FINAL EXAM NOTES
FINAL EXAM NOTES history 1301
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This 292 page Bundle was uploaded by Erika Erwin on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Bundle belongs to history 1301 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Scott Comar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see U.S. History Since 1865 in History at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 12/08/15
Class Details Key terms will be posted under “modules” on blackboard in the order they will be discussed in class PowerPoints will be posted to coincide with each lecture. These will also be posted under “modules” The day before the exams there will be reviews The day before there will be given 6 exam essays and on the day of the test we will have to answer 2 of them Do not get bogged down on the details on the tests An essay on the first test will definitely be about Corn and/or the Columbian Exchange. (Take a look at the 826 ppt. infographic photos Exam 1 Details MUST GO OVER TEXTBOOK 30 Multiple choice and 1 essay. 2 will be listed but you choose one. Check blackboard for questions – Columbian Exchange (POSITIVE: CROPS, NEGATIVE: DISEASE), unification towards America Know Key Terms Essay will be up to a page Essay is worth 40 points Exam II Details Rise of first and second national banks and Articles will likely be essay questions Make sure to differentiate between 1at and 2 banks EXAM ESSAY CAN BE OVER QUIZ 4 SUBJECTS (Know the 4 main things) Know about the 2 sides of Thomas Jefferson. (For small government, for agrarian society. When he went into office he realized this ideology would not work. He saw the need of bigger government and propagated industrialization) ESSAY WILL MOST LIKELY ALSO BE ABOUT THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK o Know who made it o Who was against it Look over the PPT Know the dates and get the order of the events down. Especially the events leading up to the War of 1812 ESSAY: RISE OF NATIONALISM (CHIEF JUSTICE AND 3 COURT CASES) HIST 1301 8/26 Key Terms Bering Strait Corn/Maize Three Sister Farming Christopher Columbus Columbian Exchange Treaty of Tordesillas Juan Ponce de Leon Francisco Coronado Hernando de Soto Francisco Pizarro Encomienda Hernan Cortes Beginning Class Notes Locke wrote of a place with no money, thus no gov’t control of greed For the colonists the new world was not “paradise”. It was a place of malice and violence, and the unknown 2000 BC humans begin to write Inhuewad Duana was one of the most famous writers (woman) 33,000 – 8000 BCE people first came from Asia At this time there was still an ice age Lowered sea level because of ice age About 10,000 years ago the ice age ended, this cut immigration for thousands of years but opened up some land and passages Some people were able to cross and made it to South America 54 million people inhabited America in 16 century MesoAmerica About 5000 BC cultivated maize (corn) Took thousands of years of selective farming to get corn Corn became the foundation of the centralized Incan and Aztec civilizations Corn eventually made it across the continent Corn was grown everywhere and thus humans became agriculturally based This process was very slow and gradual The Incan and Aztecs were very ahead of other civilizations Pueblo people came about (pueblo = village (in Spanish)) 3 sister farming – Native American people in the northeast found that when they ate corn and beans at the same time they were energized, because beans compensated for what the corn did not (protein). Corn, beans, and squash were the 3 sister foods. CORN WILL LIKELY BE AN ESSAY QUESTION ON EXAM Native had neither the means or desire to manipulate nature like the Europeans did Europeans were surprised by all the forestry Native Americans were very thinly stretched across the land The later Europeans explorers brought a shift in history of the world. In the 15 century Europeans wanted cheaper products from beyond the Mediterranean. They wanted to experiment with new things/products. Africa was established as slave labor. In Spain a modern national state took shape. Spread of scientific knowledge like printing press (1450) Christopher Columbus Convinced queen to arm him with 3 ships. He took sailors along with him, in 1492 October the crew sighted an island in the Bahamas. This was one of the most successful failures in history. They accidently found this continent, although it took them a while to realize it was a continent, not an Island. Columbus named the natives the “Indians”, because he was originally looking for the West Indies. Thanks to his discovery, we achieved an economic system that is very expansive. This was referred to as the triangle trade. Columbian Exchange Externalities: an event takes place that takes an impact. i.e. person gets vaccinated, thus doesn’t get/give infection, if they don’t get vaccine then they can spread infection (negative externality) 60 percent of today’s crops originated in the Americas In this exchange new animals were found, plants, crops (tobacco, corn, beans, tomatoes, potatoes), the diet of the Europeans Hispaniola: Columbus found this place and herded horses, pigs, sugarcane and more. This led to the shift to make natives hunters rather than crop based. The sugar cane led to the revolution of the European diet Biggest negative externalities were the DISEASES that the Europeans brought over to the Americas. Natives had no immunities to these diseases. Small pox, malaria, etc. Over time these diseases were immune to Europeans Within 50 Years the pop. Of Hispaniola went from 1 million to 200 due to diseases When the natives got these diseases THEY HAD NOT EVEN ENCOUNTERED THE EUROPEANS DIRECTLY Syphilis came about as well Conquistadores The Spanish saw the gold etc. in South America and were intrigued Treaty of Tordesillas 1495: This divided the “heathen land” between Spain and Portugal Spain soon became the dominate power of colonizing During this time a lot of religious reformation was going on so the English couldn’t be bothered to colonize Juan Ponce de Leon found and explored Florida and had sought gold and the famed fountain of youth but was killed by Natives Francisco Coronado was in the quest of the golden cities which ended up being the Pueblos. His party discovered the Grand Canyon and Buffalos Hernando De Soto undertook a fantastic gold seeking expedition between 1539 and 1542. He discovered the Mississippi River and the Arkansas River. He died from wounds from the natives. He had treated the natives very horribly. In 1532 Pizarro he laid waste to the Incan power of Peru By 1600 Spain was engulfed in Silver, this touched off a price revolution, this fueled the economic growth of Capitalism Silver led to the discovery of the commercial banking system that we even use today Specie would be a form of payment in any of the precious metals The most important of the techniques that subdued the natives was the encomienda. This violent system allowed to essentially assimilate natives to Christianity through slavery. Hernan Cortez Cortez was a Spanish gold seeker. In 1519 he set sail from Cuba with 11 ships for Mexico. He rescued a Spanish cast away from the natives. He also took a native woman that can speak the language of the native people. Upon landfall near present day Vera Cruz the Aztecs demanded stuff from the subsidiary tribes. Cortez and others got sick of the Aztecs, he also learned of their treasure in Tenochtitlan. He lusted to get their treasure. He burned his own ships to prove that he wasn’t going to leave until he took their treasure. When the Aztec chief heard about this he (Moctezuma) sent ambassadors to give Cortez gifts, this only exacerbated Cortez’s lust for their treasure. The Aztecs then thought that Cortez was a god. Tenochtitlan had a pop. Of about 300k spread across about 10 sq. mi. This place was surrounded by gardens and was beautiful. They had humanmade aqueducts for fresh water. In 1520 the Spanish finally attacked the Aztecs, and in 1521 this capitulated, but at this time there was also a small pox epidemic. The Aztec fall led to 3 century rule by Spanish. The temples were broke down and made into Churches. 8/28 Key Terms Joint Stock Company Virginia Company John Smith Starving Time Lord De La Warr Powhatan’s Confederacy Tobacco John Rolfe Sugar Indentured Servants Rice Spanish Expansion th The Spanish empire grew in the 16 century Peru and Mexico grew very fast 160k Spaniards subjugated millions of natives Universities were erected In 1551 the first two colleges were found The English began to send their own in 1497 John Cabot also came to explore northeastern America The Spanish saw this as the other countries encroaching on their land, so they began fortifying themselves against the French and English St. Augustine Florida was a very important settlement and is the oldest most inhabited in the modern U.S. Roman Catholic Missions became the central part of New Mexico There was a major battle in 1599 the Spanish beat the natives and severed one foot from each of the survivors and claimed the new place as New Mexico and founded Santa Fe in 1610 Hope’s Rebellion 1680: Happened between the pueblo and the Spanish. They killed hundreds of priests and settlers and destroyed their churches. The Pueblo then rebuilt temples in place of the churches called Heavas. In 1716 the Spanish began making permanent settlements The Spanish settlements in the north remained weak In 1769 the Spanish set up the first mission in modern day San Diego (first of 21). They did this to assimilate the natives, 3k were brought in from the area. Many of them died because of disease. This led to the Black Legend: concept that the settlers intentionally infected them with disease, treated them badly on purpose, etc. The Spanish also began incorporating native cultures into their own. English Colonies North of Mexico remained virtually unexplored Jamestown Virginia (1607) Most English did not expand because of religious strife (protestant reformation) By the turn of the century England had a bad economy and growing population. This alarmed many of the English. Joint Stock Company: this led investors to pool their capital. These were all private investors. By 1600 they had a small amount of peace with the Natives In 1596 Virginia Company (J.S Company) received a ‘go’ to create a settlement. This company was only supposed to last a couple of years. Few investors thought in terms of the long term, it was all a quick trade. The natives were given equal rights as the English In 1606 the Virginia Companies 3 ships landed at Chesapeake Bay and were attacked. The then went to the James River that had a lot of bugs, malaria, etc. The beginning of Jamestown was a hell The “selfentitled” gentlemen that came to Jamestown had no idea what they were doing and were only cared about the gold which didn’t really exist The Virginia Colony was saved by a smart change in leadership, by giving the position to John Smith. He whipped the colonists into shape by saying one single thing“he who shall not work, shall not eat.” Despite Smiths best efforts, the colonists still died in droves In the winter of 16091610 proved to be a very difficult time now known as “the starving time” Starving Time People began eating dogs There were a lot of crazy stories. These provided colonial leaders a scapegoat by allowing them to have excuses that people were crazy, it also let them say that the starving time was a special time that wouldn’t happen again America was seen as a paradise, but not after this stuff 400 colonists came but only 60 of them survived the starving time Lord De La Warr When the 60 came back hey saw a new ruler, Lord De La Warr Warr sent them back to the colonies and sent back soldiers etc. He instituted Marshall Law, basically and said to kill off a lot of the Native Americans There was a famous book written that said “most people were killed by famine” Powhatan’s Confederacy Powhatan was the leader of all native tribes and thus created a confederacy. Thus the natives were labeled the “Powhatans” First the natives wanted peace, but relations remained tense. In 1610 there was a declaration of war The war peacefully ended in 1614 with the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe The Natives eventually won The peace treaty was made in 1644 The native confederacy downfall was caused by the 3 D’s: disease, disorganization, disposability The natives served no economic function for the colonists (the natives of Virginia). They had no commodities etc. This foreshadowed that all natives would become a part of Americans John Rolfe and Tobacco Tobacco was the number 1 cash crop in the U.S. Today the biggest crop today in the U.S is Chickpeas (used to make hummus) Tobacco swept over all of Europe Rolfe began cultivating tobacco Tobacco used to be not very tasty but Rolfe made it better. He thus became the economic savior of Europe. By 1612 he was able to eliminate the bitterness of tobacco. This made Europe go crazy for tobacco. Plants were thus planted EVERYWHERE, eve between coffins Tobacco was a very easy crop to make and was harvestable in less than a year. This destroyed the soil. This began the lust for more land. The very same colonists that were eating their own shit a few years ago started blazing By the end of the 17 century there were 40 million pounds of tobacco exported every year. This led to a price drop due to high supply. The farmers instead planted MORE tobacco, which drove the price lower. Planting needed workers to do the work, but the slaves were too expensive to buy for the Virginia colonies Indentured Servants This led to indentured servitude by some of the English. Most were the disenfranchised people from England. These people voluntarily mortgaged their freedom for 47 years. In return for their work they were given the opportunity to travel back and forth and freedom dues which were things like clothes, axes, land, etc. Sugar Cane In the West Indies sugar cane became the cash crop Tobacco was a poor man’s crop. Sugar Cane was the rich man’s crop. It had to be planted well, required a lot of land, workers needed to clear land so you had to pay a lot to get it planted (capital intensive). So only a few investors that were really rich could succeed in this business. These people imported a quarter million slaves. These slaves eventually outnumbered the English 4:1. To control this large resistive population the English made the slave code of 1661, this denied even the most basic human rights and gave the right to do whatever they want to them. It was said that they were not people, but they were property Rice Carolina company was erected in 1670 Carolina prospered economically because of their economic relationship with the West Indies because they wanted something else that sugar cane In 1707 the savannah natives decided to end their relations with the English, they then went to establish the Quaker area. William Penn made this come true because he wanted better relations By the 1730’s 70% of the population was made up of African slaves Farmers began growing rice This made some of the planters in the region very wealthy 8/31 Key Terms Adam Smith John Oglethorpe Protestant Reformation Calvinism Predestination Separatists Pilgrims Mayflower compact William Bradford Massachusetts Bay colony Anne Hutchinson Antinomianism Salem Witch Trials Bacon’s Rebellion Adam Smith Wrote “Wealth of Nations” where he said people don’t do things out of the kindness of their hearts, but they do this to gain profit/support ourselves. He also said this wasn’t selfish. This began the groundwork for Capitalism Investors are what fueled the growth of farming, Smith said essentially w/out English investors the growth wouldn’t have been possible Topdollar was paid for slaves that were good at planting rice Economies were technically built on the backs of African slaves, who took care of the crops John Oglethorpe Georgia was founded in 1773, this was the last of the 13 colonies founded. This was a whole 126 years after the founding of Virginia The English crown intended Georgia to function as a buffer (barrier) Georgia was launched by a group of philanthropists Georgia produced milk, wine, and mainly made to take care of people that had debt (debtors prison) Oglethorpe saved Georgia by being a leader and putting his own money into saving it All Christians except Catholics wanted Freedom of Religion Georgia was where John Westley came from. He went back to England and founded the Methodist Church. Methodists have Grape juice, etc. instead of wine, the Church was for the people that messed up in life and wanted to fix it. Georgia had restrictions on African slavery Protestant Reformation 1517 Martin Luther nailed his written protests on Churches He said the BIBLE ALONE is people’s connection w/god, not the Church or pope etc. This kindled the spiritual revolution Calvinism John Calvin continued Luther’s words In 1536 John Calvin laid out “Institutes of the Christian Religion” where he said god was “all good” but people were the ones that become heathens, and god decides who goes to Heaven or Hell and their fate is predestined which is called “Predestination” Separatists/Pilgrims Puritanism was the religion of the common man The Puritans wanted to see the England Church brought down Separatists vowed to break away from the church entirely James I was afraid that if people would disobey his religion then they could defy his country/rule James I was rightfully afraid of the separatists, who ended up killing his son Charles I The puritans wanted a place where they could live and die as English The Virginia made a company and rode the pilgrims out to North America. On the ride there only 1 person died and had 1 person born at sea (named Oceanis) The Pilgrims did not land on Plymouth Rock, they landed on the uninhabitable Plymouth Bay. There they had no right to settle there Mayflower Compact This was signed on the ship. This was more of a gentleman’s agreement to form a crude government and to submit the will of majority upon themselves to be civil. The winter of 1621 was a rather grizzly one, of the 122, only 44 survived, and only 7 of them were well enough to bury the dead. The separatists did not depart the land because they really wanted it The next autumn rewarded those who stayed. This was when Thanksgiving came about. They had “fur, fig, and lumber” to drive their economy. Their Leader was William Bradford William Bradford First governor of Plymouth. Plymouth wasn’t a very big economic area. (Low population, etc.) He was afraid that nonseparatists would ruin everything, he didn’t want outsiders, only puritans He led the Puritans, essentially. By 1691 the population was only about 7,000 Massachusetts Bay Colony The people here were less concerned with god but were concerned for cod (fish) They were very moral and spiritual Charles I dismissed the Parliament that developed, after this the Massachusetts Bay colony developed 70,000 refugees left England, not all were Puritans, and only 20,000 ended up at Massachusetts Bay. Most of these people were welleducated. This was known as the Great Migration. Anne Hutchinson/Antinomianism Puritans preached that women were a “necessary good” whereas England said they were evil Puritan authorities always “put women back in their place”. Hutchinson brought the offense to these people and was very smart and debated well. She carried the ideas of Predestination to the extreme. Hutchinson said that those who were destined to heaven did not have to obey mankind, this was known as Antinomianism Antinomianism said that the predestined did not have to care about being holy/follow laws Anne finally explained her beliefs came to her directly from god, so she was banished because she seemed crazy. She walked all the way with her family to Rhode Island and settled in New York. She ended up being killed along with her family by natives In all the colonies the Churches served as hotspots for the colonies/settlements Women also played a role in the Salem Witch Trials Salem Witch Trials This led to the lynching of 20 people in 1692, and they hung 2 dogs (called demondogs) Witch hunts were commonplace in Europe so it spread to the colonies Peopled aimed witchery at single, landowning women, because they were more independent and did not rely on men Accusations came from small farmers (poor) Puritans believed that the lust for riches was bad Trials ended in 1693 only when the governors own wife was accused of witchcraft, the governor then pardoned all the imprisoned for witchcraft The witch trials came about because something bad happened (bad crop season) and people needed a scapegoat The trials created the delusion that created the craziness 9/2 Key Terms Bacon's Rebellion William Berkley Edict of Nantes Samuel de Champlain coureurs de bois Robert de La Salle War of Jenkin's Ear George Washington French and Indian War Seven Years War Albany Congress Benjamin Franklin Bacon’s Rebellion th In the late 17 century, freemen wandered around Chesapeake area. This growing number plagued the planters of Virginia. Governor of Virginia said it sucks that all these In 1676, 1000 Virginians broke out in rebellion led by Nathaniel Bacon. Many of the followers were frontiersmen in search of arable land. These people resented Governor Berkeley’s kindness to natives. Rebellion chased Berkley out of town and raided natives and they burned the capital of Jamestown to the ground. While this sort of war went on, Bacon died of disease, then Berkley Came back and hung some of Bacon’s followers. The king back at England said Bacon killed way too many people, more than he himself had for the death of his father. Tensions still remained after Bacon’s death. Trust was lost in the labor class (indentured servants) so they turned to African slaves Edict of Nantes France was a latecomer in the settlement of America because it had a lot of religious strife. On St. Bartholomew’s Day 1572 Roman Catholics and Huguenots were killed (over 10,000) In 1598 the Edict of Nantes came in. This limited religious freedom for some of the French. The wars kindof seized. They emerged as the most mightiest and feared nation in Europe th The French were led by great ministers and King Louie the 14 . He ruled for a little over 70 years. Louie began to take interest in the sea colonies, so in 1608 the French settlement was established. They took control of the St. Lawrence River. The leading figure in establishing the empire was Samuel Champlain Samuel De Champlain Father of New France Due to this, France made a lasting hatred by some tribes (Iroquois). So these natives started raiding and fighting alongside the Brits. The govt. of New France (Canada) was under control of the Brits, this put them under autocratic rule By about 1750, right before the French and Indian war, only 60,000 people inhabited New France. There was little economic incentive to move, and there was the Edict so they had limited religious freedom. Sugar can be turned into rum. Sugarcane was grown in the Caribbean Coureurs de Bois One good that the French went for were beavers (to make clothes). These were called fur trappers. These people were called Coureurs de bois (French for “runners of the woods”) They spent a lot and drank Beaver pop. In some places became wiped out. This inflicted high ecological damage. Some French explorers wanted to make a new French empire instead of hunt beavers, with this Detroit was found (1701) Robert de LaSalle He fought back the English and founded Louisiana. He failed to find the Mississippi Delta and landed in Spanish Land and was murdered there New Orleans was founded in 1718, This served the growing furtrade War of Jenkin’s Ear th Turn of the century into 18 century The French and English both wanted to make friends with natives to fight each other Neither the French nor English felt they needed to send in their own troops. They used guerilla tactics to fight (somewhat of acts of terrorism). They did this to inflict fear. This is where we get words like “hard war” and “total war” During Queen Anne’s war, Spain allied w/France but in 1713 they were beat bad 1713 there was also a treaty made. This is when they named Nova Scotia. There was a small period of peace between French and English During this time England provided colonies with “salutary neglect” Following this treaty in 1713, the Brits had limited trade rights, but there was a lot of trouble. The ill feeling flared up when a brit captain encountered Jenkins. One of the Spanish sliced Jenkin’s Ear off and said to carry his ear to his king. This aroused the old resentment for the Spanish. In 1739 War broke out, but this was small scaled. This scuffold merged w/the War of Austrian Succession. These two combined became known as King George’s War. Recruits started raiding French land The Peace treaty of 1748 handed the fortress back to the French The Ohio valley became the nexus of refute between the English and French. The French needed it to connect Canada to the Miss. River. The Brits were determined to fight for this land (upper Ohio Valley) this led to the tipping point. In 1749 G. Wash. secured half a million acres of land George Washington French were busy making a fort In 1754 history was made, G.W. was made a commander. The Virginians fired the first shots of a new war. G.W. wrote “I heard the bullets whistle, and there is something charming in the sounds.” GW established a fort called “Fort Necessity” He was called to give up his command in July of 1754 With the start of fighting the Brits took action in Nova Scotia. They violently deported the French. These French speaking Acadians are now called “Cajuns” today th The first three wars were for the English, but the 4 started and began in America. 17541760 Seven Year’s War This was a seven seas war (global conflict) In Europe, England and Prussia vs French Spain, Austria, and Russia The bloodiest theatre was in Germany. King Frederic kicked ass against a lot of people against his odds 9/9 Key Terms Albany Congress Edward Braddock Fort Duquesne William Pitt James Wolfe Battle of Quebec Pontiac’s Uprising Proclamation of 1763 Transportation Anglicanism Congregationalism Albany Congress There was no unity in the wars and conflicts between the English and the French. Even the Natives were able to form confederacies and laughed at the English The Government summoned a congress in Albany, New York. The immediate purpose was to keep the Iroquois in check w/the British. The long term goal was to unify the colonies to fight against the French. A month before the congress came together the picture of the cut up snake came up. This showed the disunity between the colonies, it said “Join or Die,” This was made by Benjamin Franklin. He devised the Albany Plan. Congress adopted this, but the colonies and the Crown denied this. This confirmed Franklin’s observation that everyone agreed on union. General Braddock Experienced general was sent 60 year old general In 1755, a year after GW fights, Braddock set out to capture fort Duquesne Then, Fort Necessity was set up. Braddock set out to capture Fort Duquesne w/ 2000 men. These people were trained. The illdisciplined militiamen Muskets back then were very inaccurate. The English used guerilla warfare The path made by Braddock would be used by future travelers A little west of Fort Duquesne, Braddock encountered smaller native tribes and French. Bunch of Brits died. GW had 4 shots go through his coat, Braddock was mortally wounded. The entire British Forces were routed. Ft. Duquesne was a nexus point of starting the French and Indian War Motivated by this victory, the Natives widened their war path. Local authorities started offering money for native scalps. In 1756, the British launched a full scale invasion of Canada. The Brits attempted to take up a bunch of places instead of concentrating on specific places, which would have helped them win quickly. Because of this, the British lost. William Pitt Tall imposing figure w/flashing eyes and a hawklike face. He was intimidating. He was known as “The Great Commoner” because the common people loved him. He believed passionately in his causes, country and himself. He became the FOREMOST leader in the London Government 1754 He earned the title “Organizer of Victory” He began to soft peddle the assault on the Indies. He started to focus attack on the vitals of Canada and picked out new young energetic generals In 1758, Pitt launched an expedition to capture Louis port. This Fort fell under the siege and was the first successful victory of the British war. Next on the list was 1759, which was Quebec. James Wolfe Pitt made this guy general, he’s been a general since 14 so he was very experienced. He had a close attention to detail. He sent people to Quebec. The French and British Armies fought in Quebec. This was known as the “Battle of Quebec.” In 1760 the French had lost, and the British took power In 1763 the French were practically gone, but small minorities still existed (French Canada). The French ceded Louisiana and Mississippi. Great Britain appeared as the dominant power in North America and the great naval power. The colonists had increased confidence in the military. They gained experience, etc. The Spanish erased this sense of security. GW was demoted. The colonies ended up making trade with the French, etc. This was high treason. Most of this was food, which kept the enemies from dying of starvation that would’ve helped the British win earlier. Only after Pitt offered to reimburse the colonists did the colonists start to do something. Unity did receive some encouragement during the war. Years of disunity began to melt after the war. This was the beginning of forming the New Nation. Some historians say this was the beginning of America. The end of the war affected the colonists’ attitudes. The Spanish and native threat was substantially reduced after the war. The Treaty of Paris in 1763 dealt a blow to the interior tribes and ended the 7 Years War. Pontiac’s Uprising Ottawa chief that gathered a bunch of people to drive the Brits out of the valley. This was also known as Pontiacs Rebellion. This force eventually overran most of Detroit. They killed about 2000 settlers. The British Commander ordered blankets infected with small pox to be sent to the natives. This destroyed the uprising and Pontiac died in 1769. The government in London issues Proclamation of 1763 Proclamation of 1763 Prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains The colonists ended up braking the law because they thought they were entitled to it after fighting in the war. All these people wound up clogging the trails. Following the 7 years’ war, the colonists saw no conflicts, high birthrates, and felt they were a newly revitalized people who didn’t need to be constrained. The Brits wanted to keep control but were getting annoyed as well. This set the stage for an allout revolution Transportation The roads were shit Since these man made dirt roads were so bad, people used man made waterways to travel. This made hubs. All social classes would mingle at the Taverns, which proved to be another form of democracy. Taverns were the hotbeds of agitation and were where people made opinions Churches and religion played a big role in the colonies Religion In 1775 Anglicanism and Congregationalism were the 2 big religions. Anglicanism is the English Church which was led by the King. The Anglican church fell short of its promise and clung to a religion that was not as serious and had a positive outlook Anglicans were opposed by many colonists. Congregationalists were the New Lights. They split over the argument of Predestination. Religious toleration made strides in N.A. The crown tried to make changes to the colonies through the Church of England 9/11 Key Terms Great Awakening Arminianism Jonathan Edwards George Whitefield Old Lights/New Lights republicanism (little r) Radical Whigs mercantilism George Grenville Sugar Act Quartering Act Stamp Act The Great Awakening In the early colonies religion was less fervid The puritan churches were stopped by two things: legalizing membership requirements (full of Holy Spirit and prove it) and complicated religious scriptures. Liberal ideas started and questioned predestination and could redeem themselves through good work (Arminianism) Arminianism Taught that individual free will decided a person’s fate. Churches began to accept that spiritual conversion was not necessary for membership. This led to the Great Awakening Redemption through good work Jonathan Edwards This dominated through the 1730s1740s Edwards came up with the idea of redeeming oneself. He made “Sinners in the Hand of Angry Gods” and said hell fucking sucked ass. His sermons of Hell’s torments were famous. But in 1738 George Whitefield came in George Whitefield Used a different style of preaching. He had a great voice and gave gifts. He talked about divinity. He brought Edwards to tears and made Ben Franklin empty his pockets for charity. His style spread through the colonies and other preachers started copying him. They used a lot of emotion and influenced a lot of people. The Orthodox Clergy was known as the Old Lights. They really questioned all this emotion. Many believers ended up going to the Baptists. The Awakenings emphasis on direct spirituality undermined the Old Clergy. There was a mass spontaneous movement of the American people (Great Awakening). This made a lot of people feel unity through religion and shared experiences. They developed common goals and aspirations. Colonists felt like the new world was free to their choices “r”epublicanism Defended a just society Stresses liberty, unalienable rights Rejects aristocracy Political philosophy that influenced the founding fathers The Radical Whigs gave the second big influence. They opposed the crown and warned to be vigilant of threats against ones liberties. The republicans and Whigs united against the crown, essentially. This further weakened British authority. In 1763 Britain tried to tighten its grip. The only official colony founded by the crown was Georgia, the rest were made by companies etc. Mercantilism Wealth is Power This is what the British used to justify that the colonies were theirs. A companies exports must be greater than imports to make profit Economic theory that trade generates wealth A country’s military strength and political power is measured by wealth So the government in London saw the colonies as just tools. The Brits said they could nullify any law that was passed in the colonies if the law(s) defied mercantilism Until 1763, the constraints were loosely enforced. Americans also redirected benefits from them. The British Government paid colonists money for ship parts, some colonists enjoyed a monopoly in the market. Despite these benefits, it stifled incentive. Steven Landsburg the Economist said people respond to incentives, the rest is just commentary. The British failed to see a nation coming forth In 1763 the British came out of the war having one of the largest empires in the entire world but also the largest debt. 140 million pounds, half was from the colonies defense. So they demanded repayment. George Grenville Passed the Sugar Act in 1764 to extract revenue from the colonists. There were many complaints so they lowered them. But, in 1765 they passed the Quarter Act, where the colonists had to house Brit. Soldiers. Then the Stamp Act was made. It was mandated where the colonists had to use stamped paper to a wide range of documents. The British had been paying a stamp act for about 20 years and was heavier The idea of trial by jury and innocent until proven guilty were held very dear. “No taxation w/out representation” was yelled by colonists. The Americans made a difference between legislation and taxation, but they denied the fact that they had to pay taxes to the Crown, only the colonies could pass taxes on themselves. They said this impeded on Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness. The Crown thought this was stupid. He said there was “virtual representation” where he represented everyone known to be British. Even if the colonists had representatives, they wouldn’t be enough The no taxation w/out representation stuck with the colonists dearly. This forced Americans to deny everything by Parliament. This logic eventually led to revolutionary consequences. 9/14 Key terms Stamp Act Congress Nonimportation Agreements The Daughters/Sons of Liberty Declaratory Act Townshend Acts The Boston Massacre The Boston Tea Party Intolerable Acts Quebec Act First Continental Congress Lexington and Concord Stamp Act Repeal of Stamp Act happened. 27 delegates from 9 colonies met together to get parliament to repeal the Act. This was ignored by England and had no big impact, but this rippled across the colonies and other leaders began to defy it as well. This brought colonial unity Nonimportation agreements were made in the colonies so they didn’t buy from England. This was another step toward unity. This gave men and women more opportunity to protest. Women made home spun cloth to make up for British textiles. Violence often accompanied these protests by the Sons and Daughters of Liberty. They decided to take things into their own hands. They enforced nonimportation agreements. Patriotic mobs would ransack houses of unpopular officials. The Machinery in place for collecting taxes started being broken down. Tax collectors ended up resigning. England was hit hard by this boycott. Half of all British shipping was dedicated to colonial trade and the colonies made up 25% of British exports. Many English were laid off and this resulted in an English recession. After debate, parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1776. This made New York very happy. But the Declaratory Act was also passed Declaratory Act This banded the colonies and said England was in charge. It said it would not yield sovereignty to the colonies. But the colonies really wanted some degree of sovereignty. Parliament could make any law for the colonies Townshend Acts Light duty on glass, white lead, paper, paint and tea. This was an indirect customs duty. This was a phantom distinction to the colonists because they just saw it as another tax. The revenues of the taxes were to pay salaries in England for judges, etc. This act was indirect AND it was lighter In 1767 parliament started taking action and suspended the legislature of New York. These non importation agreements were brought back but they didn’t have the same impact. This Act was more lighter and indirect The British landed two regiment of troops in 1768 to subdue the colonists. A clash was inevitablth On the 5 of March colonists started throwing rocks and snowballs at the troops The Boston Massacre The reason they were throwing stuff was because of the death of a child. The troops opened fire without order and killed 11 people John Adams was a lawyer and defended the British troop so that only 2 were found guilty. John Adams was the future president of the U.S. Technically, British troops fired upon their OWN people By 1770 King George III was only 32 and he was trying to assert the power of the monarchy. He was a good guy but a bad ruler. He wanted power. He surrounded himself with yesmen, including his Prime Minister Lord North. The Townshend Acts failed to make revenue. The net revenue for one year was 295 pounds compared to the 170,000 pounds the English sent to the U.S. for defense North convinced parliament to repeal the Acts but the tax on tea was kept. The tea act was kept to keep the fact that the English could tax the colonies Some resistance was bolstered by Samuel Adams. He lived and breathed for politics. Zealous and tenacious he strongly believed in republicanism and he appealed to common people. He referred to them as his “trained mob.” Multiple towns set up organizations, in 1773 Virginia set up the House of Burges These intercolonial groups were good at unifying people. They essentially led to the first U.S. congress The nonimportation agreements were weakening and colonists were still paying taxes, but in 1773 the East Indian Company came about. This company had 17 million pounds of unsold tea, so they were facing bankruptcy. If they failed the British would be hurt bad. Not a single one of the Company’s barrels made it to America In Annapolis Maryland colonists set ablaze a ship full of tea. Mass. Gov. Thomas Hutchinson refused to be overpowered by this defiance. He was determined not to budge. He agreed the law was unjust but also said the colonies had no right to defy laws set by the British. Boston Tea Party th On the 16 of December 1773, about 100 Bostonians dressed as natives and bust open 300 boxes of tea and through it into the harbor Tea was the perfect thing to rally around because everyone drank it Reactions to the event varied. Some sided w/England. Hutchinson fled to England after the Tea Party Few British politicians were willing to concede Intolerable Acts 1774 The response by England was the point of no return. The decision was the passage of the intolerable acts (1774). Meant to punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party Closed Boston Harbor until damages were paid and order was ensured Colonists would have to go to England to stand trial There was also the Quartering Act thrown in this The Quebec Act was also passed. This was known to be good law and bad company. The French were guaranteed their Catholic religion. They were also permitted to retain their customs, except representative government. This act allowed the French minority in Canada to keep their religion. It was sort of a spinoff of the Intolerable Acts. The Americans hated the Quebec Act because it had a much larger range, it sent a dangerous precedent. It alarmed land speculators. It enraged antireligious people as well because of the Church of England. This punishment seemed too harsh for the crime First Continental Congress The most memorable of the responses of the Intolerable Acts was the creation of the First Continental Congress in 1774. They met in Philadelphia to address ways to redirect colonial grievances, and to continue the idea of unity amongst the colonies. 12/13 colonies were represented here, BESIDES GEORGIA. These 12 colonies sent people like Sam and John Adams, GW and Patrick Henry. The most significant action of the congress was the creation of “The Association” This was unlike previous nonimp. Agreements because it completely boycotted goods imported from England AND stopped exports to England. The delegates were not calling out for full independence, John Adams only wanted to revolt and fight back. They only wanted to repeal the offensive legislation and return to happier times (pre1763). A fatal drift toward war continued because Parliament rejected Congresses invitation. Lexington and Concord So the British wound up sending people to stop colonial business and take the rebels Samuel Adams and John Hancock in 1775. The colonial minutemen didn’t move fast enough and shots were fired that killed 8 Americans. This was more of a massacre than a battle. Then there was a SHOT HEARD AROUND THE WORLD 2 ½ million colonists were surprisingly able to fight back against the large British forces. The British had enough money to even hire soldiers (Hessians). Some British officers said the war would be no problem. But England was actually weaker than people had thought. There was a volcano problem and the London Gov’t had no order and proper leader (no William Pitt) only Lord North and the King. The English Whigs cheered on the Americans to win. This fight was for liberty as well as freedom. If the Americans had resisted long enough the Whigs could come in to power. The English generals were secondrate, the soldiers were brutally treated. Provisions were scarce and unhealthy. The French were still attacking the English whenever they were given the chance. Remember, the British Empire isn’t just England and America, they had places everywhere and had to worry about all of them. The British took every city they could conquer. The Americans traded space for time. While the English were killing Americans, there were more Americans being born GW was a great leader but not a great fighter in war. Of the 9 major battles he only won 3. GW was great at retreating. Every time he lost he would send word back to his home in Mt. Vernon to whip his slaves because it made him feel better. Aid for Americans came from the French. Marquis Lafayette was made a major general in the colonial army at the age of 19. His commission was a large part of his family connections. He secured more aid for the colonies from the French. The Americans were also fighting defensively, the agriculture was sustaining, and the Americans also had a strong belief in a just cause. The historical odds were not impossible, like the Dutch vs. Spaniards or Greek vs. Persians. But in the beginning and now they did not have quite the right amount of unity. Even the Continental Congress was hardly more than a debating society. The Congress was pretty disjointed and began to grow weaker. Inflation began to increase rapidly because the colonies started printing shit loads of cash The Colonists had a lot of shortages because in the beginning they relied on the British for supplies 9/16 Key Terms Battle of Long Island Trenton Hessians Saratoga Model Treaty Armed Neutrality Treaty of Fort Stanwix Yorktown Treaty of Paris Valley Forge A lot of people suffered from shortage of food and clothing. Men at one time were almost naked and shoeless. During a raid in Valley Forge some people were wrapped in bed covers. 7k men had received rudimentary training. These fighters could not stand up against the British, and some of them would flee. At the end drill masters whipped them into shape. One of them was Barren von Steuben, he spoke no English but he was cool. This was the lowest point of the troops, Winter 17771778 But, this position was a very defensible position African Americans also served both sides but mostly he British because they told Virginian blacks that they’d be given freedom after the war if they fought with the British. A lot of them were actually forced to fight. Morale in the colonial army was undermined by profiteers who tended to the British because they could pay them in gold. GW never had as many as 20k troops at one place and at one time. The Colonists that fought for pure independence were actually a minority. Bloodshed at Lexington and Concord was a universal war call. The minutemen also fought. They could be ready in 1 minute. Second Continental Congress Here, 13/13 colonies were represented, May 1775. There was still even at this time there was no real sentiment for independence, only wanted to redress the punishments placed by the British. They drafted appeals but were ignored. The British and Americans were tinkering on all out warfare. The best decision they made was to have GW lead the Boston army. Until this time he never went over “General.” He sucked but they still hired him because of his leadership and personality. People instinctively trusted him. He’d die w/the ship. He also offered to fight for free. The Congress actually chose more wisely than it knew. Americans in other places started to distrust this army. Bunker Hill An inconsistent war was fought for 14 months. In May 1775 a tiny resolved American force captured some brits. In June 1775 the colonists conquered a fort called Bunker Hill and destroyed the British from there. They had the high ground and their 1500 sharp shooters mowed down the British from the top. But the colonists did not have enough gun powder, so after using all their shots they retreated because they ran out. A French minister won some battles and now there was no more British Army in the Americas. Olive Branch Petition This signed loyalty to the crown but King slammed “no” on this. Sent to King George III in July 1775 Last attempt to avoid war with England and appease the King Stated that colonists wanted to be able to negotiate trade and tariff laws. There was a Hessian deal made which were outside mercenaries. Some Americans did not like this because they thought it was only their own fight. Gradually the Americans realized they needed to break apart. Thomas Paine “Common Sense” Was written for the common people. He began with the nature of government and anticipated the declaration. “I offer no more than simple facts, plain argument, and common sense.” – Thomas Paine He called for a republic that was ruled by majority, and that all leaders should derive their authority from popular consent. He wasn’t the first one to come up with this. Republicanism appealed to the excess power from leaders in Britain. His writing was published and spread like crazy across the colonies. Paine’s description was to reflect the empire and embrace a republic. th Congress on June 7 said they needed to write a declaration. They made Thomas Jefferson write, though he was young he was a great writer. The Declaration was approved by congress on July 4 1776. This declaration was the shout heard around the world. Lafayette hung the declaration on his wall. The war of independence was a war within a war. Loyalists were referred to as Tory Patriots were called Whigs Patriots said a Tory has body in America, Head in England, and their body ought to be stretched The British were inept in getting America on their side The ragtag militia units were also political agents that spread the colonial cause, and convinced many of the colonists to side with them. Only 16% were loyalists and families often split on the cause. William Franklin, Benjamin Franklin’s son, was a loyalist. Loyalty was regarded as a major virtue, especially to one’s country. People of wealth, culture, education stayed loyal as well as London government officials in the colonies and also Anglicans. And the revolutionists were the young (Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry) Loyalists were least in New England. Rebels were prominent in New England Persecution of Loyalists before 1776 was light. After the Declaration which separated the two groups, harsher methods prevailed. Loyalists were regarded as traitors, some were killed, imprisoned, etc. The Colonists reflected Anglo Saxon regard for one another. About 80k loyalists were drilled or fled, some
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