Complete set of notes on abnormal and psychotherapy
Complete set of notes on abnormal and psychotherapy PSY 110
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Date Created: 12/10/15
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY I Approaches to Understanding Abnormal Behavior A Statistical Approach it Score Distribution 34 quot 34 Percentage m P CIDLIIB MQFI 1p 1 9 55 TU 35 J39l 115 113039 Ill 15 IQSmIe close to the mean you re normal B Sociological Approach something normal in one culture can be abnormal in another ex In America its normal for people to live in an area where they don t know their neighbors or want to know them Other cultures dance around the re every night C Psychoanalytical Approach childhood experience traumas shape our behavior D Behavioral Approach behavior is learned ex If you re usually selfcentered abnormal you must have learned it ex From parent E Cognitive Approach thoughts you re learn to be F Biological Approach acknowledges behavior is in uenced by genetics G lnteractionist Approach says abnormal behavior or personality can result from an interaction of 2 or more of these ideas ll Diagnosing Psychological Disorders 1 DSMll Neurotic and Psychotic Disorders Neurotic irrational anxiety high levels off Psychotic breaks with realityl distorted reality their reality doesn t match w everyone elses 2 DSM5 6th edition most current book called diagnostic statistical manual of mental disorders American psychiatric association What39s the advantage point of diagnosing someone with a disorder Help decide how we treat it Allows doctors to communicate and discover Validates can give label person Not just lazy Have to be diagnosed to get treatments insurance Ill Some of the Main Categories anxiety levels are biological more common in women than men 1 Generalized Disorder 0 Non speci c anxiety for 6 months or more 2 Panic Disorder 0 Fear of having a panic attack no oxygen pounding heart 0 Having one or more panic attacks 3 Speci c Phobia ex Agoraphobia 0 Fear of one thing phobia irrational fear 0 Agoraphobia fear of going outside Separation Social social phobia Agoraphobia 0 Fear of going outside 0 Less social support nowadays so this is more common Neurodevelopmental Disorders Intellectual Disability low IQ Autism Attention de cit hyperactivity disorder Speci c learning disorders dyslexia ObsessiveCompulsive amp Related Disorders 0CD obsessive compulsive disorder 0 Cleaning counting rituals Obsession an anxiety producing thoughts they can t suppress Compulsion behavior that tries to regulate anxiety 2 Hoarding Disorder Freud said harsh toilet training during anal stage caused OCD Hoarding is form of OCD maybe caused by relaxed toilet training Cluttered are medicines to lessen the symptoms of these disorders D Trauma and Stress Related Disorders 1 Post traumatic stress disorder PTSD 0 Previously referred to as Battle Fatigue and then Shell Shock 0 Thought it was only due to war but after Vietnam War realized it could be due to any traumatic event 0 Best way to treat PTSD is talking about your traumatic experience after it happens 0 Symptoms ashbacks to incidentljdon t get better overtime amp Related Disorders Somatic Symptom unusual bodily complaints 0 Ex something happens that you don t want to remember so becomes blind not physically but mentally Not psychosomatic means psychological damage not quotall in your head Freud believed pain was caused by psychological pain Treating similar to ex Problem caused by uterus remove uterus to reduce chances of cancer 1 Conversion Disorder formerly hysteria Convert something psychological into a physical pain Freud s idea a Glove Anesthesia hand is numb as if wearing a glove has to be psychological uterus must have wandered into wrist b Hysterical Deafness dimh HnhUINHW hearing isn t gone but aren t consciously aware c Hysterical Blindness vision isn t gone it s psychological you aren t consciously aware F Feeding and Eating Disorders 1 Anorexia o More commonly in women 0 Control issue feel this is one thing in their control Obsessions with exercise and weight loss 2 Bulimia Don t occur in countries where food is scarce Dissociative to separate or break apart Freud s idea of repressing bad memoriesideas idea of dying Separating reality from not 1 Dissociative Psychogentic Amnesia dissociate past 0 A person has a very stressful event and then can t remember who they are or any of their past dissociative amnesia wit a fugue A person leaves their town and goes to start a new life because they can t remember past 0 can have multiple wiveschildren in different placesljdoesn t know 2 Dissociative Identity Disorder used to be called multiple personality disorder 0 can be a truck driver 14 yr old girl elderly woman etc loose track of all personalities one personality that broke into pieces why they changed name because not multiple personalities can be used to cope with a difficult time 0 ex little girl with alcoholic father she changes when he s drunk vs healthy normal because she can compartmentalize The Corruption of Reality A uni ed Theory of Religion Hypnosis and Psychopathology book by Schumaker 1995 0 World is a dangerous place 0 Theory of religion helps us cope with reality 0 Need a mechanism such as religion to dissociate from reality 0 Le God s plan helps us cope with death Psychopathology all mental illnesses have a mental dissociates from reality H Paraphilic Disorders Paraphilia non normal love Fetishism Fetishistic Disorder sexual attraction to objects or body parts Transvestite Transvestic Disorder enjoy dressing as opposite sex Exhibitionism Exibitionistic Disorder enjoys showing off sexually Voyeurism Voyeuristic Disorder enjoys watching others in a sexual context Sexual Sadism Disorder gets pleasure from hurting or humiliating others Sexual Masochism Disorder gets pleasure from being hurt of humiliated Pedophilia Pedophlic Disorder addicted to having sex with minors children Under Sexual Dysfunctions Gender Dysphoria also called Gender Identity Disorder or Transexuality people who want to have a sex change I Personality Disorders personality is corrupted 1 Odd or eccentric Paranoid Personality Disorder pervasive suspiciousnessdistrust of others cold aloof Schizoid Personality Disorder loaners hermits want to be left alone Schizotypal Personality Disorder people who manifest oddities of thought perception speech and behavior including magical thinking 2 Dramatic or Emotional Histrionic Personality Disorder overly dramatic amboyant given to exaggeration Robin Williams more common among women than men often associated with homosexuals Cam from Modern Family Narcissistic Personality Disorder grandiose sense of selfimportance Donald Trump Antisocial formerly sociopath psychopath or morally insane chronic antisocial behavior which violated the rights of others conmen don39t have normal moral codes Ted Bundy don39t care about others Borderline Personality Disorder instability in behavior mood and selfimage start out intensely burn out quickly rapid switching 3 Anxious or Fearful Avoidant Personality Disorder want close intimate relationships but repeatedly withdraw from relationships to avoid rejection shame or humiliation set impossible standards not to be confused with the Schizoid Dependent Personality Disorder overly dependent on other people ObsessiveCompulsive Personality Disorder OCPD excessively preoccupied with order rules details and trivial may be good for studying editing book keeping or housekeeping jobs but may interfere with relationships J Mood Disorders in DSMV Now 2 separate categories 1 Bipolar and Related Disorders Formerly called ManicDepression Most recent episode Manic believe they can do anything go to Europe impregnate a woman in every country Most recent episode Depressed Lithiumcarbonate 0 Long periods of depression 0 Depression more common from lack of religious beliefs and distance on family relationships 2 Depressive Disorder Major Depressive Disorder common cold Prozac 3 Seasonal Affective Disorder depression in a season 0 People eat more in the winter stock up shortest time with daylight o Remedy going away for a little K Schizophrenia Spectrum and other Psychotic Disorders 1 Schizotypal Personality Disorder magical oddities speak in tongues weird 2 Schizophrenia suffering from separations with reality Not SPLIT PERSONALITY Common features Hallucinations problems with perceptions visual auditory tactile Delusions of Grandeur think they re more important than they are Persecution Reference think random things are meaningful meant for them signs Control where you think other people are controlling your thoughts brain Four types in DSMIV 1 Catatonic someone who becomes somewhat unconscious unaware of what s going on around them Waxy Flexible can take shape of chair take care of them sit them down Rigid can t take shape won t sit only dangerous to themselves 2 Paranoid most not but can be dangerous to others esp when not taking medication if they think someone is out to get them etc 3 Disorganized have trouble coping with what they re doing often homeless shopping carts hoard things trouble speaking word salad have sentence in head get all the words put them in random order 4 Undifferentiated have symptoms that aren t one or the other L SubstanceRelated and Addictive Disorders Includes many classes of drugs and also gambling but not sex pornography or internet addiction 1 Warning signs according to AA Daily use if it effects relationships disruptive Using to cope if you NEED it different than just using it Using when alone or secret use lying about it Impaired Social or Occupational Functioning interfering with life friends school etc Blackouts can deny Physical Dependence including Fear of withdrawal may have tried to stop caffeine headache 2 Genetic component It may involve the ability to get pleasure from ordinary events like a sunset something clicked and they never felt same after heavy weights dangerous 3 Is the Problem the Drug or the Person lots people blame the drug treat the person 4 AA and the 12 step programs Any method of working with an individual to improve chir psychological functioning Techniques talking therapies Freud listening suggesting role playing medications journal writing I Psychoanalytic Therapy Freud some sexual development early childhood experiencestrauma therapist centered therapist gures out problem and xes it over time A A Hydraulic Model B Focus on the Unconscious mind amp early experience C Highly directive Extensive interpretation D Unresolved con icts F Free Association amp Dream Analysis G Important concepts Transference relating to the therapist in a way that reproduces an important past relationship ex Woman without husband see therapist and man she never found etc no therapy will occur unless you can project those needs on the therapist necessary for therapy Resistance any effort on the part of the patient to prevent the therapist from uncovering the true source of the problem ex of resisting therapy quitting therapy bottling up anger forgetting Catharsis sudden release of pressure caused by reliving a traumatic experience crying screaming emotional outbursts emotional release breakthrough ll Humanistic Therapies Encourage self examination amp growth Focus on conscious thought amp present amp future A ClientCentered Therapy Carl Rogers Didn t think they knew you more than you know you 0 Unconditional Positive Regard if everyone was raised with this no negativity everyone would reach full potential but therapists provide this more genuine o RealSelf vs IdealSelf describe characteristics of where you are right now should have goals but reachable otherwise delusional o Nondirective wont tell you what to do guide you to gure out own answers 0 Necessary conditions Empathy Acceptance amp Genuineness 0 Active listening re ect don t probe don t add own ideas ex quotwhat do you think I should doquot quotSo you think I should tell you what to doquot B Gestalt Therapy Fritz Perls More directive and confrontational but still places responsibility for change on client 0 Try to challenge client sometimes need an emotional slap in the face wake you up a little C Transactional Analysis I39m OK You39re OK by Thomas Harris MD 1967 Two good people even on important issues and still be good people don t always have to agree Looking at people s interactions Everyone has an inner Child spoiled selfcentered whining brat that s in all of us need to suppress it Parent little tape recorded messages every little saying you ve heard say to yourself I would never say that to my kid years later you might say it to your kid Adult strive for talking to another adult even child on an adult level III Behavioral Therapies Behavior Modi cation learning theory to improve function A Classical Conditioning 1 Systematic Desensitization associating fear stimulus with relaxation Virtual Reality Therapy exposing to recreated 3D traumatic event Exposure Therapy Behavior Therapy 2 Aversive Conditioning associating addictive substance with negative thoughts B Operant Conditioning 1 Token Economy setting up rewards and punishments for speci c behaviors 2 Extinction and Punishment 3 Time out C Modeling Cognitive Behavior Therapy Social Learning and Albert Bandura Bo Bo dolls study vicarious rewards and punishments had to think about what the kids thought why they did or didn t beat up the doll after different examples of what was good or bad behavior Encourage constructive quotSelfTalkquot SelfEf cacy Donald Meichenbaum Distinguished Visiting Professor UM School of Education Nov 6 2006 IV Cognitive Therapies Thoughts are main source of abnormal behavior A RationalEmotive Therapy Albert Ellis Irrational and SelfDefeating Beliefs doesn t follow everything I say so doesn t love me B Cognitive Therapy Aaron Beck Identify distorted quotselflabels I m no good famous depression researcher BDI teach you to replace it with more rational thoughts not easy V Biomedical Therapies A AntiAnxiety Drugs Anxiolytics Librium Miltown Valium Xanax B Anti Psychotic Drugs Thorazine Chlorpromazine in 1950 s and 60 s also Haldol C Antidepressant Drugs Prozac Zoloft Paxil all SSRl s also Elavil Effexor Wellbutrin Celexa amp Lithium Carbonate D Electro Convulsive Treatment ECT For severe depression Side effect memory loss memory hole need several treatments not one time and then xed E Psychosurgery any brain surgery to improve psychological functioning removing tumor split brain surgery frontal lobotomy originally used to treat aggression before thorazine available VI Group Therapies method of delivering therapy Less expensive Sometimes more effective Good Ideas Good role models Less pressure You re not alone What works for others But seek quali ed leaders VII Miscellaneous points letting them out of an institution lie of deinstitutionalization did this to mental hospitals suspended services closed them all down not a lot of options when people stop taking meds and go to jail more mental places in jails than mental hospitals 2 Which approach is best all approaches can get good results with a good therapist therapist is 1st approach is secondary 3 people recovering memories in therapy that never actually happened
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