Exam 3 Lecture + Discussion Notes
Exam 3 Lecture + Discussion Notes ANTH 1003
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Date Created: 12/09/15
November 11 2015 Lecture l7 Dead Sea Scrolls amp Masada Summary This lecture traces the lineage of biblical scroll acquisition and what was found in each respective cave S croll 0 Dead sea Near Qumran 0 Found by Jumla Mohammed 8 Mohammed Ahmed in M47 0 Preserved bc extremely salty water logged condition 0 There s 400 scrolls from all the different caves 0 Everything from the old testament more are there 0 Function a library monastery Roman villa 0 Put there in 67 AD 0 in 70 AD Jews hid scrolls after a revolt o Caves ll total 0 Qumran 2 century BC lron Age We think the stuff in the caves were put by Qumranians o Qumran Baptismal Pool 0 Early christens may have been here 0 Eliezer Sukenik bought 8 transcribed 3 scroll jars o lsiahjomll v similar to today s copy 0 Mnquot waiting for Armageddon I Called themselves the Sons of light who would fight the sons of darkness 0 IhanksgivingsomlL community prayer book hymns 8 prayers Cave l Archbishop Samuel 0 Bought the remaining 4 scrolls o Tried selling them for 5 mill 0 Yigael Yadin famous lsraeli archeologist o Bought the 4 remaining dead sea scrolls from Samuel 0 His father was Eliezer Sukenik o IQMMLSQICQU detailed instructions on how to rebuild the temple on the mount 0 Mesada elab below gtgtgt November 11 2015 0 Manual of Discipline 2 was a rules and regulations book detailed literally everything from where you can defecate etc 0 Commentary of llabakuk 8 Genesis Apocryphon alt versions of the book of Genesis Cave 3 0 Single scroll made of copper gt gt gt o Other ones were made from animal skin 0 ln Manchester England they cut it up into strips 0 lt s a treasure map marking 64 locations in the area 0 None of the treasures were ever found Cave 4 o The cave floor has mixed up fragments from lOOs of scrolls o They ve been trying to interpret them since the quOs 0 Book of Samuel fragment 2 late 3 l century BCE 0 Book of Psalm 2 ft word for God Naval Mishmar Cave 0 4 millennium copper treasure Cave of Horrors 0 ltlt You need a rope ladder to get in 0 Roman camps were above below 8 around 0 No one can leave or get in o Bodies on bodies on bodies inside ppl died of starvation Cave of Letters 132 135 BC 0 Found an archive of letters inside a basket 0 Lady who wrote those letters had tons of lawsuits jewelry etc November 11 2015 Mesada o Josephus Jewish historian who wrote about Mesada o Yadin found a palace on West 8 Northern ends 0 Reconstructed parts marked them w a black line gtgtgt 0 Evidence of fighting battering ram w catapult balls 0 King llerid made the palaces but Josephus account of what happened is questionable bc he only said there was l palace o Tannery craftsmen rooms 8 a synagogue were up there 0 Wall paintings mosaics coins 8 ostricha shards w names on them o WHAT S THE REAL STORY 2 discrepancies found w Yadin s story being crafted for ideological purposes 0 White washing a genocide November 16 2015 Lecture l8 Petra Jordan 8 Palmyra Syria Summary all the cities we look were key points on major trade routes They date back to early gt mid Bronze Age and came to a close because of Roman influences taking over Petra Jordan 2 new 7 h wonder of the ancient world 0 Discovered by Swiss Explorer John Lloyd Stevens who dressed up like a local gaining him access a 0 ltlt Treasury stone changes color when different lights hit it o Wady canyon wasn t the 06 entryway gtgt 39 o summmmmm Shallow used for tombs houses we re not sure 0 Royal tombs o Nabatean period 4 century around for 800 years 7 o lt was abandoned BY 5quot century AD a city lost in time Became v important in roman Period was center of a kingdom and the spice trade 0 lt s hidden 0 Roman theater seats a couple thousand ppl Colonnaded Street Temple of the Winged Lions Petra Church 35 AD 0 Mosaics were buried for l600 years after the church was burned down but perfectly preserved 0 There were papyrus scrolls inside legal docs land files etc The Monastery gtgt o Crucial during the Roman Period Palmyra Syria same time period as Petra 0 Also key stop on trade routes 0 Pliny describes it as a place on the periphery of two empires 0 lnscribed niches let us reconstruct the population 0 Zenobia 0 Temple of Bel 0 Ancient Ebla Tell Mardikh o Excavated by ltalian Paleo Mattiei Tell 2 multiple stacked cities 2 phases Early Bronze Age gtgt Middle Bronze Age lZOOl600 BC Palace 6 Ebla 23502250 BC Ebla Archives had tablets OOOO November 16 2015 I Changed what we thought we were digging Tell liariri Mari 0 Tell 2 cities on cities on cities 0 Excavated in 1433 by the French they re still there 0 Marilettets were fatherly advice November 19 2015 EHIIQEIHIID Group Project present a topic of your interest 56 mins for the last discussion Need 2 credible sources Any topic that HAS NOT been showed in class Pretly brief overview general info Focus a subject area like 0 History of beer 0 Agriculture of Macchu Pichu 0 Something related to your major Split it up 0 One person makes the presentation 0 One person gives general overview intro 0 One person gives details Ethnoarcheology All interpretations are based on analogies 0 HOW those analogies are developed is what ethno experimental archeology deals with 0 Low level theory 2 simple definition of objects I identifying objects this is an arrowhead 0 Middle range theory lqOOs mostly processual framework so more scientific I Looks object s purpose I Arrowhead is used for hunting I How object is relevant to society Reacts to it I Correlations about how ppl function today vs the past o Archeological record is quotstatic and modern aka it s in the same shape as when you found it 0 Record is static be no added energy is being added to it anymore the culture that is gone 2 no energy if culture goes on after it ceased was abandoned 0 High level theory using a framework to understand big picture ideas like class conflict etc Ethnoarcheology departs from the idea that assumptions we make are true we have biases o Bridges the gap btw sites and people of the past compared to now 0 Looks Ca cultural artifacts 8 traces how they are used might have been used 0 Processual archeology s child 62 you re studying the society itself its effect on ppl s everyday life 0 Studying live societies to add to our interpretations of past societies 0 Uses modern societies as a mold to interpret old ones November 19 2015 o How ppl interact w material culture I Arrowheads where are they making it why used here and not there 0 Lewis Binford 0 Looking Ca hunter gatherer sites I Kun people 2 butchering practices are unique I this helps us interpret similar llG sites in the past PRO CON Talking to descendants of cultures Doesn t take into account societies that were Smaller groups of ppl wiped out by natural disaster then resettled Works when there s strong historical link to by new culture past culture living descendants November 23 2015 Lecture l4 Peru Sipan amp Macchu Pichu Summary ancient Peruvian civilizations have unique features like pyramids temples and ornaments that are still being interpreted As a default most findings are thought to be religious Nazca Lines 200 BcAD 600 Desert in Nazca Peru Riddles in the sand Figures drawn on the desert floor Googlyphs 2 Only seen overhead Cover 30 out of 50 miles of the desert We still don t know for sure what they re used for 0 Religious o Astronomical observatory 0 Hobby Art Earlier civilization 2 Paraca s 0 Had v similar line drawings Ca Palpa lnspired Erich von Daniken s Chariot of the Gods pseudoarcheology o Said Nazca lines look like alien spacemen lol 0 DEBUNKED bc patterns spiders etc are identical to pottery found in the area Bresem on o Sandstorms 0 Lines are features You can t pick em up and move them Sipan Peru Moche people ca 750 AD Lord of Sipan Tomb h 1 i 0 Walter Alva was called in to excavate the looted tombs 4 Pyramids o Burial grounds for tombs o Looted o Comparable to Egyptian Great Pyramids 0 Made of mudbrick so they re not v intact anymore l7 llama 39 Machu Picchu l450l532 AD lliram Bingam Yale dude got cred for discovering it lnca near Cusco Peru Purpose 2 debated November 23 2015 o Palace for king priests o Refuge Bodies skeletons were found DNA hasn t been analyzed yet ln ri Wa rana 2 religious Temple of the Sun 0 Prob religious 0 Maybe an observatory November 30 2015 Lecture 20 Maya Copan Palenque 8 Chichen ltza Summary dating from 200l200 AD these ancient places were home to l00000s of people From what we know there were sudden evacuations thought to be bc of environmental negligence sound familiar 0 New world Europeans brought Maya site to the public s attention John Lloyd Stevens writer who published accounts of his journeys Frederick Catherwood British artist founders of new world archeology o Publislled bestsellers about Maya in 84 o Palenque 300400 AD 0 About the same time as Pompeii and llerculaneum 0 Spanish explorers found it in 1750 but wasn t published in English til later f o Ppl didn t care when the discovery came out pissing off Stevens 0 WW I Features 6000 hieroglyphs amp a hidden staircase I Tomb of Lord Pacal is inside quot6l5683 AD I Found in l452 o Oopan llonduras Maya 200400 AD 0 Each has a ball court temples amp pyramids 0 Social center 0 I Teohuatihuan hieroglyphs S fele D statues o Alfara found by Stevens drawn by Catherwood I l6 human figures around it I Stevens said those are historical records list of kings who ruled 4278l0 I David Stuart Mayan ruin prodigy studied there since he was little 0 Tikal Guatemala 200800 AD 0 Largest known Maya city 0 100000 Maya people lived there 0 3K buildings were there 0 lnscriptions listed rulers o Ohichen ltzal800l200 AD 0 Mayan civilization 0 Near Cancun Mexico 0 Edward Thompson was the main archeologist on deck l845 o Qenote huge natural sink holes gtgt 000 O November 30 2015 I When Thompson drenched it skeletons 8 ritual objects were inside I Prob war virgin sacrifice I Some stuff was later Tolteque ppl 0 Temples ball courts 81 skull racks o Mayan Collapse 2 after 200 AD 0 Sudden evacuation of lq million people aka the size of LA 0 due to environmental 0 Major drought deforestation led to collapse 0 Teotihuacan loo650 AD 0 Name dubbed by the Aztecs We re not sure who actually lived there Avenue of re Dead S unMeon Pyramid Tempe off1e S un 2 same size as the Giza pyramids Tunnel 70K objects inside I Well preserved stuff I Figurines in front of 3 chambers burial chambers 0 Aztecs l325l5lq CE 0 Modern Mexico City sits right on top of it now 0 Quarter of a million ppl 0 Temple Mayor I Found in the lqOOs I Dedicated to 2 diff gods I Calendar sun stone 2 24 tonsll OOOOO December 2 2015 Lecture Zl North American Archaeology Summary everything from initial British colonies to confederate era submarines and modern issues of repatriating Native American artifacts 8 people 0 653 an3y gtgt 8 man sub First to sink an enemy ship but went down too l864 confederate sub Found in 2000 near South Carolina Clive Cussler credited for finding it o Considered underwater archaeology o Abandoned Shipwreck Act 0 Made it illegal to loot shipwrecks o Jamestown l607 0 First permanent settlement by British colonists o Excavated since quOs 0 Artifacts like pottery glass coins postholes 0 Church amp Death 0 Chemical testing 8 forensic analyses show cause of death for many settlers o identified people who died reverend captain etc OOOOO o Jamestown Jane 0 NACPRA o Said if you re a museum or institution with Native American artifacts you need to inventory them and check with living descendants if it s okay to put on display 0 Repatriation o ISIi in OroviIe California I Discovered in lqll I Last surviving member of his tribe I He couldn t talk etc so he was put in a mental ward I Alfred Kroeber did extensive studies on him 0 Recorded the epics myths legends 8 language 0 Showed Kroeber Native American way of life 0 Bow hunting etc o Kemewick Man I Found in the pacific northwest in qu4 I Stumbled upon by drunk people I Some said he wasn t native American Polynesian December 2 2015 I In 2015 DNA testing said he was NA I Still being debated December 7 2015 Lecture 22 Archaeozoology Palynology and Experimental Archaeology Summary critical parts of the archeological process including theories that drive it and how to interpret what we find on many levels Studying animal bones pollen and even poop to find out what people ate in times of war nearies gt low level basic common sense explaining data 0 This is a storage room gt Mid level 0 What it is 81 WllY o Relating facts gtgt general behavior 0 Almost everything falls here experimental archeology to explain what we do today compared to back then gt my level 0 Looking social complexity class conflict higher order concepts Most of what we find can t talk so we have to make interpretations o Ethnoarcheology explaining past cultures w people around today 0 Eskimos archeologists go to modern ppl to compare them to our understanding of Neanderthals etc o Garbology 2 controlled study of waste to find our why ppl are throwing stuff out 0 University of Arizona found there s a discrepancy btw what people were saying v findings I Beer consumption 2 fams said they didn t drink a lot but findings show 50 lied I 2 goals 2 o How material remains relate to behavior that produced it methodological o Explanations for specific repeating patterns in archeology substantive 0 William Rathje garbologist project in M73 T I why wait a lOOO years to study garbage Ille figured out income level based on trash I richer ppl don t use as many home repair products bc they can afford better 39 W homesother ppl to do it for them IShortages gtgt waste smh f 539 I Ppl stocked up Ca Costco but ended up throwing stuff out bc it went bad A I Newspaper didn t degrade after 20 years December 7 2015 ANCIENT DlET gt We want to reconstruct what people ate how they got it 0 Diet 2 what is eaten 0 Nutrition 2 how your diet maintains your bod gt Squad 2 o Botanists o Ecologists o Zoologists gt How to find out what they ate Environmental data drought Climate Animal bones Plant remains lluman bones Poop feces coprolites I Show what you last ate if you didn t digest etc o Artifacts 0 Rock Art gt Jerusalem Toileflsgb BCE o 2500 yo poop Wanted to know what ppl were eating Ca this time city was under siege Babylon Radiocarbon pottery dates suggest this was that time Biblical suggested ppl resorted to cannibalism I Archeologists found tapeworm 8 whipworm in toilets I you get that from undercooked meat 8 not enough water I Prove the city was under siege bc resorted to eating plants I NO HUMAN REMAlNS FOUND gt Area L Stables quot2000 BC 0 Troughs evidenced by horse markings 8 cribbing 0 Samples came back high in Potassium Barium but wasn t conclusive humans 8 horses both pooped in Megiddo 00000 0000 Animal Bones 2 Zooarcheology gt Much more common than human bones Ca sites gt Assemblages what kind of animal Where How many were there 0 NlSP number of identified specimens animals in each section of your site 0 MM 2 minimum number of individuals l m not sure how many there are but at least 7 gt Pollen Analysis 2 palynology December 7 2015 0 Studies ancient environment 8 human impact on vegetation I Was it warm I Gold I Wet I Dry affects hunting End up w maps of the ice age Botanists collect pollen samples from stratigraphy Can be sequenced over time Elotationjanks dumping dirt in the water shaking it and seeds float up I Look Ca samples under the microscope tells you stats I Tells you climate in antiquity I How things got domesticated o ldLeLSieving does pollen and small bones too I Cheesecloths sort thru objects I lf you re left w only one leg for each animal means they might ve been sacrificed 0 300 year long drought I Bronze age climate change I lsrael Syria Cyprus 8 Greece I quotl250ll00 BC OOOOO Experimental Archeology lets us link btw old societies and living ppl to recreate stuff gt lshi last surviving Native American tribe member taught us how to create use stone tools gt Stone tool tech o Lithic analysis study of stone tools 0 Debitage flakes that are left after making the tools I lf your site has a ton of stone flakes they prob made tools there and took them somewhere else 0 Lithic experimentation trying to make stone tools gt Classifying o Typology looking Ca form chronology function style fancy or na December 9 2015 Lecture 23 Future Archaeology Summary 2 looking what archeology will be like in the future if we suddenly get wiped out Essay question 2 how would you excavate blank city in the future 1 ln the future when archeologists excavate us what will they find interpret 2 How will archeologists dig in lOOslOOOs of years and reconstruct society Population zero 2 gt lf we get wiped out what will happen what will be left behind gt Animals roam the white house etc gt Skeleton of a kid in a motel tub might be interpreted as a ritual burial Tub sarcophagus Sacred communicating device phone llypotheticals everything disappears except 0 National Zoo exotic animals would confuse ppl bc they aren t native to DC o Smithsonian have skeletons items from prehistoric times and present 0 Dinosaurs 0 Hope diamond 0 Air 81 Space museum 0 interconnected to the other museums might be interpreted as a religious thing 0 Starbucks might be interpreted as religious 0 church on every corner 0 Worship of the green goddess on cups lol So you want to be an archeologist 0 Take classes in all disciplines so you know which you like don t like PllD really gets you jobs Languages you need to know ancient 8 modern ones 0 Lots of ancientclassicswritten in Latin Get out there do fieldwork volunteer ops internships Career paths 0 Museum curator 0000 December 9 2015 Professor Allure ack Public arcIsolagy city archeology national park svc nat geo WhiteResource Managemenf checking if there s anything special about a site before ppi start building highways etc on top
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