Final Exam Notes & Review! (2/2)
Final Exam Notes & Review! (2/2) BISC 1007
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This page Bundle was uploaded by Aisha Notetaker on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BISC 1007 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Food, Nutrition, and Service in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 12/10/15
O O 0 Scenario High blood glucose after you eat 0 lnsulin is made Glucose Take 5 How Blood Sugar is Regulated Tuesday November 17 mm Signals glucose uptake from bloodstream to get blood sugar back to normal Set point In livermuscle cells promotes glycogen production from glucose Good to Know lnsulin made When you have HIGH blood sugar Glucagon made When you have LOW blood sugar 0 Releases glucose gtgtgt bloodstream Type 1 Diabetes Juvenile NOlOW insulin production Relates to storage of glycogen If you have no fasting storage it s a PROBLEM Blood sugar levels can t be restored AWo sugar you can39t make energy Aeverything takes energy Lots of demand on kidneys Signs of Hypoglycemia low sugar 0 Like a drunk person blurred vision loose muscles etc o A Your bod compensates for lack of sugarenergy o Brain takes up 20 gets priority when you re low on blood sugar Treatment 0 Drink sugary liquid for a quick dose ie Orange Juice You39re constantly producing signals to either Store sugar OB Release sugar FAT TRAN SPORT Fats are hydrophobic Type 2 Diabetes Adult Low insulin production Malfunctioning receptors msg isn t always relayed Correlated W poor diet no exercise Treatment 0 lnsulin injectors o Reversible If you change your lifestyle you can get better Hydrophobic substances tap into these protein complexes o lousy moves fats to cells for use 0 The partier healthy moves fats to liver and picking up littering LDL o The responsible friend gets you an uber When you39re too drunk to get home by yourself 0 Causes of high levels Diet Physical activity Genes smh mom amp dad Number Crunch o should be LDLbelow 100mgdL HDLhigher the better Plaque gangs of LDL complexes found in the arteries Clots shut off blood flow gtgtgt cell death increases demand on iour1ooor heart needs to pump faster to squeeze thru 0 HEART ATTACKS Common coronary artery be it39s the easiest place for LDL39s to infiltrate 80 happen here Treatments z It39s not enough to push fat out of the way literally eXpand the diameter of arteries basically just smush down the plaque mesh like thing that eXpands artery diameter bottom right pic Bypass surgery Statin drugs revention left to right deflated balloon stent inflated balloon stent stent Eating Disorders Much more common in women than males Malnourishment Lacking 1 nutrient A don39t get enough to function normally Undernourishment Too few calories Anorexia Nervosa Under eating Dramatic weight loss Overnourishment o Binge eating disorder eating to the point of being sick Feel guilty Can be lacking nutrients bc they39re eating tons of bad food and not getting whole foods 0 Bulimia Nervosa binge eating purging Throwing up the food bc guilt Often overweight Adding calories but not nourishment Eliminate lots of nutrients bc of purging vitaminmineral deficient Metabolism BMRXRMR we39re talking about what you need as a baseline of energy to gist much more accurate 0 Measured after fastingsleeping 0 Men have higher BMB39s bc more muscle mass 0 Women have lower BMB s bc fat burns less energy whenever individual has time to go Expending Energy Breathing Physical activity Thermal Effect Of feeding every food is NOT the same Celery vs coke Celery is fibrous takes a lot of energy to breakdown you burn as many calories as you consumeii Coke takes no energy to gulp down Recommended Daily Values Protein o Gender speci c 0 Men have more muscle mass need more protein 0 Depends on physical activity if you39re a female athlete you might need the samemore than a guy Low carb CliEtS can gtgt ketosis bc your bod needs to store the blood sugar level 0 Makes your blood acidic Extra Credit Lecture Tuesday Nevember 24 Z 15 REVIEW Q s Once your glycogen stores are full aka reach the set point you convert excess glucose gtgtgt fat can switch from sugar gt fat fat gt sugar etc How do you know if you re burning fat or glycogen o Change in heart rate is the most accurate way to gure it out o Aincreased heart rate increased energy need Celiac Disease Video about kid W abnormal symptoms missed developmental milestones gt diagnosis of celiac disease o Eyes glazed over o Made strange backofthroat noises Family history is v important Celiac is a food related issue triggered by gluten Food related issues gtgtgt lots of issues throughout the body Cell Cycle amp Cancer Tuesday December 1 Z 15 Summary hoW cells progress to be cancerous all kinds hoW we treat them and What factors lead to someone developing cancer Cell Cycle Constant repairingmaking of neW cells Cancer When that cycle is disrupted Wrong msgs sent 0 Cancer cells stuck in the G0 phase of their life 0 G0 phase When cells hang out amp perform their function Neurons always stay in this phase Can39t repair themselves gtgt ean39t enter cell cycle This is why killing brain cells is so bad Phases Go Cells perform normal duties Growth regulator signals tell em to enter the cell cycle quotWe need more of you Stop hanging outquot G1 Cell gets ready to duplicate itself eopy DNA Checkpoint erueial be if things aren39t fixable eell selfdestruets quotprogrammed cell deathquot only if eell doesn39t pass eheek S Replicate DNA G2 More cell growth amp mo organelles be you39re gonna produce 2 new cells Like pregnant women quoteating for twoquot Checkpoint If the mistakes aren39t eorreeted cell is told to die 3 Most eells move onto phase M M 2 new cells made from original parent Should be identical Calculations Breakdown how many hours of energy will this food give you Take the amount of calories you burn for a day BMB or Seully will tell you Divide that A by 24 hours to get ealshour Look fat protein amp earbsii o Subtract out dietary fiber from total earbs 0 Dietary fiber doesn39t add to energy 0 You39re looking stareh amp sugar 400alg sugar X 4ealgram 0 Have the values quotA memorized Fat 9 calgram Carbs 4 calgram Proteins 4 calgram Alcohol 7 calgram Answer 2 hours Signals amp Stuff Positive growth regulators Negative Growth Regulators Proto oncogenes quotacceleratorsquot bc they Tumor suppressor genes quotbrakesquot tell you to get into the cell cycle checkpoints Suppress mistakesformation of Tell cells to either tumors 0 Enter into 3611 37016 replicate o there39s anything wrong prevents Continue on in cell cycle bad Cause cell death Can arrest cell for a short period of time while DNA gets repaired Inhibit cell cycle Encourages cells to adherestick to each other New phone who CllS Cancer amp wrong msgs Mutation win the gene has to happen 0 Results in mass production of genes 0 Single benign cell grows gtgtgt turnor Oncogene 0 When proto oncogenes divide uncontrollably 0 First step in production of cancer Accelerator gets stuck 0 Msg is continuously there to make more cells Brakes fail 0 Tumor suppressor genes can39t prevent mistakes 0 Bad cells aren39t getting arresteddying Tumor v Cancer Tumors Cancer 0 Can be EX colon cancer 0 Growth turnor 0 Mass itself isn39t bad 0 Proto oncogene is Inutated Sorne never get cancerous never 0 PI OtO39OnCOgene gtgt oncogene leave the origin 0 Stimulates cell division o If it grows amp eauses organ 0 Stays small be tumor dama efailure that39s bad suppressor genes still work 0 i of tumor gtgt cancer is V 0 If these are identified early different on they can be removed So big it sends out signals to get 0 Tumor suppressor gene is nutrients mutated Onoe tumor gets its own 0 Complete loss of control over it39s game over oell Tumor cells can now o across body 0 P53 tumor suppressor Once it leaves origin it39s oanoer inaotivated o It left the 0G site 0 More tumor suppressors This happens be the tumor inaetivated gtgt angiogenesis wants to grow bigger metastasis Not immediate There39s stages Some oanoers more likely than others Breast is 90 chance of aka getting metastasized Benign tumor 2 isngiogenesisfmore sell growth 2 Metastasiized 3 Malignant Oneogene mutation tumor suppressor gene mutations further isomer sg mutation enters new tissue types outside 0G area quotYou have cancerquot Terminology shift Ppl ask for treatments they don39t needoould be harmful Pre malignantoanoerous lesions aren39t V likely to cause harm Instead of saying quotyou have cancerquot does are saying quotyou have preoanoerous lesionsquot way to classify tumors going to metastasize O Indolent lesions of epithelial origin Biopsy detects cancer 0 Does compare normal tissue to CEIHCEI39OUS ones 0 quotdoes remove a portion of the tissue Detects 0 Cell shapesizesurfaoe 0 Genes markers can tell you early on if you39re suseeptible Personalizes your treatment Do you inherit Cancer Not always but gene markers can pass down Age increases mutations o Accumulates over time Environment plays a role too Treatments It39s hard to selectively destroy just the problem cells malignant ones Cryosurgery amp Hormone Therapy 2 o Treats abnormalcancerous cells in a small spot 0 V specific mainly hits the bad cells avoids good ones Radiation amp chemo o Kills everything 0 Good healthy cells amp bad cancerous cells 2 Tuesday December 892 15 Family history is v important Problems happen over TIME a single cheeseburger isn t going to kill you accumulation of them leads to susceptibility buildup of bad stuff FOODS THAT INFLUENCE CANCER RISK Limit alcohol o Disrupts absorption of vitamins smh o Your bod is trying to deal W the alcohol so vitamins are ignored Get more fruits amp veggie5 o Have vitamins to ward off free radical5 o Free rads aren t rad cause cell comm damage amp possibly cancer Calcium o Lowers colon cancer 0 lncreases prostate Low folate levels gtgt colon rectum breast cancer 0 Esp in ppl who drink alcohol o Adisrupts vitamin absorption Processed meats o Balogna hillshire farms hot dogs have nitrites in em gtgt correlated W cancer Too much salt o Stomach o Nasopharyngeal o Throat cancers High doses of soy o Bad news if you always order soy lattes Starbucks o lncreases risk of estrogen cancers breastendometrial Burnt food 0 BBQ can kill o The smoke has bad compounds in it cancer causing ADDlTlVES CORRELATED W CANCER processed foods W color or avor enhancers increase risk but natural foods decrease risk o Aka stop eating so much processed foods Aspartamesaccharin unless you seep yourself in em probably won t give you cancer Caffeinecoffee some can reduce your risk but exact amount is v contested Cholesterol not as strong as fats Fat you wanna increase HDLdecrease LDL Fluorides Food additives GEO genetically engineered orgs Radiation AM how you treat your foods how they re packaged BPA plastic wrap leeches into food Plastic leeching exposes you to estrogen response Clicker Q What is lactose intolerance Lack of lactase production Things ending in quotasequot enzyme Bc they can t produce that enzyme can t break downdigest it Semester Takeaways Ecosystem o All the living amp nonliving things in a given area 0 Microbiome all the orgs that live in on you o Eat foods that look like the organism that made it Interacting W orgs 1 bene t1 unharmed Mutualism both bene t 1 bene t1 harmed Competition both harmed better off if the other is dead We are family we all came from the same place o Same characteristics same needs 0 O O O Water Suanht Nutrients Food org substances Minerals inorganic Vitamins Types of orgs Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Simple but pack a punch they use every kind of nutritional strategy Valueable bc they re food producerS Most of your food are plants fungi and animals Rely on the photoautotrophs Love em mutualism amp commensalism They make CHEESE Hate em exploitation Plants o Parts you eat any portion of the plant For most fruits amp veggies the has most nutrients Fruit o Photosynthesis Remember the outcomes for exam Outcome use energy to make inorganic carbon gtgt organiC pigments gtgt gtgt A v impressive tbh Food label what you get out of foods Fats Need em to Make up our cell membrane phospholipid bilayer Long term energy storage triglyceride Cushion US Keep us warm Unsaturated Where veggies sh some invertebrates The GOOD increase HDL and decrease LDL Saturated Where land vertebrate animals meat and some tropical fruit The BAD increase both blood cholesterol Trans Where processed foods W hydrogenated oils donuts fries anything deep fried delicious The UGLY increase LDL and decrease HDL Brown adipose tissue White adipose tissue Fats generate heat to keep your Fats stored for later use body temp normal When you work out in cold temps you BURN MORE fat bc your bod needs to keep you warm o Cholesterol the MOLECULE The one on the food label isn t what gets measured by your dOC Where eggs meat shrimp cheese dairy Why it is important Part of the cell membrane Building block for steroid hormones Say whaa Doc measured cholesterol a complex transport system to move fat loving substances hydrophilic around your body HDL and LDL Consumption of eggs cholesterol is NOT correlated Wgetting cancer FATS are the real problem o Sodium Stay away from canned foodS A they add lots of salt to preserve em Get frozen instead Where table salt amp in processed food Cell function used to maintain cell homeostasis and signalling Common confusion We need it but added amounts in our diet put pressure on our cells to deal with the high concentrations in our bloodstream o Carbs All sugars are carbs but not all carbs are sugar You use monosaccharides to store glycogen in livermuscle cells Plants use monosacs for starch Grain gives you a ton of ber ltltlt why whole grain is good fer you FUNCTlON energy production stickiness Fiber scrub brush to move things along keeps you full longer Types a Monosaccharides glucose fructose high fructose corn syrup b Disaccharides table sugar c Polysaccharides 0 Energy storage glycogen and starch o Structural ber chitin and cellulose Where M fruits vegetables and processed foods D fruits vegetables and processed foods P o ES animal meat and vegetables o S invertebrates and plantbased foods Takeaway All sugar ain t equal Honey isn t the same as coca cola bc it has tons more nutrients Carbloading Eating tons of carbs to prep for marathons etc So you don t run out of glycogen storeS Our 39set point might kick in and store excess as fat Starch ain t labeled you need to subtract sugars amp ber from total carbs to get that value o Remember you need all A of these nutrients December 10 2015 Final Review Food label How many hours of energy WI7 this food give you Step 1 0 Protein amp Carbs multiply 1g x 4 cal total calories 0 Alcohol 1g x 7 cal total calories 0 Fats 1g x 9 cal total calories Step 2 o CAREFUL Look if she s asking per sewing or ENTIRE product Step 3 o How many calories the individual will burn over 24 hours Step 4 0 Convert to calorieshour divide by 24 0 Then convert to minutes divide by 60 Step 5 o For a 2000 calorie diet divide 200024 hrs 0 Your answer is how many calories SHOULD be burned o For 2000 calorie diet it s 80 cals this is your target o if your calculation gives you below that they aren t burning enough Carbs 20g total Sugar 10 g Fiber 5g ltlt this doesn t contribute to calories so subtract it out 20g 5 ber grams 15g 15g x 4 cal 60 total calories 60 cal24 hr 25 calorieshour 2000cal24 hr 80 calhr Normally 2000 cal diets need 80 cals every hour so the 60 cals from this food would give you less than 1 hour of energy Starch isn t listed gt gt Subtract out ber bc it doesn t contribute calories gt Convert the daily calories she gives you gtgt per hour for 2000cal diets divide by 24 80 calshour Indirect e ects Direct meat on Nutrition Endocytosis Pinocytosis When you transport large amounts of material httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvlnG xF9D4EM Fats Cell draining Every successive generation of cells will pass on mutated genes aka cancerous ones pg 2 only December 10 2015 Final Review In harsh environments digestive amp blood cells A They re under a lot of zs stress so they lose water To x this water is broken 0 up amp taken to organelles Vesicle via vesicles in the membrane Phagocytosis Receptor Mediated Endocytosis Faulty LDL lousy i u i Eating another C6quot receptors are genetically 39 Large particle immune system takes the most common 39 care Of this reason why ppI have Plasma high cholesterol W membrane When pathogens 0 Protein Clathrin Receptor ghter lmgune quot5 complexes need a l em 0 o to dock onto them so if they n II internal destruction don39t work you re in trouble 0 Custom receptors for LDL HDL amp other hydrophobic substances fat squbIe vits etc Vacuole Coated vesicle GENERAL TIPS gt Might repeat questions from the midterm ps it s posted on blackboard gt De nitions in the textbook are more important than ppt lectures amp Tonic quigley s 0 We re comparing concentrations of water solute with solutions 0 The diff types isohypohyper illustrate whether the conditions are right for water to move from compartment A gt B o Osmosis o Isotonic is a point of comparison btw compartments 0 Not isotonic on its own 0 quotcompartments A s solution is isotonic to compartment Bquot o Hypotonic shrivel o Hypertonic burst it ii ii ii iii it ii iii F iiiii ii ii fh i i i liI i i i i i i hi i ii Ilfl l t i i m n Jail 39 ii I i 1 h I I 11 quot llI aquot a I I k I I I I iquotII 39 sI 153 solute t t 39 95 water 90 water 925 water 9253 water HYPDTDNIC HYPERTDNIC EQUILIBRIUM Every successive generation or cells wm pass on mutated genes aKa cancerous OhES pg 2 only December 10 2015 Final Review Checkpoint Tumor suppressor genes Life cycle of Cancer Fix cell or cell dies Checkpoint Tumor suppressor genes S Phase Signal to enter life cycle Go phase G1 phase Double cell parts DNA replicates Normal function for cell copying 1 gt 2 sets of DNA sent by protooncogenes l Mutation Tumor J Tumor benign suppressor gene mutations Oncogene Jeliilcoll ig l viged A mass of cells g made by the angiOgEI39IESiS oncogene recruit blood vessels Fix cell or cell dies 62 phase lncrease all cell organellesstructures Malignant Movement from cancer growth 06 site of 06 tumor metastasis cells in a cliff area M phase Split the DNA cell Z39dentlcal cells parts amp cell itself Every successive generation of cells will pass on mutated genes aka cancerous ones pg 2 only
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