cell transplants are multipotent adult stem cells 0 O O O Q You have to make sure there is genetic match between donor and receiver 180000 chance of a random identical match 14 chance of identical match in siblings The genes are grouped in ethnicities so it39s especially hard to find matches for mixed ethnicities Viable donors should be an exact match for the HLA gene Human Leukocyte Antigen 0 Tissue and organ repair is one of the ways how skin cells can be useful in testing new drugs and therapies on cells derived from the stem cells 0 Can also use nonviable failed embryos to develop human tissues Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 0 O 0 Using them to treat diseases caused by genetic abnormalities Very low success rate The reprogramming of adult cells into iPSCs involves the use of retroviruses to genetically alter a cell s DNA and limits their use in therapy One of the 4 reprogramming factors Myc is a gene that has been linked to cancer Genes inserted via retrovirus can disrupt normal cell functions and induce mutations and epigenetic changes Not easily transplanted iPSCs do not easily make tissues derived from mesoderm which is commonly needed for stem cell research Does not cure patient if you use patient39s own stem cells bc they still carry the genetic defects that led to the disease in the first place Clicker Question What is the advantage of using a donated blastocyst as a source of ESCs The inner mass cells are pluripotent ESCs from blastocysts can be cultured indefinitely Even inner mass cells that have a lethal trisomy defect can be used to make ESCs Blastocysts with genetic defects are simply discarded All of the above Biology Page 3 0 Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening is an advanced IVF technique that allows embryos to be created and then selected for certain genetic traits 0 Has technology exceeded ethics Embryonic Stem Cells Adult Stem Cells Induced Plurlpotent Stem Cells I j39 nan ESCs Originals lrorn the inner ASCs are created during ontogeny o iPS originate lrom somatic cell mass of the blastocyst and persist within the niche in differentiated cells alter Sellrenewal most adult animal tissuesOrgans transduction with cMic KIM Plun39potent Sellrenewal Oct3M and Sax3 Generation ol mouse chimeras MUWDOW 39 Sen39fe ewa39 Generation at 254 cell types Maintenance of tissue homeostasis Pluripolent originating adult tissues in physiological and pathological Generation ol mouse chimeras conditions Patientspeci c stem cells Biology Page 4 9232015 Homeostasis Monday September 21 2015 1221 PM Learning Objectives What is meant by homeostasis What are the three principle components of a homeostatic system What is a feedback loop In animals what controls the various feedback loops to maintain homeostasis What is meant by the terms set point stimulus sensor and response Be able to draw a generalized homeostatic feedback diagram and understand its terminology Understand two evolutionary strategies animals have for thermoregulation How are molecules exchanged between different systems Diffusion O Sacs maximize surface area for diffusion to occur common animal feature 0 Homeostatic control system has 3 primary components 0 Receptor quotthermometerquot recording device that takes in information 0 Control center quotthermostatquot When certain thresholds are reached the control center sends a signal 0 Effector quotheaterquot action is taken 0 feedback loop increasing level of one system increases output of other system 0 feedback loop increasing level of one system leads to a second output which decreases the output of the lst system 0 One great concern vast amounts of methane and C02 could be released via microbial action from tundra and deep oceans which could lead to runaway feedback loop of greenhouse effect 0 Runaway system inability of biological systems to bring it back into control 0 Frozen methane hydrate deposits are believed to be a larger hydrocarbon resource than all the world39s oil natural gas and coal combined gt What would happen if massive amounts of these methane hydrates were suddenly released into the water column The methane would bubble out of ocean into atmosphere and raise the temp of earth rapidly worsening the problem melting both poles 0 Is there a biological process that can remove methane Bacteria that live in wetlands and soils in Norway feed on methane Examples of animal homeostasis 0 Temp glucose blood pressure pH water calcium oxygen toxin levels 0 Constructing feedback loop L Set point IF there is a difference generate error signal What should the condition be 7 Generate error signal Sensory gt Signal lt Integration Center j Compares sensor and set point W Effector f Negative Wh t m feedbaCk Structure that can make a 398 e J a difference to current condition controlled condition 1 Biology Page 1 a UIIICI Cl IUC lU controlled condition Q current chition Controlling Variable CV Controlling Condition CC What the effector does START HERE Disturbance h 39 39 I gcztnfgl ou want environment CV will change CC in the proper direction 23 Set Point Contro39 Effector Center Gas concentrations Medun r Muscles of y PO339 POO Respiratory Centers ReSp39rat39on U Sensor contrOIIed Variable To detect gas Lung concentration ventilation Women prefer warmer environments than men Lizards regulate their body temp by being the sunshade They retreat to burrow for night Types of thermoregulations O Heterotherm body temp varies depending on environment lizard O Homeotherm Maintain constant body temp despite environmental fluctuations mouse 0 Endotherm energy comes from internal mechanisms mouse 0 Ectotherm energy comes from external sources lizard Hypothalamus regulates 0 Metabolic heat I Electron transport chain of mitochondria burning of glucose produces 52 ATP 48 heat I Adipose tissue quotleakyquot mitochondria I There are tons of mitochondria in brown fat tissue so if you increase the function of mitochondria you will release lots of heat from brown fat cells which are less common than white fat cells and are found in chest shoulder blades and neck Brown adipose cells release energy only as heat I Inuit people in the arctic have extra brown fat tissue that generates heat 0 Sensors nerves 0 Effectors Blood vessels contract or dilate skin sweats muscles shiver I Skin sweat Eccrine glands produce sweat we think of Apocrine glands produce white milky substance that deposits into hair follicles under emotional stress Biology Page 2 9252015 Nervous System Friday September 25 2 15 1222 PM Learning Objectives Describe the range of animal nervous systems Identify neuron structure and function Describe the basis of membrane potential How are action potentials propagated down the axon How does a signal move from one neuron to the next 0 Neuropathy Common from diabetes Blood vessels become occluded and degenerate nerves in extremities In the news Why are Gabi Mann 395 parents OK with her receiving gifts from strangers 0 Crows can recognize faces and can remember them for 27 years 0 O Crows who weren39t tested scolded people as well Affected crows were teaching the unharmed ones somehow Copying behavior American crows are very smart and savvy O Displaced water with rocks 0 When one was shot all half a million flew away and never came back 0 Brain 0 Trichoplax simplest animal small diskshaped marine animal with 2 flat sheets of cells with ciia Only OOOOOO remaining member of Placozoa no synapses or nerves but when they migrate over food particles they create a feeding cavity to ingest food particles No nervous system but can sense and adapt Hydra cnidarina coral group Nerve net Starfish nerve ring and radial nerves Cricket brain and ventral nerve cord Squid brain and giant axon Salamander brain spinal cord sensory nerves Brains have evolved more than twice chordata arthropoda nematoda and mollusca on phylogenetic tree Sponges have genes for many of the same proteins that are found in the synapses of higher metazoa 3 Silicea g 5 C l 4 ANCESTRAL a 3 a carea COLONIAL g FLAGELLATE m Ctenophora c 39V5 5quot Cnidana 839 N Acoela quot 8 0 r g Echinodermata tn 9 5 3 Chordata 39 3 8 v 5 3 Platyhelminthes Rotifera O 390 a Ectoprocta 0 B h39 d E rac lOpO a 9 8 Mollusca in Annelida m g Nematoda U3 8 Arthronoda 3 Biology Page 1 Annelida v Nematode Arthropoda eozos poa 0 Our Nervous System 0 Central Nervous System 0 Peripheral Nervous System 0 Origins of thought 0 Galvansim electrodes touch a dead frog and the legs twitch into the upward position 0 Current patchclamp allows investigation of a small set or even single ion channels Membrane potential voltage difference between the negative inside and positive outside of nerve axon Resting Potential 60 to 80mV difference btwn inside and outside Cause Sodium on the outside and K on the inside But they are both positive SO large anions inside cell like proteins have a net negative charge Sodium Potassium pumps are driven by ATP 3 Na out 2 K in Action potential graphs takes 5 ms to get back to resting point When action potential is reached every channel opens During falling phase all sodium channels close and potassium pumps open gt overshoot Then resting potential is reached once sodium channels kick back in Wavelike movement of action potential down the axon due to triggering effect 1 All pumps closed 2 Depolarization of membrane due to opening of Na 3 Na open K closed 4 Na closed K opening 5 Na closed K open Myelin sheath protective membranous covering around axon Node of Ranvier axon exposed to environment in patches which allows for pumps and responses Myelinated nerves allow for signals to travel much faster by not having to open all the channels for signals to transfer down the line 2 ways a nerve signal can move quickly nodes of Ranvier myelin sheath or large neuron Fastest large neuron with myelin sheath Neurotransmitters the signal depolarizes membrane starts influx of sodium ions into cytoplasm and passes energy igure 48115 o Rising phase of the action potential i50 Action 3 potential 5 s 0 GA on 2 Threshold C E v 3 50 l O 2 0 9 400 Resting potential Tim Biology Page 2 Meml Time o 10 nesting potential INSIDE OF CELL 39 in K Inactivation loop 0 9 I 5 groups of neurotransmitters Acetylcholine muscle stimulation memory formation learning Amino Acids longterm memory Biogenic Amines sleep mood attention learning o Used for nervous system disorders and treatments Neuropeptides pain reception Gases o Nitric oxide local regulators o Carbon monoxide hypothalmic hormone release intestine smooth muscle plasma membrane hyperpolarization Biology Page 3 9282015 Glucose Regulation Monday September 28 2015 1221 PM Learning Objectives o What is meant by diabetes How does one distinguish between type I and type II diabetes How is blood sugar maintained at a constant level in the human body What isare the sensors setpoint and effectors that maintain blood sugar levels o What role do the kidneys play in maintaining glucose homeostasis What medical improvements have increased longevity for diabetics IN THE NEWS Why do the 2 leading republican presidential candidates feel that American children receive too many vaccinations Ben Carson and Donald trump Concept of immunity to a pathogen first arose after the black plague when it was noted that survivors were immune to people who contracted the plague later Spanish flu of 19181920 killed more people than WW1 because we did not have innate ability of resistance to this pathogen Influenza can pass between many different hosts increasing the rate of genetic mutations and formation of new strains How do vaccines work They train your innate immune system to deal with a pathogen by subjecting our immune system to an antigen that elicits an immune response l Induced Immunity l Adaptive Active imm ity Inhale 39P SS lVei lmml39llllly Production of a person39s own antibodies Lang All quotllEllwdm l 393 9W3 m39ledlne b l allOllie l s ng Shortterm resistance weeks omontlrls Natural Active i quot Natural Passive Artificial Passive When pathogen enters Vacci Wi lllquotll3 a Baby in utero placenta Gamma globulin injection body in the normal39 way safe antigen from the Breastfed babies Extremely fast but short lived we make antibodies pathogen Person malltes eg snake venom antibodies without becoming ill 0 Glucose metabolism 0 Both loops are negative because the level of glucose in blood is moving in opposite direction as signal Biology Page 1 Pancreae n 7 Boldly cells releases l 391x telm up more W 115 L f if 1 quotl 5 r I39 14 I xquot If Blood glucose Iml Liven lakes Hales altar eating up glucose and stores R as glycogen Homagetame W mg glucm ea RH I39M VV I39h arh 39 7 12m ml blood 39 V R39E39H H r l 391 Ev Liverbrea ks Elen glumselmel down glycogen dimes below set point 5 Pancreas E J releases I K glucagon Raf5 fty 7 7 l into glucose Receptor Pancreas signal received glucose level Control center Pancreas sends out insulin or glucagon Effector Liver converts glucose to glycogen or turns glycogen into glucose Hormones involved insulin and glucagon Cells of pancreas I Alpha cells sense when blood sugar levels have dropped too low GLUTl has a high affinity for glucose Low sugar glucose enters cell metabolized changes behavior of several different K channels which changes voltage and triggers influx of calcium THEN the vesicles containing glucagon bind to membrane and release glucagon to environment 0 If blood sugar is too low releases glucagon and stimulates liver to release glucose into bloodstream I Beta cells under high sugar levels glucose molecules are transported across membrane through GLUTZ and metabolized to form ATP Low sugar conditions not much is transported and not much ATP is formed Also in membrane we have K channels that are always open In high sugar conditions the ATP binds to K pump and restricts pump action which changes the resting potential of cell from 60mV to 40mV THEN a calcium channel opens up which allows for molecules to bind to membrane and release insulin 0 If blood sugar rises they secrete insulin stimulates liver to absorb glucose and store as glycogen 0 Liver Effector When stimulated by insulin it converts blood glucose into storage carb glycogen When stimulated by glucagon the liver breaks down glycogen into glucose molecules and release them into blood 0 Peptide hormone insulin triggers movement of glucose across cell membrane in an indirect manner Has specific shape and charge nsuin triggers muscle cells also 0 Many body tissues respond to insulin not just liver SO pretty much all cells can use glucose for energy 0 Diabetes group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose levels either bc the insulin production is inadequate bc the body39s cells do not respond to insulin or both OOOOO Biology Page 2 Gemparisen of type 1 and 2 diabetes Feature Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Dnset Sudden Gradual Any age Age at onset MDEtl39jf ll39l adults mastly young Eddy habitus Thin er narmal Gften abese Keteaeidesis Camman Hare Auteantibedies Usually present Absent Narmal decreased Endegeneus insulin LDW ar absent ar Increased Geneerdanee 50 sues In Identleal twms Mare prevalent Prevalence Less prevalent Qt ta 95 at LLS diabeties Type 1 body39s immune system destroys cell that produce insulin pancreatic beta cells Type 2 Insulin resistance or eventually deficiency 0 Test glucosuria sugar is found in urine bc blood sugar is so high that kidneys are taking glucose out of blood The sodium glucose transfer point SGLTl recovers any glucose in kidney that made it this far this with a few other checkpoints collect any remaining glucose and put it back in bloodstream o ESRD Renal failure leading cause of this is diabetes Kidneys are overworked ifthey have to remove sugar from blood 0 Diabetes became much more survivable after 1920 bc we started extracting insulin from pigs and cows I Fred Banting and Charles Best removed pancreas from dog to make it diabetic They went into other healthy pancreases and collected a tiny amount of fluid from Islets of Langerhans which alleviated diabetic symptoms of dogs without pancreases I 19651980 a better form of insulin became available and better blood sugar monitoring techniques III Human Insulin Production Recombinant DNA 0 Take genes for insulin production out of human pancreas cell recombinant DNA cut with restriction enzymes bacteria reproduce and yield insulin 0 Still people have lower life expectancy due to the large swings of sugar throughout the day 0 CGM systems usually consist of a glucose sensor a transmitter and a small external monitor which may be builtin to an insulin pump or a standalone device to view your glucose levels 0 Artificial Pancreas I Dr Melton Embryonic stem cells are being used to create pancreatic cells that behave normally Could provide a source of insulinproducing pancreatic beta cells for diabetics Biology Page 3 9302015 The Immune System Wednesday September 3C 21315 1219 PM Learning Objectives What distinguishes the innate immune system from the adaptive immune system Which organs and tissues play a role in the human immune system What role does the thymus play in maintaining the immune system How do Bcells and Tcells work What is meant by quotautoimmunity 0 Pathogen infectious agent that causes suffering 0 Origins of Immune system 0 Origin Hydra They have antimicrobial peptides 0 Immune system Can defend against pathogens and recognizes self for nonself 0 General Defense System innate First line acts against all pathogens quickly 0 Specific Defense System adaptive 1 First line of defense General i Skin barrier Bacteria on skin protect from pathogens Helpful bacteria all over skin and gut ii Lysozyme enzyme in saliva sweat and tears that digests bacterial cell walls by breaking glycocidic bonds iii Clotting iv Mucous small pathogens can be trapped in mucous and is then swallowed the trapped junk then gets digested by stomach acid v Cilia flagella that help clear mucous from respiratory tracts vi Alimentary Canal stomach HCI 2 Second Line of Defense General i Phagocytes attracted to site of infection by chemicals released by injured cells 1 Neutrophils short lived 2 Monocytes short lived in blood 3 Macrophages long lived in tissue very large white cells that cruise body looking for foreign particles and then ingest them ii Complement 30 proteins found in plasma that can be upregulatedactivated by infection 1 Go after and burst viruses and bacteria iii lnterferons set of proteins produced by virally infected cells that makes healthy cells resistant iv lnflammation Infected cells release histamine which causes swelling and heat 3 Specific Defense System i Antigens foreign molecules that generate antibody production ii Antibodies proteins produced by lymphocytes in response to antigens iii Lymphocytes 1 Blymphocytes mature in bone marrow and found in lymphatic tissue especially spleen and lymph nodes Make antibodies which can bind to antigens and keep them from clumping together Can trigger the complement system which results in pathogens being burst Form specific antibodies that recognize specific antigen They remember pathogens and can fight them faster if encountered again Biology Page 1 2 T lymphocytes mature in the thymus an organ of the lymphatic system that lasts until age 20 a Helper Tcells recognize different antigens Secrete interferon and cytokines b Killer Tcells Bind to antigen and secrete cytotoxic chemical that lyses cells Release perforin which pokes holes in target cellsgt allows water and ions ingt lyses c Suppressor TCells ramp down immune system response d Memory Tcells Survive up to 20 years and can stimulate Memory B cells to ramp up antibody production if we encounter that pathogen again Trigger production of killer tcells e So can we make an artificial thymus YES Our thymus only lasts until age 20 and Memory T cells die by age 40 so diseases kill you We have outlived Tcells 0 2 phases in immune response 0 Primary response lst time pathogen s encountered weak slow response 0 Secondary response 2nd time pathogen is encountered The response is quicker and stronger each time Memory B cells recognize antigen and they all begin to divide quickly 0 Overreaction to antigens allergies O Autoimmune disease our own immune system will attack our own cells Ex type 1 diabetes 0 It may underreact like with HIV 0 Heart of immune system bone marrow Biology Page 2 1022015 Vaccines Friday ctober 2 2015 1220 PM First encounter with an antigen gt primary response Second encounter gt Rapid and intense secondary response due to immunologic memory Clicker Question Vaccines use dead pathogens weakened pathogens closely related pathogens acellular components of a pathogen 0 These will express similar antigens which elicit immune response 0 First applications of this knowledge 0 John Adams had himself inoculated with a weakened form of the smallpox virus in 1765 a process known as variolation People died but less than if they contracted it naturally 0 Edward Jenner 1796 took cowpox virus from a cow and intentionally infected a boy with a moderate disease that kept him immune from smallpox O Smallpox vaccination needle dipped in live virus administered in 15 pricks35ec to the surface layer of the skin 0 Eradication o 1980 World is smallpox free 0 No more vaccination programs in the world currently 0 Polio 0 Dr Jonas Salk came up with first vaccine for polio polio is at virtual extinction now Vaccines are now distributed in sugar cubes to children 0 Clicker Question Primary obstacle to eliminating polio worldwide is antivaccination groups who openly oppose vaccination programs 0 Antivaccination Sentiment 0 Fake vaccination drive in Saudi Arabia that actually was the CIA running paternity tests off the blood of the needles to determine where Osama Bin Laden was hiding makes people paranoid that vaccination pushes are Western scandals 0 Dr Andrew Wakefield said in 1998 that there was a connection between the MMR vaccine and autism FALSE People took up this idea and clung to it fueled by press Proceeding studies have refuted this claim with evidence I Diagnosed incidences of autism increased in Japan even after MMR vaccine was no longer used 0 Why give children vaccines for sexually transmitted diseases They need to be vaccinated before they come in contact with the virus because it is a retrovirus so before they become sexually active This is a source of controversy I Are HPV vaccines giving teenagers a false sense of safe sex behaviors NO 0 DTaP vs DTP to vaccinate for Pertussis O Acellular form extracts 4 different proteins from the virus and uses that in the vaccine to have fewer side effects but it is not as effective as the WHOLE cell vaccine DTP DTP comes with more side effects but is 9698 effective DTaP is 7193 effective 0 Vaccinations save money save lives and provide herd immunity Biology Page 1
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