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Intro to American History Notes

by: Rachel Brotman

Intro to American History Notes HIST 1311

Marketplace > George Washington University > History > HIST 1311 > Intro to American History Notes
Rachel Brotman
Introduction to American History
Bertolet, J

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Separated by topic. Extremely detailed and helpful. Never missed a single class!
Introduction to American History
Bertolet, J
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Date Created: 12/08/15
September 3 The civil war had been an issue dividing Republicans and Democrats Now what 0 Tariff Budget Surplus Pensions were given to civil war veterans out of the desires of northern Republicans Greenbacks paper money Most politicians wanted to take this money out of circulation Interest rates go up as a result and people argue that the economy needs to be rein ated Civil Service Reform 0 People need to gain more general competence for example how to work a telegram Morse code 0 Supported by Grant but cut off later After the civil war Union members were spending more money People don t agree on what s good spending and what isn t Liberal republicans did not like Grant They wanted a blue chip candidate Grant wins though Credit Mobilier a train company that handed out company stock to members of congress Election of 1876 0 Samuel Tildan a senator from NYC is the democratic candidate Rutherford B Hayes a Civil War Vet is the republican candidate Tildan wins the popular vote but Hayes wins the electoral vote and nobody knows that to do Disputed votes came from states where the government was still active Previous slaves were kept from voting during this election Compromise of 1877 The republicans and democrats strike a deal and Hayes is declared the winner Reconstruction is over There will be nancial assistance for southern railroads and a present white cabinet in the south Hayes tries to bring reconciliation to the white south He is ambivalent about civil service and seeks to x corruption In 1877 there is a panic and Hayes does nothing to help the unemployed He does not run for rereelection in 1880 and he would not have won Election of 1880 oThe republican candidate is Hancock republican vs James Gar eld oGar eld wins and is assassinated His vice president Chester Arthur takes over oThe Pendleton Act 1882 is passed establishing civil service States that government jobs should be merit based Mulligan Letters Election of 1884 oGrover Cleveland is elected He is not that bright but he is honest Honesty is more important than mind in these days oHe was conservative and wanted limited government power Andrew Jacksonian oHe vetoed a bill that street car conductors couldn t work more than 12 hours 0 He was not in favor of helping the rich against the poor Democrats at this time were former confederates who drank a lot of alcohol and were catholic Republicans at this time were rebellious drank rum and believed in Roman5m IMMIGRATION Immigrants change what it means to be an American Nativism Immigrants were admitted for work NOT diversity There was room in the labor markets for immigrants because slaves were permitted from factory jobs and Native Americans were annihilated The British German and Irish Catholics are the 1st wave of immigrants The 2nd wave consists of Scandinavian residents including Jacob Riis The 3rd wave is predominantly CatholicJewish from the south The states begin to recruit immigrants Faster and safer ships are created to bring immigrants over more efficiently The ships followed commercial routes that dropped immigrants off in NYC Many never leave the NYC area Ethnic neighborhoods in big cities begin to form In smaller cities these new neighborhoods begin to mix There is no simple transplant of nonAmerican ways Native born Americans have mixed feelings about immigrants They are cheap docile labor but the Americans feel threatened CathoHcs they were considered the quotagency of devilquot roman church 0 During the French Indian war guns were taken away from them 0 The Catholic Church was anti science ignorant and midevil In 1860 Catholics are the largest single denomination in the USA Protestant Catholic debates arise Ethnic spokesmen underrate the ability of their groups becoming cathoHc The Roman Catholic Immigrants af liate with the Democrats Until the 1850 s its easy to vote if you re an immigrant Sam Morse leading American Nativist before the war Beecher plea against Catholicism Phil Sheridan the rst catholic war hero September 12 2013 Slave Period Conditions Lifestyle 0 Almost all slaves were US born Christians who did what they could do hold their families together 0 They had daily contact with their masters They were better off economically than they would be in Brazil but less likely to ever be free than in Brazil Unrecognized children of slave masters had to carry papers proving their freedom 0 Most southern whites did not own slaves but still supported slavery out of fear The slave owners set the tone for society Even if you didn t own slaves you probably wanted to 18305 The organized abolitionist movement begins This is a religious awakening A tiny minority of blacks and whites are in alliance William Lloyd Garrison and Douglass bring anti slave messages to the north 18405 Most northern whites did not want to abolish slavery nor did they want to expand it They wanted the new western land to be quotfree soilquot This would prevent slavery from expanding for two reasons 0 First there wouldn t be so many senators Representatives in congress from slave states 0 Second slavery would be contained and would eventually die out In 1860 Lincoln is elected president The south does not like what is happening and succeeds The Civil War was NOT initially about abolishing slavery it was about reuniting the North and South However dynamics quickly make the war about antislavery By 1863 many regions were falling to the Union Territories There were more than 100000 slaves The prevailing Union policy was to take these slaves and use them in the war 0 The Radical Republicans wanted more In 1n 1863 the Emancipation Proclamation frees slaves that are not in the North or South In 1865 the war ends and newly freed slaves glory in their freedom They 0 look for their lost family members 0 change their names legalize marriages pool their funds to buy lands in some instances 0 form their own churches Sla ves want FULL legal rights but not necessarily full cultural integration The south does NOT want the blacks to have much freedom at all Even though they lost they are still going to try to hold on to as much old order at possible They create the Black Codes 186566 which segregate Africans provide curfews amp propose labor contracts The Republican Party controls Congress overwhelmingly at this time Almost all republicans want to provide education protection and MAYBE voting rights for African Americans In 1865 the Freeman39s Bureau is created This is the rst federal agency to ever deal with individual rights for African Americans It attempts to raise nearly 38 million former slaves to a level of full citizenship 740 schools are made 0 they distributed land amp food 0 hospitals are provided 0 they had their own court systems amp laws The Freedman s Bureau is shut down in 1869 Although it was highly bene cial for African Americans and did a good thing it was found unconstitutional in fundamental ways A small minority of radical republicans still wants MORE They want major land distribution for slaves After Lincoln is assassinated Andrew Johnson takes over He is the only Southern senator not to succeed He detested the slave holding elite 12 the time and sucked up to them the other 12 0 He wished that every southern white family could have a slave He starts to thwart reconstruction efforts and seeks an easy restoration for the Southern States In 1866 Southern states start holding elections and start sending former confederate generals to Washington Johnson isn t thrilled but he accepts it However those in current seats in congress say absolutely not For three years 18661869 the republicans try to deal with Johnson impeach him etc They pass legislations over his vetoes numerous times 917 Reconstruction Andrew Jackson willing to acquiesce republicans controlled congress and wanted to help the ex slaves radical republicans wanted to redistribute land to masters of slaves Reconstruction only 6 states gave blacks the right to vote 1866 Conkling said given northern attitudes it was necessary to give slaves rights within the south or else they would be bursting into the north Necessary to place limits though Democrat parties take control of most states sometimes by fraud Reconstruction in the south is regarded as corrupt l LEGEND LEGEND LEGEND For the rst time many AAs held gov of ce roles Division among African Americans on various factors Shades of color economic standing Alliance with southern black votors with a handful of northerners in the south who go along with it Considerable accomplishments l 0 building of railroads in the south 0 Building public education systems 0 State civil rights 0 Public education systems 0 No economic redistribution of land Democrats in the south pitch RACE and all jacksonian arguments state assistance too expensive Most white southerners did not accept the legitimacy of African American roles in politics Redemption Southern Blacks out of Reconstruction OVERWHELMINGLY the free slaves were poor farmers who usually did not own their own land Sharecroppers tenant farmers Woodward white southern liberal committed to racial equality Helped NAACP Put together anti segregation case of 19505 Helped to end segregation in schools By the late 60 s Woodward gets horri ed by black power No simple imposition of segregation Progressive era period where AAs had opportunities after reconstruction There were 3 white positions 0 liberals very few 0 Conservatives redeemers old outhern elite that is starting to accept the new times They want piece and quiet and industrialization and making Custodians to bait the protectors of basic rights for AAs as long as AAs worked hard and sided with the elite Lots of self interest Make AAs a cheap labor source and what would hopefully be an industrializing south Racial attidudes were limited Blacks can vote but vote for our side 0 Radicals southern populists Want to build an interracial party of poor farmers of blacks and whites Political equality because they re all screwed by the wealthy The African Americans have VERY few options There is a growing opinion that blacks SHOULD NOT VOTE AT ALL end of 18905 Legally enforced segregation Scienti c racism hierarchy of racism with AAs on the bottom Treatment of AAs in 905 WWI AFA no longer will admit AA members Still poor farmer problem White primary you have to be white to vote in the democratic primary election Segregation by law Trains trolleys theaters etc Lynchings of African Americans become routine Reporting of one Absolutely cruel No shots red The purpose seemed to be to provide long torture before death People watching and participating had no shame in watching helping or celebrating Report was very matter of fact Northern protections are falling away 1896 Supreme court nds segregation constitutional until 1954 Theodore Roosevelt invites Booker T Washington to the White House which brought death threats in spite of Roosevelts general popularity Wilson made nasty black remarks Cafeterias water fountains bathrooms segregated Treatment of situation for blacks is FAR FAR worse than treatment of immigrants Booker T Washington personi cation of the GOS preached it to AAs incesently born Virginia slave Worked as a janitor and waiter at 17 at Hampton institute Late 18705 Washington was sent to be the head of a black school Tuskegee which he turned into a full black college Equal Dignity in tiing a eld and writing a poem 1885 Washington receives national fame Gives speech in Atlanta Atlanta compromise He proposes a kind of deal for race relations of what he calls our beloved south Informal implicit political deal African Americans will work hard accept segregation and give up quest for equal rights as long as they can enjoy basic safety in economic mobility l trying to make the best of a really bad situation He starts off speech by attering the white elite for their recognition of black manhood He analyzes the place of Blacks in the new south and is very critical Says AAs made a big mistake in trying to get full political opportunities doesn t believe this but says it Mentions that AAs have not retaliated Even when they ran off they caused no harm They are loyal They should be able to rise If not the whites can t rise either Working together they can all rise together All priviliges of law should belong to AA too But vastly more important that they be prepared for these priviliges Eventually one day AAs would be awarded all rights Not now But SOMEDAY Right now they will go along with their loss to vote amp segregation They just want safety right now This speech gained national attention Washington is the most famous AA of his time Criticized by AA advocates of equal rights Complicated man who was different in private than his public image He knows he is making a deal compromise that he doesn t like He secretly nances legal changes to segregation laws He makes sure his own children get an education His ideas were plausible but awed He expected the southern elite to protect the AA but that class was losing political power Faulty economic analysis Washington advocated the training of African Americans Underestimated the impact of even a temporary surrender to the ght for equal rights Induced smugness in whites and apathy despair in blacks Prevailing view of white southerners is quotit s always been like thisquot DuBoE Main goal of all education and training is manhood character Had been born free in Massachusetts a generation later than Washington Didn t encounter the worst of bigotry until he went to college in Tennessee Thought scholarly study and truth telling was the answer for success for blacks More naive than Washington thinking GOS was answer Leading blacks talented tenth will make pitch to outer world showing obsurdity of racial ideas and the excellence of blacks At rst Washington admired DuBois But they con icted later Views were not absolutely contradictory But washingotn wanted to train AAs for dying out jobs and had given up struggle for equality I Washington s enormous power in the AA community when it came to fundraising in the White community was a point of con ict for the two as well One of the leaders of the 1905 Niagara movement Form National association for Colored People Alexander Crumble Racial hierarchy that put blacks at the top with whites Great in uence on Dubois who is Washington s biggest critic The souls of black folk is a book Dubois writes Poor AAs had a desire to move and just get out Some move to Kansas and the west Cities are in general safer than the rural areas They had dreams of going and settling in Africa Henry Turner advocated that there should be a select AA presence in Africa How should this be nanced By the US Says that the US owed AAs 40 million dollars which is enough to settle in Liberia per year Pitched scheme whenever he could Not just one guy This message gets down the the poorest of the poorest AAs in the south 1892 poor southern blacks in great numbers come to colonization society in Wash DC to ask to go to Africa This was the Era of the greatest migration to the US so why can t it work the other way Why can t they go to settle in Africa US gures why not send them in exchange for an African Colony African colonies were just developing now so it would be a good opportunity This doesn t really work There isn t much shipping to Africa and Liberia doesn t really give them much This dream doesn t die though African pride remains Progressivism 19001917 White middle class reformers Little doubt that they were living at the time of a generous bi partisan reform movement Leading historians of the progressive era were generally called the progressive historians One of the leading gures was Charles beard The movement of social forces Leading historians are progressive historians who thought progressive movement was progress By the 19505 there is a new kind of dominant voice Consensus historians More skeptical of the populists Saw coherent white class movement but wondered how generous it really was what it REALLY accomplished Progressivism was a judicious middle class movement Suffer from status anxiety They are pissed at the rich making them more sympathetic to the poor By the 1960 s the historians become known was New Left Historians Much more critical of the American Past Gabriel Kolko Look back at the creation 0 various federal regulatory agencies Like the federal reserve board FDA Kolko argues that these agencies are the triumph of conservatism The agencies are set up and then turned over to the groups of people they re supposed to regulate Other new left historians say okay We re not that interested in this regulatory state you re talking about We don t care about that stuff We care more about issues of personal morality prostitution alcohol and race For AA progressive era is a regressive era Clinton takes his message from Theodore Roosevelt favors benign civil nationalism Trying to escape the view of the liberal democrats from the New Deal and on quotSo Called Progressive Movementquot Diversity Some groups are kept out by and large Others remain on the fringes Dominant rhetorical motifs and buzz words efficiency Emphasis on national patriotic revival and national unity Attack on special interests Efforts to make the government more efficient different types of elections policies towards conservatism and preservation Humanitarian side of progressivism Social work and child care Then back to regulation and big businesses Progressivism Effort to restrain social unrest Debbs 6 of vote Theodore Roosevelt wanted a permanent moral awakening Presidents should play a special role in molding public opinion National unity was the most important quotSpecial interestsquot negative phrase Corporate regulation General welfare Ethnic politics rst jew Ef ciency Inventors were also social scientists not just electric engineering Reliance on experts Ef ciency in relation to human beings speed of decisionmaking Two attempts to improve gov ef ciency 0 municipal reform Lincoln s quotthe shame of the citiesquot good people bring honest ef cient government Changed form of city government Hired reformers Reform often removes power from poor and gives more power to middle and upper class Changing power in cities Jersey city ran by irisn 1920519505 When his groups have majority of city vote they love the city If you win majority of city vote you get all 5 seats in city Ex win 55 you win all 5 seats Tim Sullivan change working hours for women Charles Murphy 1903205 boss of Tamany Hall Tamany Machine we need to start supporting reform Direct election of senators Womens rights Robert Wagner amp Al Smith prot g s of Murphy EFFICIENCY buzz word in Preservation conservationist movement Preservation want to keep the wild Conservationist favor ef cient development There is a wide spectrum between the two Conservationists typically agreed with T Roosevelt that the wild resources should be opened to regulated use with the large purpose of constructive development National survey of available resources under his presidency Value judgement Humanitarian side women played largest role in spite of no vote nationally Women were allowed to participate in some reforms humanizing life purifying society against alcohol and prostitution Social housekeeping mothering of society considered legitimate New opportunities for woman such as secretaries and teachers becoming available Immigrants blacks were at lowest class 25 vs 5 of black women to white women in 1900 that worked outside the home For the af uent women industrial society provides greater prosperity and leisure and the opportunity to participate in reform Part of reform movements General Federation of Women s Club Settlement homes helping the poor provide social services sports advice on cooking and sewing Most famous settlement home hu house founded by Jane Adams most famous American woman of her time Consensus historian Richard Hofstadter These women reformers became reformers out of status anxiety neurosis not just compassion She couldn t nd something to believe in after she lost her faith in christiantity and found meaning and good cause in this social work acc to Richard H who cares what motivation was Adams developed very sophisticated understanding of the people Her movement helped out a lot By the time these elite women were working in reform there already was the largest hospital network in the country run by catholic women known as nuns Some active in munic reform settlement houses etc come to understand that the munic reform can not move to help elect better gures You need parks recreation and more than change in reform of government Womens reform moves up to city then to state government State investigations of working conditions Alice Hamilton leading expert in the country about poisoning for children from silver copper in country in tentament houses By 1900 28 states had some restrictions on child labor and movement is at hand to place national laws quotchildren without a male parentquot dependent children Childrens bureau to investigagte child related issues delincuincy dangerous occuptations child mortality Head national childrens agency Julia weathrop Study rampant infant mortality 1915 10 of registered white births and 20 of registered black births died before they turned 1 Many births weren t even registered period l l doesn t even mention women dying during child birth 1914 clubwomen lead national campaign for birth cirti cates for everybody to help gure out whats going on Childrens bureau nds that infant mortality is correlated with poverty They push for more care Midwives proper advice Some advice out of touch with reality but a lot of it is good advice 1916 act passed limiting child labor Prohibited those under 14 from working in factories and mines jobs particularly dangerous Nobody under 16 could work more than an 8 hour day Mixed feelings aobut this law There is humanitarian imput kids should be in school not jobs But also poor families needed the income from their children Most work children did was at home making dolls cigars clothes etc so this act did not help all or majority of children Poor families had mixed feelings 1918 law banned unconstitutional until 19305 1920 rati cation of amendment giving women right to vote Purifying society Partially nativism Upper middle class will vote more than the poor and ethinc Part is militant women were torturing themselves outside white house fence African Americans made a federal law against lynching a priority in the 1910 s 92 women were among those lynched 18821927 Humanitary side of progressivism still had splits btw race and class Some folks were deliberately excluded or considered too moderate to be in progressive movement Charlotte gilman wrote federalist utopia for women Margaret Sanger became famous notorious for pushing for birth control illegal at this time Federal Regulation of Big Businesses Big businesses sometimes favored federal regulation actually They saw that regulation was coming and did they best to in uence the KIND passes and whether how it would be enforced Giant coroporations also can ride out tides of reforms Not a conspiracy theory What businesses usually did was usually quite open They didn t always get what they wanted Kolko Big businesses de ned outer limits of potential reform Food amp drug legislation 1906 o quotthe junglequot book socialist novel devoted to how lousy the lives of factory working immigrants are Sinclairs book plays some role but not huge TRs political skill and shrewdness of meatpackers all contributors to new law 0 Food was pretty crappy at the time Potatoes bread salt pork at best Maybe dried fruit fresh fruit was rare Maybe you could get an orange at Christmas Most beef came from locally slaughtered cattle The cows were fed from leftover food at local brewery 0 Rise of national meat industry 1879 0 David swift started using refrigerated railroad cars to send frozen beef across the country The refrigerated often didn t work Putrid People look for ways to spice food up Condiments relishes etc o H Heinz omniprescient gospel of success Parents want him to be a tough minister but he isn t interested Hes interested in success and thinks he can nd it by selling fruit horseradish He goes bankrupt but in 1879 makes a comeback By 1900 he is the largest producer of pickles vinegar and ketchup in the country Became one of the 5 lords of pittsburg Carnegie Frick Westinghouse amp mellon Heinz goes on as a company HJ gets a friendly reputation quotpickle kingquot Only of the 5 lords to have such a friendly connotation Hienz faster than the others understands that public relations are important Slogans Ads ways of showing that you aren t a robber barron quotHeinz produces 57 varietiesquot The rst giant electric sign in NYC is a 40 foot electric pickle At the worlds fair millions of pickle pins with HEINZ name printed on them are distributed Heinz is relatively popular because working conditions at his factors are NOT squalor like those depicted in quotthe junglequot quotpure article of superior quality will nd a market if properly packaged and marketedquot should be superior quality and pure For the workers there were concerts lectures cooking lessons urging upward mobility social peace End present discontent between laborors amp employees People want to buy these foods to hide the disgusting taste of the foods without condiments Heinz gets so rich that other people start making same products Once legislation is passed must be followed up on how whetehr the law is enforced State laws on food quality re not enforced 1889 federal bill gets nowhere Dr Harvev Wilev Harvard MD chemist at dept of agriculture Entire equivalent of whats now the whole Food drug industry Conducted experiments to show that most highly consumed foods make people sick The food can make you sick and is fraudulent crap And drugs sold don t actually cure you He too goes to the worlds fairs Wiley s activies start to get attention Edward Bok publisher of ladies home journal runs a series about Wiley and the general quality of food Consumer issues regarding the food you eating become impt for progressive time issues When Roosevelt became pres he was aware of these issues Wiley goes to TR but food situation is low on TRs list of priorities Opposition to federal opposition to food drug quality HJ Heinz jr makes pitch to TR advocating federal inspection of food products quothot dog kingquot also for gov inspection of meat to put stamp of legitimacy on product o 1905 TR nally approves inspection of food drugs THEN sinclairs book gains interest Book pushes legislation over edge Finger example Bill passes 1906 0 quotMeat Inspection Actquot also passed 1906 0 Many major meatpackers support this legislation because they were having trouble before with foregin exports People didn t want meat it was making them sick 0 Pure food and drug act banned interstate commerce in mislabeled food Still allowed for dangerous chemicals in food This act didn t really do much to improve food drug quality but it s a start doesn t really help for 30 more years 0 Federal gov had to pay inspection costs Date of inspection wasn t required to be put on cans with meat quotstamp of legitimacyquot not that legit Doesn t really change working conditions Ppl would work 730 to 5 pm 6 days a week as young as 14 yrs old making 5 cents per hour Final verdict on Progressivism There were genuine humanitarian efforts helpful to many but they didn t really help democracy Progressive era was kind of naive For AA the progressive era was regressive era We do see the beginning of a regulatory state It is far short of a welfare state though and regulations are minimal There are no basic shifts in values for most Roosevelt is most committed to GOS as anybody when proposed quotsquare dealquot opportunity for a man to get ahead if he prefers grati cation TW had no sympathy for poor man with no energy to work H the 3rd won senate seat from pa in 1976 Record sum of money from ketchup and pickles He dies young and his widow marries John Kerry Pickle money supports another political campaign Structure of power is not really changed by progressive era Roots of Modern American Empire 0 New left historian term 0 Prevailing view quotUS had been isolationists from beginning until empire was trust upon it Spanish Am war 1898 the Us accidentally gets some colonies gets rid of them quickly and sinks back into isoluationismquot l transparently stupid view 0 US has never been isolationist in anv meaningful sense Duh 1780 s there are 17 colonies 70 years later a country thousands of miles wide A country moving west and west and west There are ppl there loyal to other countries Spanish Mexican indian etc Lots of expansion 0 1840 quotmanifest destinvquot god wanted this to happen US wanted to remain aloof from European political affairs European wars Strong noninterventionist tradition for Europe US ties with euro countries often led to political controversies naval con icts and even wars oNotion from the out eld that US will be dominant in this hemisphere Monroe Doctrine Spanish colonies were becoming independent and Monroe declared that none of these countries should ever gagain fall under European control Expanding doctrine TR plays important role in expansion of this theology Push for expanision comes from percieed eco need military enthusiuasm etc 0 greatest shift in American expanision which begins at the beginning with 13 colonies is the late 19th century move towards INFORMAL EMPIRE outside of the NA continent theres a pref not to take territory 0 Empires come in different forms Even before Spanish american war three is a lot of candor about american expansionism oHenry Lodge we have a record of conquest colonization and expansion unequalled by any ppl of 19th century TR of course our whole national history has been one of expansion and it s a good thing too that this continent was conquered this continent could not remain a reserve for squalor savages Attitudes towards expansionism 0 William Sword bought Alaska view of american mission policy Lincolns sec of state w a lot of autonomy CW keeps him busy Coherent theory of american expansionism by 18505 We need some new territory He really wanted Alaska We really need to focus on commerce abroad to get us natural resources needed to develop our markets and exercise economic clout We must command the empire of the seas the real empire Pro capitalist ideologies Building up infrastructure Keep ariff high to help am industries Build up railroads all across the country so manufacturers can reach the paci c and sell to Asia Early as 17805 thriving market begins Wants Alaska because Canada would be right in the middle and sooner than later he thinks Canada will come around Good to keep them sandwiched in M History Notes September 26 Right of US to police Latin America corollary to Monroe docrine 1906 administration makes a deal w independent cuba president Negotations were necessary to build panama canal 0 First negotiate with Britain Roosevelt could have renegotiated panama canal but doesn t hes furious with the Cubans quotinefficient Another revolt could be necessary Treaty signed with US giving US control of a canal forever Led to the largest construction project in the world at the time 0 Latin Americans are annoyed with the casualness with which US had intervened 0 Not the rst or last time Roosevelt initially had a lot of sympathy forJapan It was a counterway to emperial Russia He hopes Japanese would work with him to keep open door in china 19045 war begins with a Japanese surprise attack but US still supports Japan 1905 roosevelt mediates peace because he doesn t thinkJapan can hold out longer Relations with Japan soon deteriorate over economic rivalry and racial stereotypes Japan wants more superior access to China Noticeable Japan immigration to Us rising By 1900 about 24000 japanesse in US Some school districts want to segregate Japanese kids in schools Route Agreement recognizes Japanese primacy in Manchuria Gentlemans agreement Japanese agree to curtail further immigration to the united tates Tension remains Taft follows TR and without apology adcovate Dollar Diplomacy Taft said he was willing to quotknock their heads togetherquot During the taft admin US takes control of customs gov economy of Honduras guatamala and Dom Rep Long term American involvement in nicuaragua Overthrow their president in 1909 Adolfo Dias american tool becomes new president Taft lands marines in 1912 to help the government The marines stay until 34 Wilson came to power in 1913 with less foreign interest Pro expanision like most other americans Had a strong sense of mission but was not immune to economic considerations Known as an idealist He was willing to use force Intervention in Mexico By 1911 inestments in mexico had reached 2 million dollars 43 of property there Mexico was governened by porperio diaz There was some opposition Diaz ends up eeing Modero becomes president and in 1911 mexico revolution starts and lasts about 20 years DESPITE AMERICAN STEREOTYPES MEXICO IS NOTjUST A PLACE FOR TACOS AND DRINKING IT IS AN EXTREMELY INTERESTING MAJOR COUNTRY AT THIS TIME MAJOR COURCE OF PETROLEUM FOR AMERICA AND 8TH STRONGEST ECONOMY IN THE WORLD AT THE TIME Modero overthrown in 1913 The taft admin leads the decision of whether or not to recognize the new government in mexico In the past americans usually said if a government was in control and uniform US would have diplomatic relationships with them Wilson breaks this trend and refuses to side with a government of butchers the juertas Wilson won t recognics juertas gov But if juerta agrees to step aside America says it will all be ne However many Mexicans don t like Wilson putting pressure on their president So the constituational rebels buy weapons in the USA Tampeco affair an american eet was kept patrolling From time to time the soldiers go ashore for shore leave In 1914 some american dolphin people cause some trouble and are arrested by Mexicans Wilson and Bryan are angry This is a chance to pressure juerta 21 gun salute to am ag because their honor has been hurt juerta says he ll order a 21 gun salute of the americans will re a 21 gun salute to the Mexican ag in return recognizing them as government The US decides to land troops instead juerta is irting with germans which keeps germans from delivering arms The local Mexican commander ghts back and a few hundred are killed Americans capture major source of gov income quot house portquot juerta leaves General coranza takes over Somehow tho coranza thinks he is a mexico and won t follow Wilson and bryans advice So Wilson and bryan keep looking for another new guy Us support is not enough Via who is brought in to take Coranzas place doesn t win Angry with Americans Fights back after and some americans are killed Wilson mad 1916 US sends 12000 troops into mexico to capture Via they never nd him By 1917 Mexico seems like a possible ally for Germany MEixco is the major Mexican intervention under Wilson but not the only Nicaragua is a virtual american colony just not of cially DR is occupied by american troops Of the smallest interventions Haiti is the longest lasting and post brutal from 19151934 Most brutal occupation bc the population of Haiti was black This was a time of growing white animosity to blacks Even bryan was racist o lndiscriminate killing 0 Why go through all of this Leaning towards the allies Britain Wilson calls for spirit of neutrality The allies lead from Britain are ghting with the German ln WWI it is hard to tell the euro good guys from the euro bad guys l american credits and loans to the belligerent powers bryan said money was the worst contraband trade in war material because money can buy all war material Bryan opposed all am credits and loans to anybody But US trade to Europe was seen important by Wilson so the initial decision is that the banks can loan to the belligerence out of their own funds and credits Loans to the allies lead by the british because the british navy controlled the seas Why loan to Germany when its ships cant get here to trade The initial policy of allowing banks to loan from their own credits gets bigger 1915 allows loans via the sale of bonds The American claim to trade with everybody in a war going back to the 17905 Freedom of the Seas is a classic American doctrine Americans think they have the right to trade with anybody Declaration London 1909 what can you trade Not bullets guns contraband But you can trade wool even if it can be turned into uniforms We have the right to trade anything that isn t obvious military material One side also has a right to try and stop that trade against the other but it must be done in a nice way quotvisit and searchquot Seas would pass and stop each other in the seas and say quothi were coming aboard to searchquot Each wanted to starve the other to cut out trade competition The British have a large surface eet and huge advantage They initially only want to seize obvious contraband The Germans don t have a big surface eet So they resort to the submarines and claim the right to merchant ships without warning Sometimes they sink passenger ships too They cannot follow visit and search Can t really search a submarine Sink underwater and re torpedos Wilson recognizes that the germans have a problem here but still agrees with visit and search You can t re from a ship without giving notice to crew and passengers to disembark quotstrict accountabilityquot for germans for disrupting aw Germans trade with allies boom but with central powers declined Trade with hungary at barely nothing With allies Britain and france rose signi ntly This is essential says sec of treasury to keep american economy up The allies are borrowing big in the US The americans are buying bombs Germans are still attacking trade ships 1915 they sink ship falaba killing 1 american May 1915 the usatania is sunk but mistake nobody knows Sinks and blows up quickly because its carrying secret ammunition Many civilians die some of which were american idiotic americans transparently idiotic to travel through those danger zones Byan isn t happy w Wilson not being as strict with brits as germans Aug 1915 sinking of a liner the Arabic quotLiner Pledgequot from Britain They won t sink liners but its hard to tell what kind of ship is what 1916 in france liner is sunk again Wilson demands that the Germans just STOP submarine warfare All ships The germans agree to stop No point in pissing off USA and it isn t even helping that much anyways Wilson tries to mediate the war However the side that thinks theyre winning doesn t wanna negotiate US has increasing anger at british bc they wont trade with companies treading with Germany Some americans want the US to get in on the allied side The german invasion of Belgium had been brutal The sinking of ships infuriated some americans So lets get on on allies TR exstatic RIGHTOUSNESS 1916 election rep nominee is not so strident He wants to maintain neurtrality Wilson is narrowly reelected Didn t like slogan quothe kept us out of warquot because he didn t know if he could keep them out of war 1917 germans say theyre going to starve out the brits and sink EVERYTHING Even if the US get mad they will go it Wilson broke diplomatic relations with germans and sought permission to arm US ships Wilson says he has authority to put guns on american merchant ships Pro war sentiment encouraged by the Zimmerman telegram Looks like we in ggermany may go in to war with Us quotthrow in with us and we ll give you lots of stuff Don t you want some territory backquot Coranza tries to claim quotwhat telegramquot As the sinkings mount april 1917 Wilson asks for declaration of war Congress debates it Oh how quaint 50 members of the house and 50 in the senate vote no even though they know they ll lose Possible that majority of USA objected to war so why did they full edged belligerence There was a genuine outrage about submarine warfare Without the subs probably Wilson wouldn t have asked for dec of war USA enters WWI divided Zeal on 1 side opposition on the other Led to strong suppression on centers at home and hard to popularize the war Wilson admin puts together committee on public info George creel the quotcreel committeequot to publicize war effort by the best tech of the day No broadcast radio but the creel committee puts together quotfour minute menquot who would speak 4 minutes before movies shows etc lots of pro war lectures and exhibits Majority of states banned german language Oregon bans publication in any language but English Some cities ban bethoven and baach music Anti war activists german americans get themselves beat up and even killed sometimes l socialist party opposing war had 1 member in congress he is expelled re elected and expelled again Espionage act 1917 provided improisonment for talking negatively about the war Socialist debs After declaration of war aerican intellectuals debated the merits of the war Randall vs dewey randall says there were cultural reasons the us went into war Still a defacto colony of Britain and its high protestant elite Dewey ultimately thought the war would increase american domesticity so he supported it In a sense he was right The war changed the social structure in the country and gov enormously progressive War industries board amp subsidiary agencies Day lights savings time gov control of railroads Overall a remarkable industrial mobilization Women take an important rule in the indust mobilization which is why Wilson comes around to support women s suffrage o Prohibition one of the PRIME protestant causes building from late 1800 s big womens movement and high practical political lobby by turn of the century Lots of arguments against prohibition Not just moral But also scienti c that even small amounts of alcohol are poisoness science of the day 0 Drinking impairs efficiency on the job Bans on alcohol sales increase Transfer of legal alc from dry to wet state banned Many states enact statewide prohibition laws 2 things pushed it over the top 1 why are we wasting grain by turning it into alc not giving it to solider to eat What kind of patriot are you 2 the big beer producers are german 18th amendment passed 1919 banning alc nationally Enforcement legislation is very strong and hard Relations between blacks and whites Segregation was enforced Some black leaders thought the law needed to be fully supported This is our country this is our way Maybe acceptance could be achieved War brings a change on black migration powers By 1914 there were 5 cities in the country with a black population The war provides black jobs in the north in factories though They are not welcomed by whites and there are anti black riots in many places in America during the war By the time the war ended about 110000 americans including disease are dead Americans Light in comparison to british and german and French The americans did not want to hear that The war was on Wilson s conscious Treaty of Versailles league of nations Wilson sees US separate from allies quotassociated allyquot Separte war aims that were superior to those of the british and French allies in Wilsons mind 14 points speech goals for the future Open convenance international diplomacy freedom of the seas league of nations No racial equality of legitimacy of radicalism mentioned Wilson says the Americans want something else quot quotpeace without victoryquot agrees communism is a menace and agrees to go along w Britain and france to nance those ghting communists War ends and reps of 27 countries assemble in versailes in 1919 Unofficial reps of Asian and African and arab indep movements Dominant gures are Wilson ltalian prime minister Orlando amp more The leaders of the winning governments The decisions are made that EFFECT MOST OF THE WORLD Carving up of the german empire Worsening relations with japan who had taken german territory in china Western allies say it must be returned to china and Wilson pushes aside the one resoluation tha the chinese and Japanese agreed on about racial equality The soviets are excluded and the blockade the brits and allies had enforced keep food away from coun PSYCHS Pl CHO AGREEMENT Syria in 1914 was part of the ottoman empire Fought on the central powers lt lost Agreenment btw brisih and French about who would get what Doesn t last for ever but lasts for some time If foreigners don t do what american president tells them Nothing in the Us had been destroyed whereas Europe had been ravaged Central question WHAT TO DO WITH GERMANY They lost their colonies Germany accepted war guilt that they alone were responsible Treaty states that they must pay reparations 33 billion dollars France had wanted to detatch a whole chunk of Germany called rheinland Wilson isn t happy about that but thinks as a whole that the treaty is fair The league of nations is attatched to the treaty The league will be dominated by the 4 countries pres at Versailles Article 10 heart of the covanent how it would work There would be bad guy countries in the futre The good guy contries would get together with the league of union and act collectively Snactions maybe military interventions This would prevent bad guy countries from ever becoming a real danger again Wilson did not invite any major rebublican to come with him The republicans had a different conception of how the Us shoud operate in the world Wanted more of a free hand rather than being tied to league of nations Fear US would get sucked into interventions 13 of the republicans in senate 1 send presidet a round robin letter that they ratify league of nations In theory there is a lot of popular support THE OPPONENTS WERE NOT ALL IDIOTS their concerns were legitimate July 1917 repiblicans quotirreconciliblesquot they do their best ot built up opposition of all sorts Try to rile people up Treaty with reservations fails Treaty without reservtions fails History Notes October 8 Johnson Reid Act restrictions on immigration on the basis of where the people were from Biased in favor or the northern Protestants instead ofJews European catholics Anti Semitism was on the rise in the also 19th century quotChrist killersquot radicalmism The progressive era had seen rising anti Semitism Trends 1 more restrictions including explicit quotas on jewish admissions to universities mostly at the most elite Restrictions into nice hotels Restricted convenance in real estate 2 Hierachy with Jews at the bottom with Orientals Nordics at the top 3 Jewish conspiracy to undermine Christianity Christian civilization There was obviously no meeting of jewish conspiracists Henry Ford quotinternationajew quotwrote a book about all of the wicked things Jews did to corrupt Christianity Fixed the world series in 1919 etc etc etc KKK 4 million people at it s peak Died out but there were still some who found it worthy 1916 birth of a nation presents the KKK as heroes 0 In the 1910 s William Simens a protestant minister starts a 2nCI clan which grows slowly until 1920 This 2nCI clan focuses on catholics and jews as vicitims It was a mainstream organization in the 20 s and peaks in 1923 The clan consisted of many bigots and fundamentalists but not all fundamentalists were bigots and not all bigots were fundamentalists Theological liberals vs theological conservatives fundamentalists 0 Liberals had a new view of the bible l metaphorical They had a new view of human nature New view of god s kingdom Fundamentalists thought the bible was the word of god All sin from the original bible was still there Thought god s kingdom would be established when Jesus returned Theological iberas not political iberas necessarily jockeyed for positions with the theological conservatives WWI raises this con uent Split within Protestantism turns into a chasm WWI isn t bad but it has a plus side shows that the liberals were wide of the mark The fundamentalists found the WCFA in 1919 led by reverend William bell riley from Minneapolis NOT from the south anda city The fundamentalists were short term cynics There would be sin before Jesus returned quotMoral Sagquot ANNIMALISM People are animals The fundamentalist controversies nd a national audience Conservatives never really liked Darwinism but it was central to the view of things High school populations were growing therefore people now care more about what is being taught Riley asks Bryan to quell the teaching of Darwin in the schools In the early 1900 s Bryan wasn t that concerned about Darwinism but after WWII he starts to consider it Frederick N Darwinist who NEW YORK NEW YORK fundamentalist John Roach Stratmon said monkey man means monkey moralist lf men and women are descended from apes they ll behave like apes By 1922 grassroots movement Legislature in 20 states to ban the teaching in public schools Oaklahoma There would be free textbooks but none could favor evolution Tennesee Butler Act stirred up by rude Vanderbilt kids Bill banned any theories that contrast what s taught in the bible American Civil Liberties Union had been looking for a test case to challenge the constitutionality of this banning in high school Cities are competing for the case John Scopes becomes the focus of the test case that they hoped would reach the supreme court All sides wanted maximum publicity at the time Clarence Darrow religious skeptic is on his defense case Arthur Hayes Dudley Field Malone ex catholic specializing in civil rights divorce cases 3 people who could very very easily lnfuriate provincials The defense led by Darrow operated on 1 they wanted a conviction to appeal to US supreme court 2 they also wanted a show The law was too vague Anybody could decide what the defense was What was contrary to bible 3 Evolution was a reasonable scienti c theory They would introduce great scientists to prove evolution was dominant theory Real scholars of the bible theological liberals Darwin is okay HL Minkon described tennsee as somewhere where the religion was generally on tap Like a circus The judges rule against bringing in scientists to testify To bring on theological liberal clergy Darrow gets a brilliant idea He calls Bryan Bryan agrees to testify BIG MISTAKE Evolution denied god s miracles including the resurrection and return ofJesus Under Darrow s crossexamination nobody could be prosecuted Bryan dies a week after the trial Cosmopolitans claim he was a broken man Not so Cosmos also claimed fundamentalism was permanently defeated never to rise again WRONG Other states continued to ban Darwinism and that is allowed by the Supreme Court The ban isn t struck down until 1968 more than 40 years later Bryan had raised insightful questions Should ideas be accepted just because scientists endorsed them Darwinism taught was the standard racist Darwinism quotAsian jewish black monkeysquot quotItalian monkeysquot l racist hierarchy Teaching that anglo saxists are the best Do legislators have a right to keep ideas they don t like away from the public Hand writing pay check rules the schools Darrow says every generation should be smarter than the one that comes before it Parents do not have a right to bar knowledge from their children in public schools Theological liberals of the 20 s are less than candid 14 year old boy killed for the hell of it Darrow says the people are not responsible for the thrill killing because their minds had been corrupted by bad ideas Free market of ideas AGE OF HOOVER Hoover s reputation was long in eclipse so called quotdo nothingquot president of the great depression 0 Hoover favored intervention abroad 0 Contemporary libertarians say see see see Hoover is a statist He set us on a slippery slope where the government now does stuff 0 Hoover is more complicated than either side sees Hoover s Backround o A thinker Re ective Personi ed the Gospel of Success He was born in Iowa in 1874 By 10 years old he s an orphan who bounces around with a bunch of relatives A teacher recommends that he goes to a school called Stanford He nds the money and attends majoring in mining engineering He travels around the world doing mining jobs in China and Australia Marries Lou Henry the only female mining major They spoke in Chinese around the white house so the servants wouldn t understand them Though the mining work Hoover made about 4 million dollars 100 million at todays rate 0 Just making was not the only way of life for him Quaker Getting rich is a prelude to following other interests and doing public service Writes novel quotprinciples of miningquot Talks about safety labor relations promotion of employees and more In 1912 supports Roosevelt He was a moderate reformer o In 1914 in Europe repping San Francisco for worlds fair and stuff WWI breaks out and Hoover is stuck in Europe He s asked by the american embassy to help raise funds for ships to bring americans home Helps raise aid and relief for Belgium which has been ravaged by invading germans Returns to Washington to work for the Wilson administration quotHooverizequot became a pseudonym for shing By 1920 there is a lot of talk about Hoover making a good president but nobody is sure what party he belongs to o FDR thought highly of Hoover at the time But Hoover is a republican Deadlock convention after primary Hoover is not the compromise candidate chosen Hardy is 0 Hoover becomes secretory of congress Hardy not a bad man just a slob He was a small town editor prominent in the ohio republican senate just about everybody liked Hardy Even those who didn t agree with his views And he liked just about everybody 12 of his advisors were sleazy 12 were the most able gures of the Us Hardy considered himself a conservative progressivist He was a very decent guy Hardy s reputation was permanently damaged by oil scandal teapot dome When Hardy died he was beloved If there s a president that s a hero to contemporary libertarians it s Calvin Coolidge Coolidge takes over after Hardy dies He was similar to Hardy In 1924 Coolidge is easily elected People don t know what to do Should they condemn the KKK Accept it Silently ght it William McAldo more like bryan Britain John W Davis the most conservative party nominee in awhile Goes on to be a great supreme court litigator There s an important third party candidate Robert Lafolett He is endorsed byjane Adams and Dubois There were fallouts in the progressive praty in 1924 Cultural diversities are not big Lafolette does well even though he loses Looks like someday another progressivist could run American Individualism book most thoughtful book written by a president of the US in the 20th or 21st century Government control was inefficient It lacked initiative needed to make progress In Wartime okay the government will control the food supply railroads and everything But during peace time that had to end quotFree speech does not live many hours after industry and free commerce diequot contemporary libertarian view 0 NOT NOT NOT advocating free for all Thinks there should be no dominiation by any group or combination business or political There should be economic political and social justice 0 This is no system of less a fair Cooperative individualism Responsibility above making stock for themselves They cannot behave like Carnegie and Frick crashing down on the Homestead strikers The gov should promote efficiency production and the joining of companies The leaders of all industries should get together in trade associations and improve ethics and technical things There may be 20 auto companies but you don t need 20 kinds of spark plugs l ceahepr and more efficient if all the companies could agree upon 1 type of spark plug for example 0 Hoover comes to be seen as a symbol of business statesmanship Businessmen were in the business of service not just out to make a buck Gilford creator of only telephones Must carry out stewardship Businessmen are now statesmen Business leaders were relatively prosperous but not totally prosperous When Hoover started running for president the major depression did not look likely Unemployment was as low as 2 at the time When the post war recession ended the stock market started to rise After a 1926 dip the stock prices went up and up and up A major depression could never happen again quotthat s so 1890 squot In 1927 Hoover himself thinks stocks are overvalued They re selling so much because of speculation not actual value Greater fool theory People were fools There was always somebody more foolish But what happens when you run out of fools Rise in wealth was real but it was not spread around The farm sector was still about a third of the economy In 1930 by any plausible estimate many 40 million americans were under the out of 120 million americans Noooooot good There was a lot of nifty stuff being produced Might seem old fashioned now but at the time it seemed really great A toaster A refrigerator A car A radio If your income is not going up how are you going to pay for this nifty stuff CREDIT You go with the debt lf income stops coming in how will you pay off the debt though Even if you re frugal quotill save my money and ride the trolley instead of buying a new car I ll put my in the bankquot But now what happens when the bank fails You re shit outta luck Hoover sensed these problems more than Mellon or Coolidge did But generally he d expected the Federal Reserve to work well Whatever doubts Hoover had he did not stress them in 1928 Duh He offers his general optimism Attacks on smith were not con ned to Hoover was considered an extraordinary gure Democrats were still a minority party Smith was just a provincial He would have lost no matter what The south was a place where only whites could vote at this time SOMEDAY there might be another democratic liberal revival Hoover powerful sec of congress Depression crash of stock market 1929 initial thought was this would be mild At the time people thought panics were inevitable and hey not so bad Mellon and Hoover had different attitudes Economic fatalists think the crisis are envitable just like diseases Jaw boning issuing optimistic statements to keep pessimism down Calls big business leaders to the white house 1 Agree not to lay off workers 2 to keep wages up to quell fear 3 Lower interest rates so people can borrow and invest more easily 4 Steps up pace of government work for example surpreme court building 5 Urges charity to give to unemployment No provision of direct federal relief for the unemployed No jobs or food stamps brought in New Deal Hoover remains committed to a balanced budget It s pretty much accepted everywhere that some type of de cit is okay in economy Federal debt not always bad Milton Freedman prob with mility reserve board Federal reserve board should have reduced rates Even those with the best will were in a crunch Less buyers Laying off workers and cutting wages was unavoidable Will Rogers more optimism talked and less practiced now than any time in history before Economic spiral downward Lower wages less consumption less orders and cutbacks By 1932 the unemployment rate in harlem hits 50 Some communities in the country don t recover for decades In 1933 the annual gross rate was 13 of what it was the previous year There were lots of charitable efforts By 1931 some state assistance to the community Direct state relief Conservative myth that Roosevelt and the New Myth imposed new government on an unwilling United States There was a fear that the whole system of the country could become facist community far fetched fear but a strong one Cities went broke Suicide rates go up Americans feel more responsible Whose next phenomenon if it can happen to them it can happen to youtoo Farm Holidays farmers weren t getting good costs for their cotton products so they stopped even bringing their products to the markets Scienti c polling is just beginning Ultimately the depression had a political impact Hoover takes action that is NOT NOT NOT direct relief for the unemployed He forms the Gilford Committee doesn t do a great job National Credit Corporation will provide loans for big businesses to keep them from collapsing Hoover remains Hoover cafes charity soup kitchens Hoover s touchiness is seen in his response to the bonus march july 1932 WWI veterans in the 20 s had advocated for a federal bonus Finally congress passes it in 1924 over Coolidges veto So in 1944 Veterans are supposed to get a bonus but they start to fear the country won t even be around then So 2080 thousands vets from across the country come to Washington saying they want their bonuses now They re peaceful Hoover refuses to see these Veterans He says the most the government will do is provide loans to the Veterans to go home and the loans can be repaid when the bonuses are paid Some accepted this but most stayed Eventually federal troops led by General McArthur are forced to clear the Veterans out Fuels federal optimism Roosevelt from New York but has strong ties to the South He was a quotWilsonianquot Promises bold persistant experimentation Increasingly mobilized immigrant catholics and Jews The New Deal is dif cult 1 Was the new deal more continuous with the progressive era Or does it mark more of a decisive break 2 Could Should Roosevelt have done more with the democrats to create a larger welfare state Or is he a bag guy for leading the country to a larger wellfare state Overview Personal Rivalries and many ideological rivalries Dominant Tendencies First New Deal 19331934 emphasis is on economic and psychological recovery Emphasizes UNITY UNITY UNITY We are all americans Analogy to WWI Direct relief for the unemployed This is a BIG SHIFT FROM HOOVER PWA is started in 1933 direct federal jobs Builds 70 of the new schools 13 of the hospitals starts some aircraft carriers provides electri cation for the railroad replacing diesel between 19331939 Doesn t build too many houses though Civil works administration small scale jobs to get people working quotHere s a shovel clean the trashquot Roads schools airports l experimental projects About 1 billion are put into the economy in this rst year Agriculture adjustment act farmers were especially hard hit The goal was to try and raise farm prices The initial measure is to plow under wheat cotton and other crops Kill quotbaby pigsquot l keep these goods off the market Various schemes to pay farmers to produce less This is nuutsssssss but is the best that can be done for the farmers National recovery administration planning model All of the biggest businesses in the country got together in their respected elds and put together councils of the big manufacturers and came up with production codes to set prices and wages to keep the economy from sinking further Kind of a mess Dominated by the corporate elite and faced increased criticism 1934 Securities and exchange commission to secure Wall Street Effort to bring more long term reform once the country is out of the depression But who knows when that will be The rst phase of the New Deal was a psychological success Enormous public relations There is something of a rise of the national move We will get out of this In 1936 l Roosevelt leads administration into the Second New Deal what most ppl have in mind when they think about the New Deal o criticism of political opponents for example idiosyncratic senator from Indiana 0 supports the wealth tax act of 1935 0 Cut the amount of money the VERY VERY rich can keep Tax them more Most Americans did not pay federal taxes at this point Congress does not pass the act to tax the very rich The percentage of wealth held by the 1 actually rises Social Security central feature of welfare state 0 The legislation had all kinds of stuff Aid to the blind Unemployment insurance Retirement provisions Wagner Act Guarantees right of union organization Establishes a board with pro labor members who will enforce it The second phase of the New Deal Roosevelt s rhetoric changes No longer quotwe re all in this togetherquot There are some people who aren t quotusquot This is attacking a small elite a little group at the top not necessarily class rhetoric o A lot of is pumped into the economy from 0 Works progress administration of 1935 an appropriation of 5 million dollars Higher than all of Hoover s last budget for everything WPA under this management 2nCI phase of the new deal Overall the new deal manages to put 13 of the unemployed to work 1936 Roosevelt wins president election again Third New Deal Hard to say The most signi gant domestic event of Roosevelt s second term failure to expand the surpreme court Solidi es the congressional political coalition Almost all northern republicans and at least 12 of southern democrats Just about everybody in congress in the south is a democrat white First minimum wage ban on child labor Roosevelt had moved to de cit spending but didn t like it Accepts cutbacks in federal spending Not Roosevelt saying poof let there be social security A LOT OF GRASSROOTS MOBILIZATION Paradox Between may 33 and july 1937 56 million workers participate in 10000 strikes with the typical hyperbole ofjournalism saw industrial war Great militancy Form by leadership In 1935 Louis makes committee of industrial unions to organize whole industries of the basis of them being an industry Craft principal Industrial War in steel powerful steel union late 19th century is ended by Carnegie and Frick Red Scare ends the second one The senate had just established a committee to look into violations of the Wagner Act Myron Taylor starts a 3 prong attack President of US steel made a deal with Lewis US steel will accept unionization and there will be wage increases October 15 2013 Oscar Deprees rebublican African american to join congress The New Deal s potential for African americans depend on which part of the deal you re talking about Led from rock hardline racists over to southern liberals to integrationists Lots of variations New federal housing administration FHA is very very aloof from supportive integrative housing Agricultural adjustment programs paying farmers not to grow certain things should lter down to black sharecropperstenants but is rarely enforced Roosevelt failure to support major goal of NAACP to make lynching a federal crime To get into better courts Roosevelt couldn t make this a priority The most that can be said about the new deal is that it helped poor people working class people who were disproportionally black African Americans were extremely appreciative of the new deal Maybe too appreciative even Major shift AA s go from being 75 republican to 75 democratic The new deal hit home For most Americans it was the rst occasion in peace time where the federal government was experienced Connection to federal government Not always greeted favorably Not everybody likes an advicist federal government In the 1930 s fear power of those who didn t like the new deal is interpreted by Nazis Soviets Northern republicans some southern democrats congressional conservative coalition If you get a social security today it will be tattooed on your wrist in a Roosevelt concentration camp WACKO There were some who still thought the economy should run it s course and there should be no government interference The Liberty League had 125000 members most of whom were rich Depressions were natural and should be rode out Undermining business con dence Class rhetoric No other president had ever rallied one group against eachother this much to get political favor Rallying the poor against the rich quotClass warfarequot Al Smith loathing of Roosevelt led him to oppose the new deal Critique from the right the former progressive era reformers who had supported WW and TR and now thing the new deal has become too cohersive Too what degree is the new deal continuous with progressivism How is it different AntiAmericanism Angry angry ex progressivists New Deal is contradictory and incoherent The most astute old progressive was Herbert hoover Waits about a year to criticize the new deal in a book quotthe challegnge to libertyquot Philosophy of cooperative individualism Hoover is in favor of some gov regulation checks and balances The notion that the new deal was incoherent was also made by some on the left Critique made by the left beginning with the socialists At the party s peak in 1912 their leader Eugene Debs had gotten over a million votes Opposition to WWI the red scare led to socialist decline Norman Thomas had supported Wilson as a young man Thomas had become radicalized by the war and become part of the socialist party Thought Roosevelt ignored the ight of AA s and that the plight of crops was a bad solution even temporarily Thought the administration should get a full edged socialist system and put people to work Thomas and the socialists attracted some socialist work FDR carried out socialist party on a stretcher although didn t carry out program John Dewey Sense of what the appeal of the communist party is appeared more militant and grew much larger Never more than 120000 affiliated The parties sometimes took absurd vicious parties but there was support of AA s labor unions The American communist party has 7500 members in 1929 line was dictated by boss Stalin Stalin believed capitalism was just about to collapse the 3rd period in communist ideology All the parties to the right of the communist parties around the world are pretty much the same Hitler Hoover Thomas all social facists When Roosevelt comes into power the new deal planning agency has a new symbol the blue eagle american version of the swastika according to some so stupid acc to stalin HlTLER difference between hitler and liberals like Roosevelt Support is moving towards the popular people front 20th century Americanism communism New type of far right Culturally conservative and nationalists and also believes in economical redistribution Louie Long becomes gov of lousianna Spends Louisiana a public school system Laws program of 1933 share our weath High taxation No fortunes over 1 million dollars Money should be spread around to the poor working farming class Everybody should have enough money to own a home quotEvery man s a king but no man should wear a crownquot Foreign policy between the wars americans didn t just sit around waiting for WWII to happen they hoped that action would prevent the Us from participating in the war Administrations of Hardy and Coolidge Charles evans hughs Frank Kellogg As you look at the foreign polict of the 20 s beware of the myth of isolation always wrong but the image is stark The US didn t join the league of nations so uninvolved Wrong Charles Evans says he looked forwards to an American peace An orderly world following american direction Hughs recognized that the world of the early 1920 s continued to have tensions Relations were particularly bad with Japan The underlying problem was their desire for greater in uence in china Japan brie y involved in WWl had taken a chunk of china By the early 20 s there are books about the future war between the US and japan The deal with rising tensions w japan in the far east Hardy and Hughs calls the congress of 1921 and naval powers except limitations of battleships major weapons of war Before the war Americans owed to foreign investers 3 billion dollars Afrer the war the debt goes the other way Foreign governments and companies owed americans about 3 million dollars Minuses as well as plusses Needs to be a reliable international trade situation Hughes American economy depends on post WWII situation working out which depened on Germany Key Q will german s be able to pay their reperations They say they can t wont Dawes plan reparations gure is too high We ll lower it But also facilitate loans from American banks to germans the german economy to jumpstart the system Until 1928 It doesn t work Young Plan owen young tells Germany they only need to pay 8 million dollars VERY COMPLICATED The western world economies are tightly linked and if one screws up they ll all come down Bankers want to make loans that don t seem so sound Lots of tensions Us is playing a major role to try to make system even slightly functional Soviet Union going to collapse But what do you do before it does Coolidge and hardy refuse to recognize soviet union The us is very very powerful not just sitting there doing nothing Roosevelt believes that increased trade and peace go hand in hand New deal establishes the export import bakn still in business for the government to make overseas loans overseas Reciprocol trade act of 1934 authorizes president to lower tariffs for other counties that will do the same 29 reciprocol trade agreements Essentially the basis of american foreign policy regarding trade Roosevelt decides to recognize the soviet union Good neighbor policy the last American occupying troops are withdrawn from Haiti Panama is given a slightly stronger role in managing the canal that goes right through panama The US aggregates a provision of Cuban indep that says the US has a right to intervene in times in disorder Greater prosperity can come from greater pro t Oil Mexico has lots of oil 20 s30 s produced the largest peace movement until that time 1936FDR gave only 1 speech on foreign policy if we face the choice of pro t or peace the nation must answer that they chose peacequot although FDR was not an isolationist FDR loathed Hitler who came to power in 1933 Neutrality act of 1937 3things 3 the president can declare an arms embargo Requires the notion of cash and carry 0 The US in war can continue to trade with anybody but the countries at war must pay cash we are not going down that loan route 0 FDR signs this act but is already reconsidering his views on foreign policy Numerous atrocities and mass rape of civilians occurs 1937 Quarrentine Speech FDR sees a reign of terror overseas The agressors need to be quarrentined March 39 hitler takes Czechoslovakia Starts to take over more and more UNLIKE WILSON FDR does not ask americans to be totally neutral Know who the bad guys are Increased aid to the allies including manipulation of public opinion outright lies Roosevelt s focus is on Europe amp the focus on Asia China etc is secondary European Theater 0 Road is peace is providing weapons to allies france Britain Not logical If you only aid one side of the war the other side will get really pissed off September 3 l destroyer deal December 1940 bristish dollar reserves are running low l prohibited from getting US loans but they have no to buy weapons from the US FDR says US needs to loan the war materials themselves like loaning chewing gum It s like lending US troops move to Iceland in July 1941 closer to Germany than to the US Since ships horses are going all the way to Iceland why not let british ships join in US is going to try to sink any submarines September 1940 America rst committee founders are yale law students Supporters also include Shriver kennedy in law demo nominee John Kennedy theo roosevelt s daughter aice norman Thomas etc The America rst committee wanted the opposite of what FDR was doing FDR thinks that noninterventionists are in the worst case scenario conscious agents of the Nazi s Charles Linberg classic racist antisemite Tight tight tight visa regulations imposed are still in place Messy situation What people should have done was brought attention to how really really bad hitler is 1931 the japanesse nd a rare incident where one of their railroads is blown up They use this to invade Manchuria By 1933 Manchuria is fully taken over by the Japanese Rape of Nanjing Enormous debate over Chang Hi Shek 19371941 the US is very concerned and has long negotiations with Japan The primary gure dealing with it is Bordell Hall H explains to the Japanese in 1938 that the war in china needs to stop The US was equally desirous of peace selling products in china Clearly a war in china would lead to economic disadvantages Japanese honor Roosevelt tilts towards the chinese Allows arms sales to the chinese The president only has to declare an arms embargo if he nds a war US is a major source of oil for the Japanese Virtually everybody in Japan wants to expand somewhere Sooner or later they expect it will be china but where should they expand after Fabulous fabulous plan to send out lots of airplanes to look for the Japanese eet However this is not at all well thought through because they don t have airplanes to send out The Japanese did behave like monsters unquestionable One of the misfortunes of droppoing the atomic bombs was that the Japanese could declare themselves vistims instead of vicious perpetrators Parents born in japan could not become citizens Their prosperity brought a lot of hostility jealousy outside of standard racism Warren calls for removal ofJapanese americans quotA jap s a jap No way to determine the good ones from the bad onesquot There was very little protest Enthusiasm for the war was strong America was attacked so there was much less opposition than WWI The war also ends the depression and raises living standards No group did better than the giant corporations and those who led them in a sense the war was a return to the rst phase of the new deal The new deal came in phases and in the rst phase the rhetoric is that we re all in this together In the rst phase the pliciy is to work and be business We are all in it together By 19356 FDR days he welcomes the hatred But big businessmen who never supported the new deal are back Not always necessarily true but the prevailing belief is Produce as much as you can to beat the axis The giant corporations are needed By the end of 1942 a lot of countries had about 80 of the war contracts Costplus contract History Notes October 22 2013 Self interest as well as patriotism William Wrigley creates crewing gum Sap came from areas near japan Convinces people to put chewing gum into bags for soldiers it ll keep peoples teeth clean Agribusiness Big labor was not as powerful as big business but labor did even better during WWII than WWI The planning boards of the federal government usually had a labor representative There was hostility to organize labor and it grew Labor initially came out with the no strike pledge Patriotic duty not to strike during the war L Lewis head of the miners takes them out on strike in 1943 Roosevelt has to work through the existing democratic system Deal has to be made eventually to pay the miners more Congress passes the Smith Connolly actforbidding contributions to labor unions Prelude to the bitter labor managements of the late 19405 In and out of unions many in the work force grew prosperous The war did what the new deal did not do it ended the depression It ended it with giant de cit spending though In 1939 the whole federal budget was 9 million dollars By 1945 this seems like chump change The federal budget was 100 million dollars Vast war plants were constructed from scratch In the civilian workforce about 9 million people relocated In general real wages corrected for in ation did grow For many there is a lot of money but it s hard to find something to spend it on bescause either all goods were deemed essential for the American military or allies quotRation booksquot are created limiting what can be purchased Rubber and gasoline are rationed in 1942 then sugar then bicycles then shoes then coffee Other items such as fruits and vegetables were not rationed but were in short supply Americans were encouraged to plant little gardens and 20 million victory gardens were made in weird places For the rst time in decades NYC had an agricultural fare There was no real suffering and American food consumption was still higher than the british War time rations actually made Americans healthier because there was no red meat or liquor The black market gains a lot of support during the war People still went to movies and plays etc during the wartime Baseball and football slogged on and horseracing boomed You could spend pro ts on gambling All of the moving around and disruptions cause stress and straining Large cities are compared to mining camps in Cali Alaska Neighborhood boundaries are broken down The number of women working increases from 12 million to 165 million This does not lead to feminism It actually leads to more rebellion Speeches and sermons speak out against women in the workforce There was an idea that after the war was over women would return home to their quotlipstick and babiesquot Women of steel There is a rising divorce rate and a rising rate of child delinquencies The focus during the war is on teenagers out of control predatory impulse In American domestic propaganda there is an enormous obsession with teenage sex women Black White relations were a focus point as well After WWI a substantial of African American riots take place Black leaders are much much much more weary They want concessions including an end to discrimination and wartime contracts They want the army integrated The Roosevelt administration is frightened Roosevelt establishes a fair employees practices committee to investigate discrimination in wartime contracts ONLY advisory The army is not integrated as a policy although there is sometimes some token integration A new militant African American organization the congress of racial equality 1943 becomes a major group throughout the 50 s and 60 s Some wartime militancy leads southern segregations to be fudous Eugine police commissioner of Alabama villain of the 60 s States that there should be no racial equality There is blackwhite ghting in the north the worst riot taking place in Detroit Walker White head of the NAACP asks Roosevelt for a statement of equal treatment for blacks and whites but Roosevelt says no His major priority is to win the war On the international scene domestic foreign policy there are con icting aspirations A few noninterventionists remained prominent Hoover Taft but in general The noninterventionalist not isolationist perspective had been pretty much discredited Argument made over and over that if the US had listened to Woodrow Wilson and joined the League of Nations that there wouldn t have been a WWII Erroneous Internationalist consensus was bipartisan A major point of view skepticism about American foreign policy wars presidential abusive power is discredited Within the internationalist consensus there was disagreement as to what the post WWll would and should look like Henry Luce publisher of time life and fortune Loose had predicted American century The US must share with ALL people our bill of rights our constitution and our industrial products Trade beyond the American borders was ridiculously small Loose could not accept that anybody on foreign countries wouldn t want to adopt the American Ways Wallace chosen for VP in 1940 Lots of labor support African American support Wallace proposes a Century of the Common Man the US must help build prosperity internationally This would be good for American trade Perhaps out there not everybody in the world would want to share American ways The views of most policy makers were somewhere between Loose amp Wallace s There were 3 wartime goals under FDR s administration Total victory with minimal American casualties There will be unquestionable surrender Germany cannot surrender and then say okay we keep France Military victory of the axis Lose as few men as possible Produce a kind of neowilsonian order of American interests Wilson would have wanted peace with victory Who is making these decisions The United States The US is looking to remain victorious in a world of peace They want peace and not a lot of casualties while remaining the world leader They don t want Germany to become the world leaders 10 years from then Keep cooperation among the national ally powers These will be the sheriffs of the postwar world The American ways of trying to assure that these goals come about were also fairly traditional He does not want to end the war having upset Britain and France the allied powers should be peacefully and ready to move on together Economic clout Summit Diplomacy the top leaders of the major countries getting together and striking bargains quotDoing good by stealthquot what we might call lying but FDR felt continually that he couldn t tell the truth to the Americans about the real problems that occurred within the alliance There wasn t much candor from Roosevelt ever but certainly not during WWII There rst major clash between the US and the British is what the soviet s call the quotSecond Frontquot Major invasion of Europe in 1943 The British have qualms The American leaders are drawing their goals Churchill and the Brits keep pushing off As part of the wheeling and dealing and compromising there are smaller invasions In 1944 you get the major cross channel invasion at Normandy Churchill is pleased that the soviets are doing most of the ghting and dying The soviets are mightily pissed In 1943 rst summit conference in Iran to meet Stalin and coordinate for the next year invasion at Normandy The 3 agree on a post war organization The Soviets agree privately that after the European war is over they will enter the Asian war They are not yet at war with japan Some issues are too volatile to discuss and are postponed Feb 1945 the 2nOI summit conference takes place The Soviet army was well into eastern central Europe at this point The downside of doing most of the ghting and dying was obvious but the upside was for Stalin that the army was capturing a large amount of territory o It is decide that Germany will be temporarily divided into 3 zones each major power controlling one Germany will also pay 20 million dollars of reparations most going to SU Poland Stalin agrees to broaden his government to include people from Poland 0 The declaration of liberated Europe to render lots of these agreements There would be as soon as feasible free elections throughout Europe Foreign policy is kept out of wartime politics but partisan is not gone Partisanship grew worse regarding domestic matters Thomas Dewey 1943 a meeting in Michigan of major republican leaders The republicans fear that FDR will use his power to further establish his beliefs The democrats of course wrap themselves in the ag because the president leading the ght against Hitler is a democrat Who could disagree with that On the domestic scene the electorate becomes more conservative in part because of prosperity and part of it is that there weren t absentee ballots for those in the military who were disproportionally democrats working class Members of the conservation coalition in congress argue that the New Deal is swarming with communists and the fair policy committee is leftthought FDR is thinking about moving back to the 2nCI part of the New Deal The war had mostly pertained to the rst aspect quotwe re all in this togetherquot FDR asks for an expansion of the welfare state GI bill of rights providing enormous bene ts for returning veterans Roosevelt understands that the country is becoming more conservative Takes Wallace as his running mate over Harry Truman Dewey former gov of NYC runs a tough campaign against Roosevelt Says FDR is very sick with congestive heart failure true and that the New Deal is swarming with communists untrue FDR is truly dying but still campaigns vigorously With his traditional campaigning skill and despite his sickness Roosevelt won 55 of the vote and was reelected to his 4th term in 54 Prelude to bitter post war politics To understand Cold War rhetoric we need a sense of the mood about violence and terror in war that develops during WWII In the 1930 s Americans were just horri ed that the Japanese and Germans indiscriminately bombed civilians in China and Poland Roosevelt says that the enemies were being bombed relentlessly There s a gruel shift in American opinion that leads to great enthusiasm for air power including that bombing civilians Arthur Harris you y over Germany and occupied Europe drop your bombs and you re going to hit something American military said no we can t do that that s inhumane They wanted to try pinpoint bombing a myth but more moral When the air war turns to japan the qualms are even less for racial reasons The Japanese are seen as barely human The rebombing of Tokyo struck Time magazine as a dream come true There was a casual acceptance of mass bombing and civilian casualties Atomic Diplomacy a book that talks about the droppings of the atomic bombs Says American dropped the bomb to scare the Soviet s just as much as they did to win the war The issue is complex and simple There were many in uences that let to the decision to drop the bomb and whenwhere When the building of the atomic bomb begins the general assumption is that if we re bulding this weapon we have to use it They thought they would use the bomb against the germans There never is any real full review as to whether the bomb should be dropped on Hiroshima April 1945 a committee meets including sec of war Stimpson and various other gures They talk about what s going to happen to the bomb after the war Then they talk a little about the issue of using the bomb on civilians If this bomb is going to be what we think it s going to be how can we just drop it Whatever qualms there were really never reached Truman There was no doubt that once the US has the bomb Truman uses it obliquely The main factor is to end the war with Japan without an invasion of the Japanese island but subsidiary factors to drop the bomb are to impress the Soviets and politics how can you spend 2 billion dollars on a weapon and then not use it Two bombs are used very quickly for psychological effect Moral complexities The Japanese are monsters and they started this war so lets drop the bomb there The rationale for the bombs usually given is that they were necessary to end the war without an American invasion that would ve cost millions of lives open to question The US knew when they dropped the bomb that the Japanese were sending out peace feelers The US also knew that the main concern was whetherJapan would be allowed to keep its emperor The question is could the US have perused negotiations with the Japnese for a few extra months without that many casualties without having had to drop the bombs That was a real option probably but wasn t tried Truman says he never lost any sleep about the droppings of the bombs bullshit that he didn t really believe Einstein who had helped with the physics of the bomb said said he wished he d become a locksmith instead of a physicist The old orthodoxy of the 1940 s50 s was pretty simple The cold was war inevitable Stalin himself was a paranoid and suspicious Everything the Us did during the early coldwar was right just immoral The biggest mistake they made if any was being to soft on the soviets There were some skeptics about how the cold war was fought realists The most prominent being George Kennan diplomat turned historian Kennan thought American foreign policy was dominated by a legalist approach The US demanded too much from soviet behavior How the cold war developed in the early years was in uenced by American Decisions Alfeber of cornell John Gaddist yale Leading gure US policy was fundamentally sound and there were no alternatives in the 40 s50 s because Stalin was exposed to the ways of the cold wars Complicated All of the historians mentioned are serious honest thinkers Not the bozos you see on FOX or MSNBC These are complicated questions that shouldn t be left to dimwits Everybody who looks at the Cold War seriously see s that the con icts have deep deep roots The soviets trace the origins back to small scale interventions Everybody understands that the soviets did most of the ghting and dying during WWII to defeat nazi Germany Their loses were collosal The standard number of soviets dead is usually listed at 20 million but can uctuate Soviet restistance to nazi s and communist restiance of eastern europe raised the image of the communist party in the soviet party world wide History Notes October 24 2013 Ea rlv Cold War Could apocalyptic rhetoric have been avoided Might the area in the Soviet s sphere have been less brutal Could the Cold War as it developed ended earlier than 1990 Yes The Soviet s did most of the ghting and dying Henry Loose feature story in his magazine calling the soviets quotone hell of people calling Lennon the greatest man of all timequot Roosevelt wanted to keep the major powers as the sheriffs of the post warworld Prone to exaggerate his own in uence and charm but was not na39ive He knew there were brewing problems in Poland Stalin had established his own Soviet regime in Poland Roosevelt is worried but is hard to know what he is thinking He is vague and contradictory Certainly Roosevelt knew a LOT more about foreign policy than Truman Unsurprisingly as WWII was coming to an end Europe was a mess The Europeans are never passive and are sometimes in uential in shaping American foreign policy European counties are becoming more left There is great enthusiasm for communists because they resisted the Nazis The situation is a mess 1945 want not 1946 wasn t 1947 wasn t 1948 wasn t 1949 The situations changed there was not just one soviet crunch down in 1945 The major soviet goals were two 0 The soviets wanted a band of territory in Eastern Europe up through the Baltic sates that were friendly They wanted some countries to be pretty much satellites Soviets also wanted great in uence in Czechoslovakia What they want varies They wanted lots of money to help repair the clobbered country This money could come through reparations from the germans andor from US aid As the war closes it s in Stalins interest to remain in good relations with the US 0 Territory from Turkey and or lran if they can be so lucky Stalin could be exible and doesn t think he is the bad guy Averell Harriman Stalin was surprised and even hurt that eastern Europe and central europe ppl weren t as happy with the occupation of the red army US goals were the creation of a neowilsonian beliefs spread of democracy and trade Their concern for markets abroad was strong Dean Acheson 110 of American jobs depended on American foreign trade American Foreign policy was not immune to double standards preached an open world while insisting on having special relationships under the sphere of foreign relations in Latin America under the Monroe doctrine Harry Truman blunt no bullshit However this is not a great trait for a president What the soviet s remembered most was a comment Truman made as a senator Let s help the Germans when they re winning and the soviet s when they re winning It was a joke but offended the soviets Herbert Hoovert brought back by Truman as a part time advisor British Prime Minister Churchill iron curtain over europe Ambassador Harraman ies back from the Soviet Union to warn Truman that the soviets are going to become the world bully and are planning an invasion on Europe Wallace becomes secretary of commerce popular among left liberal democrats African Americans labor unions Truman doctrine of march 1947 irreconcilable spheres in europe Two steps forward one step back Things are complicated The hard line appealed to Truman is apparent to Truman as early as his rst week of office 0 He has a meeting with a soviet diplomat and complains about the soviet s sluggishness and the government they established in Poland Molotov said he had never been talked to like this before in his life untrue since Stalin was his boss But he meant he d never been talked to like this by any other foreign leader Stalin is unmoved upon hearing about this meeting 0 Aid for countries ghting off the beginning signs of communism Ships carrying aid to the soviet union are turned around in the summer of 1945 It is made clear to the soviets that the amount of german reparations they will get depends on their behavior Truman met stain for the rst time along with Truman at the town of Pottstown outside berlin in August 1945 Truman said in private that he liked Stalin Truman backs a tough line though especially after he nds out that the nuclear device had been tested in Mexico Council of foreign ministers The soviets are allowed to keep the territory they had taken from Poland in 1939 They appoint control to manage Germany temporarily Potsdam declaration warns Japan that it must surrender unconditionally or else they will face destruction A lot of issues are just postponed There will be free elections as soon as possible The major problems are never resolved The diplomacy of the vicious circle quotYou started it you moved itquot over and over and over again over the years September 1945 the rst foreign ministers conference in London deadlocks over when the soviets wi broaden their government with noncommunists in Poland Molatov becomes a symbol of soviet intransigence Why can t we have the dominant voice in Poland Truman sends a nasty telegram to tell them to go to hell Stalin gives a major speech emphasizing soviet autonomy and economic build up The soviets are dropping an iron curtain over Europe 1946 everybody is working on some type of policy regarding atomic energy 0 The Baruch plan all countries must do research and turn it over to a UN country 0 In the meantime the US kept its nuclear monopoly The soviets put pressure on Turkey They want to get back some of the territory they lost during WWI The turks stand rm despite soviet bluster Soviet troops mustering on the Turkish border Strong US aid Iran had been occupied jointly by soviets in the north and brits in the south Both promised to leave at the end of WWII but the soviets stay through 1946 quothey look WWII hasn t ended its still going on in Asia so we don t have to leave right awayquot In the meantime the soviets are trying to pressure Iran to let them drill for oil Stalin may have though that parts of northern lran might detach themselves to join the soviet union but the soviets are not so smart and the Iranians are very smart and shroud The soviets withdraw in 1947 In the United States the pressure in turkey and Iran is not received badly The soviets are becoming a world bully and not just in Europe Of course the soviets didn t see it this way and thought they were cooperative They thought they d concede a lot to the west The soviets had agreed to a division of Asia when the war was ending when they could ve occupied the whole peninsula However Truman saw the Soviets as a country that was trying to expand RELENTLESLY Truman is looking around for some type of rationale as to why the soviets are behaving this way George Kennan 2 at the embassy of Moscow sends the long telegram to Washington offering his explanation of Soviet behavior Kennan had been waiting for this chance forever Kennan s long telegram said that the Soviet Union was inherently expansionist but if that expansionism was stopped or contained the soviet union would either fall apart or mellow This analysis was not new Kennan learned this as a young diplomat of trading but after things collapsed when Kennan looks back his views have changed a little bit He was right because the Soviet Union did collapse but Kennan was off by a timeframe of about 40 years His telegram becomes the blueprint for a foreign policy the US was working towards Cold War consensus the soviets are inherently expansionists and must be contained Henry Wallace didn t approve of repression within the Soviet Union but thought the US needed to show more sympathy He thought if the Soviets would behave better if they received assistance from the US rather than rhetorical blame September 1946 Wallace says he is for friendly competition with the soviets because there is no good alternative The tougher we get the tougher the soviets will get and not just on the united states They would be more likely to crack down on europe too Truman is infuriated and res Wallace fro the cabinet Britian will no longer support the right wing a government like Mousilinis ghting leftwing insurgence government in Greece Truman uses this as an occasion in 1947 to make a speech before congress The Truman doctrine speech proposes a major aid package of 400 million dollars to Greece and turkey and also gives a view of the whole world situation from an anti soviet perspective Armed men led by communists threatened the existence for the greek state so American aid was essential Truman wants to make this big public point Greece seems to be the nal top evidence that the soviets are expansionists everywhere At the present moment in world history every place must chose between alternate ways of life communism vs democracy amp capitalism Dean Atches sees the world as a barrel of rotten apples rotten being communist One rotten appe will effect all of the other apples Debate over how much Truman even believed his own rhetoric He did believe that the US and the soviets were engaged in a Cold War There was a real true con ict between alternate ways of life but Truman exaggerated the immediacy of the situation in Greece and the degree to which Stalin was helping the greek rebels not at all In ammatory rhetoric for various reasons 400 million dollars was a lot of and extreme rhetoric was necessary to get approval from congress fear was neceary Domestic poitica angles too For domestic political purposes Truman must seem very strong on anti communism warding off republican charges There are long term costs to this because Truman ceary exaggerates the situation to the Americans and the Americans believe it Truman would like exibility but due to his rhetoric this is dif cult Marshall Plan sec of state George Marshall speaks in 1947 not as anti communist as the Truman doctrine provides considerable help to western europe 13 billion dollars in aid Stunningly generous Based off of American ideals and interests It is a combination of grants and loans that must be paid back IT is not a simple giveaway there are many strings attached This aid cannot be spent on Argentinian wheat for example must be American wheat Wanted to counter act communist attempts in western europe which had many communist votors 0 They wanted to unify europe and provide long term stablility for american interests 0 It is a wise plan the greatest american plan after WWII but it does show foresight into American Interests Marshall s speech was explicitly general and didn t exclude the soviet union 0 Dollar diplomacy American dipolomats expected the soviets to be uninterested There were too many strings attatched for the Soviet s to except this Luckily for US policy makers the Soviet s didn t play along 19471948 the Truman administration continued to spread fear J edgar hoover spreads message even more The winter spring of 1948 the soviets respond to the marshall plan by cracking down hard in Eastern Europe Poland and Hungary become full scale satellites There is a communist coop in Czechoslovakia and the assassination of Mazerich Czechoslovakia becomes a soviet satellite The soviets start to remove industrial material from the zones they occupy but the US doesn t bother The US tried to unify the 3 western zones Us zone French zone and british zone 0 Step one they need a uni ed currency 0 The soviets respond with the berlin blockade Perhaps we can push them out The Us and its allies respond with the berlin airlift which provides substantial assistance to the non communist berliners The airlift is very dramatic and is an extraordinary achievement One pilot thinks of the poor children in berlin They make parachutes with Hershey bars for children who Stalin wouldn t give sweets The lines in Europe are clearly drawn at this point In China the great China Market American desire to uplift the chinese and make them like Americans This gets cata ed during the McKinley administration during the open door notes China isn t an orderly stable country It begins a revolution that continues and continues and continues The noncommunist nationalists come as close to controlling the country as had been the case in centuries He continues to contend with communists The American s in the 30 s were not The US political goal is to get scheck to work with the Americans How seriously did FDR really think China could be one of the sheriffs of the post war world Hard to say During the course of WWII in Asia the US is trying to get the Chinese nationalists and communists to play nice so that they will ght the Japanese The Americans on the scene in china dealing with chung hai shecks government detest him Constant clashes with sheck who won t ght the Japanese enough In general chung shai shecks goal wasn t to ght the Japanese it was to hold his forces together Roosevelt sticks with chung hai sheck He promises that china will get back terrority taken by Japan Pa rtick Hea rly At the Yalta conference FDR sticks with sheck urging stain to sign a treaty with shecks regime of friendship Forget about the Chinese communists It is apparent that stain has his own mixed feelings about everything Boy it would be nice if a giant great big country could become communist IT would be even nicer than getting a hunk or turkey or iran According to stain though Mao Tung isn t really going to win and might not be a real communist so they will sign the treaty with Chung Sheck to make the americans happy while also helping Mao and see how it works out Hearly resigns saying that the junior dipolomats are soft on the chihnese communists We need a complete and total support for Chung hai sheck because ti looks like a civil war is about to roll through china Truman s initial tactic is to send Marshall his favorite person in the world to china to try to mediate the two sides If this had worked it would not have been ideal from the American point of view but it would ve been a lot better Chung hai sheck and Mao had known eachother for a long time and had a lot of bad blood It s impossible to strike a deal In 1947 Truman calls Marshall home and Truman is reconciled to a communist triumph in China Lot s of people are not reconciled in China Henry Loose son of missionaries is a big fan of Chung hai Sheck Truman wants to put china on the back burner What does Chung hai sheck do with the aid He looses battle after battle after battle The rst issue is civil rights the only area in which the early cold war was good for the US The american image abroad became increasingly important so the idea that the US could hold onto segregation was a huge embarrassment There was still a continuation of blacks migrating to the north to vote Truman faces an issue of civil rights that just will not go away In 1946 he appoints a committee to investigate the presidents committee on civil rights the only presidential investigating committee to every lead to anything signi cant To secure these rights with concrete recs 0 More civil rights lawyers Pass voting rights act 0 Permanent fair employment practices committee 0 Make lynching a federal crime 0 Tie federal grants to non discrimination provisions 0 Legislation making it illegal to discredited in public places Desegregate the armed forces 0 Home rule for the district of Columbia 0 More civil rights lawyers Truman presents some of the more moderate provisions to the 80th congress That legislation gets nowhere Truman issues an order desegregating the armed forces The 2nCI issue to become major is labor policy 0 Greatest wave of strikes in American history post war 0 Workers want to catch up on lost wages There is substantial support for some legislation curbing the power of unions The 80th congress passes over Truman s veto the TaftHardly act of 1947 The basic labor law was still the Wagner law from the 1930 s this new law puts restrictions on it quotRight to Work Lawquot even if the majority wants to join the union not everybody is obligated to October 29 2013 Fear of communism stirred up by Truman to gain brief political advantage 1948 campaign Truman decides to isolate Wallace as a tool and dupe of the communists In times of crisis American citizens tend to back up the President Most ibera democrats were weary of Wallace he seemed too willing to work with communists at home and too soft on communists abroad The democrats weren t too enthusiastic about Truman either They would have preferred Dwight Eisenhower The democrats are split There is Truman Wallace to his left and Thurman to his right The republicans nominate Dewey of NYC He is more moderate liberate than most They want to push the argument that the Democratic Party is infested with communists Dewey does his best since he s ahead in all of the polls to say as little as possible He says that the future lies ahead of us Truman the vital center Wallace s reputation collapses because he will not repudiate the support of the communist party out of dfear that this will lead to more fear overexcitement about the communist issue He also fought for civil rights By the end of the campaign most supporters go back to Truman With Wallace s progressive ticket defeat the basic premises of the cold war would be out of the political mainstream for about 20 years 19481950 various turns in cold war strategies NATO established in 1950 Midlevel officials put forward a document for a drastically expanded military budget with the hopes of spending the Soviets into collapse Skeptical until the Korean war Truman s tactic of stirring up communism back res and is used against him Almost none of his proposals to expand the welfare state pass through congress The Loss of China there is an enormous civil war in China between Zao s communists and Sheck s Truman tries to back away from the China Civil war but there is pressure by republicans and conservative democrats Why wont the US aid china HaiSheck had gotten lots of aid in the past but uses aid poorly during the Civil War he isn t much of a military leader Beijing falls in 1949 Mao declares the existence of the peoples republic of china Chung hai sheck ees to the island of Taiwan and says this is the real republic of china To the distress of US supporters of Chung hai sheck the US administration plans on doing nothing to defend Sheck if people invaded the Chinese straits The US does not recognize the communist party in china Could the US have established tolerable relations with the communists in china back in 1949 The basic objectives of the Chinese were harmful to the Soviet Union which would be bad in the future Mao was working on an alliance with Stalin Despite cultural differences and mutual suspicions they agree to a treaty Alger Hiss Richard Nixon and others charge Hiss as a communist ln dec 1948 chambers brings forward proof that Hiss was not only a communist but a spy quotpumpkin papersquot He was subject to an indictment for perjury Conviction of espionage Basically 2nCI level new dealer declared a soviet spy Soviet Union drops its rst bomb Truman by early 1980 is deeply deeply deeply embattled There is a strong nostalgia for the 1950 s All nostalgia buffs think of the 50 s as the gold old days an innocent time of happy days More serious social critics put this image aside but are more likely to say that nothing serious happened during that time Radicals emphasize silliness and inertia The 50 s as a moral disaster and an amusing waste of time William O neil quotAmerican Highquot stating that aside from racial bigotry and the nuclear arms race the 50 s were the best time The social cultural 50 s is the whole cold war era starting from roughly 1947 1948 when the cold war consensus solidi es ends in about 1966 As with the 20 s social conformity where it existed didn t mean satisfaction or drooling contemptment There was a great deal of fear and insecurity Those who think of the 50 s as happy days might pause to consider that there was a major bloody war in Korea that the US was involved in the forgotten war Korea There are soviet troops pouring into Manchuria The US asks the soviets to temporarily divide the peninsula Presumably there would at some point be free elections uniting the whole peninsula Rather two separate regimes are established In the North under sung and in the South under Sigmund Ree Each guy thinks he should lead the people of Korea They both think they re wanted as the leaders There are a lot of military clashes The American military doesn t want the US involved Truman thinks by 19481949 that the situation is stable enough to withdraw troops from the South Secretary of state dean Acheson says that south krorea is outside the US defense perimeter The Philippines are in but South Korea is out Meant to discourage Sigmund ree If you really think South Korea is within your defense perimeter you don t say you aren t going to defend it You can invade the south The north Korean forces are going to launch a full invasion in june 1950 Truman decides instantly to oppose this The UN Security Council at the american request with the soviets absent for unknown reasons says that the UN opposes the invasion and calls on South Korea to withdraw Truman thinks South Korea can be defended only with US air support Truman thinks the US is being tested by monolithic international communism The administrations goals are unclear and con icting The Truman administration ultimately blames Moscow The US doesn t want to have a war with the soviets It s a war between their proxies What will winning mean General McAuthor in charge of US forces Once we counter attack why stop at the 38th parallel The Korean war signifcgantly altered foreign policy The US decides at this point to interevene in the chinese civil war If the chinese communists are going to invade Taiwan they have to go through the american eet The US increases it s aid to the French There is a proposal for massive military budget increases US reaches the 38th parallel on October 1 1950 They don t stop THIS IS NOTJUST A NUTI39Y DECISION OF GENERAL MCARTHUR This decision is agreed to by Truman american military leaders and the UN security council The US and the UN forces start moving north towards the main border with communist china the yalu river The chinese are pissed They start to build up tons of troops They send copious messages to the US Your troop should not come through our border The Truman administration disregards this and says don t worry Truman hears what he wants we can unify Korea by force On October 26 the Chinese attack the American troops into North Korea The chinese invade and do damage to the US Un forces then break off the attack on Novemeber 7 Unfortunately the US infers that the Chinese attacked a little bit and then retreated so the US can keep invading Really the Chinese wanted to get the message across to STOP invading The chinese get madder now and on November 27 they send 200 troops into combat in Korea This time they aren t retreating Through November the hcinese and the north Korean allies pushed the US south korea and UN troops DOWN DOWN DOWN the peninsula to the middle of south korea General McAuthor issues statements about escalating the war and bombing bases in Manchuria and blockading communist forces in china In April 1951 Truman feels that he must replace McAuthru for insubordination Aprill 11 generals should not go around contradicting the president in public particular during wartime Matthew Ridgeway takes over Mcarthur s place This leads to the assumption that the decision to go further than the 28th parallel wasn t just McAuther s This is NOT the case Getting into a full edged war with China in china would be a terrible idea Marshall Truman and other officials don t want anybody to see that it was their decision to go past the 28th parallel The war settles into a stalemate The national mood gets sour We re ghting this war with lots of consequences and no victories Truman has other problems Truman is really embattled It s in this context that we can understand the election of Eisenhower Only a republican administration would have the chance to think anew and act anew This is another one of those political campaigns in 1932 that is worth more detail than most Robert Taft a complex conservative who favored some appropriations for hospital building and public houses Qualms of international intervention abroad He goes along with it but doesn t like it The eastern republican party is lead by Dewey of NYC and Lodge of Massachusetts They decide the only way to stop taft from getting the republican nomination is to draw Eisenhower in Richard Nixon Out and out segregationist John Sparkman of Alabama Eisenhower stands above the battle on the Republican side Not the typical republican Only a republican disaster could cause Eisenhower the election In September 1952 the NY post respectable liberal newspaper reported that Nixon had received donations from 76 wealthy business coming up to about 18000 dollars There is pressure for Nixon to leave the ticket Eisenhower just stands aside for awhile Nixon decides to present his case on television on September 23 1952 relationships between Nixon and Eisenhower are strained by this time Eisenhower won t issue a statement saying that Nixon is honest Nixon lays into Eisenhower on public TV In his speech he attempts to make himself a positive asset record amount of views His speech is a masterpiece His nancial records had been looked over and announced clean The chairman of the committee said he shouldn t have run if he didn t have the money Almost all of the response is pronixon Eisenhower is deliberately cultivated grandfatherly look gave people a mistaken sense that he wasn t in control WRONG clich lke was a comporomisr but not a waivorer Once he made his decision he was very rm Among historians his reputation has been coming back since the 19605 Eisenhower accepted an instituationalized new deal Liberals still nd Eisenhower inadequate because he s too enthusiastic about budgets and doesn t really want to expant the welfare state Sluggish about civil rights lke thought of himself as a conservative His greatest domestic failure is in civil rights Congress in 1957 passed the rst civil rights act since reconstruction establishing an independent civil rights mission to invredstigaget violations of civil rights in the south including the denial of the right to vote The of lawyers in the civil rights department is demanding The commission will investigate these issues and the justice department will prosecute As is so often the case it matters less what the law says than how and whether its enforced In this instance there is really no enforcement In his public statements regarding civil rights Eisenhower says over and over again that you can t change what s in the hearts and minds of men just by passing laws When the supreme court decision comes down lke will obey the law In the District of Columbia desegregation precedes and Ike pushes the enforcement even though he disagrees with the enforcement striking down separate but equal In foreign policy running in 1952 Eisenhower had run as both a hawk and dove He supported intervention in Korea claiming that he would go there and could end the war But he also declared that eh would go beyond this democratic policy of containing communism and that not very effectively and move towards liberation liberating the countires that have fallen under communist control Secretary of State foster dullace Wilson Robert Lancing l leader on foreign policy In 1952 Dullace is the point man pushing for a point of liberation The United States had to move off of the treadmill policy The electrifying idea that we favored the revolution How to liberate eastern europe The US would retain the right to retaliate instantly if there ever was a major communist advance In January 1954 Dullace calls this massive retaliation We retain the right to respond to any communist probe Ike and dullace made it clear that they would not accept a stalemate The real key to the settlement of the KORean war though was the death of Stalin Ike manages to accept a truce in Korea essentially along the borderline of the 28th parallel Truman said he would have been cruci ed for accepting such a deal The soviets called peaceful coexistence The soviets decided whatever happened they would never have another stalin again Diplomacy not arms Austria Spirit of Genova February 1956 the communist party of the Soviet Union Krustev announces stalins crimes Communist but not repressive regimes American radio urges the Hungarians to rise up October 31 2013 History Notes The US organized and supported rebels who overthrew the president of Guatemala Marxist Castro not yet communist comes to power in January of 1959 In Iran in 1953 is headed by neutralist prime minister in competition with the shah Mosidek came to power to nationalize the holdings of oil in iran which lranians weren t getting a fair share of The bristish US work to overthrow Mosidek lranian revolutionaries seize the american embarssy in 1959 and hostage situation lasts over a year After the Hungarian revolt is crushed by the soviets the attempt at coexistion temporarily fades With the death of dullace in 1959 another attempt at peaceful coexistence with the SU is made The soviets have made many technological advancements the US had assumed were impossible They had made the H bomb The Unites States could have launched rst except for some bad decisions made by Eisenhower There was fear that the Soviets could make nuclear weapons now Eisenhower knows that despite these satellites what democrats are calling the missle gaps the US falling behind in missle weapons the US is far far far ahead of the Soviets We know this because the US had been sending spy plans called the U2 over the Soviet Union By 1959 there are real signs of a split between the Soviet Union and China Despite these successes the Soviet Union has a lot of old fears especially regarding the re arming of Germany There is considerable fear that west Germany might get its only nuclear weapons West Berlin is miles into east Germany but is more or less part of free west Germany Krustev wants to settle Speci cally he demands the withdraw of the british and French troops in Berlin and calls for neutralization and calls for Eisenhower s help Eisenhower responds that they can talk and if progress is made then Krustev can visit the United States Krustev initially responds that he s coming He visits September 19 1959 Among the ups and downs o The spirit of Camp David relations would continue to improve Particularly at a summit conference schedules for May of 1960 In Paris There are still spy planes ying over the SU The soviets are trying to shoot these U2 s down On the eve of the Paris summit conference a last ight is authorized by Eisenhower own by Gary Powers and it is shot down Eisenhower is being criticized for not knowing what was going on in his government so he admits to having authorized the planes The spirit of camp David is gone and replaced by the anger of the cancelled conference in 1960 Ambiguity marks the entire cold war era socialcultural sixties It is a prosperous time but there is no economic distribution Real poverty is at about 20 What was considered high unemployment was now considered a fabulous economic recovery New American Celebration all problems are either solved or on their way to solution There will be no further con ict of any signifgant level class or generational There was no need for basic critiques of problems in society There is no interest in economic redistribution but rather a sense of ne tuning the economy You can with a little tinkering have both high employment low in ation and everybody will rise bit by bit Americans have a consensus on basic values There have been outsiders but they ve only been weirdoes like the populists A lot of this is misguided There weren t much politics to the left of or to the right of Eisenhower but there were some On the left it grows a little more after the fall of McCarthy There was serious social criticism of you wanted to read it Society should adapt to the needs of the young Theological Protestant Juvinal Delinquincyl crime rates of the 1950 s were low and have not been at this level since In 1952 86000 juveniles were arrested There was a push in high schools to improve education to beat the Russians NOT all bad Money is poured into the public schools but the attitude used to push it had a downside Education was often de ned too narrowly and was only presented as good if it was to beat the Russians The number of active left wing students on campus was about 15000 so you couldn t assume there would always be rebels For African Americans the cold war era is a time of neither smugness or placidity Spurt of Activism In the south after the war there is a new generation of relatively liberal senators They are open to compromise on racial equality There are not out and out racists After the supreme court decision for Brown vs Brown racial tensions in the south worsen They want racial equality and they want it soon Much of the promising federal assistance came from the courts not the executive or congress The doctrine of separate but equal is bit by bit by bit eroded through the 40 s Equality is the law of the land but the supreme court doesn t demand immediate equality everywhere It doesn t demand integration of schools immediately The prinicipal is established but the specifics have to be fought over in the courts and out of the courts lf Eisenhower had pushed maybe the white south would ve agreed to a more orderly compliance But what actually happens is there is growing white militancy A group called the white citizens council is organized in missisippi in 95 sometimes called the country plan In the state of Virginia the boss of the democratic party organizes what he calls massive resistance to desegregation Violence kept a woman out of the University of Alamama and Eisenhower says and does nothing As the mood of the country loosens up after the century of McCarthy the white south grows more repressive and rigid AS the mood lightens up Montgomery Bus Boycott starts in 1955 December 2 1955 Rosa parks will not move She was certainly not the rst black person or black woman to resist but she was absolutely respectable and made an ideal case The local womens council had been looking for a test case for some time Under the leadership of African American women Leader Nixon the Montgomery improvement association if created leading a boycott of the busses until they re integrated MLKjr is chosen to head the Montgomery Improvement Association He was a great speaker from a prominent family and he was new to town That meant if he totally failed and had to leave it would sting less than if somebody who had lived in the town forever was forced out He began working his way towards a philosophy and process of passive resistance The bus boycott began and was 90 effective Demands were courteous There was rst come rst serve seating Blacks would not have to get up and move to the back for white people However whites are not conciliatory Mayor Gale sees a domino theory If you let African Americans win this one they ll want another victory then another then another and then full equality The line must be drawn they felt As the association organizes the boycott carpools walking etc white gets angrier and angrier Mayor Gale himself joins the white city council which is growing Police harassment of African American carpools is growing In 1956 King s house is bombed Desegregation is going to the courts In November 1956 the Supreme Court nally says YES segregated busses in Montgomery Alabama are illegal Communists could be everywhere Domestic fears of communism are stirred up Truman lost control of the issue Hiss was found guilty Countries spy on eachother their friends and enemies House Committee on Un American Activies Main purpose was to enforce a national anti communist orthodoxy that would spread to non communist liberals as well 0 Their favorite topics were education and the movie industry In the 1950 s chronologically speaking there are some critics on the committee There is an immediate campaign to discredit Max Lowenthal a friend of Trumans who publishes a book criticizing HUAC The HUAC tried to supbine Truman to nd out why his administration had been lled with communists The man who made the most of this in terms of national bang was Joseph McCarthy why what we re talking about can be called quotMcCarthismquot in addition to 2nCI red scare In terms of stirring up passions McCarthy was brilliant This term was invented by the Herbblock a cartoonist MCarthy was born in 1910 in Wisconsin and ultimately goes to law school In the 1930 s he s a democrat but switches parties and in the late 1930 s is elected judge Even in his youth he was a shrewd polition Said he was enlisting in the marines but he wasn t He spends most of his time in the paci c The LaFolettes had their own political party the progressive pary Robert Lafolette junior was a pro labor senator in Wisconsin In 1946 their party is falling aparat so he doesninto republican party where he had always been hated LaFoIette runs against McCarthy Within two years McCarthy is voted by the Washington Press Core is as the worst judge in history Reputation is falling McCarthy starts to worry about getting reelected and picks communism as the primary issue of his campaign He claims there are communists in the state department McCarthy is an irresponsible menace At rst the republicans are a little bit embarrassed by McCArthy for being an irresponsible drunk In 1950 there are investigations as to whetehr McCarthy s claims are true Millard Hylings heads the investigations In 1952 McCarthy is a hot republican commodity He gets a national TV audience which was rare in those days He attacks Adalay Stevenson McCarthy in 1953 becomes head of government operations committee minor but makes the most of it History Notes November 5 2013 After the republican victory in 1952 Mcarthy became chairman of the government operations committee He thought he had access to secret les Fear of attacks by McCarthy had a direct impact on policies The Truman administration did not even consider recognizing red china In 1954 MCarthy s actions produce the McCarthy hearings McCarthy said the US army was lled with communists Republicans decide McCarthy is a liability McCArthy is in the broad sense Culture Wars the school board in fairlorn had a member that wanted to remove catcher in the Rye from the library for using the word fuck Similarly school newspapers were cracking down Refused to circulate an issue which used the word womb In 1961 a movie made by the house committee on american activities usually congressional committees do not make movies but HUAC made this movie in it s defense as it was being criticized more widely The movie investigated communist activities in California which led to a riot in may 1959 outside city hall Democrats changed against committee and the police had to come cobber the demonstators The message of the movie is that communists and their dupes are mobilizing young people to attack the house on american committees Operation abolition Events were taken out of context Not only liberal newspapers like the NYT and the post denounced the lm as a fraud Or forgery by lm The HUAC made lm had wide popularity in conservative circles The high school student council issued a statement defending student oyaty Jeff Brown issues a clari cation There were never communists at the high school they were simply unAmerican Edgar Moss tries to defend the students and died on the spot of a heart aattack This does not end the red scare There was mourning for him but there were more calls for charges and investigations of the school board The charges that they were unimerican were very imsy Eugine Zes and fred crauder were the advisors of the council They must be subversive Fred binder taught compartiive government One student said he sounded like a communist which was enough to get him investigated Students who wouldn t salute the ag were also questioned The issue that bounced around for over a year the school board had hired somebody to teach Russian Teaching Russian was supposed to get him marked as a communist Bernie Kaplan was saluditorian gives a talk on the right to descent 13 of the audience refused to applaud him What happened to the protagonists Something was bubbling Fred Krauder once accused later leads a teacher strike Young peple can change a lot in just a couple of years History can happen to you no matter how young you are and since history can happen to you think about how you re treating others No matter if your twenty something orjust a teenager The extent to which in 1960 a catholic could be elected president was an issue The catholic issue rising because of RISING acrimony between protestants and catholics There was growing christain tolerance for jews and issues of race relations Catholics and protestants were often at odds Catholic leaders thought their long standing patriotism and rm anti communism was never adequately appreciated by protestandts Protestants also always looked a Joe McCarthy and thought he was a bully and a distinctive irish catholic bully One could argue that there is no religious issue but it s not really true Nobobody publically talks about abortion or gay rights at the time Keneddy says he won t support cathoilic aid to schools or do other stuff Once he says this he can get away with saying a candidates religious belief is his business alone He barely got away with saying this The cold war comes into play Anti Cahtolic bigotry in the US affects our image abroad in the negative The west german chancellor holding the line against the soviets in berlin is himself a catholic Kennedy shows courage in assailing the press uring them to move past religion and onto more serious issues He leaves the subtle subtle message that voting for a candidate because of his religion is a sign of tolerance Voting for me is a sign of tolerance Kennedy s nomination is followed by Nixon s ln 4 debates on tv there are tactical differences between the candidates Kennedy says the US shouldn t defend 2 islands off of china held by Sheck Nixon thinks this is soft Kennedy urges assistance to anti castro rebels in Cuba essentially saying he wants an invasion Nixon knows there are already plans of an invasion so he gives an intelgient argument as to why the US shouldn t invade cuba because he doesn t want to blow the cover Nixon doesn t believe what he s saying Kennedy argues tht the US is falling ehind the soviets in the missle gap missle power This is a symbol of the US being to soft during the cold war under Eisenhower Kennedy got 70 of the supposedly nonexistant catholic vote But his religion was predicted to cost him 2 million votes He was narrowly elected Dealing with black white relations was tricky There were sitins in the south to integrate lunch counters restaurants etc there are rising civil rights issues that kennedy would like to go away so he can hang on to white southern votors There were signs that many of the white southern votors were toying with becoming republicans Nixon wanted to win these wavering democrats but also wanted to hang onto a substantial share of the AA vote which Eisenhower had gotten 13 of in 1966 including vote of MLKjunior Nixon screws up His running mate says if you elect Nixon and Lodge there will be a black in the cabinet and Nixon says he will make no promises except to elect the best people MLK is arrested and Kennedy calls MRs King expressing his sympathy Nixon asked about the king arrest simply says no comment A hunk of the wavering black vote becomes solidly democratic Nixon narrowly loses and believes this is because of the unemployment rate of 6 high at the time There is a triumph in policy of kansian economics Which is complex but the key provision is that sometimes it s a good idea to run an unbalanced budget esp when the economy is sluggish in recession Kennedy takes this position in a major speech at yale in 1962 Free trade democracy Maybe everybody is better off The trade expansion act of 1962 authorizing the president to lower tar fs reciprocally with other countries lowering tariffs too promiting trade and democracy The prevailing view is that more people are better off than not Kennedy s greatest failure is in civil rights lT s hard to tell how much better the administration could have been but it could have been somewhat better In may of 1961 the freedom rides begin Busrides from the DOC down to Alabama Mississippi and hopefully new Orleans are intercepted Riders are beaten The interstate commerce commission nally enforced desegregation of bus terminals According to the Brown vs Board decision every segregation issue had to be fought case by case In 1962 James MErideth an AA marine vet receives a bene t of court order the right to integrate the University of Mississippi There are riots leaving 3 killed and 200 some wounded Southern whites had resorted to violence instead of allowing the integration The president sends in federal troops to enforce the law He does so reluctantly In 1962 the president brings in a guard to the university of Alabama MLKjunior begins a major effort to integrate aspects of Birmingham Alabama This is the spring of 1963 He s trying to push the kennedy admin beyond tokenism King if committed to using nonviolent resistance He knows he faces a violent foe A church is bombed by white racists killing 4 girls This is VERY brutal white resistance It is in this context that King writes his brilliant letter from Birmingham jail exercising his theory of nonvioelnce He is a very interesting young thinker After all of this Kennedy in june 1963 decides to make a civil rights bill a top legistalive priority This would be legislation guaranteeing equal access to public accomidations Because brown leads the issue case by case you do need executive decisions Even though the president makes this legislation a priority he is still reluctant about the fourth civil rights march on Washington in march of 63 Kennedy will only meet with the leaders of the march after it is over and peaceful and quiet The civil rights bill was lingering for congressional approval when Kennedy was shot The administration is not simply the work of a president The kennedy administration tapped the phone of MLK and bugged his hotel room The FBI does what it can to hinder the civil rights movement In foreign policy Kennedy was a cold warrior though not as volatile as he sounded in the campaign Signs of more thought are apparent even in his inaugural speech in 61 reffering to the soviets as adversaries not enemies He becomes more conciliatory about the coviets by the end of the cold war because the US world because as close as it ever would to being blown up Kennedy was willing to be prudent but he and his whole administration had an obsession with Castro controlling Cuba The alliance for progress in Latin America emphasized that small amounts of small american economic aid would cause selfsustaining growth in Latin America yielding prosperity and breaking the cycle of democracy and military coup and dictatorship Kennedy wrongly believes there is no substantial support for castro in cuba This is just wishful thinkingon his part He thinks cuba has been seized by external communists Castro was a communist by 1961 but also was a Cuban and had wide national support Aside from this misjudgement kennedy accepts a CIA invasion plan 1400 cuban exiles barely trained by the US would invade Ther would be a parallel mission to kill Castro American Aid would go in maybe even direct military aid Kennedy consulted about that plan There were a number of skeptics but nobody ever quite said mr president are you out of your mind People don t say that to presidents It s fairly common knowledge that the americans are planning an invasion on cuba Kennedy tries his hardest to keep this contained and away from news press April 17 1961 1400 cuban exiles land at the bay of pigs one of castro s favorite places in all of cuba Everything went wrong Bombing raids beforehand by american CIA types The invaders are quickly surrounded and killed or captured within 3 days Some have suggestesd that if the US had provided better air cover things could ve turned out differently But the real issue was that the Cuban people supported castro A perennial question is how much did Kennedy reassess his cold war premises after the bay of pigs Professor says he did so only in a tactile sense He must bever be humiliated again But he is also more skeptical of military and CIA advice he ggets Kennedy proposes the most massive ilitary build up of both missiles and conventional forces 100000 extra troops are drafted By 1963 the US had more than 3000 strategic nukes which each could take out an entire city They had ballistic missiles and more than 1400 bombers to deliver the rest of the nukes The soviets were behind They had only 250 strategic nukes and only 200 bombers They were behind but each side had enough to obliterate the other several times Berlin was still a festering point of tension as the military build up continues lt become a site of complaint for the US and coviets Kennedy and Krustev decide to meet in Vienna They have nothing speci c to chat about but Kennedy wants to check out Krustev and doesn t wanna seem like a wimp for not meeting him They talk past eachother Krustev renews his threat that the US will lose its acess to Berlin and that the city must be absolutely neutral Krustev is his suuall bullying self Eisenhower let it roll of his back but Kennedy is shaken he didn t like being treated like a little boy my krustev He tries to say he has no issue with neutral governments or neutral communist regimes lT s communist expansion in the 3rd world that s an issue Kennedy says America is being tested and Berlin is a great place for this Apocolyptic rhetoric increases on both sides Berlin calms down a bit In September 1961 the tow sides decide totalk about the fate of the city One reason things calm down is the berlin wall great symbol is the cold war Before the creation of the Berlin Wall Berlin was really unique It was the only place where you could go from one type of communist regime to another wher you could walk or metro to another regime People are eeing east berlin and the wall is put up solidifying the situation By the end of 1961 Berlin is tense but stable All of the the rhetoric and the wall are on the side of both sides as the US and soviets move towards the missile crisis Relations with cuba had worsened Castro publically calls himself a lennonist Marxist In 1962 the US embargo on cuba begins Soviet aid to cuba grows in the summer of 1962 In the fall of 1962 Krustev wrecklessly secretly starts placing 42 medium ranged missiles in cuba The rst arrive October 4 and should be operational by the 25th and nukes will be put on the missiles These should be able to hit enarly every state in the US They also send in 42000 of their own troops not known at the time plus 160 tactical battle eld teensy nukes These tiny bombs could still obliterate a Irage area These could be used against any american battle eld invasion What was going through krustev s mind is not really known Krustev and Castro claim they did this to protect Cuba and correct the missile gap KRustev wants to impress the chinese communsits He isn t a wimp Krustev was obtuse and not understanding of what the american reaction to this would be Ther were some low ranking soviets who tried to warn him but he didn t listen It was not obvious to KRustev that the US would be VERY pissed the two sides clearly didn t know bmuch about eachother The US knows that stuff is going to cuba but they don t know exactly whwat One prevailing thought is that the missiles going in aren t meant to be aimed at the US but are aimed for air traf c The president and various advisors meet together and sometimes separeately for several weeks The executive committee of the security council ExCom It s just about anybody kennedy thinks will give good advice The ex com considered two alternatives an air strike blow the missile sites up or a blockade Within the administration only addlay stevensten thought the rst priority should be to talk to the soviets Only kennedy thought this could be a good idea They decide to quarrentine Cuba Kennedy announces this in a speech and extremely complicated dipolemacy follows On October 27 a U2 ight over cuba is shot down and the Us is moving towards the invasion alternative There were also two recent conlifcting soviet messages the rst telegram and the second telegram The rst telegram and second appeared in rapid asuccession The rst implied that the soviets would remove their missiles from cuba is the US promised not to invade The second message said a trade if you take your weapons out of cuba we ll America take ours out the the NATO bases in turkey Kennedy recognized privately that the trade would seem reasonable to most people in the world who didn t want the northern hemispehere fried to a crisp Howeer saying so publically would be humiliating After negotiations an agreement is made The soviets will announce their withdrawal of their missiles from cuba without any talk of turkey No agree to a trade but privately down the line Kennedy agrees to take the missiles out of turkey The irony is that the cris brought two powers to the brink of war and potential end of life on earth but it also led both sides to say look what we almost did this is not a good idea Blowing up the world is a bad idea We don t want to be in that mess Moreover we don t want to sit around speculating theother person s next move The Hotline is established a telephone Instead of wondering what the other was thinking they will contact eachother and ask No more western union telegraphs Second Kennedy gives aconciliatory speech in June 1963 urging an end to the dangerous vicious cycle Kennedy is genuinely rethinking How much he is rethinking we ll address at Vietnam Guest Lecturer TA Labor Gender and Race in the US South related to the research she does Job in black woman work in the south in the 1920 s Before 1968 books dealing with women and work in the US barely existed By 1990 there are only 4 or 5 important books published about it but generally people remained uninterested Black women were the last to be hired and the rst to be red Turn of the 19th century cohersive labor systems rise white plantation owners are trying to keep their social caste system in place Life in the south was tough for black women and their families Black families were caught up in sharecropping Black men and women only had a limited ability to make management decisions about their farms Whites had more abilities they could seek textile mills jobs and could have more control over sharecropping Sharecropping a farmer allows somebody else to use their land in return for a share of the crops Different from tenant farming The tenant farmer receives some crop but rents the land and tools out Sharecroppers had to provide seed and fertilization that they got with a credit They often were in debt or barely broke even There was not a lot of autonomy for black famliies Sharecroppers did have the chance to leave their plantations if they had enough money Sharecroppers lived in primitive housing No glass windows or screens or amenities They lived in cabins They had no time to make extra money or make improvements to their homes Mothers generally began their days at 4am Labor was usually divided among gender lines Women used a hoe to tamp seeds into the grounds while men tilled the land Sometimes the women had to bring their children to work which was dangerous At other times they were left at home alone all day Around 11 am they would leave the field to make the biggest meal of the day using vegetables from the garden Sharecropping houses are typically very cluttered Women spent 12 hours in the elds per day and spend night time mending clothes and making soap Often women would pick berries or peanuts or sell eggs and butter to scrape together extra money Some women also became midwives or part time laundresses Laundresses allowed the women to stay at home with their children while making some money In 1915 black farm ownership increased which was partially in part to women being able to bring home extra money The life expectancy at the time for black men and women was 33 years If she exceeded this she would expect to see at least 3 of her children die before the age of 10 When sharecroppers moved into urban regions they did it gradually There is an in ux Of black women who earned money in cities 90 worked domestic jobs in homes or hotels The younger the black women particularly if she was single the more likely she is to work within a white household Single women had to accept the worst wages because they had no alternative Since they worked lived in these white households they worked 1216 hours per day and were practically always on call Child rearing is harder in cities Women who worked in hotels or households were allowed to bring their children to work However in cases where they couldn t bring their children to work they had to leave them alone or with a neighbor When working city jobs the women couldn t bring home food in the middle of the day for their children so they were often hungry If the woman worked in a white household she would get a quotService Panquot so she would get leftover clothes food to bring back to her family It was some measure of support but it was also used as a justi cation for paying women very low wages White mistresses can be incredibly cruel They referred to black women as nanny cook quotnursequot They thought the black women were lazy The black women were allowed holiday leave and would at times fake ill to partake in events within their own communities In the urban south there were some alternatives to black service domestic jobs Women could work in tobacco stemming rooms but the work was mundane hot and difficult They would peel dry and hang the leaves of tobacco plants They couldn t speak or converse so they sung WWl opens new opportunities and the northern migration begins The largest group was women working in the clothing or meatpacking industry They are at the lowest rungs of the workplace hierarchy Black women s participation in the labor workforce dropped during the great depression re ecting diminishing work opportunities Those who still were working had horrid wages In 1940 16 of black women working worked in agriculture which was down 11 from 1930 The New Deal Agricultural Act changes things too By 1940 the second great migration rams up and blacks start leaving the south Planters are farming less This is an important transformative period in the south In smaller numbers there were some people travelling up the eastern seaboard from job to job WW2 Middle class black women were able to enjoy slightly better conditions as nurses The National Association of Black Nurses Anderson writes about how the immediate job opportunities weren t as important as the migration in the long run Because of technological developments sharecropping collapses during the 19405 amp 505 The modern civil rights movement is also ramping up at this time Mississippi one of the most dangerous states during the civil rights movement 0 Emmitt Till a 14 eyar old black boy from the north who alledgedly irts with a white woman in a store Her uncle and half brother come to his house in the middle of the night take him torture him tie him up and throw him in the river 0 In 1964 there is also a movement to register blacks to vote Community centers are made to provide assistance to the local blacks The reaction is harsh and four civil rights workers are killed 3 mississippi blacks are killed for support 37 churches are bombed or burned along with many businesses Cat sh country 0 Easy to till for farmers A business built from the bottom up Vanguard industry and local based point of pride Cat sh taste bad and are ugly Farmers had to develop scienti c manufacturing measurements to make the cat sh taste better Then they had to convince people it was improved and tasted as good as other sh Cat sh group of America made pamphlets and marketed cat sh across the nation o The rst commercial pond was established in 1965 by Billy McKinny In 1974 the time table used to modify sh allows production all year round Rural South quotWell Fedquot organization Employees might wait for cat sh to arrive for 34 hours and are not compensated for this waiting time Working conditions are horrible quotthey hire you cripple you then re youquot Strike at Delta Pride This is the largest walkout organized by black workers in Mississippi It s one of the most signi cant civil rights movements of the decade When the union writes a contract its not for forever In 1986 two women realize conditions in the factory aren t going to change from a simple contract So in the middle of winter they begin trying to Physical humiliation is used to intimidate black women in the workplace They are followed into the bathrooms which often don t even have doors Delta offers to raise wages trying to make the union leave This is ultimately not good enough and the offer is not accepted On September 10 1990 negotiations at delta pride go on and on No agreement is going to be made Tensions mount Workers are only marching when they re most desperate for change They were being treated like dogs History Notes November 12 2013 Johnson as a tragic hero Johnson is NOT NOT seen as a populist in any meaningful sense His grandfather had been part of the people s party in texas and he picked up animosity towards the rich Should you beat them orjoin them Johnson will use them and make corrupt use of his of ce He came to congress as an administrative assistant to a member of the house in the early 1930 s He sucks up to prominent texas senators In 1935 as the New Deal is rolling Johnson only gets named head of the National Youth Administration for texas that provides work for students to keep them in high school college Young Lyndon was even helpful to African americans He was a southerner but had no visceral hatred Using the NYA as a base Jackson runs for congress in 1937 presenting himself as a prot g e of FDR FDR needed all the victories he could get at the time and embraced young Lyndon Johnson begins to become more conservative in the early 1940 s In 1948 he is elected democratic leader in the senate No more prominent democrats wanted the office at this time Johnson was a routine called warrior during his senate years In November 1963 Johnson began to preside over the only signi cant liberal reform Liberal is an apt term embraced by Roosevelt In 1964 Johnson proposes to build the quotGreat Societyquot expanding welfare beauty and the great life He wanted economic prosperity for all He expected his programs to work soooo well that his successors would be able to expand them The expansion of the welfare state is made possible by the defeat of Goldwater Johnson and Goldwater didn t like each other and decided not to talk about civil rights or Vietnam These were the two largest issues and the time and this did not serve the country well Johnson wins The quotGreat Societyquot was NOT NOT con ned to the war on poverty However most who bene ted from this were the white working class the middle class and even the af uent Johnson thought this was essential Even in an economic boom time Johnson understood that you could not provide bene ts to the poor You could not provide bene ts to the poor unless you could provide bene ts to everybody else with political clout For example medicare provided payment for most medical expenses for retirees No matter how rich whoever had payed into the system could get medicare There was also a lot of education aid a high priority ofJohnson s and this money goes to middle class school districts There is a national endowment for the arts and humanities and PBS These are not bad things but they are ALSO not bene tting the poor In 1964 Johnson declares unconditional war on poverty This part of the great society adds up to a skirmish on poverty They are means tested programs You have to be below the poverty lines to get these bene ts and the bene ts are typically less generous than those such as medicare which are for everybody Medicade a joint federal state program of medical bene ts for the poor Typically less generous than medicare Johnson expected medicade and other programs to be temporary Many of them included things like the Job core or rst start He thought that the economic boom would go on for ever With that assumption he assumed that those who got educated would be able to move up on the economic scale because there would be plenty ofjobs The war on society was a part of the Great Society the only major liberal reform phase since the New Deal However the limits need to be recognized Federal aid to the poor in 1966 was a means tested program you had to be poor to get it The federal budget for it reached 20000 There was strong opposition to the Great Society and particularly to the war on poverty Johnson understood that enthusiasm for him and his program was going to decline rapidly so he engages in the politics of haste Many of his programs were not well designed To create or expand a major federal program takes a long time Duh Johnson s hyperbole quotwere going to wipe out poverty really fastquot plus some poorly designed programs causes opposition to the Great Society Most importantly the war on poverty is especially vulnerable to conservative attacks because the war on poverty gest caught up on the politics of race Most below the poverty line were not African Americans but AA s were disproportionally poor and among the most visible Urban crime also disproportionally begins to rise in the late 1960 s Many whites including loyal democrats and liberals complain that bene ciaries among AA s don t seem grateful enough 1968 MLK jr assassinated Once the urban violence begins white support for the War on Poverty part of the Great Society begins to decline fast Republicans make major gains by the 1966 election Meanwhile the international mood is soured by the situation in Vietnam and international federal aid is cut Poverty reaches an all time low in the 1970 s This is in part to tax cuts and modi cations in social security and Medicare The whole conglomeration brings the American Rate of Poverty down substantially within a little less than a decade In civil rights Johnson grew to the grudging tolerance of AA s of his youth In 1964 Johnson pushes the civil rights bill that had been hanging when Kennedy was shot Civil Rights Act of 1964 Band discrimination in employment and public accommodations It also bans discrimination in terms of sex kind of an afterthought that becomes more prevalent later on Johnson after the passage of the legislation hoped to pause No more civil rights legislation until at least the spring of 1966 However there were already some in congress drawing up another civil rights act to give voting rights The pause is impossible due to uprising violence debate AA s are trying to vote in the south Violence erupts Woodward gives the statistics 1000 arrests 35 shot 30 buildings bombed 6 murdered In the spring of 1965 the Alabama demonstrations begin led by MLKjr Johnson decides to give military In this context of pressure Johnson decides to push civil rights legislation The civil rights act is passed a year earlier than he would have liked This new act means AA s in the south can now vote The of AA s registered to vote in the south doubles in the next 5 years changing the look of the southern electorate Even gures like George Wallace decide that segregation is less important than staying in of ce Democratic enforcement for AA s in the south causes large hunks of the south bit by bit to go from democratic to republican Johnson had feared this Johnson s foreign policy cold war attitudes Protests in panama in 1964 produced the rst foreign policy act ofJohnsons administration Panamanians wanted control of the canal Johnson is prudent He understands that this will be the choice You negotiate a new treaty or shoot a lot of Panamanians and they maybe sabotage the canal He starts ngotiations which are not popular throughout the US In 1978 they come to Johnson is not always conciliatory regarding Latin American He sends troops in 1965 to the DR to prevent a communist takeover Johnson expands trade with Poland Hungary and Czechoslovakia to try to bring them out of the soviet orbits There was much tensions btw soviet and American relations including events surrounding the 1967 Arab lsraeli war In the short run Johnson meets prime minister Kosygin during the spring of 1968 Not like Kennedy and Krustev in 1961 They take steps toward a nuclear non proliferation treaty Soviet American relations seem on the upturn again Within the soviet eastern block some countries once again want to be totally free and have a multiparty system The main country in point here in 1968 is Czechoslovakia However things reach a downturn shortly after In 1968 Richard Nixon is elected president nally as the latest new new Nixon Not that different from the democrats rather a moderate in the time of turmoil The country was racked with divisions of opinions over the war Among problems facing democrats the the media and the white backlash Governor George Wallace of alamaam runs in 1968 as a third party candidate Even liberals react in a backlash way Humphrey is the democratic nominee George Wallace is a third party candidate Nixon ran a very shroud campaign He tries to present himself as above the battle like lke in 1952 He convinced many that this time there was a new Nixon and he wins narrowly lt s sounder to see Nixon entering of ce going two ways The irresponsible old Nixon or towards sensible conservatism like his mentor Eisenhower In the campaign both tendencies were present He said he would manage by an unspeci ed plan to end the Vietnam war He advocates black capitalism work your way up with federal assistance But at the same time he gets southern votes too Nixon wins narrowly George Wallace an out and out racist although he tries to smooth it over gets 13 of the vote Nixon had presented himself as a moderate between Wallace and Humphrey As awas amply demonstrated within Nixon s rst year of of ce in 1969 he goes in both directions previously stated Professor believes he wasn t so bad except for Watergate within domestic policy but also not as good in foreign policy despite good relations being made in China Nixon was very intelligent and very complex Psychologically more so than FDR lke or Kennedy Nixon was not interested in domestic affairs Even less so than Kennedy He just wants to be kept out of trouble Nixon comes to power with strong democratic liberals in congress who will keep proposing expansion of the regulatory welfare state In general Nixon s policy for his rst term is quotif we cant stop legislation from passing ill sign it and take creditquot Welfare policy in the narrow sense technical distinction By welfare state a whole batch of federal programs growing from the New Deal are included Mortgage interest deduction etc are all included Aid to Families with Dependent Children a complicated system that was part of the social security created in the 1930 s Women without husbands can get federal bene ts Women without children can get state federal bene ts In the 1940 s this was extremely popular Widowed women could now have security and money Aid to families with dependent children and welfare in the narrow sense gets less and less and less popular through the 1960 s under president Clinton It gets less and less popular until its truly unpopular by the time Nixon becomes president because 1 The recipients are more likely by the late 1960 s to be Hispanic or AA than they are to be white 2 The recipients women getting this money for their children and themselves are much less likely to be widows than to be divorced or never married Women having sex without having ever been married was outrageous at the time People didn t want these women to be supported Under the advice of a democrat Patrick Moyniham Nixon proposes in 1969 the FAP family assistance plan to change welfare in this narrow sense It would not be restricted to women with dependent children but it would be a batch of substantial bene ts 0 An annual income that would include the working poor and intact families 0 Food stamps 0 Cash It would have been a great change in the war on poverty It is proposed by Nixon as a responsible conservative lT passes the house easily but looses in the senate First conservatives say the obvious this is going to cost a lot more than aid to families with dependent children It will establish a right to an annual income It also looses became liberal democrats on the nance senate don t think it s generous enough This conservative move is just a blip and before you know it we ll have a really liberal president and we ll be able to pass a much more generous version of this Family Assisstance Plan This day never comes Nixon does his best to dismantle some of the Great Society acts The Great Society was NOT con ned to the war on poverty Nixon keeps the parts of the great society programs and doesn t try to repeal those most favored by the white working class Social security retirement bene ts Nixon goes along with a rise in payments Nixon is also brie y too an advocate of environmentalism the agency set up during his administration By 1970 Nixon pronounces himself a Kainsian in economics faced with an inevitable federal de cit he pronounces it a good thing Rising in ation and rising unempoloyment are occurring at the same time In theory if you cut government spending and raise interest rates in ation will go down even if the cause of unemployment is going up Not the case There are escalating economc problems in the late 1960s705805 that nobody really understands You get unemployment and in ation at around 6 in 1969 and 1970 One of the things Nixon does is pronounce himself a kansian More remarkably Nixon who always said he detested federal wage and price control uses his authority in 1971 to impose wage and price control Going into the election years of 1972 in ation is coming down It s cut in half to 3 annually After the election controls are bit by bit lifted ln ation leaps up in 1973 to a little under 9 annually Complicated stuff Chronic economic problems that will persist through the 1970 s through mid 1980 s are rising quotStag ationquot The 1970 s were just as lousy The New Nixon is a exible conservative Ike like In 1970 Vice President is sent out on the campaign trail attacking radical liberals running on the ticket for house in senate Nixon is less than responsible in his appointments to the supreme court He choses Warren Berger a dedicated conservative who wants the court to be less liberal and more activist conservative Everybody nominated for justiceship on the Supreme Court needs to testify against the senate They will all say quotI m just going to interpret the constitution I m not going to do anything that makes lawquot This is obviously not true Adaption as well as interpretation will be needed but nobody can say this during testing hearings In the nal analysis of the Berger court it is not as conservative as Nixon had hoped Desegregation remained a contentious issue Nixon wanted almost no school desegregation Even the more conservative Nixon Surpreme Court nominees decide that segregation moves need to go on School districts must come forward with plans of how they re going to desegregate The political consequences from asking for school desegregation furthers the white backlash Nixon persues detant with the soviet union and nearly normal relations with the peoples republic of china There are important shifts in Nixon s thinking but his diplomacy in foreign thinking is well within the american pattern In particular there is no exibility towards left side movements Nixon was smart He admired Wilson and FDR He had the following vision of them which was wrong but standard Wilson the idealist FDR the realist Nixon wanted to bring Wilson s idealism FDR s toughness together Soon after taking office Nixon urges some settlement with the Soviet Union between east and west free and communist Germany to tamp down the issues Then Nixon offers to the world in 1969 the Nixon Doctrine relating to Asia The Us will provide a nuclear shield against any full edged military attack by a major communist power There is a big overall shield If china attacks Japan the US will defend China But there will not be another Vietnam Nixon concludes rightly that nuclear superiority over the soviets is no longer possible The US is having severe economic problems Nxon s 3 summit meetings with top dog in Soviet Union The Us and soviets sign all sorts of trade and arms limitation agreements The strategic arms limitation treaty 1 is signed Then there is china Nixon along with Ike had come to the understanding that China is very big it has a whole lot of people communism is not going to collapse So we really can t pretend forever that this guy on the Taiwan Island Chung HaiSheck is really going to go and take over china We must face reality If we can patch up some sort of decent agreement with them maybe we can play the Chinese against the soviets There are behind the scene negotiations and in early 1972 Nixon makes his famous trip to china There is a major economic aspect On the one hand there s an opportunity to expand American markets The Americans think that they can break into the China market and that it will x the economy Initially trade seems to prosper more with the soviets who in 1972 buy one fourth of the US wheat crop That is one side of the economic sword But on the other hand if we could integrate these two economic forces into the world maybe we could make them better Maybe they ll start to like consumer goods provided by capitalism and fearful chinese communists soviet leaders actually feared it could happen The notion that the US would have economic leverage is offered by cold war senators History Discussion Notes There are 4 ways in which we should approach what were learning about 1 at home the domestic economy 2 culture racegender 3 Con ict overseas WWI WWII the Vietnam War 4 Opinion about con ict overseas within America Presidents VPS in regards Roosevelt to Regan Key Phrases from lecture THE US WAS NEVER ISOLATIONIST They were not only concerned with themselves They always cared what was happening beyond borders The US was arguably noninterventionist at one point but they also were always involved overseas Overseas South Latin America Europe Italy France Britain Asia China Japan Russia Manifest Destiny the US had a god given right to expand its sphere of in uence especially towards nonwhite and Hispanic regions This is rooted in racial ideas Jingoism extreme nationalism and discrimination towards non Americans City Upon a Hill America was a quotcity upon a hillquot meaning it was on a pedestal for other countries to look up to The US needed to set an example which added to its pressures America approaches the world like quotwe are the parents and you are the children you need to listenquot McCarthy s Wheeling Speech second red scare 1950 WWII just ended He says there are communists in America They want to take over the US from within Takes over arts MLK letter from the Birmingham Jail outlines his philosophy Big movement in civil rights Movement pushing for greater equality justice and civil rights There are violent reactions JFK remarks april 21 1960 religion issue will he chose what s best for America despite his religion Nuclear bombs end WWII for America They have possessions of nuclear bombs and aren t afraid to use them GI bill education funds for troops coming home Women bene t from this bill but they themselves don t get access to it Also women who worked in these warjobs are kicked out to make room for men coming back from the war The women get worse jobs now African American s have access to the funds but colleges don t want to accept them There is EXTREME marginal integration There is a limited amount of African American colleges There was increased interest in familialcultural backgrounds There is major African American history expansion Home Construction the creation of suburbs Middle class and mostly white Not a city or a small town or a rural area Iron Curtain a dividing line between socialism and communism styles of government This boundary was tightly regulated and the quotcurtainquot border is hard to cross Culture is seeping into all political aspects of the cold war Iron Curtain had to be controlled by governments to control for communist in uences Review containment They wanted to contain communist in uences Truman Doctrine quotit s a commitment to support free people resisting outside pressuresquot aka could go communist How do we support them Marshall Plan dollar diplomacy What s the big deal with China during the cold war Marketing exports endpoints China as a major turning point Hispanics Asians Japanese camps women and the LGBTQ community were all a part of civil rights as well War Protests Korea rst time the US goes to war for the sake of containment Turning point because the US is willing to go to war McCarthyism HUAC anti communism at home Cultural backlash Subversive communism hunt Cold war fought in 3 ways visual culture Comic books visual cultural products at home and over seas armed proxy wars about con icts at home McCarthyism fear of communism Cuban Revolution Brown V Brown quotall deliberate speedquot Legally outlaws separate but equal but in actuality it doesn t do much MLK Little Rock 9 in little rock Arkansas attempted integration of a white high school There were 9 students chosen to be allowed to go to this school This became a national issue In terms of culture visual propaganda the way the US treated people of color was already an issue This makes it worse History Notes November 14 2013 There is a sense that the soviet union might be moving in a more free and capitalist direction because of it s economic vulnerability Jackson said trade with the soviets needed to depend on the soviet s willingness to increase emigration ofJews wanting to leave the Soviet Union Many people wanted to leave the Soviet Union butJews especially wanted to leave because they had Israel to escape to Linkage assumes that the soviets are in much greater control of the client s states Eastern Europe satellites than they are Overselling this is a common presidential trait Nobody says quotelect mequot I m going to bring a pretty good society it s the Great Society Hope and change and blah blah blah There were continued strains with the soviets but they were played down When the strains became apparent to the American public the people feel duped Foreign Policy did NOT provide accommodation to Marxist movements everywhere The United States played some role in the overthrow of the freely elected president Salvador in September 1973 There was a very brutal and murderous government following his election Watergate June 1972 7 men broke into the democratic national committee office in a hotel to tap into a phone The burglars had close ties with the White House Staff Nixon discussed clemency for them a pardon to keep their mouth shut euphemism for a bribe Nixon pays quothush moneyquot and urges his aids to keep quiet about the involvement These crimes are obstructions of justice Stonewalling not telling the truth If a real live crime is being investigated you have an obligation to tell the truth Smoking Gun Tape Nixon s tax dodges the White House Order breakin the leaking of papers widespread use of the CIA and FBI for tapping and bugging and harassing Nixon s opposes The Watergate breakins the repair bugging were probably ordered by former attorney general John Mitchell The burglars included anti Castro Cuban exiles who thought they were helping the cause of national security They thought they were nding out whether democrats were communicating the communists abroad The Key role despite legend is federal judge John Sirica who gave the burglars very harsh sentences with reductions if they talked and spilled their ties to the white house Sirica sentenced them to 3040 years in pdson The DOC was under anomalous government circumstances If the breakin had been somewhere else it would have been less of a big deal HR haldaman chief of staff and John Airlickmen domestic policy advisor are forced to leave office Spring summer 1973 there is a select committee to investigate Watergate Council Dean makes the most direct charge that Nixon obstructed justice and knew about the coverup During the course of witness preparation a mid level white house staffer is asked if there were any tapes of any of the conversations The staffer says there is a whole taping system Alexander But eld The tapes are now sought out Cox Archibald You can t just say quotwe want every record of every meetingquot to see if something turns up They have to make a speci c request meaning they have to nd out what meetings took place when In August 1973 VP pleads no contest in regards to tax fraud Agnou is forced to resign in order to not go to jail Nixon as new Vice President brings in Gerald Ford In October 1973 Cox is battling over tapes in the white house and Nixon orders him red He is replaced by Leon jaworsky jaworsky comes in and is convinced that Nixon is guilty Hoping to satisfy the legal requirements without revealing the degree of his obstruction of justice Nixon slowly starts to reveal some tapes It becomes evident that Nixon was NOT what he seemed to be By the summer of 1974 impeachment hearings for Nixon are in play The house votes impeachment and there is a trial before the senate with the chief justice presiding The judiciary committee jaworsky and Sirica start to seek more tapes ln july of 1974 the supreme court rules in a narrow unanimous decision that Nixon must turn over the most relevant tapes The president is allowed to keep some things con dentially but this privilege does NOT extend to evidence in a criminal case The judiciary committee votes for impeachment on various grounds There was a lot of dealing going on The democrats probably could have just done impeached him but they wanted support of conservative democrats and republicans to show that it isn t just a partisan act They try to woo the fragile coalition In August it is clear that there will be a trial in the senate Nixon will probably be convicted and impeached so he resigns in August 1974 Presidental abuses of the IRS FBI and later the CIA began on a large scale with FDR to get his opponents to aid the allies This continues under Kennedy Truman and johnson lt s standard stuff Hypocrisies were present Sam Ervinn of North Carolina defender of segregation Herman Tallmadge former governor of Georgia Both part of the committee Dropping the more serious of the charges impeaching Nixon for his abuses in foreign policy mostly involving Vietnam The precedent set is more ambiguous than you might think lndoChina Early in the 198 s you start to get nostalgia about the Vietnam war Many people are saying that the US could have and should have won the war The war could have been won my a quick escalation and declaration of war Echoes from the war are everywhere but nobody knows if it s based on real knowledge of the war General Kee and the inventor of the Barbie doll died in the same week and the Barbie doll inventor got a larger obituary Professor opposes the war He thinks the war was unthinkable by any effort that the American population would plausibly accept The US shouldn t have entered what was essentially a Vietnam civil war The US debatably made everything worse spreading the war to Cambodia and leading to millions of casualties 1940 France falls to the Nazis and japan takes advantage Vietnam Laos and Cambodia were French colonies Vietman a communist lead coalition Ultimately Truman decides at the Potsdam conference that the British and Chinese communist nationalists will disarm the Japanese in Indo China The Vietman want an independent Vietnam A civil war breaks out in Vietnam the biggest of the 3 colonies The Vietnamese sympathetic to sticking with France stick to that and the guy in charge Bal Dai There are analogous oppositions to the Vietman by 1949 By 19491950 all of this gets wrapped up in the worsening cold war between the US and the Soviet Union There is a two prong rationale Communism must be contained in China Also the French are really annoyed about West Germany being uni ed and arming Germany This is a way of paci ying the French In 1950 the outbreak of the Korean war makes Vietnam even more important to both sides of the cold war The US expands its aid and by the time Ike becomes president in 1953 the US is paying 34 of the war costs for the French Ike comes in with skepticism He wants a war against communism if you have to have a war there in indochina But he doesn t think a French war to hold on to those colonies will work Most of the Vietnamese will side with the rebels rather than regimes The French are revving up and getting optimistic they have a new General Nevar and they are going to win Before his plans are implemented 10000 troops are surrounded They have underestimated the strength of the Vietmen The French are so trapped that they can only get supplies through the air Contingency plans are drawn up for interventions Nixon is sent out to test the waters seeing what congressional leaders think There is a lot of public private discussion Ike believes there are reasons to intervene including resources in Vietnam that are valuable and the possible spread of communism There were reasons to intervene too though There was world opinion to consider How would it look to the world that the US is bombing the Vietnamese A big country attacking a small country Falling Domino Principe Eisenhower countries are stacked up like dominoes As one falls to communism another will and then another and another Rotton Apple Principle To this day nobody knows what was going on in Eisenhower s mind Was he really mulling over intervention Professor believes so Eisenhower wants 1 France to give independence to Vietnam 2 other allies to come along 3 congressional democrats to support decisions Lyndon and Johnson say they wont go along with this unless there is strong support by the allies Ike tries to convince Churchill that this is like the 1930 s just like we should have stood up to Hitler we need to stand up to Ho Chi Mein Churchill doesn t buy it The US lets the war go on July 1954 Geneva Accords a truce and military regrouping The truce line through Vietnam will be the 17th parallel de ned as a provisional military demarcation and not a political boundary The rebels had controlled 34 of the country at the moment but give up a decent amount of territory now only controlling 12 The rebels were pressed by the soviets The goal for the future is free elections and a united Vietnam within 2 years These goals will be supervised by an international control consisting of Canada Poland Sivet Satelites and India neutral There will be parallel truces in Laos and Cambodia On both sides there is not much enthusiasm for this deal which wasn t even written It was just an oral agreement by the soviets French British and peoples republic of china It s unlikely that there could be free elections in a united Vietnam The cold war is the trump card The united states makes clear by Ike that it doesn t consider itself bound by the accord Despite some skepticism among the joint chief of staff ike provides military aid after the truce line to southern Vietnam in 1954 The US works to establish an anti communist international government The CIA is used to disrupt the communist forces north of the 17th parallel These people didn t need much urging They didn t want to live under communism The soviets are reconciled in 19541956 The truce line becomes a boundary There are two Vietnams They want two Vietnams and two koreas to be admitted to the UN The US accepts south Vietnam as an independent country and provides 3 billion dollars of aid Diem is part of the catholic minority in Vietnam but is popular among catholics in the US including jFK In Cambodia Siodoke comes to power and is generally neutral There is no full edged election in Laos but there is a series of shifting governments The Us would like to quotbind the dominoes togetherquot In short Ike took major steps beyond Truman for US involvement in IndoChina Ike understands that a successful noncommunist regime can t be established without winning support Economic distribution 50000 political prisoners by 1958 Ike sends letters History repeating Diem isn t reforming but the US still sticks by him There was a sporatic uprising against diem in 1957 The Vietcong the connection of the Vietcong has long been debated There are certainly ties and the Vietcong would like to be congregated in the south There is no full scale Vietnamese assistance for several years It s a major revult The Vietcong kills some major leaders attatched to Diem The situation keeps getting messier Meanwhile in Laos the Pathic Lao would like to take over the entire country In 1960 jFK is elected president Ike warns jFK of the quoteverpresent persistent possibility of American ground troops in chinaquot He doesn t mind Vietnam He is thinking in early 1961 that the US might have to send troops to prevent a communist takeover of Laos November 1963 when jFK died there was an uneasy truce in Laos There were 60000 US troops advisors in South Vietnam Kennedy rejected recommendations to send American troops in large 5 and advisors into Laos He decides to make a truce that leads to a fragile unstable government in Laos In Kennedy s own mind the fact that he had been conciliatory in Laos meant he needed to look tougher in Vietnam Kennedy had some kind of infatuation of quick wins through special forces like the green berrets Kennedy s top advisors saw indochina and Vietnam as a military more than a political problem it was both The military problem is seen as predominating Kennedy is also not eager to send American ground troops even as advisors We get new tapes from Kennedy but none resolve much He doesn t seem enthusiastic The policy started in 1961 is somewhat cosmetics We re standing up to communism Vice PresidentJohnson hails Diem as the Churchill of Asia Johnson comes back and says the situation is difficult we need to either expand the military or get out Kennedy expands He sends joint chief of staffs and Taylor to see the situation in Vietnam They return and recommend sending 10000 US troops Advisors to support Diems government air reconoscance and economic aid Kennedy agrees to economic aid and air recconosaince but not the troops 8090 of the Vietcong are coming from south of the 17th parallel From late 1961 to late 1972 the terms of the roscoeTaylor recommendation are ful lled bit by bit without it being an explicit policy quotMission Creepquot By the end of 1962 there are over 11000 troops in vietnam There are helicopter gunships and advisors Hamlet Program People from villages are forced out of their villages and into more defensible units by Diem This seems to be working and pisses of many south Vietnamese making them angrier at Diem The ugnships re at rst effective and scare the Vietcong a lot but it doesnTlast In January 1963 JFK says he spear point of aggression has been blunted in South Vietnam He 12 believes this By late 1963 the situation in the Vietcong is worsening There is rising internal opposition led by the Buddhist majority to Diem Diem suppresses the Buddhist The Buddhists start burning themselves to make a point Privately JKF doesn t care that Diem is appressive he cares that Diem isn t effective There is mainstream criticism of the Diem regime and the US support of it Overwhelmingly this is tactical criticism the war isn t going well and the administration isn t being candid In the mainstream press there is no criticism of the premise for American Involvement There are reasons in 1963 for deep skepticism 30000 vietcong had been killed that year However at the end of 1962 the US had estimated there were a total of 30000 Vietcong This can t be possible Otherwise there would now be 0 left There are still many still there ghting Kennedy sends a new ambassador Henry Lodge in 1963 JFK understands that lodge can be a loose cannon but he s a major rebublican Then the republicans will too be implicated in whatever happens In November there is a military coup Diem is overthrown and killed What was the US involvement in this The leaders of the American coup offered to turn Diem over to the US after he is captured but the US says no Diem is killed Kennedy had begun to rethink some of the cold war premises JFK s foreign policy advisors become Johnson s afterJFK dies The bottom line is that Kennedy probably couldn t have accepted the fall of south Vietnam to communism in 19651966 But who knows Johnson faced increasing problems in Vietnam The Vietcong not surprisingly is making military gains The number of advisors from the US is going up until it reaches 27000 in January 1965 Advisors is a term of art These guys are involved in battles and are shooting back but they aren t full combat troops to the public The Vietnam is increasingly attacking american bases in south Vietnam Goldwater says the Us is at war in South Vietnam and should face up to it and maybe even use nukes Goldwater just wanted to scare the hell out of people Goldwater and Johnson agreed not to discuss civil rights or the war throughout their campaign Gulf of Tonkin north of Vietnam Resolution gives Johnson a tough look and a blank check hand from congress In 1964 Johnson told congress that there was an unprovoked attack by north Vietnamese against two American destroyers There were two American destroyers innocently oating around Johnson tells the country This is a lie There had been an earlier attack that the Vietnamese deny The reports from the two destroyers were later recanted by the offices of the destroyers They had not actually seen north Vietnamese torpedo boats or torpedoes red The notion that they were under attack the captains said came from radar and sonar The ships there to assist south Vietnamese attacks on the north Vietnamese coast Even if the destroyers were attacked it was plausible Johnson says quotthe dumb shooters were probably shooting at dolphinsquot Johnson wants a supporting resolution for all necessary means to repel any armed attack against the forces against the US and prevent further aggression Many in congress are skeptical The gulf of Tonkin resolution is passed unanimously in the house The resolution gives autonomy to Johnson and any future president By the end of 1965 Vietnam is tottering The situation is grim February 1965 there is an attack on an American base and 7 Americans are killed 100 wounded The US responds with air strikes on pre selected north Vietnamese targets not just the Vietcong in the south These bombing raids begin quotOperation rolling thunderquot This is a big step More troops are sent Moreland says South Vietnam is in danger of imminent coapse unless more American troops are sent in In JuneJuly of 1965 there is a debate within the administration Even the hawks among johnson s advisors aren t optimistic They fear a slippery slope into a white man s war The cost for 1966 is about 12 billion dollars The Great Society program will be ruined Johnson decides to expand the war anyways History Notes November 20 2013 Spring Summer 1965 Systematic bombing of Vietnam has began Johnson administration bit by bit interventionalism Johnson tells his advisors the US would lack credibility in the world if South Vietnam fell Johnson authorizes a large expansion of troops but is not candid with his advisors or the country The course of events is easily summarized there is the expanded number of ground troops By 1966 the administration has authorized over 500000 troops American troops were better educated and younger than WWII Until 1967 AA casualties were disproportionately high The air war is expanding There were more air bombs dropped on Vietnam than China Korea in WWII The people in Vietnam skillfully ght back They take casualty levels unseen since WWII The north Vietnamese play the soviets and chinese the 2 main communist powers against each other to get aid Van Hew becomes new president in Vietnam There are endless efforts at peace negotiations and mediations by the British and the Polish The Vietnamese refuse to negotiate while they re being bombed and the US doesn t want to negotiate with them There are growing doubts within the administration The north Vietnamese know the US can t achieve their goals and are still holding up strong There is growing public protest of DIFFERENT SORTS General level of protest consists on teachings of universities and marches In April 1967 the largest peace demonstration l NYC a March in NYC In the rst two years there is a na39ive sense that the Johnson Administration could be convinced the War was a mistake and there could be a negotiated settlement Johnson attacks with private government spying Benjamin Spock rhetoric Moreland is brought home by Johnson to talk about how well the war is going which seems absurd 80000 north Vietnamese troops attack cities in the south and there are vivid images in the media including some Vietcong getting on the grounds of the US embassy Retrospective hawks think the media distorted what happened They think what was a USsouth victory was claimed a defeat It was ALMOST always the case that the media distorted things but the media did make clear that militarily the US and south Vietnamese defended well General Moreland sees this attack by the north Vietnamese as a military opportunity Give me another 260000 troops In 1968 this brings about the rst real systematic evaluation of American prospects from 1965 The peace movement is growing Worsening economic situations The cost of the war brings the annual in ation rate up To send even 12 as many troops as Moreland wants the President will need to call up the reserves grown men with families This leads to more opposition to the war Should they call up more troops or not They ask new secretary of defense Clark Clifford Truman s top political advisor in 1968 They don t think the military can give an accurate prediction of how many troops would be needed to win the war Even Dean Acheson thinks the war isn t winnable in any secure fashion Johnson is advised by Clifford and the quotbelatedly wise menquot not to send the troops and he agrees He moves further to say he will begin a halt of the bombing of Vietnam opening the way to negotiations He announces this along with the decision not to run for reelection The two eventual nominees for election will have to run as peace candidates After Nixon is elected the war continues for four years and grows even bloodier Nixon and Henry Kissinger foreign aid did not expect this to happen The US is unwilling to lose the South Vietnamese feared that any truce would lead to their collapse true and the north Vietnamese think if they just hold out they can win everything true The truce that the US gets in 1973 is essentially the same truce it could have received in 1969 Except for issues of credibility not wanting to lose a wan Ending the war honorably was essential for the people of the world Nixon s plan hunch about how the war could end a mutual draw from Vietnam and of troops The south Vietnam would take on the increased burden of their defense l quotvietnamationquot Third why would the north Vietnamese agree to this Reverse domino theory If the US can patch up relations with the soviets the soviets will tell the north Vietnamese viet cong to quit A lot of quotwhatifs are present None of this precludes temporary expansion of the war in some respects A likely target for expansion is neighboring and precariously neutral territory Cambodia American green berets since 1967 try to stop the north Vietnamese from sending material and troops to North Vietnam There was bombing of Cambodia starting with Nixon quotSecret bombingquot that isn t really secret The war is not settled in the rst 6 months or the rst year like Nixon had hoped The death of north Vietnamese leader Hochimen made no difference Under Nixon Kissinger starts a secret back channel negotiation wit Lee Dak To This doesn t lead to much The military situation in 1969 seems better from a US perspective But the Vietnamese start a series of smaller attacks Meanwhile South Vietnam seems to be stabilized It raises its army to 11 million Given these conditions maybe there can be a truce But things don t appear to be working out well Casualties are as high as they were in 1967 in 1969 General Chu is lacking support legitimacy There is another presidential election in 1971 but none of Chu s major rivals will run against him The American Peace movement sees no peace and enjoys a comeback with major demonstrations in late 1969 Nixon is pissed off and wants to escalate the war again He is calmed by secretary of defense and relies on public relations to rally the country In November 1969 he appeals to the Great Silent Majority in a speech He says the great silent majority wants peace with honor There will be a blood bath in Vietnam if the communists win he warns He will not be the rst president to lose a war The of cial in the back channel negotiations continue Nixon takes various military steps that he hopes will force the north Vietnamese to settle The biggest is in April 1970 a large scale movement to Cambodia by US South Vietnamese forces French general LaNolle makes horri c decision to throw in fully with the American War effort May 1 troops move into Cambodia saying their going after a North Vietnamese base Nixon rallies the silent majority while there are extraordinary protests including students and white house advisors Cambodia is brought fully into the war and is ultimately taken over by the worse communists since Stalin The Cambodian incursion as it was called doesn t bring the north Vietnamese to settle In 1971 talks continue while each side tries military pressure In April 1972 the North Vietnmaese feel strong enough for a northern offensive Nixon bombs Hanoi and mines Haiphong Nixon has been reducing the of American troops The war was growing bloodier but the less of the blood is American Vietnamization by the end of 1972 the draft has ended and there are less troops in Vietnam By the end of 1972 Kissinger and back channel negotiations are present behing president Chu s back In October there is an apparent agreement Vietnam will have a committee of national reconciliation and the north Vietnamese will be allowed to keep a certain number of troops in South Vietnam Kissinger announces that peace is at hand The US doesn t even bother to send a copy of the speci cs of the peace agreements to president Chu because they know he will object The south Vietnamese government gets a copy from a captured person When Kissinger and Chu nally meet they are not on good terms at all Kissinger thought if the South Vietnmaese didn t accept the settlement the US would cut off all aid Chu says it would be better to keep ghting and die off than to be embarrassed and accept this agreement Kissinger is angry quotwho the hell does Chu think he isquot It is clear that Kissinger will sell out the South Vietnamese to win the war but Nixon will not The North Vietnamese see this animosity and grow suspicious and back out of the deal Nixon is the boss and operates on two tracks He will force the North Vietnamese back to the negotiation table with more bombs Christmas bombing PRIVATELY he assures president Chu of South Vietnam of continued support January 3 1973 a truce is signed Essentially what the US could have gotten in 1969 is achieved The truce is fULL of ambiguities but these ambiguities make the truce possible The ambiguities are translated differently by the two Nixon gives an enormous amount of supplies to the South Vietnamese and they had the 4th biggest air supply in the world The Americans are clearly sick of Vietnam at this point The prisoners of war are home August 1974 after Nixon s resignation Ford still wants to help Chu He gets about a billion dollars when he had requested 2 Both South Vietnam and Cambodia collapse with incredible rapidity Ford wants to get more aid for South Vietnam Maybe it s a cover for orderly withdraw But it gets nowhere with congress Nixon tells ford he should go out and blame the liberals and dubs for losing the war but Ford refuses to do this There is an internal debate When should you evacuate Ford told the college audience that the lndochina war was nished as far as the US was concerned hardly All he wanted was a decent interval between the withdrawals After the war the US took in 1000 Vietnamese refugees sometimes reluctantly There were sometimes clashes Was the US on the wrong side of the Vietnam war Some say yes Some say no quotSour Seventiesquot Nixon s resignation and the end of the economic boom 1973 marks the start of a long period where real wages and real income corrected for in ation no longer rise for most Americans The second issue implied in the title is what were the sixties like The sixties the sociocultural sixties was NOT NOT a radicalized era IT was a polarized era As in the 30 s the political spectrum widened It was getting stronger on the right The new left was mostly white It was built on radical tradtions going back a long way There were some signs from the 1950 s opposing nuclear testing Civil Rights Activism Students for a democratic society which by 1968 sank into a certain amount of third world fantasy There were signi cant attempts by this new left to mull over issues of sex gender and the war Counter culture the hippies This portion of the younger generation These groups were appallingly publicized in the mass media and did much to discredit dissent What do you expect the media to cover Some nerd talking about what s wrong with containment in Vietnam People rolling around naked in Woodstock Not good Black Power is a phrase popularized by leader of radicalized students of nonviolent coordinating committee Black power has deep roots in American History including congress roots WEB Dubois and Booker T Washington there are signs underway of a revival of Black Nationalism The various manifestations of black nationalism grow from blacks thinking whites will never grant equality Armed self defense is promoted Black Panther party The US is a very stable country in turmoil The sense of black pride reaches many more AAs who are certainly not radicals or young or advocates of armed resistance They re basically integrationists There is an increasing emphasis on black pride The revival of feminism is in eclipse since 1920 This is regarded as an enormous surprise Among middle class middle aged women you get a group for women most important leader Betty Fredan Feminism was the most successful of all dissonant movements of the 19605 So successful that it s hard to recapture by later generations that it was a dissonant movement Successes include legislations providing equal pay for equal work regardless of gender Legislation making it harder to crossexamine a rape victim about her sexual history The ERA is passed by congress in 1972 There are grassroots efforts ranging from battered women to shelters The most controversial legacy is the Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade legalizing most abortions Gay rights had been a large underground movement There had been some stirrings in the 1950 s with the Civil Rights Movement In the 60 s gay rights are more radical and belated In 1969 there is a NYC police raid on a gay bar Stonewall For a time Gay rights movements are considerably less successful than feminist movements This is still the case today The left side of the 60 s brought no basic changes to American economic and foreign policy but they changed the way people lived Changes we don t think twice about today shocked people of the 60 s Smoking weed would have got you up to 20 years in jail If a girl and boy kissed in a college classroom they would be kicked out The white backlash not just a backlash against black power civil rights That is part but not all The foremost symbol was George Wallace segregationist governor of Alabama The conservative woman Phyllis organized a grassrights movement called quotSTOP ERA More broadly southern middle class whites and northern working class Catholics including many union workers start to move away from democratic party liberalism For Ford basically what you saw was what you got A not particularly charismatic guy The cleanest ofjohnsons jokes about him was that he played football without a helmet He was dumb essentially As an internationalist moderate republican ford is elected to congress in a seat he can pretty much keep forever Ford consciously tried to use his likeablity reputation to try to bring the country together after what he called the long international nightmare of the Watergate scandal Seems to be working until after a month when Nixon is pardoned by Ford This decision damages republican party and ford Calming the national mood is hard The situation worsened by the arab members of OPEC which bans sales for countries like the US which support Israel For complicated reasons the economy by the early 70 s in in icted by what most economies thought was impossible stag ation STAGFLATION a new term coined to describe what s happening Rising unemployment is staying high and rising in ation is staying high This does not usually happen By the last quarter of 1974 when Ford is just beginning his presidency he makes in ation his primary focus 9 are unemployed by the spring of 1975 a post WWII high due to in ation rates Nobody knows what to do about it really Ford gets key advice from economic advisors Allan Greenspan The Ford admin says to deregulate major industries like air travel and trucking Make it easier for new people and countries to enter this eld New competition will lead to lower prices and be good for the economy as a whole Ford also vetoes spending bills by the democrats There are 66 vetoes in all after 27 months as president 1976 brings a slight economic upturn but there s still stag ation In ation is 7 Unemployment is 8 The economic situation as the 70 s was as bad as the situation in 2008 but different The president was expected to answer questions about moral economic questions that would ve been unimaginable the decade before Now premarital sex and abortion are publically discussed Legalized discussion of abortion Ford wants it to go away His wife betty becomes a heroine to the feminist movement and enthusiastically endorses abortion rights Un uproar leads to horrendous opposition Feminist applaud Betty ford but some think the president married a oozy Ford forces an increase in the military budget Rhetoric about the Soviet Union is not as optimistic as what you often hear from Nixon Ford sticks with Detant In 1975 Ford meets with leader of Soviet union and they ALLLLMOST come to an agreement about a second limited arms treaty Opposors are mad that Ford is too soft with the Soviets Ford keeps Kissinger Secretary of State One of his friends was Helmut Sonen eld who in 1965 talked to various American ambassadors in Europe Eastern European countries would be under soviet control to one degree or another This reality must be faced We don t like it but it s reality Conservative pundits pick this up and distort it calling it the Sonenfelt doctrine They think the US is actively condeding eastern Europe to the soviets The US wants this to happen HISTORY FINAL REVIEW GUIDE Historiographical Essay on the New Deal What is the new deal List the maior factors The goals of the new deal Why do we have a new deal to begin with Because of the great depression FDR is president Hoover was president before FDR How is this a shift in policy Hoover was against government intervention He wanted to let the economy do its thing and said it would all be okay FDR was more interventionist He wanted the government to get involved in the economy 3 major goals of the new deal l39l relief recovery reform 0 Immediate relief food for the hungry shelter for the homeless 0 Recovery of the economy 0 Reform he didn t want the Great Depression to happen again The economy and government needed to be reformed Bernstein and Shales New Deal is maybe more conservative than we realize Both authors give the general consensus about the New Deal and then explain why it s allwrong They say that the New Deal was extremely signi cant in getting us out of the depression That it was very important in history They say people say it was liberal and progressive They say there is a huge difference between how Hoover and FDR dealt with the Great Depression Shlaes says WWII ended the depression not the New Deal He says that FDR and Hoover were both overly interventionist and should have trusted the American economy more They should have let the economy do it s thing Although saying Hoover and FDR are more alike than we think he does mention differences He says Hoover is more of a constitutionist FDR conferred with the people more He was more charismatic l reside chats He gave the impression that he was really concerned about the American people which gave them more hope which did help the economy He was more comforting than Hoover was Hoover was not as warm and fuzzy They were not as drawn to him They also dealt with Germany differently Hoover preferred Germany as a trading partner whereas FDR saw the threat of Germany Hoover was predisposed to prefer Germany as a trading partner and FDR was predisposed to distrust Germany be more cautious Bernstein says that the New Deal was more conservative There was a concern of communism socialism during this period of the new deal When somebody was extremely liberal they were more socialist Bernstein is saying the New Deal wasn t very liberal it didn t border into socialism It didn t produce change in economic disparity It made sure they weren t starving or sleeping in the snow but the poor stayed poor in the longterm If anything divisions just grew wider Compare and contrast Shlaes and Bernstein s views What is Ribuffo s opinion What is your opinion Dr Ribuffo thinks that the New Deal was a difficult topic Was it continuous with the progressive era Could Roosevelt have done more with the democrats to create a larger welfare state Is he the bad guy for leading the country to a welfare state in the rst place According to Dr Ribuffo there were two phases of the new deal 0 The First New Deal was from 19331934 It put an emphasis on psychological and economic relief and most of all emphasized UNITY It provided direct relief for the unemployed It was a psychological success Enormous public relations were developed People believed they could get out of this economic slump The Second New Deal was in 1936 Under this New Deal Roosevelt no longer has a quotWe re all in this togetherquot attitudequot He attacks the smaller elite at the top of the economic ladder The second new deal puts 13 of the unemployed to work Other things Included on the Exam 0 6 IDS 30 points 0 3 or 4 essay topics answer 1 Understand Culture at Home Surging 20 s Culture of the 1950 s Gender and Race issues Civil Rights Movement How did it unfold at the Grassroots level AntiCommunist propaganda Manifest Destiny The US had a god given right to expand its sphere of in uence especially towards nonwhite and Hispanic regions This is rooted in racial ideals City Upon a Hill The US was a quotcity upon a hillquot meaning it was a pedestal for other countries to look up to The US needed to set an example for others which added to its pressures America approaches the world like quotwe are the parents You are the children You need to listenquot Lustitania UBoats 1915 The Lusitania was a British Passenger liner that was torpedoed by a German Uboat on May 7 1915 The attack killed 1198 people including 128 Americans Although the Germans claim that the sinking of the Lusitania was a mistake nobody knows for sure The Lusitania was carrying ammunition Most likely the Germans destroyed it on purpose Americans are angered A few months later another British liner is sunk Then a few months later a French liner is sunk Wilson demands that the Germans STOP all submarine warfare The Germans agree to stop They don t stop More ships are sunk and by April of 1916 Wilson has no choice but to declare war Treaty of Versailles 1919 The treaty of Versailles ends WWI France Britain and the US meet at Versailles Wilson introduces his 14 points which include freedom of the seas and a league of nations Germany must pay reparations These reparations were a bad idea The amount of money Germany must repay is impossible A great deal of trouble is caused A legacy of embitterment is created FDIC 1933 The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation was created under the New Deal act lt guaranteed bank customers that the federal government would reimburse them for deposits if their banks failed This restored depositors con dence in the banking system during the Great Depression NRA 1933 The National Recovery Administration was established to promote industrial recovery lt encouraged industrialists to voluntarily adopt codes that de ned fair working conditions set prices and minimized competition In practice large corporations developed codes that served primarily their own interests rather than those of workers of the economy The codes strengthened conventional business practices They were a mess and increased new deal criticisms Wagner Act 1935 guarantees the right of union organization Iron Curtain Speech 1946 Churchill gives a speech in which he says there is an quotiron curtainquot dividing a line between socialist and communist styles of government This boundary was tightly regulated and the quotcurtainquot bored is hard to cross McCarthy39s Wheeling Speech 1950 WWll has just ended The 2nCI red scare is taking place McCarthy is warning that there are communists in America who want to take over the US from within HUAC The house on unamerican activities It s main purpose was to enforce a national anti communist orthodoxy that would spread to non communist liberals Their favorite topics were education and the movie industry Tries to supine Truman to nd out why his administration was lled with communists Little Rock 9 in Arkansas attempted the integration of a white high school There were 9 students chosen to be allowed to go to this school Segregationists created a blockade to keep these 9 children out The issue grew national In terms of visual culture and propaganda the way the US treated people of color was already an issue and this incidence just made it worse MLK39s Letter from Birmingham Jail 1963 MLK writes a letter from jail outlining his philosophy This is a big movement in civil rights He pushes for greater equality justice and civil rights There are violent Reactions quotinjustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywherequot King did felt that the Alabama demonstrations were the only option left Civil Rights Act of 1964 bans discrimination in employment and public accommodations It also bans discrimination in terms of sex kind of an afterthought but become more prevalent later on Watergate Scandal 1972 7 men broke into the democratic national committee office in a hotel to tap into a phone The burglars had close ties with the White House Staff Nixon discussed clemency for them a pardon to keep their mouths shut aka a bribe He pays people money to keep quiet about the White House s involvement These crimes are obstructions of justice The burglars included anti Castro Cuban exiles who thought they were helping the cause of national security Investigations are underway shortly after It becomes clear that Nixon is guilty He resigns in August 1974 before he can be impeached How did the US get involved in other wars What role did they play Vietnam Korea WWI WWII 0 The US did not initially want to join WWI They were aligned with Britain and France 0 The US did not initially plan to get involved in WWII Understanding anticommunism at home Changing opinions with the Soviet Union President VP Incorporate Birmingham letter from jail and McCarthy Speech DON T SAY THE LUSITANIA GOT US INVOLVED IN WWI THAT PEARL HARBOR LED US INTO WWII OR THAT THE CRASH LED US TO THE GREAT DEPRESSION These are symptoms not soe causes VIETNAM Nixon Ford Carter l Regan l Bush Vietnam origins There are no clear cut origins for the Vietnam War IndoChina Laos Cambodia Vietnam today These regions were French colonies French occupied FDR I HST I Ike IJFK I LBJ I Nixon FDR did not like colonization and didn t agree with European colonization He essentially wasn t able to do anything about it though The French wanted to retake their colonies in IndoChina and forced FDR to retreat from his program for decolonization in Asia Truman he nances the French when Ho Chi Men declares independence Ho Chi Men begs Truman for support but Truman doesn t trust him because Ho Chi Men is an open communist Marxist They did not want to strip France of it s Asian empire because they feared if the French became unstable they might be susceptible to communism Even with US support the French faired poorly Ike domino theory if one country in Southeast Asia falls they all will He continues to aid the French Vietnam was vital to the US because they feared if Vietnam fell to communism the rest of the nations in Asia would follow Ike wanted to avoid direct US intervention so he paid for the French intervention in Vietnam covering more than 34 of their costs This does not ultimately work In 1954 the French suffer a major ow at the battle of Dien Bien Phu The establishment of North and South Vietnam Ho Chi Men has the urban north and there is a puppet French government in the agricultural South JFK there is a lot of escalation The US is slowly trying to ease out the French in the South Ngo Diem is the puppet guy of the south There is a buffer period between 19541956 before there are actual elections In the North Ho Chi Men is actually elected but the south refuses to recognize him JFK is sending money and military advisors He isn t escalating allout war He increases the number of sodies from 948 to 16000 He resisted requests for troops in larger amounts Ultimately the US couldn t support South Vietnam when their President Diem was so corrupt and brutal The Kennedy Administration has Diem assassinated in 1963 Vietnam was a test of will forJFK It was proof to enemies and allies that the US would not stand for communism LBJ quotfull US commitmentquot to Vietnam Know the timeline Major turning points Gulf of Tonkin and the Tonkin Resolution 1964 gives LBJ and following presidents full power to do whatever they want in Vietnam really Operation Rolling Thunder in 1965 Ted Offensive in 1968 There is a shift from Americanization of the war to Vietnamization Johnson s was not particularly good with dealing with foreign affairs he was out of his element He was good at dealing with domestic matters Vietnam ends up crushing Johnson s reputation He introduced the Great Society hoping to expand welfare beauty and the great life He wanted economic prosperity for all and expected his programs to work well The Great Society was NOT con ned to the war on poverty The white working class middle class and even the af uent bene tted from most from this Great Society Johnson did not think you could provide bene ts to the poor unless you could provide bene ts to everybody else Great Society programs included medicade Medicare First Start Head Start The Jobs Corps etc The Great Society fails quotJohnson s experience with World War II and the cold war taught him that aggression must be repulsed and communism contained and his memories of McCarthyism made him fear charges of softness in foreign affairs 19691972 Nixon takes his quot3prong approachquot page 813 shift from LBJ to Nixon He campaigns through Cambodia ByJanuary 1973 there are peace accords in Paris Nixon big domestic nightmare l Watergate His major screwup Nixon is dealing with Stag ation He is pretty overwhelmed by Vietnam and his domestic policy is lacking He encourages environmental activism Carter in ation and unemployment He is a moderate democrat who s resistant to major welfare reforms Go review the idea of his quotHuman Rights Appraochquot to issues overseas 833 Carter and the cold war 1979 Shah of lran lran hostage crisus major fall from grace for Carter Regan 835 conservative rise Regan s economic policies What s the deal with his tax cuts Regan s presidency is a major turning point with the USSR Bush end of the Cold War overseas Gulf War He only serves 1 term So there are only a few big major points BASIC TIMELINE 1830 s Presidents Jackson 1832 Van Buren 1836 The organized abolitionist movement begins Only a tiny number of whites and blacks in alliance William Lloyd Garrison amp Douglass bring anti slave messages to the north 184039s Presidents Harrison 1840 Tyler 1841 Polk 1844 Zachary Taylor 1848 Most northern whites didn t want to abolish or expand slavery They wanted the west to be quotfree soilquot 186039s Presidents Lincoln 18601865 Johnson 18651868 Grant 1868 0 Catholics are the largest denomination 0 1860 Lincoln is elected President 0 1862 Homestead Act 0 1863 Emancipation Proclamation o 1865 Civil war ends 0 18651866 black codes established 0 1865 Freedman s Bureau 0 1865 Lincoln assassinated 1866 Klu Klux Klan founded 0 1866 14th amendment 0 1866 Civil Rights Act nulli es Black Codes 0 1867 Patrons of Husbandry 1867 Military Reconstruction Act 0 1868 Johnson lmpeached 1869 15th amendment 0 1869 National Woman Suffrage Association founded 187039s 0 presidents Grant 18681877 Hayes 18771881 gilded age 0 1870 Rockefeller starts Standard Oil Company 0 1872 Carnegie builds largest steel plant 0 1873 nation slips into a depression 1874 Woman s Christian Temperance Union founded 1876Bel creates the telephone 1877 reconstruction era ends 1877 Jim Crow laws 1877 Railroad Strike 1877 Compromise of 1877 188039s Presidents Gar eld 1880 Arthur 18811884 Cleveland 1884 Harrison 1888 Systematic exclusion ofJews 1882 Chinese exclusion act 1883 Pendelton Civil Service Act 1887 Dawes Allotment Act 1889 Carnegie Gospel of Wealth 1889 Hull House founded 189039s presidents Cleveland 1892 McKinley 1896 increase of lynchings 1890 Sherman Anti trust Acts 1892 Populism is on the rise 1892 Omaha Platform 1892 Populist Platform 1892 southern blacks start emigrating to Liberia 1893 First Chicago World s Fair 1893 Turner s quotOpen Frontiersquot thesis 1894 Pullman Strikes 1895 Atlanta Compromise 1896 big election McKinley vs Bryan 190039s 1906 food and drug act 191039s African Americans ght to stop lynching 1914 campaign for birth certi cates 1916 KeatingOwen Child Labor Act 192039s 0 1920 19th amendment women can vote 195039s consensus historians skeptical of populists 0 people suffered from status anxiety 196039s 0 new left historians people are concerned about personal moralityprohibitionrace September 12 Populism 1890 s Who did the Party Consist of 0 John Mc Bride was head of the American Federation of Labor 1895 o The party consisted of many women 0 Most members were protestant as was most of the country 0 LESS anticatholic than the nativist republics were Clarence Darrow 0 Thomas Newget What were their beliefs 0 They liked scienti c farming education because it improved farm yields 0 They stressed problems for small farmers such as debt being hard to pay off as interest rates were rising They attacked rich bankers and railroad leaders who kept prices unfairly high for farmers Farmers could not negotiate rates like those given to steel companies There were issues at this time regarding where the country was headed Corporate power corrupted American Institutions and the country was at crossroads Southern slaveholders slaveocracy had controlled the country Now you have the corporate elite in the same controlling position but it s even more threatening because their power is not con ned to the south People feared another Civil War could erupt between the people and the corporate forces Populists feel that these times calm for reform They want to return to the good old days before corporations existed They propose the Omaha Platform in 1892 Henry Lloyd wanted the Gospel of Success to really work and open careers to the talented but this was no longer realistic Some people wanted to break up the corporations to make business entities smaller or under more government control while others thought they were necessary to the new industrial age Whether or not they were made smaller or put under more governmental control the goods they were producing were necessary Although the goods they were producing were helpful to farmers they were very expensive and contributed to farmers debts The basic problem is DISTRIBUTION NOT PRODUCTION The new technology allowed mass production but there was a problem regarding where it should be distributed The populists found good ideas in foreign countries and adapted them in the US The secret ballot came from Australia State aid to farmers came from Hungary and France The populists showed great sympathy towards those who were tramps or poor or homeless during the depression Their hostility was towards cities was towards the corporate elite not the people quotTramps Circularquot forbid harassment of homeless people in Kansas The Populist Platform of 1892 wanted an alliance between rural farmers and corporate workers No union occurs The populists did not become a successful farmer labor party like in other countries The populists were not the primary source of antiSemitism despite common accusations Southern populists were less bigoted than southern democrats They proposed a political alliance of poor whites and poor blacks with equal political rights for blacks They don t believe in full equality but they are willing to organize together and ght together against armed oppOQUon Tom Watson a populist leader from Georgia who was immensely bene cial to both races Poor whites and poor blacks had identical interests He made a real effort at political coalition Discussion Period September 4 2013 The Rise of Big Business 18601920 America Values production and saving Production and consumption are partners The rise of big businesses was the result of a change in society and that change must be studied There was a large change in American Culture and how we live our lives quotIncorporation of Americaquot Pages 4546 Communication becomes key The world is becoming a smaller place 0 Transportation Revolution the creation of railroads Railroads are a huge step up from horseswagons Towns with railroads become attractions for goods 0 Communication revolution The creation of telegraphs Telegraphs are much more reliable than paper mail and they improve efficieny These revolutions make the US come closer together as a nation Shrinkage things become faster and more efficient Vertical Growth from production to consumer Accounts for the production and selling For example in charge of growing the cotton cultivating it creating dresses out of it and selling those dresses Horizontal Growth different companies are in charge of selling the same goods For example whole foods genuardis and safeway all sell the same goods Another example could be different companies owning cotton farms big and small Forward looks to the consumer We are producing cotton now what can we make with it Backwards looks to the production The person selling clothes wants to see what is involved in making the clothes October 1 THE 20 s People commonly think of romantic writers appers bohemians when thinking about the 20 s but these depictions are incomplete Tales told by Hemmingway tzgerald etc quotSearching 20 squot l searching for values Consciously unconsciously Time of enormous social con ict Protestant vs catholic Protestant vs other protestant Time of Anglo saxist nativism Some were happy with how America had become But some wanted traditional values COSMOPOLITANS VS PROVINTIALS NOT NOT NOT simply urban rural There were fundamentalists in nyc and cosmopolitans in tenesee Economy there was overall economic growth once the post war recession ended Per capita income was up 28 btw 19201929 Much much much publicized 15 million trucks cars sold 1921 45 million by 1929 More homes were also powered by electricity now 0 The prosperity was concentrated at the top though The gross gures are misleading The standard estimate is that the lower 93 of the population did not have as large of an income increase 6 The farmers had still not recovered and are still about 13 of the population Many were black sharecropperstenants Their income may have even fallen during the 1920 s The Brookings institute think tank Bohemia s Grenich village in NYC The preeminent magazine read by the youth was quotThe Massesquot which mixed liberal modernism with political radicalism The war pushed along the disposition for the alienated quotWar to end all wars and bring democracyquot Didn t happen Many Americans are surprised There is a wider audience for criticism in the 20 s The futility of war itself was a large theme The post war alienation disillusionment prompts broader questions Sinclair Lewis titles as his novels as catch phrases that are symbols of Provintualism First American to win the Nobel Prize in 1930 for Hterature Attack on quotPuritanismquot The puritan was somebody who had the haunting fear that somebody somewhere might be happy Puritans were incapable of decency A portion of the alienated lived abroad for a period of time Paris popular Made possible because of post war economy By 1926 thousands of Americans had settled in Paris much to the distress of the French Many worked as translators William Bullit young diplomat during the war who tried to broker some convo between Wilson and Wanted to go to France lie on the beach and watch the world go to hell He did and it did Most ex patriots however want to get a better view on America and think this is easier to do at a distance F Scott Fitzgerald Great Gatsby 1925 Limits of gospel of success First in 1920 when he was 25 years old he wrote this side ofparadise about his own experiences He is instantly presented as the young generation spokesperson on the revolution of morals No Victorian mothers had any idea how casually their daughters were accustomed to being kissed The 20 s produce ENDLESS articles and sermons about quotthe younger generations going to hellquot Among the af uent young there is a national youth culture where mild sexual rebellion and new music and dance arise Among those worried are legislators who ban movies and short dresses They are supported by Al Smith protestant governor of NYC 0 Others took it in strides There were real changes in behavior and MUCH MUCH more public discussion of sex than before the war Vogue of Sigmund Freud oat around of the American Mind Unambiguous prophet of sexual liberation Relations between men and women seemed to change Stats about sexual relations are very unreliable Alfred Kinsey published stats about people looking back on their youth 0 Women in the 40 s had no pre marital intercourse This shifts later primarily in middle class behavior The working class doesn t change much 0 Combined with this is an ebbing of feminism so called progressivism For the 1920 s young women growing up there is more emphasis on personal ful llment and less on morality Public sphere in the 1920 s testing of values in the area of black white relations New Negro movement Harlem renascence post war anti black riots into 1920 For the rst time since reconstruction blacks ght back systematically The mood of militant African Americans in the 1920 s can be summarized as greater political activism plus an af rmation of black culture 1925 essays the new negroes write and Alain Locke publishes Segregation and disenfranchisement The new political militancy is combined with cultural af rmation of ordinary black culture 0 African American parallel to hemingway tzgerald etc Talented participants of Harlem Renascence L Hughes 0 Claude McKay ex patriot in paris quotno reason to think the world I lived in was permanent solid unshakeablequot If we must die poem on lynching Garvy becomes leader of largest AA grassroots movement universal negro assosciation promoting emigration to Africa racial type of civilization Appeal to white and black pride Phillip Randolph gravy had the wrong track African Americans should move up in American politics American life thru social militancy Leader of the rst black labor union The Brotherhood of sleeping car porters Cultural aspects attracted attention from white intellectuals Harlem was in vogue There were interesting cultural consequences Picasso drew a LOT from African art 0 Eugene O Niel playwriter in which a black Pullman car employer becomes king of a country like Haiti Paul Robsin actor There is a new round of success literature How to be happy literature Sometimes has a Freudian twist Think yourself to success by restating an aphorism for example quotevery day in every way I m getting better and betterquot Actually just trying to convince yourself of this If it was true you wouldn t have to repeat it to yourself over and over and over again Heroes Babe Ruth 1895 born and abandoned by his family Raised in a catholic orphanage Found outlets in gambling sex and baseball Became international gure He had a public image he cultivated to become a star In 1920 there were more words written in the press about him than any other sports gure Gertrude Ederly rst woman to swim the English channel Daughter of german american butcher Won medal at 1924 olympics Shes a pioneer Faster feet than some of the men Only 110 of colleges at this time even let women participate in sports Prominent gure for women Equal health Minority View in a time of ebbing feminism Einstein Jewish Paci st considered the most brilliant man in the world theory of relativity complociated by proof sound by experiments by 1919 Considerable puzzled interest He was harder to understand than Darwin 0 People discuss science with enthusiasm not intelligence So when Einstein comes to US in 1921 his enthusiasm is greeted The popularity is not entirely spontaneous Public relations are necessary even for the smartest people Maybe especially for the smartest scientist Without good public relations could be deemed as scary He develops a public persona as being simpe unpretentious and unthreatening Einstein will not miss beer Prohibition is part of am democracy decision Likes American Movies cheerful signs in times square Rudolpho Valentino catholic violent lms pitched towards middle class audiences Sexy Alien cultures argentine gaucho Valentino was sickly high strung and suffered from ulcers eventually kills him in 1926 soon before release of son of the chic Producer of the movie is horri ed How could the star die before the movie is released Bad for movie Attempt to orchestrate his death funeral to keep his memory alive Crowds line up at 6 am for his viewing ta his funeral Women and men even dressed as gauchos By mid morning the mob smashes its way into the funeral home pushing cops and people through glass tearing at owers and rugs and anything all a souvenir His body is then carried by train across the country New popular twist on the gospel of success He was a talented immigrant who made a success in the USA in the eld of entertainment Charles Linburg lr born in 1902 son of populist congressman who opposed WWI Lingburg missed the adventure of WWI Like others he decides to take up something that might kill him like ying up in little airplanes for stunts for fun Nicknamed the quot ying foolquot 1927 he sets out to win title of rst person to y solo across the atlantic He s the only person in the cockpit He lands in Paris so nieve he s about to land that he is worried about not having a visa He s met at the airport by a huge crowd and mends relationship btw French and Americans American Ambassador of France said to state department quotdivine genius and simple couragequot of Linsburg Coolidge is delighted Ceremonies at the White House Becomes one of the worst american noninterventionists anti semite marries somebody his father would have detested Conclusion sign of dissatisfaction with ordinary daytoday life The 5 also suggest possibility of greater tolerance Two catholics a women and a Jewish paci st Two come from the world of play and entertainment These heroes come from a society getting more prosperous and less serious NOT EVERYBODY IS PROSPEROUS but the assumption is more than ever that everybody can be prosperous so there is more room in life for entertainment and play The word character drops out Restraining your emotions is not so important You need to develop masterful personality Character is important substance is something but if you really want to get ahead personality is key Prohibition 18th amendment rati ed 1919 0 20th century issue where religion was the key factor 0 all protestants with rare exception were overwhelmingly for prohibition catholics regarlesss of class where overwhelmingly opposed as were jews voldstead act written by wayne wheeler lobbyist for anti saloon league evangelical institution 0 Workers need to be more ef cient Cant be if you re drunk or hungoven Scienti c orthodoxy that any amount of alcohol is poisonous 0 Alcohol whips up lynch mobs WWI don t waste wheat on alcohol and don t give to German brewers 0 Some people think prohibition will lead to end of saloons 0 Types Dries are for prohibition Wets are against Moists straddle Dripping wets bone dries want to ban possession and consumption government will come seize any alcohol people haveL Impossible to seize alcohol already owned so people could drink what they had And could keep cider Hope was that next generation would not drink even if the current violation violated it a little bit Great noble experiment begins with extraordinary optimism Prohibition begins with 1500 federal agents Presumed that there might be violence Most states passes little voldstead acts you can be charged on the state level for drinking Many americans are using any vehicle they have to buy as much alc as they can nd Even lling baby carriages Ppl even go to funerals or showcases for their last legal drinks NYC a quarter of a million police to police the issue and another quarter of a million to police the police Speakeasies drinking establishments 2x as many exist during prohibition than did before What you drank at a ritzy place could have been good But in the low grade speakeasies could blind or kill you bad quality In parts of the country where prohibition was not popular it was ignored Federal law within the constitution is being ignored In some states they repeal the state Volstead acts If the federal government wants to enfore it they can but some states refuse to use their cops courts to enfore prohibition because they nd it pointless Grand juries had heard about 7000 cases of people violating prohbibition by selling 800 endicted 20 in trouble Clarrence Darrow sums up situation for those opposing 18th amendment should be treated with contempt and is unenforceable Cosmopolitans and drinking ethnics treated the prohibition with contempt Those who imposed the laws thought the prohibition was creating more problems than it was worth It had made a lot of criminals Hoover is a moist Roosevelt is a wet Repeal is sent to the states after democrats sweep in 1932 Even before repeal Volstead act is modi ed to allow beer Even in 1932 with unemployment over 20 edging 25 lots of Americans now a minority remained prohibitionists and thought this was a noble experiment that shouldn t end The provincials not all alike not all rural Provincial America was decisively affected by WWI as was cosmopolitan America Made some ppl want to af rm traditional values and to grow more fearfeal that those values were being undermined Fears spread by the federal government The mood could not be reversed instantly The war produced extraordinary in ation There was a series of strikes in 1919 major steel strike led by William Z Foster Boston strike by the police Continuing racial con icts riots There s a resurgence of immigrantion which had brie y been stopped by the war June 1920 and end of 1921 80000 new immigrants the kind that raise suspicions Produced in light of communist revolution Communist party forms the third international to spread communism around the world Anarchists who plant bombs Very scary Americans slide easily from the German scare to the red scare Immigrants are deported Retrospective defense Leon Trotsky Race is a big issue People are being stirred up by the reds Even after the red scare ends in 1920 people are scared in large numbers They re scared of all sorts of changes Immigration restriction laws are adopted now Kind of nativist law adopted is important The leading nativists before had hit upon the literacy tests to require admission of immigrants In the early 20 s there is a rising emphasis on restriction Starts against Asians Japanese in CA are banned from ownership of land Nativists pick up on this logical notion If our problems are caused by foreigners lets keep them all out This is the position of many Madison Grant only Nordics There were counter pressures people wanted cheap labor strikebreakers Senator Daniel Reid of PA Emergency council principal of nationality countries will be given quotas 3 of their foreign born 385000 from Europe per year No bans Extended in 1923 In 1924 Johnson Reed Act sets immigrant restriction to max of 154000 per year from Europe Nationality principal now goes back to census of 1890 you don t have many jews Italians new quota within overall number is biased towards northern protestant Europe In a given yr you could accept 65000 from Britan gt6000 from Italy gt3000 from Russia Not balanced Congress passes total ban on Japanese even though there was virtually no Japanese immigrants Pointless History Notes GOSPEL OF SUCCESS The late 1800 s were the quotage of cynicismquot according to Richard H The dominant view is that America is prosperous thriving and virtuous white upper middle class Americans Post War things in America appear to be better By the late 1800 s prosperity is at hands for anybody who wants it Within 20 years any poor man should be able to work his way up PROTESTANT ETHC work hard and systematically In the late 19th century the Gospel of Success is written This is a speci c guide on how to get ahead Contributors include 1 James Gar eld The elements of success are found from living a moral life If you fail you deserve it 9 out of 10 times the best thing for a man is to be thrown overboard to either sink or swim 2 Edward Bok magazine journalist quotThe richer you are the more you deserved itquot He believes you must be honest amp cautious stay healthy no alcohol little smoke marry a true woman and avoid controversial topics 3 Russell Conwell The primary author of the Gospel of Success He is the rst American to become rich from telling others that they can get rich He published a book called quotAcres of Diamondsquot which states that the ability to get rich is within reach for all He pitied those who were born into wealth because the quotrich man s son won t know the best of lifequot 4 Horatio Alder was not a total optimist Luck plays a role in mobility DOMINANT VALUES l character CULT OF TRUE WOMANHOOD l pure passive submissive This argued that women were freer in 1800 than in 1880 post war Men had to work and women had to stay home and work They did hard work but were considered less Meanwhile they were raising the manhood of tomorrow There were glitches within this system because free slave women cannot be passive The special role of women was to purify society The Woman s Christian Temperance Union was the largest of woman s organizations by 1880 Married women were to make home a quothaven in a heartless worldquot The Gospel of Success was con ned to men but did not specify any particular race NEW SOUTH post civil war industrializing capitalizing gospel of success for the region There was southern valor The southerners had to come to terms with their loss and embrace that they were now quot1 country 1 destination amp 1 dutyquot Advocated of the white south encouraged agriculture They had to convince the northern rich that they weren t lazy The Southern Ethic was leisure and relaxation This had to change Henry Grady the son of a merchant He was a proponent of Southern Ethic He gave a speech about how he wanted to change behavior His speech talked about the funeral of a confederate soldier whose tombstone was from Vermont coffin from Vermon shovel from Ohio coat from New York shoes from Boston etc His point was that nothing from the south was incorporated except for the corpse He believed that quotgod helps those who help themselvesquot Animosity will subside when people are stuffing their pockets with money Practicality businessgt politics In the mid to late 19th century the USA became the 1 industrial nation Men were earning 500 a week which was the highest living standard in the world In other nations small farmers set their own pace and rhythm unlike factory workers in the US Factory workers were expected to be hard working systematic and routine For the industrial system the Gospel of Success is very functional Outcome there was social mobility at lower rank but chances of moving up are better if from the elite THOMAS EDISON Technology is not controlling all medicine etc Wizard of Menlo Park Born poor Sold candy on railroads and learned how to operate telegrams Telegraphy leads to engineering electric Electrical votecounter Stockticker Telegraphs Not a pure scientist wanted commercial utility 1914 telephones have become bigsuccessful Alexander Bell s work not Edison s Edison created a 40hour burning light bulb Westinghouse becomes his rival and creates another current that Edison denounces as dangerous Invention factory Edison becomes a manufactured as well Rechargeable battery created INDUSTRIALIZATION Andrew Carnegie steel manufacturer who was an ambiguous lucky legacy He is an example of quotRags to Richesquot He was born in Scotland in 1835 his father was a part of chartism In 1848 his family moved to America and become more prosperous He was involved in bookkeeping telegraphs accounting and railroads He impressed a man named Tom Scott and became the assistant to PA railroad management He becomes part of the upper middle class amp goes on to become even richer through investments 0 He invested in things he knew from his background for example railroads bridge making amp sleeping cars o 1872 is booming in the production of steel He turns Carnegie Steel into a booming enterprise He ran a good business bought orelands in Minnesota and cut bargains with the railroads Carnegie steel was the largest industrial company by 1900 He sells it toJP Morgan for 48 million dollars 0 In 1886 he publishes a book and in 1889 publishes an essay called wealth telling the in uence of a man named Spencer who believes in social Darwinism Carnegie had 1 problem with this economic system what should the wealthy DO with all of this money quotlndiscriminate Charityquot help out public institutions such as libraries parks colleges quotPublic Projectsquot that are NOT for consumption quotGospel of Wealthquot The steel mills had wrecked Pittsburg Conditions for Steel Workers were brutal and dangerous You would work for 24 hours then be off for 24 hours Carnegie was a generous person and said he would meet his employees more than half way Labor Unions were created steel iron being the strongest In 1889 Carnegie teams up with Henry Clay Frick who persuades him to be harder on his workers Carnegie does not like this and leaves to return to Scotland Workers are supported by the public Big pay cuts are placed by Frick the workers strike and Frick res them quotPinkertonsquot l a strike breaking agency Strikers give up and the labor unions lose power until about 1930 Carnegie felt guilty about having left his company and was also upset that his reputation was damaged OPPOSING VIEWS ABOUT INDUSTRIALIZATION Walt Whitman quotDemocratic vistasquot The whole government was corrupted even judges Financial gain was the sole purpose of businesses In 1885 Woodrow Wilson writes quotcongressional governmentquot stating that the government has failed to keep up It was hard to tell the good guys from the bad For example Zach Chandler from Michigan President Grant William Tweed made room for the German but said the Irish were corrupt POLITICAL PARTIES DEMOCRATS REPUBS Elections are being held frequently Many felt that the level of federal government should be limited so their budget was pretty small The federal government resided in Washington City quotPatronage not Principlequot Richard Hoffsteader The republicans were a coalition against the expansion of slavery and felt that no more land should become slave land They precipitate the Southern Succession After the war there was some genuine desire to help slaves but this desire was also quelled by the Gospel of Success Republicans were also dedicated to helping rising businesses competition They gave federal land to small colleges for example Michigan and Rutgers They believed in a weak government They were initially formed in opposition to a group called the wigs The republicans were a preeminent party of the white protestant north They favored morals For example temperance and prohibition Stores were to close on Sundays to give people time to pray They also took from the Jacksonian Era The country was closely divided as were presidential elections The topic of slavery was very avoided by politicians The percentage of voter turnout was higher at this time than before the civil war or than today in 2013 even though the issues were arti cial and the government was small Why September 24 2013 FOREIGN POLICY MISSIONARIES Charles Beard democrat of the era wants exclusive USA use of Pearl Harbor 1840 s Manifest Destiny the US way of life is determined by a non existent god Serious Protestants argued with this Josiah Straw wanted the assimilation of immigrants He believed in a nativist hierarchy Protestant missionaries rise in the 1860 s The most in uential missionaries are in Asia Men and women go abroad to make the whole world Christian in 1 generation They are important translators because they often speak Chinese Japanese and Korean There were 3 primary problems with missionaries 1 They were not always welcome in Asia 2 There was a sense of a closed frontier The US needed to expand Vigorous foreign policy was needed 3 There was a need for foreign markets Foreign markets had ALWAYS ALWAYS existed but they were now essential for domestic peace and prosperity 4 quotPsychic crisisquot life was meaningless Many people had a post civil war mentality and thought the whole country was getting lazy and was doomed America was facing an overproduction problem They had too much to sell domestically According toJohn Foster quotall differences of opinion agree about the desirability of commercial marketsquot Brooke Adams her psychological frontier thesis was that society has downsides but it moves and conquers Then they get lazy and get conquered American s barbarian phase was coming to an end Expansion was the answer to their problems Loyalty was crucial but some thing military values are needed In the 1880 s military values become prominent in the US A modern navy is needed as is territory around the world to use as stations Oceans are the greatest highways Missionaries wanted a big navy for protection Commercial emphasis had in uenced even the godliest In the 80 s and 90 s there is a growing consensus that AT MINIMUM commercial expansion is crucial Spanish American War 1898 o quota war of choicequot Expansion could have continued without Cuba 0 America wanted cuba for quotusual double reasonsquot They were a civilized nation that hates war And second war interrupted american trade the US had in cuba and wrecked American investments In 1897 William McKinley quotbelligerent rightsquot He sends an American Representative to examine reconcentration policies Cuba is one of the unhappiest places on earth but McKinley still did not want to go to war He was pressured to New big gaudy sensational newspapers nd that the Cuba situation is a great story to play up especially William Randolph Hearst amp Joseph Pullitzer heads of the Yellow Press 0 They follow the situation avidly and send agents to Cuba Hearst starts to believe his own fabrications and rumors start 0 Spanish atrocities are a popular theme that the rebels like to play up to draw the US in for help Hearst likes to add sex elements to his stories Hearst starts a campaign to quotfree Angelinaquot an 18 year old Cuban who is jailed trying to free her imprisoned father 0 The Spanish are furious about these newspaper reportings In late 1897 things seem promising but in February of 1898 a letter is leaked and published written by a European ambassador The ambassador calls McKinley weak He was not weak he just wanted balance But Americans are infuriated because nobody is allowed to call their president weak except for them The US sends a battle cruiser to the harbor The cruiser blows up and nobody knows for certain why It was probably an internal design aw but Americans assumed that the Spaniard blew it up The US ambassador in Spain was still trying to obtain peace He thinks progress is coming In April of 1898 the Spanish grant a truce but the momentum is too strong and McKinley places the issue before congress prompting them to act and humiliate Spain The US recognizes the Spanish rebels as the main force of government in Cuba Tension rises and war erupts THIS WAS NOT THE DIRECT CAUSE OF THE WAR The prevailing view of Hayes was that this was a quotsplendid little warquot There were not too many casualties and victory was quick There was a dream of American expansionism in Asia The quotGreat China Marketquot 0 Selling to china helped America prevent panics depressions The chinese needed to use more American products such as wheat instead of rice or tobacco instead of straw o The dream of great china grows stronger Americans wanted to Americanize the Chinese 0 Anti annexationists sav this is NOT A QUIBBLE criticism Thev Oppose annexind a takeover but DO NOT oopose American expansionism in general The treaty of Phillipines is controversial It is one thing to sign the treaty and take the Philippines but it is another to take practical control This is an issue because there are actual Philippino s in the Phillipines as opposed to the situation in Cuba A brutal war erupts In 1899 a rebellion is led against Spanish control o It is so brutal that Reed says the US should apologize o The war ends in 1902 America has wanted the Phillipines because they are close to China China was a mess after losing war to Japan and many Americans want to take a chunk McKinley mulls over the idea but isn t sure All of the good cunks are already taken So America decides they will just deny the European legitimacy of these regions and will continue to trade with the Chinese powers The US is concerned with Chinese integrity and so is the whole world China was not a stable nation Boxer Rebellion is not started by a mystical group The missionaries killed a lot of people China supports the boxers attacking the westerners Western powers and Japanese think people need to be rescued McKinley doesn t consult congress and sends western troops to rampage China Many were killed out of vengeance In July 1900 there is a call for trade equality in China There is a sharp distinction between idealists and realists ldealists care about the importance of the world at the expense of American interest Realists make American interests primary and morals secondary These stereotypes are not really valid Theodore Roosevelt believed in righteousness and no isolationism He came to prominence and was a great enthusiast He was all for commercial expansionism but not sure about the sense of American mission The racial mission of Anglo Saxism was to civilize the world by containing American Indians etc The US had a special role to police the world There was no white liberal guilt Extending civilization often required the use of force Force was good but not force just for the hell of it To expand anglo saxism civilization the US has a particular role They are not the only civilized nation Others should also have a role in policing the world Theodore Roosevelt accepts this standard racial hierarchy that places Japan at the bottom However since the Japanese are so successful they have a quotspecial rolequot They are special honorary Anglo Saxist s Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe Doctrine l the nation can act with decency There is no fear for interference The US will police Latin America 0 DECENCY but this view may con ict with the view of others o It exempts Argentina Chile and Brazil FDR 19331945 First 100 days direct and vigorous actions that would take place during the rst 100 days of FDR s presidency FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation guaranteed bank customers that the federal government would reimburse them for deposits if their banks failed This restored depositors con dence in the banking system during the Great Depression NRA National Recovery Administration 1933 a Federal Agency established to promote industrial recovery It encourages industrialists to voluntarily adopt codes that de ned fair working conditions set prices and minimized competition In practice large corporations developed coeds that served primarily their own interests rather than those of workers or the economy The codes strengthened conventional business practices They were a mess They increased new deal criticisms NEW DEAL First New Deal 19331934 puts an emphasis on psychological and economic recovery It emphasizes UNITY It provides direct relief for the unemployed which is a big shift from Hooveh o 1933 M direct federal jobs such as schools and electri cation 0 Civil Works Administration small scale jobs to get people working 0 Agriculture Adiustment Act 1933 to help farmers who have been hit especially hard Essentially pays farmers not to grow their crops Farmers who didn t plant crops on parts of their farms would receive government payment for the they weren t getting from those crops 0 National Recoverv Administration production codes set to keep the economy from sinking further It doesn t meet it s goal It is dominated by the corporate elite and the codes that are produced bene t the corporate elite more than they help the workers 0 Securities and Exchange Commission 1934 an effort to bring more longterm reform when the country is out of depression The SEC was to oversee nancial markets by licensing investment dealers monitoring stock transactions and requiring corporate of cers to make full disclosures about their companies It helped clean up and regulate Wall Street 0 Second New Deal 1936 Roosevelt no longer has a quotwe are all in this togetherquot attitude He now attacks the smaller elite o Criticism of political opponents 0 Supports the wealth tax act of 1935 o Cuts the amount of money the VERY rich can keep Taxes them more Most Americans didn t pay federal taxes at this point Congress doesn t pass the act to tax the rich and the of wealth held by the 1 actually rises Unemployment Insurance and Retirement Provisions 0 Wagner Act 1935 guarantees the right of union organization 0 Works Proqress Administration of 1935 an appropriation of 5 million dollars This gives unemployed Americans government funded jobs on public works projects including roads bridges parks and public buildings 0 OVERALL puts 13 of the unemployed to work 0 The 3 main goals of the New Deal are Relief for the unemployed Recovery of farms and businesses and to reform the government In order to do this the economic crisis must be xed A balance must be found between consumption and production Individuals must be protected and wealth must be spread WWII Americans hoped that action would prevent the US from participating in the war FDR thought that increased trade and increased peace go hand and hand The New Deal established the export import bank still in business for the government to make overseas loans WILSON 19131921 Wilson had focused his life and career on domestic concerns and in his campaign for the presidency had hardy mentioned the world abroad He was not concerned about foreign interest He was ProExpansionist and had a strong sense of mission He was willing to use force Monroe Doctrine Sherman AntiTrust Act ProTrade dollar diplomacy quotI want you to do what I say because otherwise I will hold back money from youquot Lusitania uboats The Lusitania was a British passenger liner torpedoed by a German Uboat on May 7 1915 The attack killed 1198 passengers including 128 Americans Although the Germans claim that the sinking of the Lusitania was a mistake nobody knows for certain The Lusitania was carrying ammunition A few months later another British liner is sunk Then a few months later a French liner is sunk Wilson demands that the Germans STOP all submarine warfare The Germans agree to stop They don t stop More ships are sunk and by April of 1916 Wilson has no choice but to declare war Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan paci st Bryan wishes that Wilson would be more strict with the British Bolshevik Revolution First Red Scare communists Treaty of Versailles in France 0 ends WWI France Britain and the US are present 0 Wilson s 14 points goals for the future including open conveyance international diplomacy freedom of the seas and a league of nations 0 Germany must pay reparations These reparations were a bad idea People got mad and they wanted reparations to be paid as a form of punishment so that Germany would hurt But it caused a great deal of trouble


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