Book Notes for Exam 1
Book Notes for Exam 1 PSYC_3150_10
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Chapter 1 Introduction to Sexuality Facets sexuality Love orientation sexual response gender and parenthood are among the most essential and de ning characteristics of our lives sexuality underlies our most basic identities whom we love whether or not we have children and how we characterize ourselves What is sex 0 an act of intercourse a person39s gender or the exchange of genetic material 0 Sexuality involves physical emotional cognitive cultural social and spiriritual components Whereas almost 3 million people are injured or killed in car accidents approximately 19 million men and women are infected with a sexually transmitted infection STI each year in the United States more than 9 million of whom are under age 24 sexuality education vitally important 0 a broad term used to describe education about human sexuality which may include information about physical emotional and social aspects of sexual health and disease as well as rights and responsibilities identity values and attitudes and many other aspects of sexual behavior 0 teens aged 135 report that most of their information about sexuality comes from the entertainment media which don39t usually discuss the risks or responsibilities associated with sex 0 US teen pregnancy rates are among the highest of any industrialized nation about 750000 teenage woman become pregnant each year because American teens are much less likely to use contraceptives and much more likely to have more sexual partners and shorter relationships most other developed countries give youth clear and unambiguous messages that sex should occur within committed relationships and to protect themselves from pregnancy adolescents in other countries have greater access to reproductive health services ad are taught comprehensive sex education in their schools 0 More than one out of every four Americans will be infected with an STI during his or her lifetime What is Normal Historically religious authorities often mandated sexual norms by declaring some sexual acts to be normal and moral while others abnormal and immoral 0 normal and moral only sexual activities that could result in the birth of a child 0 abnormal and immoral masturbation oral sex and samesex activities Now many have shifted to a more scienceObased view of normality practices seen as immoral and abnormal are considered normal Some ways normal can be de ned 0 Subjective normality This standard supposes that quot I am normal and so is anyone like mequot 0 Statistical normality whatever behaviors are most common are normal 0 ldealistic normality the pursuit of the ideal as normal eg it is typical for women to look like jenifer aniston or beyonce o cultural normality different practices are deemed normalabnormal in one culture but not in another 0 Clinical normality scienti c data about health and illness is used to assess normality Sexuality united and encompasses many elds and worldviews 0 Human sexuality is a tapestry woven from threads of biology psychology culture society history language media law and religion 0 Most human behaviors are in uenced by a combination of nature and nurture o to understand sexuality fully we must consider many different branches of knowledge the biological and the psychological the legal and the religious as well as the cultural and the historical Biology 0 although the penis is the primary male sexual organ its counterpart in the female is the clitoris not vagina o It is the clitoris that is the seat of sexual pleasure in the female and the penis and clitoris develop from the same embryological tissue 0 Hormones Estrogen and testosterone are the primary hormones that in uence sexual functioning o The brain is the organ that affects your sexuality brain and senses play signi cant role in one s perception and initiation of sexuality brain initiates and organizes many sexual behaviors sexually dimorphic areas of the brain differ in size in malesfemales homosexuals o asexual and sexual reproduction sociobiologyevolutionary psychology 0 sociobiology is a way of explaining the behavior of humans today based on evolutionary forces that have been working on us or thousands of years sociobiological theory states that traits such as intelligence and physical health are valued and these traits correspond to more adaptive genes natural selection Better adapted memebrs are more likely to survive to reproduce and pass their genes to the next generation Mutation a random genetic change In contrast to promiscuous males sociobiological theory suggests that it is adaptive for females to be choosy to wait to have sex with the best male that comes along the one with the best genes and the one more likely to stick around to help raise child giving child its best changes for survival 0 Psychology In some ways psychology is the marriagequot of nature and nurture the interaction of biological and societal in uences Various psychological theories of sexuality Psychoanalytic theories Freud thought that two forces largely drove human behavior the death or aggressiveness drive and the more powerful sex drive or libido 0 according to Freud a person39s libido or sexual energy is channeled into particular areas of the body at different ages these erogenous ones are the mouth the anus and the genitals As a child becomes more interested in his or her own genitals and the genitals of others he or she enters the phallic stage during this period women develop penis envy o 3 different components of personality id primitive drives such as those related to sex food and aggression if it feels good I want it now superego conscience or sense of morality originates in childhood when we acquire our views of right and wrong ego allows us to weigh our physical wants with society39s rules so that we can exist in the world Behavioral Theories believe that only behaviors can be measured and evaluated not emotions or feelings o Behaviorists study how people39s surroundings in uence the way they act and how environmental reinforcements and punishments determine our behavior Operant conditioning punishment a negative stimulus lessens the likelihood of a behavior being repeated 0 Behavior modi cation the use of positive reinforcement andor punishment to change a patient s behavior Cognitive Learning Theories assert that our behaviors are driven by psychological factors 0 such as the way we perceive and process the world around us and by the way we cognitively categorize the world 0 consequences become rewarding or punishing based on the categories to which they39re assigned Social Learning Theories Behaviors are in uenced by a combination of environmental factors eg rewards and punishmentsO and psychological factors eg feelings thoughts and beliefs 0 social learning theorists feel that people learn to behave by observing the environment and by modeling the behaviors and attitudes of others by observing outcomes Historical perspectives of sexuality 0 Prehistory for most of human history the male role in reproduction was unclear largely because of the time gap between intercourse and birth wasn t until about 9000 years ago did people begin to understand the concept of paternity Ancient Greece and Rome penises were viewed as the symbol of fertility rape was viewed as a man39s right of domination woman39s only function was to bear children viewed people as naturally bisexual and malemale se was considered normal as long as it didn39t interfere with family sexual behavior was related to one s social standing middle ages 4761450 All sex acts that could not lead to procreation were considered evil use of chastity belts to restrict sex and masturbation during absence of husband Protestant reformation 14831546 martin Luther John Calvin Believed sexuality was a natural part of life intercourse was more than just procreation and could deepen the bond between a husband and wife 17th and 18th Centuries puritans followers of the protestant reformation quotNormalquot women were considered to be sexless and passionless and premarital sex for women was considered immoral Victorian Era 18371901 O discourse on prostitution homosexuality and masturbation were common and in fact these three things were considered threats to social order For women sex was considered a martial duty women were assumed to be asexual pure and passionless The 20th Century and Beyond Sexuality became more accepted and evident in society rise of feminism allowed for changes in employment home life and sexual standards for women Religion Spirituality and values Religions and morality have a major impact on the expression of sexuality 0 Jusaism Jusaism views sex as an important way to strengthen marital bonds considered wrong for a man to not be concerned with a woman39s sexual pleasure commandment to have sex on the Sabbath Christianity signi cant variations in views of sexuality exist among the various sects of Christianity and Catholicism lslam sex permitted only within marriage sex in marriage is considered good and men are encouraged not to leave the marriage bed until the woman is satis ed sex during menstruation is forbidden as is anal sex Taoism according to the Tao originated in china sex is not only natural and healthy but a sacred union necessary to people39s physical mental and spiritual wellbeing Hinduism Sexuality is seen as a spiritual force and the act of ritual lovemaking is a means of both celebrating and transcending the physical Forming Value Judgments 0 Values exist at various levels Folkway a behavior that39s commonly accepted by a group of people males holding hands in the Arab culture is an expression of friendship respect and trust between men when a person disobeys a folkway he or she may be laughed at frowned upon or be the recipient of sarcastic comment Mores The accepted traditional customs that embody the fundamental values or morals of a group in contrast to folkways the penalties for disregarding mores may be severe ex in fundamentalist Islamic society it is forbidden for a woman to expose much of her body the penalty for disobeying this can be beatings or even death Laws written collections of rules that can be imposed by authority May be applied differently depending on a person39s status in society In contrast to mores laws can change very quickly and may differ from state to state or from city to city although laws change based on societal norms they give a good illustration of a society s values and expectations Culture and Society 0 People in various times and places have exhibited very different courtship rituals Until the 20th century kissing was mostly a western European phenomenon unknown in parts of Asia Africa and South America what is considered quotsexquot varies from place to place age of consent laws may also depend on the age of the teenager39s sexual partner may also differ based on the sex of the two partners What is considered attractive also varies over time and culture 0 Anthropology the study of the origins customs and social relationships of humans When we consider other cultures it39s important to be wary of ad try to avoid ethnocentrism The belief that your ethnic or cultural group is better or quotmore normalquot than other groups 0 Language what impact does the language used to describe sex have on our attitudes The linguistic relativity principle suggests that language forms our perception of the world and thus guides our thinking and behavior 0 Media Many of these media images affect our views of ourselves and of our sexuality Although adolescents acquire much of their information about sexuality from the media the mass media rarely depict the three C s of responsible sexual behavior commitment contraception and consideration of consequences 0 Advertising quotSex sellsquot Sexual images are used to advertise everything from cigarettes to tires 0 Television Americans spend one third of their free time watching tv television images have greatly changed over time researchers found that 70 of television programs contained some sexual content in the form of talk about sex and sexual behavior Although depictions of sexuality are pervasive on television messages of sexual patience precaution risks or responsibilities are scarce viewing sex on tv may affect our sexual behaviors Sex Education 0 What should be taught proper names for genitals and their function puberty changes physically and emotionally differences between girls and boys gender expectations what is love How to know when you39re in love healthy relationships knowing when someone likes you how to say no to activities that make you uncomfortable how are babies born contraception sexual behaviors risks psychical and emotional to sexual activity pleasures 0 When should sex education begin Young people are maturing sexually at younger ages than ever begore it is important that preadolescents know about the future changes to their bodies before they occur 0 Who should be responsible for sex education the sexual education programs of different countries vary based on that culture39s values needs and attitudes no federal requirement that standardize sexuality education so each individual state and jurisdiction can teach very different material to different ages it is important that public school sexual education programs address the concerns and issues facing all students regardless of race socioeconomic class or sexual orientation Chapter 2 Evaluating Studies of Sexuality Sex Researchers through historv Havelock Ellis 18591939 british physician and social reformer who felt that human sexuality was a normal and natural expression of love 0 worte that sexual feelings in wome were ordinary and healthy homosexuality occurred naturally and masturbation was normal o promoted view that sexuality is not just a biological process but a psychological process as well Richard von KrafftEbing 18401902 German psychologist wrote psycopathia sexuals described various sexual deviations and cataloged suxual positions and nonprocreative seual acts 0 coined the term sadism and masochism Magnus Hirschfeld 1868193 gay GermanJewish physician dedicated to treating sexual problems educating the public about sexuality 0 1896 wrote a paper in which he arged that genetic factors in uenced sexual orientation 0 opened Magnus Hirschfeld Foundation an institute for sexology Sigmund Freud 18561939 believed sexuality was the basis of almost every human action and that the libido was the principal motivating force in the development of personality 0 children go through different psychosexual stages of development oral anal and Phallic stages Alfred Kinsey 18941956 biologist by training became one of the premier sex researchers of the 20th century and greatly in uenced society s knowledge of and views about human sexuality 0 over the years he and three colleagues conducted facetoface interviews with almost 12000 men and women in the US o hoping to persuade the world that sexuality was natural Kinsey founded the institute for research in sex gender and reproduction at Indiana University in 1947 0 his ndings scandalized mid20th century America he reported that American men and women participated in masturbation premarital sex samesex experiences and adultery Kinsey s work was branded immoral and obscene William Masters and Virginia Johnson husband and wife directly observed and recorded the physiological responses of men and women during sexual activity Political issues in Sex Research in addition to in uencing what kind of sex education programs are taught political agendas in uence the type and scope of research that is performed Investigating human sexuality to produce toprate research scientists must rigorously follow certain procedures 0 use precise language speci c measurements and an appropriate samle 0 need to maintain objectivity not overgeneralize and be careful to no confuse correlation and causation population the group a scientist wants to investigate 0 usually impossible to obtain information from everyone in the population so scientists usually get data from a sample subset of individuals in the target population 0 representative sample is a group in which the characteristic of the sample match that of the population 0 convenience sample is one that is easy for the scientist to reach use of convenience sample can lead to sampling bias which occurs when some members of a population are overrepresented and others are excluded People who are willing to volunteer for sex studies are not representative of the general population phenomenon known as volunteer bias scientists need to evaluate which method of investigation will best serve their puprpose o surveys study the attitudes opinions and behaviors of individuals can be gathered throughw irten questionnaires interviews or on the internet 0 case study an indepth investigation of an individual or individuals rather than on a sample of that population 0 observational studies researchers observe their subjects usually in a lab but sometimes in a more natural environment if subjects are aware they are being observed it may cause observer effects the subjects behavior is affected 0 Experiment can determine causeandeffect relationships hypothesis rpedicaiont about the world based on observations containing dependent and independent variables 0 independent presumed cause factor that is controlled and manipulated 0 dependent presumed effect observed and measured 0 control group group of subjects not exposed to the independent variable 0 Blind studies way to try and reduce bias in research designs Cross cultural studies are important to help avoid ethnocentrism and heterocentricism thinking every culture is like us Chapter 5 Sex and Gender Gender vs Sex quotgenderquot is a social construct that includes the behavioral social and legal status of an individual sexquot better describes the biological aspects of being male and female such as chromosomes and anatomy Gender role the cultural expectation of behavior for each gender What makes someone Male or Female our genes have a signi cant effect on our appearance and behavior but they are not the only in uence a person s sex chromosomes do not always correspond to his or her external genitalia or gender identity Development of Biological Sex Prenatal Sex Differntiation each parent donates one copy of each of his or her 22 autosmes as well as one sex chromosome 0 father gives either an X or Y Mother gives an X o exceptions aside XX female and XYMale 0 Y chromosome fewer than 100 genes Many of the genes carried on the y chromosome control sperm production and the capability to grow testes o X chromosome is indispensable contains more than 1000 genes During the rst 6 weeks f prenatal development the gonads and genitalia of emyros are identical and undifferentiated o Embryos have two duct systems the Mullerian which will become the female reproductive anatomy and the WOlf an male system 0 by 8th week of prenatal development the sex chromosomes will start to in uence the anatomical and hormonal development of the embryo unless acted upon by the Y chromosome the Mullerian system becomes the default and the fetus will develop female reproductive anatomy the y chromosome contains a region called the sex determining region of the Y chromosome SRY aids in developing testes in testes lydig cells be9ng producing testosterone which will cause the wolffian duct system to develop into the epididymis vas deferens and seminal vesicles setoli cells of the testes produce antiMullerian hormones which prevents development of the female duct system by end of 12th week genitalia have been differentiated and are usually identi able as male or female Sex and Gender differences how signi cant are they Male and female physiological variations might best be described as differences in sex whereas behavioral dissimilarities are better described as gender differences Nature and nurture interaction biological differences may in uence men and women s abilities and different societal opportunities dictate the activities men and women perform thsiolodical differences between males and females aside from the obvious physical differences Male mortality is greater than female mortality at every stage in life more males are conceived than females male fetuses have a higher mortality rate males have more developmental disorders ex autism same medications may have different effects on males and females ex a daily low does of aspirin reduces the risk of heart attacks in males but lowers the incidence of stroke in females Females have a lower threshold for pain than males in addition to genetic cellular anatomical and hormonal differences in pain perception in males and females cultural conditioning is also at work males more likely to take pain quotlike a manquot and girls are more likely to be coddled Behavioral differences between men and women gender roles are the genderspeci c behaviors and personalities that are expected in our culture 0 people often hold gender role stereotypes oversimpli ed preconceived ideas about the way men and women quotshouldquot act in society 0 sexism in exible and often negative view of a person based on his orher sex can lead to dsrimination against one sex 0 are men and women more alike or different professr Hyde suggests males and females are actually muchmore alike than they are different performed a metaanalysis on the sutidies of psychological gender differences Found that while there are gender differences in many psychological variables for the vast majority of factors the degree of these differences is so small as to be negligible when differences do exist it is hard to determine if the disparity is primary biological or societal any innate differences that may exist are surely in uenced by society which exaggerates those differences human brain shows remarkable plasticity changes and adapts to experiences Aggression while males are usually considered to be more aggressive than females both are aggressive but may exhibit their aggression in different ways physical vs social aggression 0 physical aggression involves physically hurting or threatening another 0 social aggression refers to hurting others by damaging their relationships etc women have the potential to be as aggressive as men but women may be under more social restrictions in the expression of their aggression while women describe aggression as a loss of selfcontrol men view it as a way of imposing control over others Risk Taking Males are more likely than female to engage in risky behaviors even if there is no apparent gain to the action why are males ore risktakers than females 0 possibly due to evolutionary factors 0 males may need to make themselves stand out in order to win the reproductive favor of the female 0 women are twice as likely to reproduce as men needs to be safe to ensure that she will pass on her genes males have to make a splash and get noticed o testosterone may also increase risktaking behavior Navigation males navigate with vectors go three miiles north ten turn west rely on more primitive areas of the brain hippocampus Females use landmarks Response to stress Males respond to stressful situations with the quotfight or ightquot mechansims Females respond using the tend and befriendquot 0 due to women s role in caring for childrenpregnancylesser lower strength Emotional Expression men and women differ in the frequency in which they report certain emotions 0 men report more frequent positive emotions than women 0 omen report more frequent negative feelings than men societal and physiological in uences may limit men s verbalization of their emotions infant boys tend to be fussier and more emotionally expressive than young girls but they are socialized throughout their lives to show less emotion 0 experience emotions but their expressions may be more internalized than females women in our society are more encouraged to express emotions and will seek health care and treatment more than men social interactions men quotshoulder to shoulderquot men are more likely to be friends with others who share their interest in some activity and gatherings will focus on shared interest as opposed to conversation Women quotface to facequot women s relationships are likely to involve conversations and personal selfdisclosure communication generally accepted stereotype concerning conversational differences bw men and women 0 women are more likely to ask questions to ensure ow of conversation and men are more likely to make direct statements of fact rapport talk and report talk 0 men and women may also process nonverbal communication signals differently women are thought to be better than men at interpreting facial expressions and more likely to respond to nonverbal cues such as tone of voice and facial expressions Cognitive differences Testosterone may improve performance on spatial tasks and hinder verbal abilities women s spatial test scores vary with their menstrual cycles and are est at times of lowest estrogen and highest testosterone Societal perceptions can in uence a person s performance in the US women are generally perceived to be weaker in math than men this stereotype threat often becomes a selfful lling prophecy Sexuality dominant culture stereotype is that men are more likely to initiate sex and be more sexually aggressive common perception is that women are not as highly sexed as men men are more likely than women to masturbate and desire a larger number of sexual partenrs than women do women nd committed relationship more important biological and social explanations 0 Bio different rgions of the brain may be stimulated when males and females view ertic materials sociobiological theory suggest it is more adaptive for males to desire and have sex with a larger of partners for potential of more offspring to carry their genes 0 social expectations in most cultures males are expced to be more sexually aggressive and promiscuous than females and to be the initiator in sexual encounters Development of Gender Roles Across the Life Span almost from the moment of birth a child s sex determines how he or she will be treated including the way he or she is spoken to the toys he or she is given the chores he or she is assigned and even the color of his or her clothing from an early age children learn that men and women are quotsupposed toquotact in certain ways 0 gender schemas an understanding of what it means to be male or female developed from our interactions with others in society 0 as a child s worldview enlarges more information broadens his or her gender schema gender appropriate behaviors are reinforced and encouraged and gender inappropriate actions are condemned o Reinforcement of gender roles comes from various sources parents peers teachers media religious and ethnic group identity socialization into gender roles is subtle Changing Views of Masculinity and Femininity notions of what is considered masculine and feminine is culturally constructed psychologically androgynous people can exhibit both masculine and feminine traits and may be able to use a wider range of traits to meet the demands of various situations TransgenderTransexuality gender identity a person s subjective sense of being a man or a woman usually by age 3 in some people there is an incongruity between their biological sex and their gender identity these people are either transsexual or transgendered 0 different from transvestite people who is sexually aroused by dressing in the clothing of the opposite sex transsexual is usually considered to have gender identity disorder or gender dysphoria a psychological condition characterized by the feeling of being at odds with one s body genitalia andor birth sex transgender vs Transsexual o transgendered a general term for variations of gender expression including female and male impersonators transsexuals and drag kings and queens o Transsexual a more speci c term referring to people who feel that their biological sex doesn t represent their true identity Possible origins of transsexuality Bruce example Brendabruce gender identity may be in uenced by brain anatomy genetic variation Sex Reassignment if a transsexual wishes to live as the opposite gender he or she may choose to undergo sex reassignment usually takes years therapy hormone therapyetc not all transsexuals choose to have surgery multiple surgical procedures are painful costly and often not covered by insurance Cultural social and legal issues of sex reassidnment some societies tolerate or even embrace different forms of gender exression while in others acceptance of differences comes harder 0 ex native American tribe two spirit and hiras india The acceptance of transsexuals is less likely in the United States where they face discrimination in many situations know story of Reimer Twins born a biological male penis accidentally lost during circumcision raised as a female given estrogen etc learned he was born a male at 14 and decided to revert back to his biological sex lntersexuality hermaphrodite was once used to describe people who possess characteristics of both sexes 0 true hermaphrodites are people who have ambiguous genitals as well as both male and female gonads such as ovary and fallopian tube on one side fo the body and testicles and a vas deferens on the other side 0 very rare pseudohermphroditism more common appearance when people have the gonads of their chromosomal sex and ambiguous or opposite external genitalia more accurate term for all disorders of sex development DSD or lntersex intersexed person is one whom sexually dimorphic characters are mixed so that he or she carries both male and female biologic features not usually appearing In the same individual Examples of lntersexuality Guevedoces rare autosomal recessive genetic condition that is common in the areas of the Dominican Republic and Turkey The baby is born with apparently female genitalia but the penis and scrotum develop at puberty testosterone which leads to the development of the male internal reproductive tract testes produce antiMullerian hormone to prevent the growth of the ovaries and uterus o the DHT dihydrostestrone is what causes descent of the testes and prenatal growth of the penis and scrotal sac the lack of this hormone gives these chidren a female or ambiguous appearance at birth the undescended testes produce enough testosterone to cause what appeared to be a clitoris to grow into a penis and the labia majora to completely fuse into a scrotum 0 they have a y chromosome and therefore develop testes and Androgen lnsensitivity Syndrome an intersex condition in which the body is insensitive to the effects of testosterone 0 people with AIS have a Y chromosome which causes testes to form The testes produce antiOmullerian hormones which prevents the development of the uterus and ovaries as well as testosterone o testosterone has no functional receptors to bind to therefore female external genitalia develop and they are raised as girls 0 examination can reveal the undescended and infertile testes which can be removed surgically and a genetic test can reveal the y chromosome complete or partial AIS 0 Complete AIS labia majora a functional clitoris and a short vagina that ends in a membrane instead of a cervix do not have a uterus and will not menstruate appear very feminine usually have relationships with men and not women Klinefelter39s syndrome condition in which males have an extra X chromosome XXY boy ends up with an extra X chromosome in each cell of body males with this syndrome have a more feminine body shame breast development narrow shoulders wide hips decreased muscle mass and sparse facial and body hair small and underdeveloped geniataliz reduced sex drive erection difficulties and infertility problems Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia CAH when an autosomal recessive gene leads to an increase in androgen levels when this happens in boys few genderrelated symptoms in girls the high levels of prenatal androgens can have both behavioral and physical effects 0 may exhibit more boyish conduct and more likely to be lesbians o excess of androgens masculinize external genitalia enlarge clitoris and partial fusion of labia so it looks more like a scrotum Treatment of lntersexuality in about 90 of babies with ambiguous gentalia babies undergo genital surgery to make them appear as anatomical females easier to make a hole than build a pole
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