IART 1170 Notes Week 1,2
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Date Created: 01/31/15
IART 1170 Notes BENTON STARTER KIT The Humanities Commonalities Disciplines the different branches of humanities art and architecture music literature music philosophy and history 0 Each discipline has defining characteristics a distinct vocabulary and its own conventions Every work of art has two core components 0 Form the arrangement pattern or structure of a work how a work is presented to our senses 0 Content what a work is about its meaning or substance The term quotartistquot is used for the producer of artworks in any discipline Composition the arrangement of an artwork s constituent parts Technique the process or method hat produced the art Medium the physical material that makes up the work oil paint on canvas Style the manner in which something is done 0 Artists working in at the same time and place are often trained in the same style Conventions accepted practice the use of the Sonnet by Shakespeare Functions and Genres Functions of the arts are divided into religious and secular 0 Religious liturgical art music or drama is used as part of a ritual of a given religion 0 Secular art used to provide pleasure and entertainment been used in the service of political and propaganda ends Each discipline has subsets called genres 0 Music symphony quartet 0 Literature novel short story 0 Art portrait painting history painting The Visual Arts The visual arts are first experiences by sight but often evoke other senses such as touch or smell Drawing representation of threedimensional forms on a twodimensional surface inherent human ability Representation an ancient function of visual art in which a likeness of an object or life form is produced Formal Analysis An artwork s visual elements are considered without reference to the content in a formal analysis More sophisticated levels involve content Signs convey visual information strokes Symbols images that have resonance or additional meaning 0 Iconography the language of symbols often religious in nature Components of the Visual Arts Line a mark on a surface continuous or broken used to create patterns and textures directs visual movement Shape an area with identifiable boundaries May be organic based on natural forms or geometric based on measured forms Mass the solid parts of the threedimensional object 0 Negative space area with no mass 0 Positive space area occupied by mass Form the shape and structure of something Color the sensation produced by various wavelengths of light also called hue Primary colors red blue yellow Secondary colors orange green purple Tertiary colors yellowgreen redpurple o Complementary colors colors opposite each other on the color wheel Value the lightness or darkness of an area of color 0 Lighter high value 0 Darker low value Texture the appearance or feel of a surface basically smooth or rough actual or implied Composition the arrangement of the formal components of a work Perspective a system of portraying threedimensional space on a two dimensional surface 0 Onepoint linear perspective lines recede towards a vanishing point on horizon line 0 Twopoint perspective two vanishing points atmospheric aerial uses properties of light and air OOO Sculpture Sculpture a threedimensional form height width depth made by carving modeling or assembling Subtractive sculpture using materials that have natural solid mass such as stone wood or ivory the sculptor shapes the work of art by removing material cutting it away usually with a hammer and chisel Additive sculpture using materials that have no natural mass shape or dimensions such as plaster clay or wax the sculptor builds up the desired form by modeling it o Armature rigid structure usually made of metal 0 Statuette a small work cast in metal or bronze Assembled Sculpture 0 Mobile Invented by Alexander Calder colored shaped linked together and suspended from ceiling and moves with breeze achieving a delicate balance 0 Stabiles Also invented by Calder uses same brightly colored metal shapes but rest on the ground and do not move 0 Assemblage Invented by Robert Rauschenberg created by assembling or compiling various bits pieces and objects Architecture Architecture is a branch of the visual arts that combines practical function and artistic expression art to inhabit Re ects the society in which it is built Site location of a building Relationship to a building and its site are integral to architecture Architect one who designs and supervises the construction of buildings Scale the relative size of one thing compared to another Structural System the engineering principles used to create a structure 0 Shell system one or more building materials brick stone provide both support and covering 0 Skeleton and skin system steel skeletons and glass skin skyscrapers Column a supporting pillar consisting of a base a cylindrical shaft and a decorative capital at the top 0 3 Classical Orders in Greece Doric Ionic Corinthian Post and Lintel a basic structural system dating from ancient times that uses paired vertical elements posts to support a horizontal element lintel Arch consists of a series of wedgeshaped stones locked in place by a keystone at the top Dome an arch rotated 180 degrees Vault a series of arches Literature Speech Writing and Literature Literature is not built from physical elements or sound but from words Literature presupposes language with its multitudes of meaning content its grammar rules for construction and its syntax the arrangement of words The word literature is reserved for works that exhibit the best that has been thought and saidquot works that represent a culture s highest literary achievements Literacy and Literature The development of literature 0 Ancient literature was oral spoken rather than written most often in the form of song or poetry The functions of literature 0 Religious literature the prayers and mythology of a given culture 0 Epic literature passed down by oral tradition Forms of Literature Literature can be divided into fiction and nonfiction poetry and prose 0 Poetry distinguished by its concentrated and precise language the best words in the best orderquot I Diction the poet s selection of words and syntax o Prose language that is not poetry I Fiction a work of the imagination I Nonfiction deals with actual events or persons 0 Narrative the telling of a story a structured account of events 0 Narrator the storyteller from whose point of view the story is told I Firstperson thirdperson or omniscient 0 Plot the plan or storyline 0 Characters the people in a literary work I Protagonist leading character I Antagonist opposes protagonist 0 Dialogue conversation between two or more characters 0 Setting where the events take place includes time situation and location 0 Exposition explanatory material lays out current situation as it arises from the past Literature has themes or overarching ideas that are expressed by all the elements working together Autobiography history written from a subjective point of view Biography writing about another person s life History powerful force that shapes humanities as a whole Music Music the art that derives from our sense of hearing Music was an ephemeral art existed only for the duration of the performance Notated music being written down Social and Ritual Roles Liturgical music music designed for churches used sacred texts and took advantage of church acoustics o Chant plainsong human voice singing a religious text without instrumental accompaniment o A cappella when the voice is unaccompanied 0 Instrumental when music is made by specialized devices instruments Secular music nonreligious music 0 Chamber music instrumental music originally played in palaces for royalty or nobility calls for more intimate space a small ensemble of players and small audiences o Orchestral music the most public and complex form of music involving a full orchestra and a concert hall where the acoustics are very important 0 Popular music pop appeals to a wide audience rock folk country rap jazz 0 Musical theater a combination of drama and music 0 Opera a narrative in which both dialogue and exposition is sung combines music with literature and drama Instruments Percussion instruments that make noise as they are struck Stringed instruments that make sounds when strings are plucked strummed bowed or struck Woodwinds hollow instruments originally made of wood Reed woodwinds that use a mouthpiece created from a compressed reed Brasses metal horns trumpet tuba Musical Qualities and Structure The tone is the basis of all music Music appeals to our emotions through tempo musical color or timbre and harmonic structure Melodies are a succession of notes with accompanying words 0 Verses alternate with repeating choruses 0 Round canon the same melody sung by each voice 0 Chords overlapping notes Keys a system of notes based on one central note 0 Minor key often associated with sadness 0 Major key seems happier or more forceful Acoustics the qualities of sound describes relationship between sound and architecture Vibrations trembling or oscillating motions that produce sound Pitch the sound produced by vibrations Tempo the speed at which music is played or sung Timbre the characteristic sound or tonal quality of an instrument or voice Also knows as color refers to the combination produced by more than one instrument s timbre Tone a sound of specific pitch and quality the basic building material of music Its properties are pitch timbre duration and intensity Note the written symbol for a tone Melody the succession of notes or pitches played or sung Texture the number of different melodic lines greater the number thicker the texture Harmony the combination of notes sung or played at one time NonWestern Music Similarities o Tradition of early oral transmission 0 Affiliation with the values and beliefs of its originating culture 0 Has undergone change and re ects the in uence of musical traditions with which it has had contact over the centuries 0 Differences o Pentatonic scales and microtones pitches that exist between the halftone steps of traditional Western musical scales are of non western origin History Religion and Philosophy Aesthetics the branch of philosophy concerned with the functions practice and appreciation of the arts along with their role in society History History is an inquiry into and report upon real events and people Historians have developed methods of inquiry questioning the likelihood of stories and delving into the motives of their informants Religion and Philosophy Theology study of the nature of the divine prescribes religious practices moral beliefs and rules for social behavior Philosophy and religion are intertwined in many cultures 0 Confucianism Taoism Hinduism and Buddhism are all based on intricate philosophical systems Like religion philosophy is concerned with the basic truths of and principles of the universe as well as human perception and understanding of these truths SPORRE CH 2 PAINTING PICTURES What Is It Drawings paintings photographs prints differ in technique and execution Twodimensional landscape portrait abstract still life etc How Is It Put Together Drawing foundation of twodimensional art divided into two groups dry media and wet media 0 Dry media I Chalk exible medium creates a wide variety of tonal areas with extremely subtle transitions between areas I Charcoal burnt wood product requires rough surface smudges easily can achieve a variety of tonalities I Graphite pencil lead can be manufactured in various degrees of hardness Harder the lead lighter the mark I Pastel chalk medium in which colored pigment and a non greasy binder have been combined in sticks hardness ranges from soft medium to hard by adding binder 0 Liquid Media I Pen and ink gives the artist possibility of variation in line and texture shading and drawing achieves uidity and expressiveness I Wash and brush ink diluted with water and applied with a brush must be worked quickly and freely has a spontaneous and appealing quality Painting 5 painting media oils watercolor tempera acrylics and fresco o Oils most popular of the painting media dry slowly can be reworked offers a wide range of color possibilities o Watercolor any color medium that uses water as a thinner transparent paint usually applied to paper creates delicacy I Gouache watercolor medium adds gum to ground opaque colors mixed with water 0 Tempera Opaque watercolor medium comprises ground pigments and their color binders such as gum or glue creates gemlike paintings with clarity and brilliance o Acrylics modern synthetic products most are water soluble and use an acrylic polymer as a binding agent dries fast thin and resistant to cracking due to temperature humidity o Fresco wall painting technique uses pigments suspended in water and applied to fresh wet plaster creates longlasting work Sistine ChapeD Prints artists make prints to obtain a number of identical copies and to produce characteristic visual qualities that are different from paintings and drawings 3 categories relief printing intaglio and planographic O 0 Relief printing an image transfers to paper by elimination of non image areas and inking the remaining surface making the image protrude from a block or plate woodcuts wood engravings Intaglio opposite of relief printing transfers ink to paper from grooves cut into a metal plate instead of raised areas I Line engraving cutting grooves into the metal plate with special sharp tools I Etchings the surface of the plate is removed by being exposed to an acid bath Artist covers the plate with a ground waxlike substance then scratches away to produce the desired lines I Drypoint scratching the surface of the metal plate with a needle leaves a ridge burr on either side of the groove I Aquatint allows artist to create areas of solid tone on an etching plate as well as gradations of tone from white to a range of greys to black Planographic Process artist prints from a plane surface I Lithography artists begin with a stone and grinds on one side until smooth then draws an image on the stone with a greasy substance image is then transferred to paper I Serigraphic process silkscreening uses a wooden frame with silk fabric stencil is placed on the frame and ink is applied I Monotype monoprint applies printing ink to a at surface and transferring it to paper Photography constitutes a simplification of reality that substitutes two dimensional images for the threedimensional images of life Photography and Art 0 Photographers are interpretive artists photographer has the choice of size texture and value contrast or tonality Straight photography direct unmanipulated and sharply focused Alfred Stieglitz Ansel Adams Photography can present the abstract even the nonobjective in photograms artist places objects directly onto photographic paper and exposes them to light Documentary Photography photographers often use photography to document social problems Great Depression migrant workers Photographic Techniques 0 Photogenic drawing fixing negative images on a paper with light sensitive materials Calotype developing images by dipping picture into gallic acid Collodion pour liquid collodion over a glass plate bathed in silver nitrate Composition 5 elements line form color mass texture 0 Line the basic building block of a visual design a linear form in which length dominates over width a color edge and an implication of a continued direction 0 Form defines space described by a line comprises the shape of an object within the composition 0 Color hue value intensity I Hue a specific color with a measurable wavelength I Value the relationship of blacks to whites and grays I Intensity degree of purity of a hue 0 Mass threedimensional object that take up space and have density 0 Texture a picture s apparent roughness or smoothness 4 principles repetition balance unity focal area 0 Repetition how the basic elements in a picture repeat or alternate I Rhythm the ordered recurrence of elements in a composition I Harmony the logic of the repetition naturally and comfortably or incongruous illogical or out of sync I Variation the relationship of repeated items to each other 0 Balance employs certain innate judgments we intuitively understand if a picture does or does not have balance I Symmetry the balancing of like forms mass and colors on opposite sides of the vertical axis of a picture I Asymmetry results from careful placement of unlike items 0 Unity all of the elements of a composition work together toward meaning I Closed composition the use of line and form always directs the eye into the painting I Open composition the eye is led or allowed to wander off the canvas or escape the frame 0 Focal Area areas of a picture that seem of greatest visual appeal Other Factors 0 Perspective indicates spatial relationships of objects in a picture I Linear perspective uses line to achieve the sense of distance I Atmospheric perspective indicates distance through use of light and atmosphere I Shifting perspective landscapes foreground and background 0 Content treatment of content ranges from naturalism to stylization I Versimilitudeplausibility o Chiaroscuro device used by artists to make their forms appear plastic or threedimensional How Does it Stimulate the Senses Visual stimuli transposed into mental images of touch taste sound etc Contrasts Warm colors reds oranges yellows Cool colors blues and greens Tonality and color contrasts between warm and cool affect our senses Dynamics Pictures can stimulate a sense of movement and activity Can also create a sense of stable solidity Lines can also affect sense response curved relaxation broken violent juxtaposition We can receive sense stimuli from the results of juxtaposing curved and straight lines resulting in linear dissonance or consonance Objectivity Content gives an artist a powerful device for effecting both sensory responses and more intense subjective responses Lifelikeness or nonobjectivity can stimulate individual response LECTURE NOTES What is Art Art must be human made Has to be intended as art Can be found Can be whatever we call art Art is a media that is used to express ideas about our human experience and the world around usquot Form Content Subject matter basic description or analysis Content the mass of ideas associated with a work of art Aesthetics the branch of Western philosophy that deals with art its creative sources its various forms and its effects on individuals and cultures What is the most Important Purpose of Art Enjoyment Education Social Change All the Above correct Is Art Universal Yes art addresses something common in all of us No art is bound by culture Is Knowing the Artist s Intention Important Yes the artist s intention is critical to understanding a work of art No he she is just another opinion Can we ever know what the artist s true intention is Can artists fail in their intentions Creating Art Involves the process of perception human response and creativity and expression 0 1 Perception o 2 Artist s response to the world 0 3 Artistic expression and creativity Deriving Meaning Ways to Critique Art Art for art s sake art has value in and of itself Avantgarde French military term progressing pushing the forefront different periods 4 Questions to Ask About Works 1 What is it Visual performance music 2 What is it made of lines shapes etc How is it put together 3 How does it appeal to your senses feelings or emotions 4 What does it mean own personal interpretation Formal Analysis Content subject matter and iconography Criticism writing about art formalist criticism ideological criticism structuralistbased criticism psychoanalyst criticism writings on visual culture and personal interpretation Art in context Ways we encounter art Problem with formal analysis leaves a lot out Formalist criticism line shape color Pyramidal composition pyramid structure building up to the focal point Ideological criticism rooted in writings of Karl Marx All art supports particular political agenda cultural structure or economic class hierarchy Structuralism amp Semiotics Social and cultural structures in uence the meaning of art As study of language structuralism was called semiotics o The study of signs in verbal or written communication 0 Late 20th century semiotics came to be applied to all forms of communication including art Deconstruction Seeks to undermine or reveal myths clich s and stereotypes embedded in Western systems of signs Cindy Sherman s Untitled Film Still 35 Painting What is painting 0 Use of twodimensional visual effects shapes lines colors textures on a at surface What impressions does painting produce 0 Volume What can painting express 0 Emotions o Mood 0 Political ideas 0 Real or supernatural phenomena 0 Tell a story 0 Abstract visual relationships What is the role of the painter 0 Ancient cultural traditions I Skilled artisan I Subject matter form media determined by culture 0 Fine Artistquot I Europe in Renaissance high social status signing works famous o 1921St centuries I Lose social status and patronage I How to earn money Exhibitions charging fee marketplace selling paintings commissions I Freedom to invent own language style Subject Matter Purposes of Paintings Devotional objects representations of religious or spiritual devotion Narrative to tell a story Portraiture portraits of particular people individual Genre subjects from everyday life Landscape real Imaginary Impressionist Still Life stationary objects often with religious or literary significance Abstract express ideas emotions sensations Religious vs Secular Durable vs Ephemeral En plein air outdoors outside Forms of Paintings Easel Studio pictures painted on easels developed during Renaissance Artist as individual artist Art as independent object for decoration Advantages scale portability Trompe l oil trick of the eye
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