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Chapter 14 Notes

by: Colean Notetaker

Chapter 14 Notes 11762-002

Colean Notetaker
GPA 2.537

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About this Document

These are the chapter 14 notes. They are composed from listening to Updegraff's lecture, and my perspective of viewing his power point.
General Psychology
John Updegraff
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Colean Notetaker on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 11762-002 at Kent State University taught by John Updegraff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 12/09/15
Colean Bowman John A. Updegraff Disorders (Chapter 14) Psychological Disorders ­Issues in diagnosing disorders ­Mood disorders ­Major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder ­Anxiety disorders ­Panic disorder, phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder  ­Dissociative disorder  ­a.k.a, “multiple personality disorder”  ­Schizophrenia   Classifying Disorders ­Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM­IV)  ­Provides set of criteria for diagnosing mental disorders  ­Classification describes clusters of symptoms ­Describes the symptoms ­Predicts its future course ­Implies the appropriate treatment ­Stimulates research into its causes  ­Over 400 categories of disorders in today’s DSM­IV  DSM­IV Criteria for Depression ­FIVE or more of the following symptoms present for 2­week period (but must have one  of the first two)  ­Depressed mood most of day, nearly every day ­Loss of interest or pleasure in almost all activities most of the day, nearly every day  ­Weight change of 5%, or significant change in appetite ­Too much or too little sleep nearly every day ­Observable psychomotor agitation or retardation every day ­Loss of energy nearly every day ­Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt nearly every day ­Diminished ability to think or concentrate nearly every day ­Recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, or suicidal attempt ­Symptoms cause distress or impairment in functioning ­Symptoms not due to substance use, medical condition, or bereavement   Issues in Understanding Disorders ­Disorders are defined not only by their deviance, but also by how much distress and  impairment it causes in a person’s life ­Diagnosis is important for understanding and treating psychological disorders  ­Diagnosis can also create stigma, false expectations and erroneous perceptions   Prevalence of Various Disorders ­Anxiety disorders: 21% Phobias: 14% Generalized anxiety: 4% Obsessive­compulsive disorder: 3%  ­Mood disorders: 8%  ­Antisocial personality: 3%  ­Schizophrenia: 1%  ­Alcohol dependence: 14%   Major Depressive Disorder  ­Will affect about 17% of people ­It’s the “common cold” of mental disorders ­Symptoms ­Person experiences 2+ weeks of Depressed moods Feelings of worthlessness  Sleep difficulties Loss of interest in pleasure and activities  …All for no obvious reason  ­Women are almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression ­Most often diagnosed in late adolescence through adulthood  ­Most depressive episodes last a few weeks ­But 50­60% of those who suffer one episode will eventually have a more severe  recurrence   Causes of Depression ­Biological factors ­Genetics: If identical twin has had it, 50% chance you’ll get it ­Norephinephrine and serotonin levels are lower in depressed brains  Social factors ­Loneliness ­ Disruptions in social relations often lead to episodes of depression  Causes of Depression ­Cognitive factors ­Learned helplessness: the belief that you can’t control important things in life ­Negative explanatory style: tendency to blame negative events on factors that are Internal (“It’s my fault”) Stable (“It won’t change”)  Global (“It affects every part of my life”) ­Rumination: brooding, repetitive thinking about negative events  ­Treatment – usually includes a combination of ­Cognitive techniques  Identifying negative thought patterns Replacing them with more adaptive thoughts ­Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s) Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, Luvox, Celexa… ­In extreme cases, electroconvulsive (“shock”) therapy  Bipolar Disorder  ­Marked by uncontrollable cycles between ­Episodes of depression ­Mania, a state of hyperactivity and wild optimism  ­Early stages of mania are usually very enjoyable ­They will feel lots of energy, creativity, optimism, exhilaration, confidence  Later stages of mania can be destructive ­Sleeplessness, distraction, delusions of grandeur (ex: thinking you’re the second coming  of Jesus) ­ People get into trouble financially, socially, and sexually  When mania is over, depression hits HARD  ­Causes ­Bipolar has a strong genetic component  ­If identical twin has it, odds are 72% that you’ll get it ­Half of bipolar sufferers have a parent with a mood disorder ­Treatment  Most common treatment is lithium  ­ Lithium act’s as a mood stabilizer   Panic Disorder ­Will affect about 1­3% of population  ­More common in females ­Symptoms  ­Person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread and anxiety, including:  Heart palpitations, hyperventilation, occasional fainting  Often, feelings of unreality and detachment from body ­Person often fears going crazy, losing control, or dying ­After the first attack, person often develops: ­Fear of fear – fear of having another panic attack  ­Agoraphobia – fear of going outside   Causes  ­Unclear, but first panic attack often happens after a stressful life event, such as an  illness, or miscarriage. ­Treatment Can often successfully treat w/o use of drugs  ­Therapy often includes some combination of: ­Relaxation training ­Exposure therapy  Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ­Will affect about 4% of population ­Symptoms ­Person feels continually aroused, but often doesn’t know why  ­Person worries constantly and excessively about things like: Money, work, family matters, illness Person is highly sensitive to criticism  ­Person has difficulty making decisions  ­Causes ­Frequent and unpredictable traumatic experiences in childhood can predispose a  person to GAD  ­Often, it first appears following a stressful experience ­Treatment ­Typically tranquilizers, such as  Xanax, Valium, Libruim ­Dangerous when combined with alcohol   Specific Phobic Disorders ­Will affect about 10% of population ­Phobias Persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of specific object or situation ­Most common specific phobias are: Ophidiophobia – fear of snakes  Acrophobia – fear of heights  Aerophobia – fear of flying in airplanes  Claustrophobia – fear of small, enclosed spaces  Arachnophobia – fear of spiders  Brontophobia – fear of thunderstorms  Monophobia – being alone  Causes ­Some phobias may be based on actual experiences ­A bad experience flying ­Witnessing a plane crash ­Observing another person’s fear of flying ­Some phobias may be based in evolution  ­Fear of darkness, heights, and snakes may be genetically programmed   Treatment ­Phobias can often be successfully treated w/o drugs Therapy usually includes behavioral  techniques such as:  ­Flooding ­Systematic desensitization  ­Virtual reality systematic desensitization   Obsessive­Compulsive Disorder ­Will affect about 3% of population ­Symptoms  ­Obsessions: Person has unwanted repetitive thoughts  ­Compulsions: Behavior rituals performed in response to the obsessions ­To qualify for OCD, obsessions and compulsions must: ­Consume more than 1hr per day  ­Interfere with work or social relationships  Common manifestations of OCD  ­Contamination/germs People will go to excessive lengths to wash hands, sanitize homes  ­Need for symmetry ­Person’s environment must be orderly and symmetrical   Causes of OCD remain unclear, but…  ­Biological causes ­People with OCD have increased activity in the caudate nucleus, a part of the  brain involved in initiating habitual behaviors ­Strep throat infections may cause early­onset OCD in children  ­Learning through operant conditioning ­Compulsions are rewarding because they help reduce a person’s anxiety  surrounding obsessive thoughts  Treatment ­Usually includes a combination of Behavioral techniques: ­Exposure and response prevention ­Cognitive techniques: ­Relabeling obsessions/compulsions as symptoms of a medical disorder ­Refocusing attention to a constructive behavior (such as hobbies or  exercise) whenever an obsession appears  Dissociative Identity Disorder a.k.a., Multiple personality disorder  ­EXTREMELY, EXTREMELY RARE! ­Person has two or more identities (“alters”) that alternately control the person’s behavior ­Often, the original personality denies any awareness of the others  ­May be caused by physical or sexual abuse as a child ­A very controversial disorder ­ Symptoms often emerge and are most dramatic after beginning therapy.  ­“Alters” often appear during hypnosis by a therapist who tries to probe for  multiple personalities  ­Most reported cases of DID come from a small group of therapist  What is Schizophrenia? ­Schizophrenia is NOT multiple personality disorder. ­Schizophrenia is“split mind” – mind is split from reality ­It is a disorder that affects how people think, perceive, feel, and act. ­It only affects about 1% of the population, but is a very severe and very costly disorder.  What are the costs? ­Approximately 10­15% of homeless people have schizophrenia ­Rates of drug and alcohol addiction are very high (~50%) ­Approximately 10% of people with schizophrenia commit suicide.  Schizophrenia: Positive Symptoms ­Delusions: Irrational beliefs about the world. ­“My landlord is trying to poison me” (delusion of persecution) ­ “I invented the internet” (delusion of grandeur) ­“The CIA are monitoring my thoughts” (thought broadcasting) ­Hallucinations: Perceiving things that aren’t there ­“I hear voices” (auditory hallucination) ­“I see demons” (visual hallucination) ­Disordered thinking  ­Incoherent speech, odd trains of thought  Schizophrenia: Negative Symptoms ­Lack of motivation  ­Leads to problems with work, school, even basic self­care ­Flattened or inappropriate emotions ­Poverty of speech Reduced talking, reduced verbal fluency   Schizophrenia: Possible causes ­Schizophrenia is a strongly genetic disorder ­If identical twin has it, odds are about 50% that you’ll get it ­Schizophrenia also linked to non­genetic fx: ­Prenatal viral infections  ­Oxygen deprivation at birth  Schizophrenia: Brain abnormalities ­Schizophrenia related to brain abnormalities  ­Enlarged ventricles Reduction in gray matter  Dopamine over­reactivity ­May explain positive symptoms  ­Low brain activity in the frontal lobes ­May explain negative symptoms Par  Schizophrenia: Treatment ­Treatment is primarily through medications ­Schizophrenia follows a “rule of quarters”  ¼ will get well and will not get sick again  ¼ will need to take medications but can live independently ¼ will need to take medications and live in a group facility ¼ will not recover 15% will not respond to medication, 10% will commit suicide ­Recovery often depends on type of onset ­Acute onset – prognosis is relatively good  ­Chronic onset – prognosis is not so good


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