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Introduction to Psychology

by: Rachel Brotman

Introduction to Psychology PSYC 1001

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Rachel Brotman

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All notes from my introductory psychology class with Forssell. VERY helpful. I still use these notes 3 years later to help me with my other psych classes. They're arranged by day and topic. No lect...
Introductory Psychology
Psychology, Intro to Psychology, Introduction to Psychology
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This 47 page Bundle was uploaded by Rachel Brotman on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Forsell in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 12/09/15
PSYCH Rachel Brotman Unit 1 Goals of Psychology:  To describe: behavioral data/ info, level of analysis, ensure objectivity  Explain: why?  Predict: Will it occur again? What is the future outcome?  Optimize: What is the solution? Evolution of Modern Psychology:  Plato (427-347 BC): how the mind works.  Aristotle (384-322 BC)  Empiricist: people are born as blank slates & everything they do is a result of their experiences. Nativist o Kant (1724-1804): Believed in heredity. You are born with certain tendencies that are innate within you. The older you get, the more these tendencies will bloom.  Wundt (1879): creates the first psychological lab. He found that the body & mind were separate. Dualism & Structuralism.  Calkins (1863-1930): The first woman to get a psych PHD (sort of). She sat in on classes & would have qualified for a PHD, but since she was a woman, she was not given it. She was the first president of the APA.  Wooley (1874-1947): Did not believe that men and women are who they are because of chemistry. She was an empiricist. Structuralism:  broke things into basic principles.  Introspection: why are there different answers for different people for the same question?  Criticisms: o Reductionistic: reduces complex wholes into too many tiny components. o Mentalistic: assuming you know everything/ are aware of everything in your mind. o Elemental: assumes all pieces of the whole are broken up and add up to 1. But they don’t. The whole is bigger than its parts. o Gestalt: the mind understands things in wholes. Nothing is broken down. For example, a professor lectures a class, not 47 students. If you see things as separate units it’s a disorder. (conflicts structuralism) Functionalism:  Consciousness should be the focus of psychology. How you evolve.  Example: anxiety can be helpful because if you’re anxious for a test, it functions to help you study & then you do better. Psychodynamic (Freud) : behavior is driven by inner forces. Unconscious. Examine a person’s past, parents, childhood & things unseen.  5 stages: o oral: breastfed baby o anal: potty training (right vs. wrong) o Fallick: parental relationships o Latence: chill period o Genital: adolescent period (formulation of sexual identity).  If any of these stages are disrupted, the child will have some type of issue. For example if they’re breast fed too long, they will be too dependent. Behaviorist (Watson):  All emotions are learned. “I can teach any child to be any way”.  Conducts child rabbit experiment. He takes an infant, and shows it a rabbit. Then, immediately following the rabbit, he makes a huge crashing noise. After about 5 times, every time the child sees a rabbit without the noise, it is terrified and cries. Irreversible fear.  Behaviors are learned from somebody or something (tv, parents, books).  Experiences are behaviors driven by external forces. Obstacles to making good decisions:  Illusory Correlation: when two things seem to go together but don’t. For example, childhood vaccinations and autism. If every time A happens, B happens, that DOESN’T necessarily mean that A causes B. Often there is a third variable. o 3 possibilities: A causes B, B causes A, or a third variable.  Confirmation Bias: seeking out evidence that confirms our hypothesis instead or disconfirming it.  Framing the Question: wording is critical & can lead to response bias.  Fixation: we only see things the way we’re used to seeing them & fail to see other solutions.  Availability Bias: judgment based on available memories. We recall things that support our hypothesis. Ex: plane crashes, lottery tickets.  Belief Preservation: we cling to beliefs in spite of contrary evidence. Research Designs:  Experimental Method: controls relevant variables.  Correlational Method: no casual inferences. Variables are related and may be casually linked.  Descriptive Design: no inferences; talking only about numbers. Process of Research:  1. Initial observation/ research question  2. Develop hypothesis: tentative/ testable  3. Design the study  Scientific Method: procedures for gathering and interpreting objective information to minimize errors. Draw conclusions with objectivity.  Observer Bias: Standardization: uniform procedure for treating each participant. Our Experiment (Rats smoking): Does Marijuana affect memory? To test this, we cannot do a human experiment because that may be unethical. So, we test it by getting rats high, & seeing how long it takes them to go through a maze with/ without the substance. We manipulate the independent variable. In this case, it is the level of highness. The dependent variable is how long it takes to complete the maze. After testing, we find that the high rats did take longer to complete the maze. However, we aren’t done! This doesn’t prove that weed affects the memory. There are other things that weed can manipulate that could relate to their slower pace such as smell, hunger & balance. To prove a memory affect we need more.  Independent Variable: determined by person conduction experiment  Dependent Variable: outcome of independent variable  Confounding Variable: an unexpected variable that affects the participant’s behavior and adds confusion.  Expectancy Results: the researcher hints at what they expect (bias)  Placebo Effect: subject is given a sugar pill but their behavior still changes. Control Procedures:  Double Blind: subject knows nothing. They don’t know if they have the placebo pill or not & the researcher does not know either.  Placebo Control  Between- Subjects Design: participants are randomly assigned to an experiment or control condition. Each participant participates ONCE.  Within Subjects Design: each participant is his or her own control  Sample: a subset of a population chosen to participate in a study  Random Assignment: random # generator. (diving class in half by where sitting would not be considered random; kids sit with friends).  Sampling Error: when subjects don’t give a fair representation of the population.  Correlational Methods: to what extent are two variables related? DO NOT assume causation! Psychological Measurements:  Reliability: does the test produce similar results each time? Stability/ consistency  Validity: does the test measure what it was intended to test?  Self-Important measures: Questionnaires/ surveys. Behavior identified through a participants observations/ reports.  Social Desirability effect: people who lie in a survey to say what they “should”. For example, if you ask how many sexual partners one has had, a man will tend to round up while a woman will tend to round down.  Likert Scale Measurements: ask a question and have the participants respond using a number scale. 1= strongly disapprove… 5= strongly approve etc…  Self Report Measures: easy to administer and low in cost. However, they can lead to a lot of response bias.  Behavioral Measures: o overt actions/ reactions are observed and recorded. o Dircect observations: easily recorded/ visible. Technology aided. o Naturalistic: natural behavior viewed without trying to change/interfere.  Response Performance  Electrophysiology: EEG  Brain Imaging: PET scan  Psychophysiological: changes in bodily function as associated with behavior or mental state. Examples: GSR or circumference of penis test.  Archival Data: information from existing records. Birth/ Death certificates, weather reports, attendance figures.  Case Study: an intense study of a particular person or small group of individuals who have a rare characteristic or problem.  Measures of Central Tendencies: mean, median, mode  Measures of Variability: range, standard deviation. Just reporting the average can give an inaccurate perception. o Two data sets can have the same means & medians but completely different ranges and standard deviations.  Inferential Statistics: whether differences actually exist between two sets of numbers. Significant vs. non- significant differences. Ethical Issues in Research: the participants rights must be protected (Institutional Review Board):  Informed consent: sign that a participant is informed and has the right to quit  Risk/ gain assessment: risk for participant must be minimized. Strict use of intentional deception (not telling the subject the true intent of study).  Debriefing: after the study, the subject must be told the results. The Biological & Evolutionary Bases of Behavior:  Heredity/ Behavior  Nervous System  Biology & Behavior ‘ Theory of Evolution (1859):  Natural Selection: we change from generation to generation & the traits that stick with us are the ones that benefit us.  Environmental changes cause competition which leads to “survival of the fittest” Intelligent Design:  The idea that what science can’t explain can be explained by a high power such as god or faith.  Religious fundamentalists who believe in this think evolutionary theory is flawed. Creationism/ Intelligent Design should be taught.  Evolutionary theory has LOTS of evidence and is basically fact. There is no debate that evolution occurred. There is debate regarding how.  INTELLIGENT DESIGN IS NOT SCIENCE! Natural Selection & Human Evolution:  Bipedalism: walk up right  Encephalization: humans have larger brains Cultural Evolution:  Language is the basis  There is a tendency to learn adaptively to change  “memes” vs. genes Genes & Behavior:  sociobiology: the study of behavior through social behavior  evolutionary psych: mate selection, sex differences, navigation, food preference, social interaction  Human Genome Project: the study of the sequence of genes & where on the sequence certain genes are houses. What genes are on what chromosomes and what proteins do they make?  Genome defined: genetic information for an organism stores in the DNA of its chromosomes. Human Behavior Genetics:  Evaluates the genetic components of behavior/ trait differences in people.  Adaptation Studies: how kids are like their birth families vs. adoptive families. Genetics vs. environment  Twin Studies: study of similarities between identical (monozygotic) twins vs. fraternal (dizygotic). o Twins raised together under the same roof do not seem to show a great amount of similarities than twins raised apart. o Monozygotic twins raised together have the greatest similarities. Then come monozygotic twins raised apart. Then dizygotic twins raised together. Fourth, siblings raised together. Fifth, unrelated children adopted together & lastly, cousins. DNA: how to make a person: Our entire genetic makeup can be found in 1 molecule of DNA In total we have 46 chromosomes; 23 from the mom & 23 from the dad. DNA is a long string of nucleotides & together form the genome. DNA= deoxyribonucleic acid Chromosomes always come in pairs. Guanine is always paired with Cytosine & Thymine is always paired with Adenine. If a chromosome is missing or there is an extra- mental diseases can occur. There are 20-25k genes within the chromosomes. They provide a blueprint. Genotype vs. Phenotype:  The genotype is the genetic structure.  The phenotype is the observable trait/ “finished product”. It’s a result of genetic AND environmental influences.  Social and environmental context can also influence the genetic expression. Social conditions can create selection pressures that influence the genetic makeup of a group. For example, because of slavery, Africans in the US have lower blood pressure than those in Africa because in the US, Africans with high blood pressure died during the slave trade. Neurons:  Specialized for communication  1-sided  receive and integrate  the input side is a dendrite, which receives stimulation. It sends information to the soma. This sends a signal to the Axon, a long extended fiber.  Terminal buttons: swollen bulb like structures with neurotransmitters found at the end of the Axon. Major Classes of Neurons: Sensory neurons: sense feeling Motor neurons: tell heart to beat and body to move Interneurons: located in spinal cord. They are a shortcut that duplicates the signal. They send a signal to the sensory AND motor neurons. Neurons fire or produce response by combining inputs arriving at the dendrite. This is called Action Potential. Do you fire or not?! o Action Potential is a nerve impulse. The neurons will either fire or they wont. o Excitatory input= fire! Inhibitory input= don’t fire! There is no in between. o During the absolute refractory period, which occurs after the neuron fires, it cannot fire again. o During the relative refractory period it can fire but it takes more energy. Resting Potential: occurs at -70 mv. The neuron is ready to fire. Polarization of cellular fluid within the neuron is holding the ability to produce action potential. Action Potentials along Axon:  Myelin Sheath: fatty material of glial cells allow rapid movement along the axon  Synaptic transmission  Neurotransmitters bind to receptors across the synapse. Each receptor is influenced by 1 neurotransmitter.  Reuptake: vacuums back up the neurotransmitters to recharge for the next time SSRI  inhibits or blocks reuptake. Artificially keeps more serotonin in the synapse to make it easier to fire. Multiple Neurotransmitters:  Acetycholine (Ach): memory and learning. People with alzhiemers have a low Ach. Controls motor control. Curare is Ach’s antagonist; it’s a poison that paralyzes the muscles.  Dopamine: motivation, reward & motor control  Seratonin: affects mood, anxiety and impulse.  Gaba:  Glutamate:  Endorphins:  Norepinephrine: arousal of eyes and ears?  Epinephrine: adrenalin Nervous System Hierarchy:  The nervous system is split into two parts. The Central (brain and spinal) and Peripheral (tissue outside the brain and spinal cord). o Within the peripheral, there is the somatic system and the autonomic system.  The somatic system is the knowing & sensory motor.  The autonomic is the automatic, involuntary & internal motor.  Within this motor you have the sympathetic division (“let me help” impulse) and the parasympathetic division (calming impulse). Central Nervous System: All processing in the brain occurs here The Brain Stem: o The Medulla controls breathing, blood pressure and heartbeat. Every living creature has a medulla. Not just humans o Pons: an input to the brain stem. Affects coordination. o Reticular Formation: arousal system o Thalamus: the “info center”. This sends incoming sensory information to the cerebral cortex. o Cerebellum: coordinates bodily movements, postures and maintains equilibrium. The Limbic System: the emotional part of the brain. o Hippocampus: implicit memory. o Amygdala: formation of emotional memory. o Hypothalamus: regulates motivated behavior. Controls feeding, fighting, fleeing and reproduction. Cerebral Cortex: the thin outer layer of the cerebrum. Contains tons of neurons.  There are two hemispheres of our brain. The right and the Left  Corpus callosum: sends messages between the two hemispheres  Frontal Lobe: huge, motor control, cognitive activities such as planning, goal setting and decision making.  Parietal Lobe: sensations of touch, pain and temperance.  Occipital Lobe: processes visual information (lines and shapes). Is located at the back of the head.  Temporal Lobe: smell, process of hearing (located at temples). Phineas Gage: the connection between the fontal lobes and limbic systems. Motor cortex: frontal/ parietal lobes come together. This controls action and body’s voluntary muscles. Somatosensory Cortex: processes sensory input from various body areas Auditory Cortex: receives and processes auditory information Association Cortex: high-level brain processes Hemispheric Lateralization: some functions are localized to one hemisphere. For example, speech is on the left side. The two hemispheres embody different types of processing. The left is more analytic while the right is more holistic. Eavesdropping on the Brain:  Broca’s area of the Brain: he has a gap in his brain How are neural messages integrated into communication systems? Through the coordination of the nervous systems (CNS, PNS) and the endocrine system. Endocrine System: Network of glands that manufacture hormones. Influences emotion, behavior and thought.  Hormones: testosterone, epinephrine, estrogen. They regulate metabolism and influence body growth, mood and sexual characteristics.  Pituitary Gland: secretes growth hormone. Psych Notes: What is learning?  The process based on experience that results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral patterns.  Habituation  Sensitization: when sensitivity to a stimulus increases (stronger reaction with repeat). Behaviorism:  Ivan P. Pavlov (1849-1936): classical conditioning model using dogs. o Won nobel peace prize for his pairing with dogs (medical physiology)  John Watson (1878-1958): the father of American behaviorism o By having direct control of the environment, Watson thought he could shape anybody!  B.F. Skinner: operant conditioning model (based off of conditioning principles). The Behaviorist Movement  Began by disagreeing with Freud and structuralist focus on mental events/ verbal reports (unscientific)  Promoted objective observation of overt behavior as the only valid indicator of psychological activity  Tabula Rasa: “anybody can become anything”. We are blank slates Classical conditioning:  A basic form of learning in which one stimulus can predict the occurance of another. Pairing to predict another outcome. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): naturally elicits a behavior.  Example: meat. A dog smells meat and starts salivating.  Unconditioned Response: the behavior elicited by the UCS Pavlov’s Apparatus: measured how much the dog salivated when meat is placed in front of it. Conditioned Stimulus (CS):  Starts as a neutral stimulus (NS) that is able to elecit behavior only after association with the UCS.  Conditioned Response: for example, you ring a bell and bring meat out. Every time you ring the bell you bring out meat and now the dog craves it when it hears the bell. Eventually, if you do it enough times, the dog will start to salivate just when it hears the bell. Little Albert: demonstration by John Watson. A little boy is conditioned to fear white rats/ other furry objects.  The clanging was the unconditioned stimulus (the frightening thing) that results in the unconditioned response (crying)  The neutral stimulus was the rat, which albert used to think was cute, until it got paired with the scary bell. Then, both the rat or the bell would lead to crying. Bailey: classical conditioning example  Bailey is fed people food from the table.  They toss the egg yolks they don’t eat when they make eggs up for their doggie. They’ll do a drumroll before throwing the food up. The dog jumps up for the food and slobbers. Now, if they drum on the table, Bailey will slobber even if there is no food  conditioned response. Acquisition:  The process by which the Conditioned Response is first elicited  Timing is crucial! The CS and UCS must be presented closely enough in time in order to be perceived as related. Extinction: weakening of a CR as a result of the absence of CS and UCS. Spontaneous Recover: the sudden reappearance of the CR after a rest period without further exposure to the UCS. Stimulus Generalization:  Automatic extension of conditioned responding to similar stimuli  little albert example: albert was not only afraid of rats but was afraid of all furry things. Stimuli Discrimination:  opposite of Stimulus Generalization  learning to respond differently to stimuli that differ from the CS  being able to make the distinction between CS’s and non-CS’s. Robert Rescorla:  in order to result in conditioned response, the CS needs to regularly predict the UCS  a neutral stimulus will become an effective CS only if it’s informative and reliably predicts the UCS.  experimented with shocks of dog cage. Conditioned the dog to move away from the cage when the bell associated with the shock rang. Didn’t work for light. Operant Conditioning vs. Classical Conditioning:  in CC the individuals respond to CS or US. In OC, individuals act (“operate”) to obtain a reward. Classical conditioning: stimulus shows up, individual response occurs. You’re pairing stimuli reactive behavior Operant Conditioning: the individual operates/acts to obtain a reward or avoid pain/ punishment. Behavior done in expectation of a reward/ consequence. Proactive behavior  reward stimuli Law of Effect:  A behavior is strengthened when its followed by an enjoyable experience (reward) , and weakened when followed by an un- enjoyable experience. Reinforcement contingencies  Reinforcer: Anything that increases the probability of a behavior reoccurring. Increases target behavior.  Behaviors with satisfying consequences will be repeated Punisher: any stimulus that when made contingent on a behavior decreases the probability of that behavior over time Behaviors with annoying or unpleasant experiences are less likely to occur (example food poisoning) “Positive” means presenting a stimulus “Negative” means removing a stimulus. Operant Chamber: for instance, rat in chamber. We want to reinforce the lever pressing through positive or negative means. The zap is the punisher. The food on the lever is the reinforcer.  Positive Reinforcement: lever is pressed, food is obtained  Positive Punishment: lever is pressed, rat is shocked  Negative Reinforcer: if we shock the cage randomly and by pressing the lever and the shock goes away.  Negative Punishment: if when you press the lever, the food is removed. Removing the food, decreases the chance of the lever being pressed. Reinforcement can be positive or negative: Positive Reinforcement:  Pleasurable stimulus presented.  Probability of target behavior increases  Show Bailey a yummy yummy egg yolk, he shakes hands/ paws- Whenever Bailey the dog see’s food, he raises a paw. Behavior to effect is the paw. Negative Reinforcement:  Unpleasant stimulus removed  Probability of target behavior increases  When somebody is yelling, Bailey will lay down in his bed because people stop yelling when he does. Going and laying down is an attempt to influence the people yelling. Target behavior: to lay down and be quiet. Negative because removing the yelling. Another example: snooze alarm. Turn off the alarm to reinforce sleep. Positive Punishment:  Unpleasant stimulus presented  Probability of target behavior decreases  Bailey stops barking at other dogs when you yell NO BARKING!! Negative Punishment:  Pleasurable stimulus removed  Probability of target behavior decreases  Example, parents punish a kid for breaking curfew by revoking driving priviliges. Shaping by successive approximations: reinforcing responses that successively approximate the desired response.  Cumulative steps result in complex behaviors such as “surfing raccoons” or “toilet-using cats”. Reinforcement contingencies:  How can you define the behavior that you would like the reinforce/ eliminate?  How can you define the contexts in which the behavior is appropriate/ inappropriate?  Have you unknowingly been reinforcing some behaviors? Schedules of Reinforcement: aren’t practical in the real world. Are learned quickly but go extinct when you stop reinforcing them.  Continuous vs. partial reinforcement  Continuous reinforcement creates fast learning but is rare in the real world  Partial reinforcement is more common, in that most behavior is reinforced only intermittently. More practical and easier to do.  Behavior is more resistant to extinction under partial schedules. Partial reinforcement: ratio vs. interval  Ratio (units of behavior) – faster learning. Awards actual behaviors. Works better.  Interval (time)- slower learning. Bases reward on passage of time Partial reinforcement: fixed vs. variable  Fixed (invariant) at a fixed time?  Variable (unpredictable) ex your boss gives you 4 breaks a day even though you only really get 2 Four Outcomes:  FR schedule  VR (works well. Video)  FI  VI Operant conditioning video: big bang theory  Classical conditioning: not just association: Biological preparedness:  Animals are biologically programmed to learn to fear certain objects  Some objects more easily become targets of phobias  Its harder to develop a phobia of something like a toaster oven than a snake or spider which in excess ccan kill you. Biological constraints:  Old view: all behavior shaped by reinforcement (“classic behaviorism”)  Current view: harder to learn behaviors that counter evolutionary adaptations. Instinctual Drift: if you don’t reinforce behavior, it tends to drift into whatever naturally occurs in it’s environment. Ex: if you teach a raccoon to pick up quarters and put them in banks, it will drift into picking up quarters and polishing them like apples (something raccoons are typical of doing). Garcia and Koelling (1966):  Poisoned food leads to one trial learning. Ex: Eating fish once, vomiting and never ever touching it again.  Taste aversion learning Phobias and addictions have learned components:  Phobia: acquired fears out of proportion to real threat.  Treatment: counterconditioning, systematic desensitization (slowly expose somebody to something they’re afraid of in small doses)  Drug Addiction: environmental cues can act as CS for drug use. Halfway houses, treatment programs anticipate that when people go back into their normal communities, things can trigger their old urges. Even an environment or music you used to listen to can trigger old habits. o Physical dependence: Drug addiction is pleasurable, but you build up a tolerance when withdrawal brings many negative effects (headaches, nauseous).  Avoidance of withdrawal experience is negatively reinforcing  Good feelings associated with drug use is positively reinforcing  The mesolimbic dopamine system is the major brain system …. Reward Pathway: the mesolimbic dopamine system. Links the forebrain and midbrain structures and leads to the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens Dopamine release is involved in both natural and learned pleasurable experience. Observational Learning:  Behaviors acquired or modified following exposure to others performing the behavior  Through imitation and modeling. We can learn not only through punishment/ reward but we can learn through others. “Imitation and Modeling”. Albert Bandura: Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment:  Children observed while adults kicked and hurt the dolls. In a control condition, the adults just played quietly and didn’t mess with the doll.  In another room, children were frustrated by the researchers and weren’t permitted to play with certain toys. The kids (girls and boys) who watched the parents hurt the doll were more likely to be aggressive towards the doll themselves. Societal behavior not just gender. Mineka’s study: learning of fear:  Wild rhesus monkeys fear snakes.  Laboratory-reared rhesus monkeys do not fear snakes.  Required to reach over snake to get food  Laboratory-reared monkeys o Initially reached over snake o Observed fearful wild monkeys refuse o Acquired the same fear of snakes just from watching the other monkeys Modeling: imitation learned through observation. Humans love to model other humans, but are more likely to model attractive, high status people similar to themselves. Vicarious Reinforcement: learning consequences by watching others being rewarded or punished. Bandura’s study: Children watch adults play aggressively with the boob doll: some adults are punished and others are rewarded  When the model is punished, the children are less likely to be aggressive than the control. When the model is praised, they are more likely to be aggressive.  All children learned aggressive behavior and all are able to imitate the adult upon request. Concept Questions: Unconditioned stimulus: unchangeable. Shaping: gradually reinforcing steps with incremental rewards? Vicarious learning: seeing brothers get punished conditions girl not to do same behavior Psych Chapter 7: MEMORY (infallible and malleable) OUTLINE: Stages of mem Memory systems Rep in long term mem Brain processes Forgetting Distortion of mem Stages of Memory:  Sensory memory or register: capacity is huge. But unattended info is lost quickly. o The info we pay attention to goes to the short term memory. From there, unrehearsed info is lost. What is kept goes to the long term memory.  Short term memory Sensory memory is brief.  Contents of sensory mem traces of sens info left by stimuli affecting nerv syst  Iconic memory: the rods and cones. Visual sensory memory. Traces persist for about 1/3 second  Echoic memory: auditory sensory memory (2.5 seconds) In class example with 12 letter chart. Still considered memory even though it only lasts a few seconds. STM is active. It holds info briefly for about 20 seconds without rehearsal. With rehearsal, they can hold info indefinitely. It’s capacity is limited; it can remember about 7 (plus or minus 2) units of information (such as grocery store items).  Chunking: organizing information into meaningful units (ex. Pneumonic devices) STM test demo: look at a picture for 10 seconds and try to recall what people in the picture are doing. Women are better at this than men. Working memory: not the same as STM.  Reasoning and language comprehension  Maintains your psychological present: phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive, episodic buffer Long-Term Memory  Retrieval Cues  Recall  Recognition Dimensions of Long-Term Memory:  Long term memory  o declarative memory (memory for facts & events)  episodic memory (recollection of specific personal experiences; first date) semantic memory (general knowledge) o procedural memory (memory for how to do things) Explicit Memory: Implicit Memory: procedural memory  motor skills  behavioral habits  Characteristics: often only revealed through behavior, no awareness or deliberate effort, does not require attention LTM: based on meaning  Levels of processing model: the more deeply encoded, the better the memory  Maintenance rehearsal: encoding by repetition (shallow processing= poor memory)  Elaborate rehearsal: o encoding by linking to stored knowledge. o Deep processing= better memory o Mnemonics Retrieval Cues: encoding specificity: Subsequent retrieval of information is enhanced if cues retrieved at the time of recall are consistent with those present at the time of encoding Context-dependent memory: physical surroundings at encoding act as retrieval cues.  Test taken. Taught stuff on land, and taught stuff underwater. State dependent memory: match between internal states at encoding and retrieval. It’s easier to remember things if your happy when you hear it. Serial Position Effect:  Forsell will read words. Remember as many and then AFTERWARDS try to write them down. [influence, teenager, bank, tadpole, office, light sex, emotion, awkward, snore, tadpole]  The words at the beginning of the list, and the end of the list are more easily remembered than the middle words. With some exceptions (sexxxxxx). Easier to retrieve the words that relate to you  Distinguishes stm from ltm  Primacy effect due to ltm trace. The items on the list move into long term memory because you rehearse them to stuff them into your memory.  Regency effect: due to stm (the ability to remember the words from the beginning of the list) Biological Aspects of Memory:  The Engram: (would take animals, make them remember things and then cut out part of their brains to see how they did. Proves that memory isn’t specific to one specific part of the brain. Memory is distributed to many parts of the brain. Any one memory will be everywhere). o Memory distributed throughout the brain o Not “equipotention” o Some areas are more important than others  Amygdala & hippocampus: declarative memory of facts, dates and names. Memories of emotional significance  Cerebellum: procedural memories, memories acquired by repetition (like riding a bike, dancing etc…)  Striatum: habit formation and stimulus response connections  Cerebral cortex: sensory memories and associations between sensations Medial Temporal Lobes:  C Henry Moliasson (H.M.): 1926. He was in a bicycle accident that caused seizures when he was 7 years old. He would have about 10 seizures per day. When he was 23, they removed parts of his medial temporal lobes and his entire hippocampus because that’s where the seizures were coming from. It stopped the seizures, but prevented him from making any no memories whatsoever. Every day was a brand new day. He never recognized the room he was in and would reintroduce himself to the same people day after day, year after year.  Hippocampus/ medial temporal lobes; where brain converts short term memory to long term memory.  “N of one”: HM is the only person who’s had this surgery  Frontal Lobes: hemispherical encoding asymmetry o Associated with working memory o Left frontal lobes: encoding (moving info from STM to LTM) o Right frontal lobes: retrieval (retrieving that same info) Neurochemistry: memory neuromodulators o Neurotransmitters that weaken or enhance memory o NTs acetycholine and glutamate enhance memory Neuro Chem: Important emotional events: likely to be stored in memory. Arousal produces epinephrine which releases glucose which increases memory. Amygdala o Control area for neuromodulators o In medial temporal lobe o Stimulation can enhance or impair memory o Active during emotional experiences Gender differences in emotional response: Men: right amygdala active Women: left October 28 ** GO BACK TO THE READING TO LOOK AT BEGINNING OF MOTIVATION ** Development/ Attachment: Parenting Styles:  Nature vs. nurture  Diana Baumrind: chart  Authoritative: a parent has to both take care of their child’s needs, and demand something from them. The child needs to obey rules and learn things. Discipline should be instilled. But also, responsiveness must be present: the child should feel that their needs are paid attention to. This results in the best outcomes in children.  Authorities parenting style is NOT the same as authoritarian. Authoritarian styling is demanding, “do what I say”. This style does not allow their children to make decisions of their own. No compromises. These children tend to be rule bound and not attentive thinkers. Not exploratory.  If you’re not demanding or responsive to your child, this is called neglecting. The parent is as disengaged and indifferent as possible. These children suffer the worst (delinquencies, depression, anxiety).  Indulgent: When parents are high in responsiveness but low in demand. These children are often spoiled and end up being low achievers. They are higher in substance abuse and are not goal achievers. Attachment: Social development in Childhood:  Contact comfort and Social Experiment: Harry Harlow’s monkeys. Harlow wanted to see if there is a value and impact of love. Attachment Theory: a strong, innate emotional connection persisting over time and circumstances  Developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth  Attachment is adaptive: o Infant attachment behaviors motivate adult attention o Infants exhibiting attachment behaviors have a higher chance of survival.  Bowlby based attachment theory off of work he did with children , many of which were orphans. The children had formed very tight bonds with each other- those you would expect to see within an intact family. Even bonds as close as parent-child. Since these children had no parents, they formed these connections with each other, leading Bowlby to believe these close attachments are crucial. We aren’t born ready to go; everybody needs a caregiver. Attachment is a necessary mechanism. Getting this attachment relationship is important. Attatchment in other species:  Imprinting: an instinctual tendency in some animals producing strong attachment of young animals to nearby adults  Konrad Lorenz: “mom” to ducks. The ducks followed him around. Elements of Attachment:  Separation anxiety: distress when a child is separated from the caregiver. Starts around 6 to 8 months old (right around the time a child begins to tell the difference between themselves and other humans. Also when object performance forms).  Secure base behavior: a function of the caregiver as a safe base for exploration. Not when you’re distressed or upset. When children are first out there doing stuff, the child will often look to their parents/ caretaker for a nod of approval. Is this okay? They need a basis to go out and explore the world. This is not a conscious maneuver. (growing, expanding & exploring)  Safe haven seeking: returning to the caregiver when in distress. For example, if the child falls on the playground. Measuring Attachment:  The strange situation test: a technique for studying attachment in infancy. o The infant goes through a series of events with caregiver present or absent o Reactions of child and caregiver are observed and coded. o The child is brought into a lab setting. The child plays while their mother is in the room. A stranger enters. The child starts to interact with the stranger. The mom gets a cue to leave. The child immediately starts to cry. The mom returns and the child stops crying. Then, the stranger leaves and the mom leaves too. Now the child is all-alone. The child cries. The stranger re-enters. The child still cries. The mom returns again and the child crawls over and stops crying. Attachment Style Types:  Secure: child protests upon separation from the mother and is soothed by the return. The child seeks their mom when exploring. About 65% of the time this is the case.  Avoidant: no protest on separation. The child is indifferent to their parent’s return, doesn’t seek during play. About 20-25% of children.  Anxious-ambivalent: the child protests upon separation and is NOT easily soothed by return, inconsistent seeking by child, attention from mother. Basically, even when the parent comes back, the child is still upset- “why did you leave me?!?!?” About 10-15% of children.  All of these types are based off the question “Will my mother be there for me?”. For secure children, yes. For avoidant children, no, they have to take care of themselves they believe. For anxious-ambivalent children, sometimes their mom will be there, but they don’t know. It’s almost as if she’s toying with them. These attachment attributes usually are present for life within friendships and relationships. Some believe that these style types are temperament and personality, while others believe they are behavioral. Chemical basis of attachment:  Oxytocin: a hormone related to affiliate behaviors including infant caregiver attachment o Promotes maternal behaviors that help ensure survival of infant o “Attachment hormone”. Directly involved in nurturing behaviors o Released in many circumstances. During childhood, during orgasms, during breastfeeding, during skin-to-skin contact. o Prairie Voles injected with Pitocin (synthetic oxytocin) show maternal behaviors. o Strengthens social memories. You tend to remember social things when you’ve had a shot of oxytocin than when you haven’t. Social development in Adolescence:  Experience of Adolescence: what is “adolescence”? (A recent development) o G Stanley Hall: storm and stress o Anna Freud o Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict o Erik Erikson: independence o Peer relationships During the 20 century, children starting undergoing puberty earlier. Young girls and boys are experiencing changes about 5 years older than they used to. There is now a much longer gap between undergoing puberty at 12 years old and becoming an adult. Cognitive changes have not kept up with this. The body may grow up faster but the brain does not. Friends influence Adolescent Identity and Behavior  Attention to peers begins in the first year  Comparisons with friends affects identity  Df Cliques vs. Crowds:  Clique: a small group serving as a primary peer group. There are a small bumber of children in this group and they all socialize together  Crowd: large groups of friends with common interests. “The jocks, the stoners, the athletes etc…” Moral Development:  Morality: a system of beliefs, values and underlying judgments about the rightness or wrongness of human acts  How would you study or measure moral development. Right vs. Wrong:  Listen to the following scenario  Should Louise, the older sister, tell their mother that Judy lied about the money or should she keep quiet?  Is the fact that Judy earned the money herself important in this situation?  Is there a “right” or “wrong” answer? Development of Moral Reasoning:  The Heinz dilemma: A man’s wife was about to die and the drugs they could give her cost ten times as much as he made. He said no, and wound up stealing the drugs instead. Was this right or wrong?  As children get older, their responses and attitudes about rules change. They no longer simply just do what they’re told. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development and Reasoning:  Preconventiional Morality: reasoning based on personal benefits and self interest. There are two elements: 1: not getting caught or getting something pleasurable. 2. Cost-benefit analysis. Still trying to get reward but a step above.  Conventional Morality: reasoning based on conformity to rules and laws. “Mommy told me to”.  Post conventional/ Principled Morality: reasoning based on higher moral principles. There are things that are better than others. Three subsets: social contact principle, ethical contact principle and cosmic orientation. o For example, in the Heinz dilemma, letting his wife die is bad, and stealing drugs is bad, but which is less bad? Gender and Cultural Prespectives in Moral Reasoning:  Carol Gilligan: o challenges Kohlberg’s Theory o Woman’s morality is based on a standard of caring for others. This was their moral higherground o Men’s morality is based more on a standard of justice o Subsequent research shows both men and women reason based on care and on justive orientations. Monkeys seem to have more reason. They know when their being shortchanged. If it gets a cucumber, it loves it. But grapes, they are wonderful! If a monkey sees another monkey get a grape, they go on strike and start to starve themselves until they get grapes. What’s fair is fair. Psychology Notes Chapter 13: Personality Outline:  Theories: o Type and trait personality theories o Psychodynamic theories o Humanistic theories o Social­learning and cognitive theories o Self theories  Comaring personality theories  Assessing personality theories Type and Trait Approaches: Personality types: discrete categories based on global personality characteristics Type theories: not much empirical support  Hippocrates’ humors: blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile  Galen’s Personality temperaments  Sheldon’s body types: large chunky people, real thin people and muscular people.  Body type drives your personality.   Sulloway’s birth order types:  Trait approaches: there are x type of personality traits continuing around the world.   Gordon Allport’s trait approach: one of the first to suggest 3 broader types:  cardinal, secondary,  James Cattell’s 16 Factors  Hans Eysenck’s Dimensional Theory: 3 personality dimensions of extroversion  psychoticism and neuroticism. Factor Analysis: How we would test these trait approaches.  Statistical technique for studying responses to surveys.   Briggs personality test Four quadrants of Eyesynck’s Personality Circle: melancholic, choleric, sanguine,  phlegmatic The Big 5 Universal Personality Traits: the most current, consistent and useful. Most  empirical support.  Openness to experience  Conscientiousness: are you organized? Self disciplined?  Extraversion: outgoing?  Agreeableness: are you easy to get along with and trustful?  Neuroticism: do you worry? Are you carefree? Evolutionary Perspectives on Trait Dimensions:   Consider great variation among and within Allport dimensions  Diversity of environments  People embody both low and high values on each of the 5 dimensions. Do traits predict behaviors?  Consistency Paradox (Mischel, 2004): personality traits are very stable and tend  to not change. But behavior is very susceptible to change. We don’t always  behave like our personality, or how we usually do.  Evaluation of type and trait theories:  Advantages: type and trait theories describe people’s personalities.   Disadvantages: type and trait theories do not explain how behavior is generated or how it develops  Type and trait theories only portray static view of personality as it grows Traits and Heritability:   Behavioral Genetics o Study of how genetics influence of behavior and personality. Too what  degree are they inherited?  Nearly all personality traits have a genetic component. Hereditability can be on a  range of 1­100.  Family studies  Twin Studies: o MZ/DZ twins. About half the variance in personality due to genetic  similarity o Identical twins become more alike as they grow older o This is not true for siblings and dizygotic twins!! Correlation between identical and fraternal twins on the Big Five personality traits: the  identical twins always score closer to each other.  Traits remain stable over time:  Most research shows traits to be very stable over time o The Big Five study shows stability and consistency increases as  individuals get older o People tend to become more agreeable and more conscientious as they get  older (this pattern holds across cultures) Do you believe your personality can change? Psychodynamic theories:  Topographical model shows three levels of consciousness  The unconscious: o Stores repressed urges and primitive impulses o Influences behavior  Freudian Psychoanalysis Freud thought that our childhood experiences developed our personalities.  Freud’s theory attempts to explain:  Origins and course of personality development  Nature of the mind  Aspects of abnormal personality  Ways personality can be changed by therapy Freud’s original two basic drives:  Self preservation o Associated with ego  Eros:  o Related to sexual urges and preservation of the species o Libido: the source of energy for sexual urges… you’re horny Psychosexual Stages:  Oral (birth­1.5 years) o Oral fixation: smoking, overeating, gullibility, passivity o Failure to properly complete this stage could lead to ice chewing etc..  Anal (1.5­3 years) o Potty training, overly controlling, “anal retentive” (control freak),  parsimoniousness, obstinence or opposite thereof o Freud thought that anal retentive people were control freaks. When you’re  that age, it refers to bowel movements. YOU control this. Not your  parents. The child figures out that mommy and daddy want them to be  potty trained. They want them to poop. So, the child can be controlling  and refuse to poop.   Phallic (3­6 years) o Oedipal/ Elektra complex: gender ID, vanity, recklessness o Freud thought that the focus had moved from the mouth to the genital  region. He focused more on males than females. This is where kids  become very sexually focused.  o He thought that little boys wanted to kill their fathers and sexually have  their mothers. It was necessary to learn to move past this stage by learning to identify with your father.  o His theory was endocentric. The electro thing was an after thought.  o Improperly moving past this phase could cause you to be gay  Latent (6 years old – puberty) o Cooling off period for sex, defense mechanisms develop; usually no  fixation o Kids are focused on new things not on sex. This is not true. Kids actually  are interested in sex. They do talk about it. They just know how to hide it  better.   Genital (puberty to adulthood) o Achieve normal productive adulthood and mature sexuality Structural model of personality:  Id: this is where the libido is o Eros (life extinct) o Primitive and unconscious o Follows the pleasure principle  Superego:  o Internalization of parental and societal values and morals o Ego ideal.   Ego: o Tries to satisfy id, supergo and outside demands o Direct drives and urges into appropriate channels o Follows the reality principle o “defense mechanisms”: self preservation o attempts to protect the ego Common Defense Mechanisms:   denial: refusing to acknowledge the source of anxiety  repression: not dealing with the issues. Blocking them out.  projection: “oh its her fault she’s always causing drama”. Putting your own shit  on other people  reaction formation  rationalization: more adaptive. Taking something bad and turning it into  something good. Yeah I failed one test but it’s good­ it made me study more.   Displacement: shifting attention from one thing to another. Yelling at a child after a bad day at work.  Sublimation: taking negative social behaviors/energy and focusing it on  something else more productive. Like a sadist becoming a surgeon.  Reaction Formation: A threat to ego. You become VERY anti something about yourself  that you don’t like.   Essie Mae Washington Williams: a black woman in her late 60’s revealed after  her father died, that she was the daughter of Senator Strom Thurmond.  o An anti­civil rights, devoutly segregationst white man from the south. He  had an affair with a black woman, she got pregnant and he secretly paid  for and cared for the baby they had. Gaither Murder­ Feb 1999: Billy Jack Gaither a homophobic who was secretly blowing  men George Rekers:  Founding board member of Family Research Council, a socially conservative  organization  He was advisor to NARTH  Advocated conversion therapies. He thought that gay people could become  straight, and that gays were unsuitable for parenting.  He decided to go to Europe with a male friend. He told people that he only brought the  friend because he needed somebody to carry his bags for him. He did explain that he  found this person on “”.  He never really fesses up but…. Reaction Formation and Homophobia:  Adams, Wright and Lohr (1996) o Men who rated high on an index of homophobia were significantly more  aroused by male homosexual erotica than non homophobic men  o Is homophobia partly an overreaction of fear to one’s own same­sex  attraction? o Internalized homophobia. They brought a bunch of people into a lav and fit this ring thing around the guys penis.  They gave them pictures beforehand. They had a survery beforehand asking them  questions about gay rights and gay people to see how anti­gay these people were. All the  men who came in were straight. They were then showed 3 types of erotica: straight porn,  lesbo porn, and gay porn. In between showings, they showed them pictures of flowers  and puppies and shit to bring them back down. They were able to determine which  erotica turned them on the most. After the study, when asked, all the men claimed to  be  turned on the most by the straight porn. Men who had more anti­gay survey answers were more likely to have been turned on by the gay porn.  Evaluation of Freudian Theories:  Advantages: some aspects continues to modified and improved with empirical  scrutiny  Some evidence for some habits of mind  Still influences asome areas of contemporty psychology  Critcisms:   Vague concepts  No operational definitions  No predictive reliability  Retrospecitive application  No application of children  Focused only on men really Feautures of Humanistic Theories:  Holistic: explain people’s separate acts in terms of their whole personalities  Dispositional: focus on innate qualities within a person that exer major influence  over direction behavior will take  Phenomenological: Rogers and Maslow: humanistic theory:  Self­actualization  Person centered approach  Importance of parental treatment in child’s personality development  Unconditional positive regard: atmosphere of acceptance under which the  children develop most effectively. “youre a good child don’t throw things at your  friends” instead of “you’re a bad child how dare you throw things”. This focuses on the positive and healthy personality traits we have. However, the terms  presented are vague and hard to test empirically. They also deemphasize environmental  variables that influence behavior.  Social Learning and Cognitive Theories:  Locus of control (rotter) o Internal vs. external control  CAPS: cognitive­affective personality system Rotter was all about expectancies. Our personality was shaped by how we expect things  to go. Our sense of control was important here.  Bandura’s cognitive social­learning theory: reciprocal determinism: person, environment, behavior.  All three are inextricably linked. They co­effect and cross eachother.  Bandura’s Self­Efficacy Model: person  behavior  outcome Efficiay expectations: your own sense of whether you can be adequate in interacting in a  social situation. Came from vicarious situations.  Evaluation Scoial learning and cognitive theories  Criticisms: o Theories overlook emotion as an important component of personality o Cognitive theories do not recognize the impact of unconscious motivation o Explanations about the way personal constructs and competencies are  created are vague o Cognitive theories are only focused on current behaviors, not the  developmental origin.  Objective Personality Trait Measures:  Objective measures o Self­report questionaires and observer ratings of behavior o People do make subjective judgements  Common tests: o Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory o NEO­Pi: based on big 5 The Rorschach:   Two stages: performance and inquiry Thematic Apperception Test: you’re given an image and need to make a story about it  Psych Notes November 20, 2013 CHAPTER 14B: Mental Illness Mood Disorders: Major Depressive Disorder: an intense feeling of depression over an extended time Bipolar Disorder: alternating periods of depression and mania. An inbetween of the two. Manic Episode: extreme elation, euphoria, grandiose thoughts or feelings. Major Depression: a disorder characterized by severe negative moods and a lack of interest in normally pleasurable activities  Appetite and weight changes  Sleep disturbances and loss of energy  Feelings of self reproach  Suicidal ideation: three aspects: is the person having thoughts, are they planning or are they attempting?  Episodes can last weeks or years  The “Common cold” of mental illnesses: 17% lifetime prevalence (2:1 women to men) Grief and depression are not the same. If you and your boyfriend break up and you are still upset 2 months later, you would not yet be diagnosed with depression. Gender Differences in Depression  Women are more likely to be diagnosed with depression. Susan Nolen-Hoeksema.  Minority Stress (Meyer): applies to sexual minorities. Being a part of a minority implies increased stressors such as discrimination which increases the chances of negative outcomes like depression.  men are more likely to try and distract themselves. Suicide, increased risk:  death of a child or spouse  recently divorced men  fincancial, job social setbacks  disgnosed mood disorder that isn’t treated  guns in the home  sexual minorities  relative suicde Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Youth:  they are more likely to attempt suice  higher incidence of depression, runaway and throw-away  substance use and abuse is more comment  recent incidents of GLB suicide  Tyler Clemency: commits suicide after his roommate releases a video of him having sex with another man Causes of Mood Disorders: Biological causes of depression:  twin studies show that there is a biological/ genetic component.  Medications are increasing norepinephrine and serotonin levels alleviate depression  Damage to the left prefrontal cortex often leads to depression Cognitive and Behavioral Factors: Beck’s Cognitive Triad: o Negative views of self o Negative views of ongoing experiences o Negative views of the future  Depressed people think about themselves, their situation and the future in a negative way.


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