Whole Course CJ 210
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Popular in Criminal Justice
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Date Created: 12/09/15
Chapter 1 Police and Society I Society s Image of the Police A Crime Fighter Image the idea that the police are constantly engaged in a war on crime 1 The reality is that the police spend more of their time on matters other than criminal law enforcement B The CSI Effect the in uence that popular crime and forensic television shows have on the public prospective jurors in particular 1 This can lead prospective jurors to believe the science depicted on these shows is accurate when in fact in many cases it is not 11 Police Officer vs Peace Officer A All police officers are peace officers but not all peace officers are police officers B Police Officer a person whose primary job is to enforce laws investigate crimes and make arrests C Peace Officer a person who as part of their job is permitted to enforce laws investigate crimes and make arrests but it is not their primary job III Types of Policing A Traditional Policing The police react to calls for service They investigate crimes that have already happened or are happening B ProblemOriented Policing Police identify recurring problems and develop strategies to reduce or eliminate those problems C Community Policing The police work closely with community residents to prevent crime D ZeroTolerance Policing The police enforce all laws zealously even those involving seemingly minor issues Chapter 2 The History of the American Police 1 The following aspects of America s English heritage had an affect on its law enforcement system A Limited police authority B Local control of law enforcement agencies C Decentralized and fragmented system of law enforcement II Eras of Modern American Policing A The First Modern American Police 1830s and 1840s 1 Officers did not wear a uniform a They did wear a badge and hat 2 Officers were not armed 3 Americans were uncertain about the police a A continual law enforcement presence on the streets was reminiscent of the British army b There was fear that politicians would control the police and use them to their advantage 0 Taxpayers did not want to pay for a police force B The Political Era 1830 1900 1 Officers were selected on the basis of their political connections 2 Police officers could be fired at will 3 The police had more of a social welfare role 4 Corruption and discrimination were rampant C The Professional Era 1900 1960 1 There was a push for professionalization of the police a Professionalization is the process by which an occupation becomes a profession b Some of the attributes that distinguish a profession from an occupation are i Standards of entry licensing ii An ethical code iii A sanctioning organization 2 The introduction of modern technology also changed the way in which the police worked The three items that had the greatest impact on policing were a The car b The telephone 0 The twoway radio 3 Supreme Court decisions required the police to adjust their policies as they pertained to the rights of defendants under the United States Constitution D The Golden Age of Policing 1 There never was a Golden Age of policing Chapter 3 The Contemporary Law Enforcement Industry 1 Policing and Different Levels of Government A City Municipal Police 1 Composes the majority about 70 of all law enforcement agencies in the United States 2 They generally have the heaviest responsibility for dealing with serious crime B County Sheriff s Of ce 1 Sheriff is an elected position in nearly every state 2 They generally provide court security 3 In most counties about 76 they maintain the county jail C State Department of Public Safety 1 Oversee the highway patrol 2 They generally provide crime lab services for smaller agencies in the state 3 In most states about 77 they provide a training academy D Federal 1 The federal government oversees numerous law enforcement agencies each tasked with coving different aspects of law enforcement Those agencies all under one of two federal departments a Department of Homeland Security b Department of Justice 11 Fragmentation caused by the decentralized system of law enforcement in the US that has multiple law enforcement agencies operating at different levels of government A Problems that can result from fragmentation 1 Agencies compete rather than cooperate 2 Crime is displaced rather than prevented 3 Police services are duplicated 4 There are inconsistent standards of policing occurring in the same geographic area B Possible solutions to the fragmentation problem 1 Consolidation of smaller law enforcement agencies 2 Contracting with other law enforcement agencies to cover certain aspects of law enforcement for them housing inmates crime lab services etc 111 Private Security A Ways in which private security differs from public law enforcement 1 Private security is more focused on crime prevention 2 Private security is more focused on matters that happen on private property 3 Private security generally has more relaxed entry requirements 4 Supreme Court decisions that constrain police conduct do not necessarily apply to private security Chapter 4 Police Organizations 1 Police Departments as Organizations A QuasiMilitary Style of Organization 1 Similarities of Police Departments to Military Organizations a Of cers wear uniforms b Militarystyle rank designations c Hierarchical command structure d Authoritarian organizational style 2 Criticisms of the QuasiMilitary Style of Organization a It cultivates an us versus them attitude among the police b It encourages the idea of a war on crime c The authoritarian style is contrary to democratic principles and produces low morale d The rigid structure leaves room for job dissatisfaction B Bureaucracy a system of administration based upon organization into bureaus division of labor and a hierarchy of authority designed to dispose of a large body of work in a routine manner 1 Problems with Bureaucracies in Police Departments a They are unable to adapt to change b Communication breaks down within c Departments can become selfserving d The talents of employees are not always utilized 2 Bene ts of Bureaucracies in Police Departments a Police discretion can be controlled easier b Police misconduct is generally reduced 3 Alternatives to Bureaucracies in Police Departments a Community Policing i It decentralizes decision making in a department ii It deformalizes the department ie it relaxes the rules and policies iii Of cers assignments are despecialized iv Delayerization the bureaucratic distance between an of cer and the chief is reduced b Task Forces i Task forces are often composed of of cers of different rank ii Task forces are often composed of of cers from different agencies II COMPSTAT short for compare statistics a program used to track police statistics such as arrests and calls for service for the purpose of achieving crime control through accountability A It clari es a department s goals B The data gathered is used to identify problems and evaluate success or failure in relation to a department s goals C It holds managers accountable D Resources and authority are transferred to commanders who oversee speci c areas 111 Civil Service and Police Unions A Civil Service the permanent professional branches of a government39s administration excluding military and judicial branches and elected politicians 1 There are formal and legally binding procedures in place to govern personnel decisions in civil service 2 Nearly all police of cers are employed under civil service 3 Issues with Civil Service a Chiefs are limited in their personnel decisions b It limits incentives to perform above and beyond What is required B Attributes of Police Unions 1 Collective Bargaining the method of determining conditions of employment through bilateral negotiations 2 Grievance procedures are in place 3 Strikes are illegal in many states 4 Unions have substantial nancial and political resources IV Theories on Police Organizations A Contingency Theory organizations are structured to achieve speci c goals such as crime control B Institutional Theory organizations operate in relation to their external social and political environment C Resource Dependency Theory organizations must obtain resources to survive Chapter 5 Entering Police Work I Aspects of Recruitment A Setting minimum quali cations 1 Age most agencies require that of cers be at least 21 years old 2 Education most agencies require that of cers have at least a high school diploma 3 Residency only about a quarter of agencies require of cers to live in the area Where they are going to be an of cer B Making a recruitment effort 1 Historically departments did not actively recruit to ll positions 2 Today open recruitment efforts are required by law C An applicant must make the decision to apply 1 Applicant s possible motivations for applying a The opportunity to help people b Job security c The opportunity to ght crime d Excitement of the job e Prestige of being an of cer 2 Barriers to recruitment a Negative images and stereotypes of of cers b Law enforcement is traditionally a male occupation II Selecting from the Recruitment Pool A Methods Used to Select 1 Selection Tests a Oral Interviews b Medical Exams 2 Background Investigations a Criminal History b Previous Employment c Speak with neighbors B Equal Opportunity Employment 1 Civil Rights Act of 1964 federal and Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 extended to states a An employer cannot discriminate in employment with regards to race ethnicity or sex 2 Bona Fide Occupational Quali cation any requirement that is reasonably necessary to the normal operation of the business in question a If an applicant does not possess one of these quali cations an employer does not have to hire them C Af rmative Action Where an employer takes positive steps to remedy past discrimination 111 Training Of cers Generally Receive A Police Academy B Field Training 1 Field training usually consists of a new of cer working daily with a eld training of cer 2 Of cers will often be on probationary status when rst employed The probationary period may generally correspond to the length of their eld training but it is not required to Chapter 6 On the Job 1 Reality Shock the rude awakening a new of cer encounters when confronting the unpleasant aspects of dealing with the public A Encountering Citizens 1 Of cers will sometime receive hostility and complaints from citizens 2 Of cers see humanity at its worst B Seeing the Criminal Justice System from the inside 1 Of cers cases get plea bargained C Dealing with departmental politics 11 Aspects of the Police Subculture A Group Solidarity 1 In modern policing this is not so much the case B Code of Silence blue curtain unwritten rule in the police subculture that of cers should not testify against fellow of cers regarding misconduct C A culture of dealing with danger and living safely 1 While the onthejob fatality rate for police of cers is high there are other occupations with a higher rate 111 The Changing Look of the Police A Women Of cers 1 Women of cers break up the traditional solidarity of the work group 2 Attitude of male of cers toward female of cers varies a Traditionals do not believe women should be police of cers b Modems believe that women should be police of cers c Moderates believe that women should be police of cers in principle but are uncomfortable with them as of cers in practice 3 Glass ceiling the unseen yet unbreachable barrier that keeps women from rising to the upper levels of a work organization a The glass ceiling exists for women in police work 4 Female of cers receive fewer citizen complaints than male of cers 5 Female of cers are less likely to use force than male of cers B Minority Of cers 1 AfricanAmerican Of cers a They have different attitudes on police use of excessive force b They are more likely to support citizen oversight c They are more likely to support community policing d They are more likely to live in area where they work 2 Hispanic and Latino Of cers a The number of Hispanic and Latino of cers has increased signi cantly in recent years i In some departments they are the majority b They have a dual identity in that they are both police of cers and members of Hispanic community C Gay and Lesbian Of cers 1 By 1992 at least 10 departments openly recruited gay and lesbian of cers 2 They choose law enforcement for the same reasons people have traditionally chosen it 3 Many experience discrimination on the job IV Effects on Performance A Cohort Effects 1 Of cers hired in one decade will have different ideas and lifestyles than of cers hired in later decades 2 There is an education generation gap between younger bettereducated of cers and veteran of cers with less education a There is no strong evidence that higher education leads to better performance on the street B Organizational Effects 1 The informal culture of a police organization affects of cer attitudes toward certain important subjects V Styles of Police Work A Active of cers 1 Initiate more contacts with citizens 2 Back up of cers on other calls 3 Assert control of situations 4 Make more arrests B Passive of cers 1 Initiate few contacts with citizens 2 Respond only to calls to which they are dispatched 3 Make few traf c stops and arrests Chapter 7 Patrol The Backbone of Policing I The Functions of Patrol A To deter crime B To enhance feelings of public safety C To make of cers available for service 11 Types of Patrol A Foot Patrol B Automobile Patrol 1 Having only one of cer in each patrol car is more costeffective 2 Having two of cers in each patrol car enhances of cer safety 111 Styles of Patrol A Individual Styles how an individual of cer chooses to do patrol work 1 Of cerinitiated activity includes stopping questioning frisking suspicious citizens stopping vehicles writing traf c tickets etc B Supervisor Styles how supervisors choose to do patrol work which in turn affects how the of cers he or she oversees do patrol work 1 The principle of span of control holds that a supervisor can effectively manage only a limited number of people a The recommended span of control is one sergeant for about every eight of cers C Organizational Styles 3 types how a department chooses to do patrol work which in turn affects how the of cers in the department do patrol work 1 Watchman Style emphasizes peacekeeping without aggressive law enforcement and few controls over rankand le of cers 2 Legalistic Style emphasizes aggressive crime ghting and attempts to control of cer behavior through a rulebound by the book administrative approach 3 Service Style emphasizes responsiveness to community expectations and is generally found in suburban police departments where there is relatively little crime IV The Communications Center A 911 Systems 1 Introduced in 1968 by ATampT 2 Resulted in an increase in calls for service B Processing Calls for Service 1 Only 12 of all calls to 911 result in a dispatch 2 Operators decide how many and which of cers to dispatch 3 Of cers respond with uncertainty a Citizens may not provide enough information to the operator b Any information that is passed along may get diluted by the number of people it goes through before getting to the of cers C OperatorCitizen Interactions 1 Need to provide of cers as much information as possible 2 Calls can be lengthy with a lot of question V Aspects of Patrol Work A Response Time the amount of time it takes an of cer to get to the scene of a crime 1 Response time has little effect on clearance rates 2 Other time factors which of cers have no control over a Discovery Time time between the commission of the crime and its discovery b Reporting Time time between discovery and when the citizen calls the police i Reasons why citizens delay calling Need to verify crime occurred Regain composure Call a friend or family member rst Decide whether to involve police Telephone not immediately available c Processing Time time between the call and the dispatch of an of cer B Of cer use of patrol time 1 Project on Policing Neighborhoods POPN found that regular patrol of cers spend only 20 percent of shift interacting with citizens 2 Evading duty a Delay in reporting the completion of a call C Highspeed pursuits a situation where a police of cer attempts to stop a vehicle and the suspect knowingly ees at a high rate of speed 1 In the past the decision to pursue was at the discretion of the of cer 2 Today most police departments have policies regulating when to engage in a highspeed pursuit VI Study of Patrol Work A Nature of Studying Patrol Work 1 Studying patrol is dif cult and expensive due to decentralized nature of the job 2 Standards for Systematic Social Observation a Designed to provide accurate representative picture b Trained observers follow of cer everywhere the of cer goes c Take eld notes which of cer can then read 3 Studies of police patrol include a American Bar Foundation Survey 19561957 b President s Crime Commission 19651967 c Police Services Study 1977 d Project on Policing Neighborhoods 19961997 B Operation 25 l Doubled patrol in 25th Precinct of NY for 4 months a Claimed a reduction in muggings of 90 and auto thefts of 67 2 Methodologically Flawed a Not independently evaluated b Did not account for displacement C Kansas City Preventative Patrol Experiment 1 Fifteen beats assigned one of three levels of patrol a Reactive beats received no preventative patrol with of cers only entering the area in response to calls for service b Proactive beats received two or three times the normal level of patrol c Control beats received the normal level of patrol 2 Experiment lasted one year 3 Findings a Variations in the level of patrol had no signi cant impact on crime b Variations in the level of patrol had no signi cant impact on citizen feelings of safety c There were no signi cant changes in behavior or lifestyle because of perceived changes in police protection d Variations in the level of patrol did not affect attitudes towards the police 4 Possible Explanations a Many crimes happen inside not outside b Residual deterrence D Newark Foot Patrol Experiment 1 Similar to the Kansas City experiment only involving foot patrol 2 Findings a Increased presence did not reduce serious crime b Citizen attitudes were affected i Reduced fear of crime ii Increased positive attitude towards the police c Of cer attitudes were affected i Saw citizens as more supportive of the police VII Recent Techniques Used to Aid Patrol Work a Differential Response classifying calls as to their seriousness and responding accordingly b Telephone Reporting Units reports are taken over the phone c 311 Nonemergency Numbers d NonEnglish 911 Call Service e Reverse 911 f Computers and Video Cameras in patrol cars g Police Aides nonswom personnel h Directed Patrol of cers have speci c tasks to focus on during patrol Chapter 8 Peacekeeping and Order Maintenance I The Police Role A Order Maintenance police intervention in incidents that do not involve actual criminal activity but often entail interpersonal con ict or public nuisance B Four different ways that noncrime calls for service can help improve police effectiveness in dealing with crime 1 Criminal Prophylactic Model police intervention can prevent potentially violent situations from escalating 2 Police Knowledge Model noncrime calls provide of cers with a broader exposure to and knowledge of the community which can help in the resolution of crimes 3 Social Work Model the latent coercive power of the police can help steer potential lawbreakers into lawabiding behavior 4 CommunityCooperation Model responses to noncrime calls can help the police establish credibility with the public II Traf c Enforcement A Most common type of order maintenance B Drunk driving 1 It is questionable whether DUI crackdowns reduce drunk driving a Number of DUI fatalities is down however 2 Risk of arrest for drunk driving a 5 of drivers on the road in the evenings are drunk b That percentage is higher on the weekend around 8 c Every day 28 people die as a result of drunk driving crashes d Every two minutes a person is injured in a drunk driving crash 3 Processing a DUI arrest is very time consuming III Domestic Violence A Domestic Violence a disturbance between two or more people engaged in an intimate relationship that has escalated to a degree involving actual or threatened violence 1 Legal de nitions may vary from state to state B Many domestic violence victims do not call the police C Police response to domestic violence calls 1 Arrest factors in uencing decision to arrest a Mandatory arrest policies b Preference of victim for arrest c Relationship between victim and suspect d Disrespect to police 2 Mediation 3 Separating the parties 4 Referral to social service agencies 5 No action at all IV Policing Vice A Vice crimes are victimless crimes with no complaining party 1 Drugs 2 Prostitution 3 Gambling B Police must investigate vice crimes on their own C Vice crimes involve behavior that many regard as legitimate and private D There are con icting public attitudes on vice crimes 1 As a result enforcement is selective arbitrary and inconsistent V Policing the Mentally 111 A Estimated 710 of police contacts are with a mentally ill person B Police response to the mentally ill 1 Hospitalization 2 Arrest 3 Informal Disposition a Psychiatric rst aid Where the police use informal tactics to calm a person down b Mercy booking Where the police arrest and book a mentally ill person because no mental health facility is available for the person Chapter 9 The Police and Crime I Crime Control Strategies A Proactive vs Reactive 1 Proactive Anticrime strategies initiated by the police themselves not citizens requesting service 2 Reactive Anticrime strategies used by police when responding to a civilian s request for service B General vs Speci c 1 General directed at the community at large 2 Speci c directed at particular crimes places offenders or victims II Solving Crimes A Case solvability factors 1 Structural Factors factors relating to the individual crime committed 2 Organizational Factors factors relating to the agency investigating the crime 3 Environmental Factors characteristics of the community in which the crime occurred B Unfounding a Crime failure of a police of cer to complete an of cial crime report when a citizen reports a crime 1 Reasons for Unfounding a Crime a Citizens do not understand the criminal law b Insuf cient evidence c Abuse of of cer s discretion i Bias against victim ii Reducing crime rates C Eyewitness Identi cation not always reliable due to problems with human perception and memory D Special Investigative Techniques 1 Undercover Police Work a The type of work often requires of cers to befriend criminals i This may erode the standards of policing b This type of police work is less supervised 2 Informants criminals who possess special knowledge a The police must give something in return for access to the information the informant has b Types of Informants i Hammered Informants become informant under stress of arrest ii Mercenary Informants motivated by money iii Vengeful Informants motivated by revenge on another criminal iv Police Buffs informants that help once because the support the police III Policing Speci c Types of Crime A Drugs 1 Drug Enforcement Strategies a Supply reduction strategy i Buy and bust ii Trading up iii Longterm undercover work iv Drug crackdown intensive enforcement effort b Demand reduction strategy i Drug education programs DARE 2 Minorities and the War on Drugs a African Americans arrested more frequently than whites although usage is about the same B Gangs 1 Gang Suppression a The police gang unit is a specialized unit b Has at least one sworn of cer whose job it is to engage in gang control effort 2 Gang Prevention GREAT Program Gang Resistance Education and Training a Operates in all 50 states b Study showed that it was not very effective at preventing students from joining gangs C Guns 1 Victims of gun violence are most likely to be African American American Indian and Hispanic 2 Men are twice as likely to be victims of gun violence compared to women D Hate Crime biasmotivated crime 1 Five main characteristics of Hate Crimes a Higher level of assaults against persons than crimes generally b More violent c Attacks preceded by series of confrontations that escalate in severity d More likely to be committed be group perpetrators e Likely to be committed by someone the victim knows E Terrorism The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government the civilian population or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives 1 Domestic Terrorism planned and carried out by Americans on American soil 2 Foreign Terrorism terrorist activities coordinated and perpetrated by foreign persons or countries against the US Chapter 10 Innovations in Police Strategy 1 Community Policing A Broken Windows Hypothesis argues that police should focus their resources on disorder problems that create fear of crime and lead to neighborhood decay a broken window begins neighborhood decay 1 Types of Disorder a Social Disorder A condition said to exist when a group is faced with social change uneven development of culture maladaptiveness disharmony con ict and lack of consensus b Physical Disorder A form of societal neglect resulting from physical decay within a neighborhood examples include vandalism dilapidation and abandonment of buildings and trash buildup B Characteristics of Community Policing 1 Community Partnerships collaboration between police and community 2 Consultation serves four functions a Citizens can express problems and needs b Police can educate citizens about crime and disorder in community c Allows citizens to present complaints d Provides forum for police to inform the citizen about successes and failures 3 Mobilization C Organizational Change 1 There is little evidence to support the idea that police organizations are changing their structure as a consequence of community policing 2 There is increased police Visibility as a result of community policing 3 Community policing principles are incorporated into academy training for of cers D Issues with Community Policing 1 Some feel community policing expands police role too far a The more they dig into the root of social problems the more they place limits on individual liberties 2 Decentralization creates a potential loss of control over police behavior 3 Community policing tends to be more intrusive on the lives of those living in lowincome areas 11 Problem Oriented Policing A The Problem Solving Process 1 Scanning looking for and identifying possible problems 2 Analysis collecting information about the problem and attempting to identify its scope nature and cause 3 Response using the information obtained to develop a strategy to address the problem 4 Assessment evaluating of the effectiveness of the response III Zero Tolerance Policing A Characteristics of Zero Tolerance Policing 1 Based on broken Windows theory 2 Calls for the police to primarily focus on disorder minor crime and the appearance of crime 3 Characterized by interventions that aggressively enforce criminal and civil laws 4 Based on the presumption that communities that need the police the most are also the least likely to have strong community social institutions 5 Does not attempt to carefully identify problems or thoroughly analyze cause of problems 6 Focus on placespeci c interventions as opposed to problemspeci c interventions B Issues with Zero Tolerance Policing 1 Con ict between police and the public a Encourages of cers to be overly aggressive b Increase in number of citizen complaints 2 Increase in crime in the long run a An arrest record has a longterm impact on a person s immediate and future employment 3 Impact on poor and minority communities a Focus on minor offenses means poorer minority communities will be affected more Chapter 11 Police Discretion I Use of Discretion A Street Level Bureaucrats 1 Description for patrol of cers because they make decisions that produce actual police policy as it affect citizens 2 Decision to arrest makes them the gatekeepers of the criminal justice system B Proper Use of Discretion 1 The Use of Good Judgment 2 Ef cient Use of Scare Police Resources 3 Individualized Justice 4 Sound Public Policy C Abuse 1 Discrimination 2 Denial of Due Process 3 Systematic Underenforcement of the Law 4 Poor Personnel Management 5 Inconsistent Policy II Factors that Limit Discretion A Legal Factors 1 Supreme Court Decisions 2 State Court Decisions 3 State Law B Administrative Factors 1 Department Policy 2 Supervisions C Organizational Culture Factors 1 Peer of cer culture III Controlling Discretion A Myth of Full Enforcement 1 Exists to maintain public image of authority 2 Prevent the raising of questions about equal protection of the law 3 Allows supervisors to avoid closely reviewing of cer behavior and developing performance expectations B Enhancing Professional Judgment 1 Through education and training C Informal Bureaucratic Controls 1 An arrest raises an of cer s visibility since it is reviewed by a number of higher ranking of cers D Written Policies 1 Administrative rulemaking IV Administrative Rule Making A Administrative Rulemaking Seeks to guide the exercise of police discretion through written departmental rules and the requirement that of cers complete written reports on how they handled situations 1 Provides directions for of cers on how to handle critical incidents 2 Promotes consistent performance 3 Provides basis for effective supervision B Limits of Administrative Rule Making 1 It is impossible to write a rule that covers every situation 2 Formal rules may encourage evasion or lying 3 Written rules may only make the situation worse and create uncertainty 4 Elaborate rules may create a negative atmosphere in the department Chapter 12 Legitimacy and Community Relations 1 Discrimination vs Disparity A Discrimination differential treatment based on some extralegal category such as race ethnicity or gender B Disparity different outcomes that are not necessarily caused by differential treatment 11 Attitudes towards the Police A Majority of Americans have positive attitude toward police B Racial and ethnic minorities consistently rate police less favorably l Attitudes about police roles can vary according to social class as well as race and ethnicity a Thus middleclass and lowerclass African Americans do not share identical attitudes C African Americans and Hispanics generally give a favorable rating D Young people rate less favorably 1 Age consistently ranks second to race and ethnicity as a factor in public attitudes toward police E Poor people less educated people and crime victims rate less favorably F People who view their neighborhood as safe view police favorably G Community policing has a positive effect on citizens attitudes H There are signi cant differences in attitudes among different cities 111 Police perceptions of Citizens A Sources of Police Attitudes l Selective Contact a Of cers do not have regular contact with a cross section of the community b Lowincome and minorities have a disproportionate level of contact with the police 2 Selective Perception a Of cers are more likely to remember traumatic or unpleasant events b Of cers tend to stereotype African Americans since they tend to show the most hostility toward of cers B Police Justi cation for Racial and Ethnic Disparities l Maj or argument is that African Americans and minorities are more likely to be engaged in criminal activity 2 Some argue this involves circular reasoning a Minorities stopped and arrested more than whites producing higher arrest rates and thus justifying higher rates of stops and arrests Chapter 13 Police Corruption 1 De nitions of Police Corruption A Police Corruption a form of misconduct or deviant behavior by police of cers that involves the misuse of authority in a manner designed to produce personal gain for themselves or for others B Occupational Deviance criminal and improper noncriminal behavior committed during the course of normal work activities or under the guise of a police of cer s authority C Abuse of Authority an action by a police of cer that tends to injure insult trespass upon human dignity andor violate an inherent legal right of a citizen II The Costs of Police Corruption A A corrupt act by a police of cer is a criminal act B Corruption usually protects other criminal acts C Corruption undermines the effectiveness of the criminal justice system D Corruption undermines the professionalism of a police department E Corruption is a secret tax adding up to millions of dollars a year F Corruption undermines public con dence in the police III Types of Corruption A Gratuities 1 Grass Eater an of cer who passively accepts gratuities 2 Meat Eater an of cer who aggressively demand gratuities B Bribes C Theft D Brutality E Sexual Misconduct IV Levels of Corruption A Type I Rotten apples and rotten pockets 1 Rotten apple one corrupt of cer 2 Rotten pocket a few corrupt of cers cooperating with one another B Type II Pervasive unorganized corruption 1 The majority of the personnel are corrupt but have little relationship to each other C Type III Pervasive organized corruption 1 Penetrates higher levels V Controlling Corruption A Internal Mechanisms 1 Attitude of Chief of Police 2 Rules and Regulations 3 Internal Affairs investigations 4 Effective Supervision 5 Rewarding good of cers 6 Personnel Recruitment B External Mechanisms 1 Special investigations 2 Criminal prosecution 3 Mobilizing public opinion 4 Altering the external environment 5 Media Chapter 14 Accountability of the Police I Accountability having to answer for one s conduct A Accountability for what the Police Do 1 Traditional approach a Crime rate b Clearance rate c Response time 2 New Measures a Survey of citizens about their neighborhood of cers b COMPSTAT i Holds middle level managers accountable for crime in their areas ii Command of cers are asked to explain data and detail what they are doing about crime trends B Accountability for how the Police do their Job 1 Routine supervision a Span of control b Employee Assistance Program i Helps of cers deal with addictions emotional issues etc c Written policies and reporting requirements d Performance Evaluations 2 Internal Affairs Units a Investigates misconduct b Early warning systems II Early Intervention Systems management information systems that compile and analyze data on problematic police of cer behavior citizen complaints police of cer useofforce reports and other indicators to identify of cers with recurring performance problems A Components of an Early Intervention System 1 Identi cation a Performance indicators b Analysis of data c Identi cation of of cers with performance problems 2 Selection a Assessment of identi ed of cers b Selection of of cers for intervention 3 Intervention a Effort to improve of cer performance b Supervisor s counseling c Training d Referral to professional counseling 4 Followup B Goals of an Early Intervention System 1 Individual of cers improve performance of those having trouble dealing with citizens 2 Supervisors give them data to help focus their efforts 3 The department improve the department as a whole by systematically identifying unacceptable of cer performance 4 Policecommunity relations reduce speci c problems in the community while simultaneously communicating to the public III Accreditation A The Nature of Accreditation accreditation is the process of voluntary professional selfregulation that serves as a nal approach to establishing minimum national standards in policing B Bene ts 1 Reduced insurance costs 2 Improved use of force reporting 3 Improved procedures for juveniles C Criticisms 1 Voluntary process 2 Set minimum standards but do not de ne optimum standards for excellence 3 Only address purely formal aspects of administration without addressing speci c content 4 Too expensive and timeconsuming IV External Mechanisms of Accountability A The Courts 1 Supreme Court decisions in criminal cases limit how police exercise their discretion 2 The police can be sued in civil court a Pattern or practice cases require a showing that the police misconduct is more than sporadic bad incidents and requires information indicating a pattern of misconduct i These type of suits are brought primarily by the Department of Justice ii These type of cases are generally settled through a consent decree A consent decree usually will include court ordered reforms that a police department must implement A consent decree will usually include the appointment of an independent monitor to evaluate how well a department is implementing the reforms they were ordered to implement B Citizen Oversight the process by which people who are not sworn of cers are involved in some way in the review of citizen complaints against police of cers 1 Civilian Review Boards a board of citizens that review individual complaints and make recommendations to the police chief 2 Police Auditors a Do not investigate individual citizen complaints b Monitor the operations of the police department C The Media 1 In uential in exposing serious police problems 2 Sometimes contribute to police problems a Only represent sensational stories b Focus too much on crime and ignore other police work c Tend to emphasize negative aspects of policing D Public Interest Organizations 1 ACLU 2 NAACP
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