Astronomy 1001 Notes- entire semester
Astronomy 1001 Notes- entire semester ASTR 1001
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This 29 page Bundle was uploaded by Rachel Brotman on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Bundle belongs to ASTR 1001 at George Washington University taught by O'Donnell, C; Hahn, P in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Stars, Planets, and Life in the Universe in Astronomy at George Washington University.
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Astronomy March 30 , 2015 What objects in the solar system do most all asteroids and comets orbit? The sun What are asteroids? Potato shaped. Not enough gravity to turn it into the shape of a sphere. Like rocks just sitting out there. They are rocky leftovers from planet formation. The largest is Ceres, with a diameter of about 1000 km/ 620 miles. It is the only asteroid that is spherical. Small asteroids are more common than large asteroids. All of the asteroids in the solar system would not add up to even a small terrestrial planet. Most meteoroids are pieces of asteroid that orbited the sun for billions of years before falling to Earth. Asteroids with moons: Some large asteroids have their own moons Asteroid Ida has a tiny moon named Dactyl Density of Asteroids: Measuring the orbit of an asteroid’s moon allows us to compute the asteroid’s mass. Mass and size tell us an asteroid’s density. P= mass/volume. Some asteroids are solid rock; others are just piles of rubble. Sizes of Asteroids: It is hard to measure because of darkness and small size. They can be measured by comparing the brightness in the visible spectrum to brightness in the infrared. It’s visible light brightness is reflected sunlight. It’s infrared brightness is from radiation emitted by the asteroid and a measure of its temperature. This temperature depends on how much sunlight the asteroid absorbs. Comparing the infrared and visible light from an asteroid gives the proportions of incoming sunlight that the asteroid reflects and absorbs. Once these proportions are known, the asteroids brightness and distance can be used to determine its size. Asteroid Orbits: Most asteroids orbit in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter Trojan asteroids have about the same P as Jupiter (~12 years and therefore the same a); they lead and follow Jupiter’s orbit at +60 degrees. The orbits of near-earth asteroids cross Earth’s orbit. Trojan Asteroids: In 1772, Joseph Louis Lagrange solved the restricted 3-body problem and found five equilibrium points (L1 L5) The Trojan asteroids are located at the L4 and L5 points, the Greeks “in front” of Jupiter and the Trojans “behind” Jupiter. P of the Trojans is about the same as that of Jupiter, viz. Probability of an Asteroid Collision: The average distances between asteroids in the asteroid belt is millions of km The equivalent of grains and of sand being separated by kilometers. Why are there very few asteroids beyond the orbit of Jupiter? Ice could form in the outer solar systems and absorb the rocky material becoming Jovian planets. Where are the Trojan Asteroids located? In Jupiter’s orbit + or – about 60 degrees before and after Jupiter. Which explanation for the asteroid belt seems the most plausible? The asteroids in the inner solar system were absorbed by those planets. Orbital resonances: Asteroids in orbital resonance with Jupiter experience periodic nudges. Eventually, those nudges move asteroids out of resonant orbits, leaving gaps in the asteroid belt. Origin of Asteroid Belt: Rocky planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter did not accrete into a planet Jupiter’s gravity through influence of orbital resonances stirred up asteroid orbits and prevented their accretion into a planet. Probably pulling may of them into Jupiter. Meteor Terminology: Meteor: (= a thing in the air): the bright trail left by a meteorite, ala “shooting stars” (often the size of a pea). Meteorite: (associated with meteors): a rock from space that falls through Earth’s atmosphere. Meteorite Types (4 types): Primitive: unchanged in composition since they first formed 4.5 to 4.6 billion years ago. There are two types: carbon-rich and stony (small metallic flakes). Processed: younger; have experiences processes like volcanism or differentiation. There are two types: metal rich and rocky processed. Meteorites from moon and mars: A few meteorites arrive from the moon and mars Composition differs from the asteroid fragments A cheap (but slow) way to acquire moon rocks and mars rocks. Where do you think it’s easiest to search for them? Why is there an asteroid belt? Because orbital resonances with Jupiter prevented planetesimals between Jupiter and mars from forming a planet. What are comets? Dirty snowballs. They are made mostly of water/ice that contains “dirt”/ pieces of metals and rock. They are formed beyond the frost line. They are an icy counterpart to asteroids. Most comets do not have tails. To have a tail they must be close to the sun Must comets are in the ort cloud Most comets remain perpetually frozen in the outer solar system. Sun-grazing comet: Simple rocks and metal, occasionally carbon compounds and water Shiny bits are metal flakes, first to condense. “Deep Impact” Mission to study the nucleus of comet tempel 1 Anatomy of a Comet: A Coma is the atmosphere that comes from a comet’s heated nucleus. A plasma tail is gas escaping from the coma, pushed by the solar wind. A dust tail is pushed by photons from the sun. Growth of a Comet’s tail: The tail always points away from the sun no matter what direction the comet is going in. Comets eject small particles that follow the comet around in its orbit…. Meteors in a meteor shower appear to emanate from the same area pf the sky because of Earth’s motion but… Where do comets come from? Dust tail from photons Plasma tail Coma Comets in the solar plane come from the Kuiper belt. Comets in random orbits come from the Oort cloud. Only a tiny number of comets enter the inner solar system. Most stay far away from the sun. Oort cloud: on a random orbits extending to about 50,000 AU How did they get there? Kuiper belt comets formed in the Kuiper belt: flat plane, aligned with the plane of planetary orbits, orbiting in the same direction as the planets. Oort clouds Pluto: Is pluto a planet? It is much smaller than the terrestrial or jovian planets. Other icy bodies: There are many icy Kupier Belt objects: Description of Pluto: Pluto and Eris: We call them planetesimals or dwarf planets. Astronomy March 16, 18 Inventory of our Solar System: 1 star (the sun) 8 planets Moons (except mercury and venus) 6 asteroids with a diameter greater than 300 km, 7000 that are smaller A myriad of comets (diameter a few km) Countless meteoroids (diameter less than 100m) How many moons are in the Solar System? As of October 2008, there are 176 known natural moons orbiting planets in our Solar System. 168 moons orbit the “full-size” planets (Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune), while 8 moons orbit the smaller “dwarf planets” (Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris). The sun makes up 99.8% of our solar system and the rest of the planets take up only 0.2%. Planets fall into two main categories: Terrestrial (Earth-like) Jovian (Jupiter-like or gaseous) Terrestrial Planets: Smaller in size and mass Higher density (rocks, metals) Solid surface Closer to the Sun (and closer together) Warmer Few (if any) moons and no rings Weak magnetic fields Small radii Closely spaced orbits Predominantly rocky Slower rotation Jovian Planets: Larger size and mass No solid surface (but a solid core) Lower density (light gases, hydrogen compounds) No solid surface Farther from the Sun (and farther apart) Cooler Rings and many moons Strong magnetic fields Faster rotation Large bodies in the Solar System have orderly motions: Planets orbit counterclockwise in the same plane Orbits are almost circular The sun and most planets rotate counterclockwise Most moons orbit counterclockwise (as viewed from above Earth’s north pole). Swarms of asteroids and comets populate the solar system. Vast number of rocky asteroids and icy comets are found throughout the solar system, but are concentrated in three distinct regions. Asteroids are made of metal and rock, and most orbit in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Comets are ice-rich and many are found in the Kuiper belt beyond Neptune’s orbit. Even more comets orbit the sun in the distant, spherical region called the Oort cloud, and only a rare few ever plunge into the inner solar system. Exceptions to the rules: Uranus rotates nearly on its side compared to its orbit, and its rings and major moons share this “sideways” orientation. Pluto is tilted on its side. Venus rotates “backwards” (aka clockwise) Earth is the only terrestrial planet with a relatively large moon and the only planet with a hydrosphere. Obliquity: is another name for “tilt angle”. It is denoted by a phi symbol. The Sun- The King of the Solar System: How does the sun influence the planets? o Its gravity regulates the orbits of the planets o Its heat is the primary factor, which determines the temperature of the planets. o It provides practically all of the visible light in the Solar System. o High-energy particles streaming out from the Sun (= solar wind) influence planetary atmospheres and magnetic fields. There are approximately 176 moons out there. Asteroids are irregular in shape because in comparison to planets, they are small and their gravitational forces are too weak to pull them into spherical shapes. Almost all of the known asteroids are located in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Comet West: A comet is almost always named after the person who first sees it. Comet West is one of the brightest comets of the 1970’s. Mercury: Interior: unknown Surface: heavy, cratering, scarps (great cracks) Temperature: ranges from 700K to 100K between night and day. Atmosphere: H; He; K; P; O; transient and tenuous. Magnetic field: 0.1 times Earth’s field. Venus: Interior: partially molten Surface: light cratering, volcanic plains, gently rolling hills Temperature: 750 K; runaway greenhouse effect. Atmosphere: CO2; N2; H2SO4 clouds; 98 times denser than Earth’s Magnetic Field: none detected Planet most like hell Earth: Interior: Solid inner core; molten outer core; mantle Surface: very little cratering, continents and land at ocean floors; weathering; volcanoes; global tectonic plates. Temperature: 200 to 350K Atmosphere: mostly N2, CO2, H2O, O2 Magnetic field: strong global field The only planet with a hydrosphere; only object in our Solar System known to have life. Mars: Interior: Probably solid core Surface: moderate cratering; weathering; dormant volcanoes; huge canyons Temperature: 160 to 280 K Atmosphere: Mostly CO2; N2; 0.006 times as dense as Earth’s Magnetic Field: weak, local fields We know that at one time there was water on the surface of Mars. Asteroids (~2.8): Failed planet; planetesimals Located between Mars and Jupiter Rocky bodies Irregularly shaped Jupiter (5.2 AU): Interior: Terrestrial core; liquid metallic shell; liquid H-mantle Surface: No solid surface; atmosphere gradually thickens to liquid state; belt and zone structure; hurricane-like features. Atmosphere: Mostly H and He. Magnetic Field: 19,000x Earth’s total field; 14x stronger than Earth’s surface field. Saturn (9.5 AU): Interior: Similar to Jupiter with bigger terrestrial core and less metallic hydrogen. Surface: No solid surface; less distinct belt and zone structure than Jupiter. Atmosphere: H, He, and some CH4 (methane) Magnetic Field: 570x Earth’s total field; 67% of Earth’s surface field. Uranus (19.2 AU) Interior: Terrestrial core, liquid water shell; liquid H and He mantle. Surface: No solid surface; weak belt and zone system; color from methane (CH4) absorption of red yellow. Atmosphere: H, He, and some CH4 (methane). Magnetic Field: 50x Earth’s total field; 70% Earth’s surface field. Neptune (30.1 AU) Interior: Terrestrial core, liquid water shell; liquid H and He mantle. Surface: No solid surface; weak belt and zone system. Atmosphere: H, He, and some CH4 Magnetic Field: 35x Earth’s total field; 40% Earth’s surface field. Pluto and its moon, Charon (39.5 AU): Interior: unknown Surface: apparently rock and ice Atmosphere: unknown Magnetic Field: unknown Charon is one of three moons of Pluto. It was discovered in 1978. The diameter of Charon is about ½ the diameter of Pluto. Exploring the Solar System: Telescope: “A bucked for gathering light”- The design of telescopes depends on what type of light they are to gather. Spectroscopy: Analyzing the light gathered by telescopes in terms of source that produced it. Exploratory Space Missions: There are five types of exploratory space missions that we humans have carried out since the start of the space age on October 1957. 4 major categories of spacecraft mission: Flyby: spacecraft “flies by” a world just once Orbiter: spacecraft orbits the world it studies. Longer-term study is allowed Land and Probe: spacecraft lands on the surface of the world or plunges through its atmosphere. Sample return: spacecraft returns to Earth with a sample of the world it has studied. Manned: human beings are sent and brought back. These types of missions are listed in order of increasing cost. Exploration of Space: Since the 1960’s, there have been dozens of unmanned space missions- all the planets except for Pluto have been visited and probed at close range. October 4, 1957: Sputnik-I launched and the space age began. Luna 1-4: USSR explores the Moon; lunar surface material is brought back to Earth. 1961-1967: US Ranger series- many failures. May 25, 1961: Kennedy declares that before the end of the decade, the US will send a man to the Moon and return him safely to Earth. July 20 1969: “The eagle has landed”. Neil Armstrong is the first human to ever set foot on the moon Apollo-11 leaving: o Lunar module returning from the Moon after completing the first manned mission to the Moon in July 1969; planet Earth is seen rising in the background Apollo 13 In December 1972: Eugene Cernan of Apollo 17 mission is the last human on the moon. Exploration of the Terrestrial Planets: Mercury: Mariner-10 passed within 10,000 km of the surface. They sent data for 1 year from 1974-1975. Over 4000 photographs were collected. Venus: 20 spacecraft’s have visited since the 1970’s. Radar mapping of the surface in Magellan probe, spatial resolution 120m x 50m Mars: Mariner-4 fly by (1965); Mariner-9 (1971) mapped the entire Martain surface. Nebular Theory: Nebular= “cloud” in Latin First proposed by Immanuel Kant ca 1755 Ca. 1795 Pierre Simon Laplace independently came up with the same idea. In conflict with the “close encounter” hypothesis What the Nebular Theory Must Explain: Why almost everything in the Solar System rotates counter- clockwise, as viewed from above Earth’s north pole. Why the 8 planets fall into two major groups, terrestrial and Jovian and the composition Why there are so many asteroids and comets and why they are located in the asteroid belt, the Kuiper belt, and the Oort cloud. Why there are some exceptions to the general “rules”, example, why Venus rotates “backwards”, the tilt of Uranus, and Earth’s very large Moon. Life Cycle of Stars: Many generations of stars have “lived” and “died” in the Milky Way Galaxy. Stars are born in clouds of gas and dust Stars produce heavier elements from lighter ones Stars return material to space when they die The Nebular Theory for the Formation of Our Solar System: LECTURE QUESTIONS: Which, if any, of the planets have no moons? Mercury and Venus What is the name of the planet that is most like Hades? Venus What are the names of the largest and second largest moons in the Solar System? Ganymede and Titan What is the composition of the atmosphere of the only moon in the Solar System that has an atmosphere? Methane and nitrogen Astr1001; Section 10 — Stars. Planets, and Life in the Universe Professor Skelton; Department of Physics 2015 Spring Semester (12 Jan – 27 Apr 2015); CRN 41633 The George Washington University Syllabus for “Stars, Planets and Life in the Universe” Lecture Course * * * 2015 Spring Semester * * * This syllabus consists for four parts: I. Course Overview, II. Basis for Grade, III. Required Learning Aids, and IV. Schedule of Assignments I. Course Overview: When I behold the heavens, the work of thy fingers, what is man that thou art mindful of him? This question, recorded in the Old Testament, was asked by the ancient Hebrews as they contemplated the awesome heavens. From that time to the present, all peoples, and all religions, continue to ask: Why are we here? What is the cosmos? Where does the Universe begin and where does it end? In modern times, we have added newer questions: Are we alone? Can we travel in time? . . .backward or forward? What was there before there was time and space? When and how, if ever, will the Universe cease to exist? All of these profound riddles about the cosmos will be addressed, as we journey together and learn what science knows about the Cosmos. In this course, we will address the breath and scope of the known universe and our place within it. We will consider our Solar System, from the Sun to the Oort Cloud: How it came into existence24 / billion years ago and of what is it made. How our Sun generates the energy that is necessary for most, but not all, life on Earth. We will discuss the planets and how they differ from comets, planetoids, and asteroids and from each other. What is life? Are there other life forms out there? In the second semester, we move farther from our home planet and focus on the stars in our galaxy, The Milky Way, in other galaxies, and on some of the most interesting and newly discovered objects in the Cosmos: quasars, pulsars, black holes, quark stars, and the primordial structure within the cosmic microwave background, remnants of the Big Bang. All of this fascinating subject matter will be presented in an easy to understand and entertaining manner. There will be viewings of segments from the popular series of the late Dr. Carl Sagan, Cosmos, Dr. Neil deGrasse Tyson’s Origins and his recent remake of Origins, and similar videos, plus visits to astronomy shows and exhibits at the National Air and Space Museum, and other webbased ways of gaining insights into the magnificent universe around us. You will have the opportunity of visiting an astronomical research institution in the greater Washington area and meeting and interviewing an astronomer. The most uptodate pedagogical tools will be used in this course, among which are BlackBoard (Bb), LON CAPA, TurningPoint (commonly referred to as “clickers”), and Mastering Astronomy. These teaching aids have been enthusiastically received by former students and ensure that coming to class is engaging, rewarding, and fun. Pedagogical Philosophy: Some professors prefer an adversarial relationship with their students. That is NOT my style. My philosophy is that we are all on the same team. You are taking this class to learn astronomy and I am here to teach you astronomy. I will do everything within my power – and within the law – to help you earn the best grade possible in this course. General Course Goals: 1 of 17 Astr1001; Section 10 — Stars. Planets, and Life in the Universe Professor Skelton; Department of Physics 2015 Spring Semester (12 Jan – 27 Apr 2015); CRN 41633 The George Washington University 1. Cover our Solar System in its entirety, from the Sun out to the “Oort” cloud 2. Review and connect mathematics, e.g., algebra and trigonometry, and fundamental physics with modern astronomy We will cover the first half our textbook roughly one chapter per week. Lectures and labs are synergistic and will be taught in tangent. All PowerPoint slides (PPTs) will be posted on Blackboard (Bb ) before each lecture and contain “clicker questions”. After each lecture the PPTs will be reposted to Bb and contain both the clicker questions and answers. Labs will be as closely related to the course material as possible. 3. A set of Post Lecture Questions (PLQs) based on the lecture material will open on LONCAPA at 5:00 AM on the day of each lecture; these must be completed within 48 continuous hours. Specific Course Goals: Learning basic astronomical concepts, structures, and processes as listed below: 1. Concepts a. Laws of nature, e.g., Kepler’s and Newton’s Laws, conservation of momentum, angular momentum, mass, and energy, gravity, the electromagnetic spectrum b. Theories, e.g. Ptolemy’s and Copernicus’ view of the Solar System, the nebular hypothesis of planet formation, plate tectonics 2. Structure a. Atoms and molecules b. The Universe, galaxies, and Solar Systems c. Stars, planets, moons, asteroids, and comets 3. Scientific Method/Process a. How do astronomers determine the mass, structure and chemical composition of various astronomical objects? b. How do astronomers develop theories of how the Solar System was formed? c. How do astronomers detect asteroids and comets? 4. Applied Mathematics We employ high school mathematics, viz., basic algebra and a little trigonometry, in an astrophysical context, solving problems (mathematical and conceptual); scales and conversion factors (e.g. sizes in scaled models, lightyears to meters conversion); reasoning and thought problems (applying a law or theory to explain something) Instructor: Professor Skelton Office: Corcoran Hall Room 104a; telephone: 2022769502 eMail: firstname.lastname@example.org Dialogue via email is strongly encouraged; email is open "24/7" – that's 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Office Hours: 6:30 – 10:30 AM on Mondays and Wednesdays, or after class, or by appointment – but, any time that I am in my office, and the door is open, please feel free to drop in. Class Schedule: Mondays and Wednesdays, 11:10 AM – 12:25 PM; Corcoran Hall – Room 101 1 nd Astronomy 1002 covers roughly the 2 half of the textbook. 2 of 17 Astr1001; Section 10 — Stars. Planets, and Life in the Universe Professor Skelton; Department of Physics 2015 Spring Semester (12 Jan – 27 Apr 2015); CRN 41633 The George Washington University II. Basis for Grade: Final Course Grades (FCGs) are based on performances on nine grading elements as detailed below: % Weight Astr1001 Grading Elements Date (% of Final Grade) PostLecture Questions (PLQs) – requires a LONCAPA account ~48 hrs after 5% Lecture Every Lecture Clicker Questions (LCQs) Lecture 5% Chapter HW in Mastering Astronomy (a.k.a. “M.A.” Requires online access) Weekly 15% Due Thur 11:59p Laboratory Reading CheckUps (LRCUs) Weekly 5% in lab class Weekly Laboratory (Requires Astronomy 1 Laboratory Manual ) in lab class 10% End of GWAIT Project Report and Presentation Semester 10% 04 March MidTerm Examination I (MTEI) 10% 6:008:00 PM MidTerm Examination II (MTEII) 20 April 10% 6:008:00 PM Final Examination: TBA 30% Total 100% 2,3 Astronomy & Physics Department Grading Scale 89.986.0 B+ 77.974.0 C+ 65.962.0 D+ 53.900.0 F 100.094.0 A 85.982.0 B 73.970.0 C 61.958.0 D 2 3 The GWU Astronomy Department has fixed this scale for all its classes. Complete information on GWU Grades can be found at UNIVERSITY BULLETIN » UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS » UNIVERSITY REGULATIONS: http://www.gwu.edu/~bulletin/ugrad/unrg.html, see Grades, Incompletes, and The GradePoint Average. More on the GWU GPA grade scale can be found here: http://columbian.gwu.edu/undergraduate/advising/resources/gpa, “Every grade from A through F has a quality point equivalent (QPE), which is used to determine the gradepoint average (GPA)”. 3 of 17 Astr1001; Section 10 — Stars. Planets, and Life in the Universe Professor Skelton; Department of Physics 2015 Spring Semester (12 Jan – 27 Apr 2015); CRN 41633 The George Washington University 93.990.0 A 81.978.0 B 69.966.0 C 57.954.0 D Grades are rounded to the nearest 0.1 ( / t of a point). An explanation of Weighted Grades 10 Weighted Grades are a product of the assignment’s weight factor (weight (%) or “weighted percentage”) and the assignment’s grade (points earned ÷ points possible). The formula is: Weighted Grade weight(%) points earned weight(%) score 1score sc2re .... 3 points possible max score max score max score ... 1 2 3 Where the ‘weight(%)’ is between 0.00 (=0.00%) and 1.00 (= 100%) and the ‘points earned’ is the sum of all your scores for a given assignment (e.g., HWs) and ‘points possible’ is the sum of all the points you possibly could have earned for that assignment (i.e., max score). The greater the ‘weight(%)’ the greater that assignment counts in your overall course grade (bigger factor ↔ bigger impact). As an example the final carries 30% weight, 30% of the overall grade is determined by the final exam score, ‘weightFinal)’ = 30% = 0.30 meaning about ⅓ of your entire grade comes from the final. ‘points earned ’ = 25 25 questions were answered correctly, at 1 point/question Final ‘points possiblFinal 50 50 questions were asked (i.e., max score = 50/50) points earned Final 25 Weighted Grade Finalweight Final%) 30(%) 30%0.5015% points possible Final 50 The procedure for converting TurningPoints into a course grade will be explained in class. Semester Grade: To calculate your overall Semester (weighted) Grade: sum up all the individual weighted assignment grades Points Earned Points Earned Points Earned Weighted Grade weight 1 weight 2 ...weight n 1 Points Possible 2 Points Possible n Points Possible 1 2 n Where ‘1’ stands for the RCUs, and 2 is CH HWs, 3 is the Workbook and so on up to “n” assignments (in our class we have 8). In a sentence, “Your semester (weighted) grade is the sum of individual assignment’s weighted grades – literally, how much of each assignment’s weight you earned, summed up.” 4 1 th For example a 77.94 rounds down to the next 10arest ( / ) tenth of that point = 77.9, and 77.96 rounds up to 78.0. If your grade is exactly between two tenth’s, e.g., a 77.95, we have chosen to round up (to 78.0). Incidentally this is the reason our departmental grade scale goes out to the 100 decimal place: since your grade rounds to the nearest 10 it will never round exactly to a ‘.99’, and hence will never be ambiguous (e.g., you either have a 77.9 < 79.99 = C+, or you have an 80.0 = 80.00 = B). 5 For a more information and a formal mathematical definition see http://mathworld.wolfram.com/WeightedMean.html, or http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weighted_mean#Mathematical_definition 4 of 17 Astr1001; Section 10 — Stars. Planets, and Life in the Universe Professor Skelton; Department of Physics 2015 Spring Semester (12 Jan – 27 Apr 2015); CRN 41633 The George Washington University III. Required Learning Aids: Blackboard (Bb) ↑ Back to table of contents ↑ http://blackboard.gwu.edu You are automatically enrolled in Bb upon registration for this course. In Bb you will find all course materials and information (e.g., syllabus, notes, lectures, grades, extra credit). Fig. 1. Course website: http://blackboard.gwu.edu, use your eMail name & password. Homework Registration on Bb: http://www.masteringastronomy.com Use your FULL NAME (as listed in GWeb ) to register on Mastering Astronomy’s (M.A.). Our HW is assigned here. 1.Select “Student” (middle right) 2.Select “In US or Canada” (lower right) 3.Click “Yes” (I have Access Code), Next >, Accept ► (Licensing agreement) 4.Click “Yes” (have used Pearson online before) –OR– “No” (if you’re new), Enter Access Code (See Purchase Options)7 5.Enter Unique Course ID (See below ) Fig. 2. Register at http://www.masteringastronomy.com/. Use your FULL NAME (as it is in GWeb/Bb). 6 For example if your name is “Elizabeth ContraLaboradore” do not use “Beth Laboradore” 7 If you have a Student Access Code from a AstroII semester you may reuse that for our course since it’s the same textbook. When you log on there is an option to “Enroll in another course,” where you’ll enter our Unique Course ID and be taken to our M.A. webpage. 5 of 17 Astr1001; Section 10 — Stars. Planets, and Life in the Universe Professor Skelton; Department of Physics 2015 Spring Semester (12 Jan – 27 Apr 2015); CRN 41633 The George Washington University Course ID: MASKKELTON41633 Course Texts: Two are required : (1) Bennett, Donahue, Schneider & Voit. The Cosmic Perspective, 7 ed.: Pearson Education, 2015. A hardcopy from the GWU Bookstore or as an eText + Access Code bundle (Mastering Astronomy) is recommended. See the footnote for purchase options. 8 th Fig. 3. The Cosmic Perspective, 7 ed. at GWU bookstore basement (Marvin Center) in the “ASTR” isle (downstairs back left). “BACK” view shows Student Access Code (bundled with text). (2) Laboratory Workbook: Astronomy 1 Laboratory Manual, by O’Donnell and Parke The Laboratory Manual contains a preparatory lesson, followed by specific lab instructions, and questions, which must be read before each laboratory period. Fig. 4: Astronomy 1 Laboratory Manual is required. It contains the Lab Syllabus, Regulations, and Experiments. TurningPoint Response Card 10 The TurningPoint Response Card, or “clicker,” will be used to answer inclass “clicker questions” (LCQs): Fig. 3: The TurningPoint “clicker” is available at the GWU Bookstore. Use it to answer all LCQs. (Not to be confused with “i>clicker” which will not work in our classroom) 8 Purchase options: you must buy a textbook and a Student Access Code, but how you piece it together is your choice. Do not use 3 party vendors for the Access Code! Codes purchased may not work because they’re used and Pearson will not honor them or give you access. NB: If you have a Student Access Code from an AstroII semester, you may reuse that for our course since it is the same textbook. When you log on there is an option to “Enroll in another course,” where you will enter our Unique Course ID and be taken to our M.A. webpage. The M.A. Webpage may show “The Cosmic Perspective, 6e” on top of it, even if you have purchased “The Cosmic Perspective, 6e”. This is okay, Student Access Codes for either edition (6e or 7e) will take you to the correct M.A. webpage corresponding to the Unique Course ID for our course. 9 10See Purchase Options. See Purchase Options. Sold behind the checkout counters on the Bookstore Main floor. 6 of 17 Astr1001; Section 10 — Stars. Planets, and Life in the Universe Professor Skelton; Department of Physics 2015 Spring Semester (12 Jan – 27 Apr 2015); CRN 41633 The George Washington University Fig. 5. What the lights mean: green = received; red = not received or not an available choice, yellowsolid = polling is closed; yellowblinking = sending, but low battery, Sending + Received Clicker channel change: We will be using Channel 41. If your clicker is not set to this channel you will not be able to submit answers to the LCQs electronically. Please follow the directions below to reset your clicker to Channel 41. Fig. 6. How to change the Clicker channel Register your clicker ID on Blackboard. Course_Name (e.g. 201503_Stars/Pla…) > TOOLS > TURNINGPOINT REGISTRATION TOOL > [Enter 6 Character ID] > Register Fig. 7. TunringPoint Registration on Blackboard (Bb) 7 of 17 Astr1001; Section 10 — Stars. Planets, and Life in the Universe Professor Skelton; Department of Physics 2015 Spring Semester (12 Jan – 27 Apr 2015); CRN 41633 The George Washington University The “Device ID” is the 6characters on the back: Fig. 8. Clicker ID Number (Always 6 characters) on back You may use one TP Clicker for multiple classes. Once it is registered to you on Bb, it will show up connected to your name in any classes you use that TP device. Deregistration of previously assigned “Used” Clickers: the original owner must log in themselves and deregister the clicker before you can register. Deregistration follows the same steps as registration (above) but you click “Delete”: Fig. 9. Previous clicker owner must ‘deregister’ their clicker before you can use it If you purchased a used clicker, then email your receipt and request to deregister your clicker number to “Blackboard Administrator” email@example.com. Include your clicker number with the receipt (phone pic is fine) proving transfer of ownership. LONCAPA: The LearningOnline Network (LON) combined with the ComputerAssisted Personalized Assignment system (CAPA), developed at Michigan State University, is used in this course to generate individualized assignments for all students. The system allows you to enter your answers directly via networked terminals using the web and gives you immediate feedback (correct or incorrect in a green or red box, respectively). You are allowed to reenter answers to a problem before the due date, until you reach the limit of allowed tries for that problem. You may open and close any assignment as many times as you wish during the period of its availability. Each assignment is coded specifically to each student. You will access LONCAPA via a web browser using a unique Username and Password (specific to you) and then you can answer the PostLecture Questions (PLQs) on your own schedule during their period of availability, 48 hours. You will use the web browser to read the problems, view any pertinent graphics, and enter your answers to the assignments. How to access LONCAPA: Use any web browser, such as Netscape, Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox, connect to: loncapa.gwu.edu, or, click on “LONCAPA” from the LONCAPA Section in BlackBoard. Enter your Username and your Password. Your username is your GWU email ID, i.e., everything that precedes “@gwu.edu”. For example, if your GWU email address is firstname.lastname@example.org, then your LONCAPA username is “abc12”. Your password is initially set to your GWU ID number, viz., “G” followed by eight digits. You are encouraged to change your password to whatever you want using the “PREF” button on the Remote Control unit. Caution: 8 of 17 Astr1001; Section 10 — Stars. Planets, and Life in the Universe Professor Skelton; Department of Physics 2015 Spring Semester (12 Jan – 27 Apr 2015); CRN 41633 The George Washington University Once you reset your password, do not forget it because it is immediately encrypted and nobody on the GWU campus can access that information. Select the course “GWU Astronomy1001 (Spring 2015)”. You can always click the Navigate Button (“NAV”) on the Remote Control to get back to an overview of your LONCAPA area. Click on the PLQ folder to access the questions/problems. You can answer the questions or problems in any order and at any given time (until the due date!). Please note that the computer will not check your answer until you hit the “Submit Answer” button. You will then receive instant feedback. Please be sure to exit from LONCAPA (use the “EXIT” button on the Remote Control) when you are finished. Once a problem is graded "correct", that credit cannot be lost. For your own peace of mind, you should check periodically that your results are being properly recorded. You can review your record in LONCAPA at any time by clicking on the “GRDS” button on the Remote Control. It will give you a complete listing of all grading elements administered by LONCAPA. This will appear as “m/n”, where n is the number of problems assigned and m is the number you have correctly solved. It is strongly recommended that you click the “GRDS” button at least once for each assignment to see your point totals. Any question or confusion about the recording of valid answers must be brought to my attention BEFORE the closing date and time for that set. If the problem does not explicitly state in what units you must provide the final answer, then you must enter the units as part of your answer. For example, if the answer is 1.23 meters, then 123 cm or 0.00123 km will also be accepted by LONCAPA as correct. You should leave a space between the number and the units. Most numerical answers require units. Many units are obvious, such as: centimeters: cm meters: m kilometers: km kilograms: kg grams: g Newtons: N seconds: s hours: hr degrees: deg Other units may not be so obvious, such as combined units for velocity or acceleration: velocity: m/s or cm/s acceleration: m/s^2 or cm/s^2 pressure: N/m^2 or Pa density: g/cm^3 or kg/m^3 Exponential notation must often be used to enter answers in LONCAPA. There is a specific format that must be 8 used. For example, the number 3.4 x 10 must be entered as 3.4e8 or 3.4E8. The letter “e” or “E” stands for “power of 10” and the number following is the actual exponent. Each problem has its own the maximum number of tries. This maximum number will appear on the screen when you enter a wrong answer. The screen will also show you the number of times you already have tried a particular problem. The LONCAPA records are only updated when you hit the "Submit Answer" button. You can change your password (which you should do!) and set other preferences for working in the LONCAPA environment by using the “PREF” button on the Remote Control. If you encounter any problems using the LONCAPA software or connecting to the LONCAPA machine, please report them as soon as possible to Professor Skelton in writing, preferable using email (email@example.com). 9 of 17 Astr1001; Section 10 — Stars. Planets, and Life in the Universe Professor Skelton; Department of Physics 2015 Spring Semester (12 Jan – 27 Apr 2015); CRN 41633 The George Washington University IV. Schedule of Assignments: PLQs (5%): At 5:00 AM on the day of each lecture a set of PostLecture Questions (PLQs) will open on LonCAPA. These are learning tools, not tests. You may work together or consult your text or the web. You’ll have two tries for each question and they must be completed within 48 hours, i.e., they will close and the answers will become available at 5:00 AM on the second day after the lecture. The lecture schedule is given below. Lecture Clicker Questions (LCQs) (5%): Contained within each lecture will be TurningPoint clicker questions. You receive one “Clicker Point” every time you answer a clicker question, right or wrong. If the clicker question is designated as a “clicker test question”, then you receive two additional clicker points for the correct answer. If you forget to bring your TurningPoint clisker to class, your answers will be accepted on paper three times only. In other words, every student is allowed three free strikes, after your third strike, you will receive zero clicker points for that lecture. The procedure used to convert clicker points into a Clicker Grade will be explained in class. Wk Lecture # # Date Mo. Topics: Chapt(s). 01 1 12 Jan Our Place in Space 1 02 1 14 Jan The View from Earth 1 & 2 (no class) 2 19 Jan No Class M. L. King, Jr. Day 03 2 21 Jan Motions around Us 2 04 3 26 Jan History of Astronomy 3 05 3 28 Jan " 3 06 4 02 Feb A Little Physics . . . 4 07 4 04 Feb . . . Energy & Gravity 4 08 5 09 Feb A Little More Physi cs… 5 09 5 11 Feb . . . Light and Matter 5 (no class) 6 16 Feb No Class Presidents Day 10 6 18 Feb Telescopes 6 11 7 23 Feb " 6 12 7 25 Feb The Most Important… 14 13 8 02 Mar ...Star in the Universe 14 14 8 04 Mar Review for MidTerm Examination 1 6 & 14 04 Mar First MidTerm Examination (MTEI) 1 6 & 14 09 (no class) 14 Mar No Classes Spring Recess 15 9 16 Mar Our Planetary System.. 7 & 8 16 9 18 Mar ...Form and Formation 7 & 8 17 10 23 Mar Geology 9 18 10 25 Mar " 9 19 11 30 Mar Remnants of . . . 12 20 12 01 Apr . . . Rock and Ice 12 21 12 06 Apr Planetary Atmospheres 10 22 13 08 Apr " 10 23 13 13 Apr The Jovian Planets 11 24 14 15 Apr The Jovian Planets and Life in the Universe 11 24 25 14 20 Apr Review for MidTerm Examination 712 20 Apr Second MidTerm Examination (MTEII) 712 26 15 22 Apr GWAIT Presentations presentations 27 15 27 Apr GWAIT Presentations presentations FINAL EXAMCh 112,14,&24 10 of 17 Astr1001; Section 10 — Stars. Planets, and Life in the Universe Professor Skelton; Department of Physics 2015 Spring Semester (12 Jan – 27 Apr 2015); CRN 41633 The George Washington University Mastering Astronomy Assignments (15%): Course Title: ASTR100110 Spring 2015 Lecture; Course ID: MASKELTON41633 Homework (HW) Worth: 15% of overall weighted grade 1 HW per textbook chapter to assess your material retention and to explore new material independently 11 Assignments should take ~1 to 2 hours / week (if you’re having difficulty, please eMail for help) HWs are not timed, you may start and stop at any time, as often as you like before the assignment closes Rules 1. All HWs start open at the beginning of the semester 2. Individual HWs close/are due in sequence (as we cover its chapter) on Thursday, at 11:59 p.m. 12 3. No makeups. After closure HWs cannot be reopened. 4. HW Submission: every time you press “Submit” ( ) your work is savedandscored. Exception: On tutorials you will need to Save (the “S” button, lower right hand side) regularly to record work as you go along. After you have completedandSaved ( ) as much of the tutorial as you like you may click Save one last time 13 and then “Submit” ( ) on the webpage which follows. NB: this will permanently record your score. 5. Point deductions & hint credit: Deduction for Incorrect Multiple Choice Answer = [100% / (#options 1)] e.g., 4 options [100%/(41)] = 100% / 3= 33.3% per wrong choice a. 0 wrong out of 4 Options 100.0% (i.e., correct on first try) b. 1 wrong out of 4 Options (100% [100% / (4 1)]) = 66.6% possible c. 1 wrong out of 3 Options (100% [100% / (3 1)]) = 33.3% possible d. 1 wrong out of 2 Options (100% [100% / (2 1)]) = 0.0% possible 14 e. 1 wrong out of 1 Options impossible. No other options left. Incorrect Numerical Answer = [10% × #incorrect] up to 5 i.e., up to 50% deduction f. Answer 1 of 5 wrong (100% [10% × 1]) = 90% possible g. Answer 2 of 5 wrong (100% [10% × 2]) = 80% possible h. Answer 3 of 5 wrong (100% [10% × 3]) = 70% possible i. Answer 4 of 5 wrong (100% [10% × 4]) = 60% possible j. Answer 5 of 5 wrong (100% [10% × 5]) = 50% possible k. Answer 6 of 5 wrong impossible. The question is closed. Submission after deadline (late HW): 0 points for entire assignment Hintcredit: +1% of question for not opening a question Hint. Cheating on HW: Copying or cheating of any kind will not be tolerated. It is a violation of the GWU Integrity Code. 15 11 firstname.lastname@example.org 12 Extensions for faculty/staff approved reasons. Approval for extension must be given in writing (eMail is acceptable) 13 “You MUST click Submit to record your score. It is not possible to return to this selfguided tutorial after clicking Submit. Clicking the S (Save) button saves your work, but does not record your score.” http://session.masteringastronomy.com 14 You canot choose incorrectly if you only have one choice; You have eliminated all of the incorrect answers. 15 http://www.gwu.edu/~ntegrity/code.html 11 of 17 Astr1001; Section 10 — Stars. Planets, and Life in the Universe Professor Skelton; Department of Physics 2015 Spring Semester (12 Jan – 27 Apr 2015); CRN 41633 The George Washington University Homework Assignments for Astr100110 Spring 2015 Open: Date Time Due: Date Time Assignment Mon, 12 Jan – 12:01 AM Thu, 22 Jan – 11:59 PM HW01 – Intro. to MA & Math. Preliminary Mon, 12 Jan – 12:01 AM Thu, 29 Jan – 11:59 PM HW02 – Ch 1 & 2 : Our Place in Space Mon, 12 Jan – 12:01 AM Thu, 05 Feb – 11:59 PM HW03 – Ch 3: The Science of Astronomy Mon, 12 Jan – 12:01 AM Thu, 12 Feb – 11:59 PM HW04 – Ch 4: Matter and Energy Mon, 12 Jan – 12:01 AM Thu, 19 Feb – 11:59 PM HW05 – Ch 5: Light and Matter Mon, 12 Jan – 12:01 AM Thu, 26 Feb – 11:59 PM HW06 – Ch 6: Telescopes Mon, 12 Jan – 12:01 AM Thu, 05 Mar – 11:59 PM HW07 – Ch 14: The Sun Mon, 12 Jan – 12:01 AM Thu, 12 Mar – 11:59 PM HW08 – Ch 7 & 8: The Solar System Mon, 12 Jan – 12:01 AM Thu, 19 Mar – 11:59 PM HW09 – Ch 9: Planetary Geology Mon, 12 Jan – 12:01 AM Thu, 26 Mar – 11:59 PM HW10 – Ch 12: Asteroids & Comets Mon, 12 Jan – 12:01 AM Thu, 02 Apr – 11:59 PM HW11 – Ch 10: Planetary Atmospheres Mon, 12 Jan – 12:01 AM Thu, 09 Apr – 11:59 PM HW12 – Ch 11: Jovian Planets Mon, 12 Jan – 12:01 AM Thu, 16 Apr – 11:59 PM HW13 – Ch 24: Life in the Universe GWAIT Project and Paper (10%): The acronym GWAIT stands for George Washington Astronomical Interview Team. After the first few weeks of the semester and you have had a chance to get to know one another, you will be asked to form a three to four person GWAIT. Complete details of the GWAIT project will be given near the end of September, but in a nutshell, each GWAIT will be asked to: (1) find an active research astronomer (or scientist) in the greater Washington area and preferable NOT at GWU; (2) schedule and conduct an interview with that person, preferably at his/her research laboratory, (3) learn about the scientific research in which s/he is engaged; and (4) prepare a report and a multimedia presentation explaining that research to your classmates and to me. 12 of 17 Astr1001; Section 10 — Stars. Planets, and Life in the Universe Professor Skelton; Department of Physics 2015 Spring Semester (12 Jan – 27 Apr 2015); CRN 41633 The George Washington University MidTerm Examinations 1 & 2: Worth: 20% of overall weighted grade (10% each): MidTerm Exam 1 Covers Chapters 16 and 14 6:00 – 8:00 PM on Wednesday, March 4 , 2015 th Room to be announced MidTerm Exam 2 Covers Chapters 712 th 6:00 – 8:00 PM on Monday, April 20 , 2015 Room to be announced If your average PLQ grade for Lectures 1 through 16 is 85% or higher, you will receive +3.5% points toward your Exam 1 grade; if your average PLQ grade for Lectures 1 through 26 is 85% or higher, you will receive +3.5% points toward your Exam 2 grade. If your average LCQ grade for Lectures 1 through 16 is 85% or higher, you will receive +3.5% points toward your Exam 1 grade; if your average LCQ grade for Lectures 1 through 26 is 85% or higher, you will receive +3.5% points toward your Exam 2 grade. See Blackboard for Tips and Review Sheets. Don’t leave an exam question blank (incorrect answers do not count against you, and if you give your best guess on a question you have at least a 1 in 5 chance of getting it right) MidTerm Examination Rules: 1. You must show your GWID to take the exam. 2. Bring a calculator and a No. 2 pencil (with eraser) – spares pencils may be provided but not guaranteed! 3. You may bring a single page 8½'' × 11'' Reminder Sheet. Use ONE SIDE ONLY to write anything you want in your hand writing only; no photo copies of a textbook, online resource, or fellow student’s notes is allowed. 16 4. No makeups. (There are no exceptions to this policy. ) Final Examination: Worth: 30% of overall weighted grade
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