test 1 review
test 1 review COS 112
Popular in Interpersonal Communication
Popular in Communication Studies
This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Jackie F. on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to COS 112 at University of Miami taught by Valerie Giroux in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 177 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
COS 112 Test 1 Chapter 1: Introducing Interpersonal Communication Communication = the process through which people use messages to generate meanings within and across contexts, cultures, channels, and media 1. a process 2. uses messages 3. occurs in contexts 4. happens via channels a. channel = sensory dimension along which communicators transmit information 5. requires media 5 most common forms of communication media used by college students: texting face to face social networking email talking on the phone 3 models of communication: 1. Linear = sender to receiver (e.g. leaving voicemail) 2. Interactive 3. Transactional Linear: information flows in 1 direction e.g. text, wall post, speech + simple, straight forward doesn’t adequately describe most face to face or phone conversations Interactive: process involving senders and receivers but transmission is influenced by feedback and field of experience. feedback = indicate reaction (eye contact) fields of experience = beliefs, attitudes, values, and experiences tht each participant brings to a communication event e.g. class instruction, group pres., meetings + captured broad variety neglects active role Transactional: communication is fundamentally multidirectional; each participant equally influences the communication e.g. any face to face + intuitively captures what most people think of as interpersonal communication Interpersonal Communication = a dynamic form of communication between two or more people in which the messages exchanged significantly influence their thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and relationships 1. dynamic a. constantly in motion 2. typically transactional 3. primarily dyadic 4. impactcreating Martin Buber Two Ways of Relating to others: 1. IThou = depends bond and affirms individual a. embrace fundamental similarities 2. Iit = leads to impersonal communication and even disrespectful communication a. focus on differences Principles of Interpersonal Communication: 1. Conveys content and relationship information a. a form of metacommunication = communication aobut communication; because it influences how people interpret content informations. b. content information = actual meaning (through spoken word) c. relationship information = signals indicating how each views relationship (verbal cues) 2. Can be intentional or unintentional 3. Irreversible 4. dynamic a. no 2 are ever the same Motives for IC: 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs a. physical, safety, social (belongingness), selfesteem, selfactualization 2. IC fulfills 3 types of goals a. Selfpresentation goals = the desires you have to present yourself in a certain way so that others perceive you as being a particular type of person i. e.g. talking to a roommate who just got fired and you want him to know that you’re a supportive friend so you asked what happened, commiserate, and offer to help him find a new job b. Instrumental goals = practical aims you want to achieve or tasks you want to accomplish through a particular interpersonal encounter i. e.g. want to borrow Porsche so tell your friend you’re responsible c. relationship goals = building, maintaining, or terminating bonds with others i. e.g. drive car into lake and apologize and offer to pay for repairs to save friendship Interpersonal communication competence = means consistently communicating in ways that are appropriate, effective, and ethical. Communication skills = repeatable goaldirected behaviors and behavioral patterns that you routinely practice in your IP encounters and relationships Appropriateness = the degree to which your communication matches situational, relational, and cultural expectations we judge how appropriate our communication is through selfmonitoring o high self monitors follow expectations while low selfmonitors act like themselves Online communication = refers to any interaction by means of social networking Improving Competence online: 1. choose appropriate medium 2. don’t assume online is most efficient 3. presume posts are public 4. remember posts are permanent 5. practice creating drafts Issues in IC: 1. Culture 2. gender and sexual orientation a. gender = largely learned b. sexual orientation = enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, and affectionate attraction to others Chapter 2: Considering Self Self = an evolving composite of 3 components that develop continually over time based on life experience 1. Selfawareness = the ability to step outside yourself and view yourself as a unique person then reflect on your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors a. social composition = observing and assigning meaning to others’ behavior and then comparing it to your own 2. Selfconcept = your overall perception of who you are, as influenced by the beliefs, attitudes, and values you have about yourself a. looking glass self = how our selfconcept is influenced by what we believe others think of us i. Charles Horton ii. ought self = what you’re expected to be iii. ideal self = what you want to be b. selffulfilling prophecies 3. Selfesteem = the overall value, + or , that we assign to ourselves a. give who I am, what’s my evaluation of myself b. Selfdiscrepancy theory = suggests your selfesteem is det. by how you compare to two mental states (ideal self and ought self) i. you feel happy and content when your perception of you self matches both selves. The Sources of Self: 1. gender = composite of social, psychological, and cultural attributes that characterize a person as male or female 2. family and self a. attachment anxiety = chronic fear of abandonment b. attachment avoidance = little interest in intimacy c. 4 types: i. secure = low avoidance, low anxiety ii. preoccupied = high anxiety, low avoidance 1. desire closeness but plagued with fear or rejection 2. alex on 2 ½ men iii. dismissive = low anxiety, high avoidance iv. fearful = low, low 3. culture = est. coherent set of … shared by a lg. group of people a. individualistic culture: indiv. goals more important than group b. collectivistic culture: group is more important than individual. Presenting your self: Maintaining your Public Self: When you communicate with others, you present a public self, or face. mask = public self designed to conceal your private self embarrassment = can result when information arises that contradicts your face o individualistic cultures care about saving our own face o collectivistic cultures care about saving others’ face Online Selfpresentation o warranting value = degree to which information is supported by other people and outside evidence Three ways to improve your online selfpresentation: 1. be wary of information that contradicts your selfimage 2. routinely conduct web searches on yourself 3. keep the interview test in mind Social penetration theory = revealing the self to others involves peeling back or penetrating layers peripheral, intermediate, and central layers breadth = the number of different aspects of self revealed at eat layer depth = how deeply into one another’s self the partners have penetrated Intimacy = feeling of closeness and union that exists between us and partners Selfdisclosure = revealing private information about your self to others Interpersonal process model of intimacy = the closeness we feel toward others is created though selfdisclosure and responsiveness of listeners Improve your selfdisclosure skills: 1. know yourself 2. know your audience 3. don’t force others to selfdisclose 4. don’t presume gender preferences 5. be sensitive to cultural differences 6. go slowly Chapter 3: Perceiving others Perception = the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information from our senses 1. Selection = focusing attention a. salience = degree to which something is noticeable to use i. visually stimulating, goals, or deviations. 2. Organization = structuring into coherent pattern a. punctuation = structuring chronologically 3. Interpretation = assigning meaning a. schemata = mental structures containing information that defines concepts’ characteristics and interrelationships i. schematas form Gestalts Attributions = explanations for others’ comments or behaviors 1. internal and external 2. fundamental attribution error = the tendency to attribute others’ beh. to internal Uncertainty = the anxious feeling that comes when we can’t predict or explain someone else’s communication Uncertainty Reduction Theory = our primary compulsion during initial interactions is to reduce uncertainty about others by gathering enough information abot them so their communication becomes predicatable and explainable 1. passive strategy 2. active strategy 3. interactive strategy Influences on Perception: 1. Culture a. ingroupers (all of the above) b. outgroupers 2. gender 3. personality = our characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and acting based on the traits we possess Interpersonal impressions = mental pictures of who people are and how we feel about them Empathy = feel into others thoughts and emotions perspective taking = see fmo others’ vantage point empathetic concern = aware of how the other person is feeling Chapter 4: Emotion: 1. triggered by outside events 2. involves physiologival arousal 3. det. by awareness and labeling 4. governed by preexisting norms 5. reflected in verbal and nonverbal displays Emotionsharing = involves disclosing emotions can lead to emotional contagion feelings = short term emotional reactions to events that generate only limited arousal moods = lowintensity states (boredom, contentment, grouchiness, serenity); slow flowing emotional currents throughout the day
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