New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

lecture exam

by: .

lecture exam ZOO 356


Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

notes included in lecture exam
Patricia Goley
75 ?




Popular in Mammalogy

Popular in Animal Science and Zoology

This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by . on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ZOO 356 at Humboldt State University taught by Patricia Goley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Mammalogy in Animal Science and Zoology at Humboldt State University.

Similar to ZOO 356 at Humboldt

Popular in Animal Science and Zoology


Reviews for lecture exam


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/02/16
Form and Function    Teeth and Integument  Teeth ­ masticate food to aid in digestion  ­ Defense  ­ Communication  ­ Modify environment  ­ Grooming  ­ Navigate  Movement of Teeth:   ­ Digastric: open jaw  ­ Temporalis: closing mouth and chewing  ­ Masseter: closes jaw in chewing  ­ Pterygoidus  Zygomasseteric Process:  ­ IOF enables parts of masseter to get a foothold by increasing the surface area  Hair  Erector Pili Muscle:   ­ increases insulation by making hair stand up and increase area  ­ Used for communication to make the animal look bigger  ­ Defense, thermoregulation, camouflage  Molt Patterns:  ­ Adapt to different seasons  ­ Replace damaged hair  ­ Juvenile to adult   What is the adaptive significance of hair?  ­ Hair retains body heat by increasing insulative area  ­ Protection from UV and abrasions  What is the adaptive significance of not having fur?  ­ Decreases drag and increases reproductive success  Why would hair be maladaptive?  ­ It causes drag for oceanic mammals  What are functions of Hair?  ­ Concealment: having different patterns allows for camouflage in different areas  ­ Social Signals: e.g. silverback gorillas → hierarchy, mating, warning of predation  ­ Deer, white sided dolphin    Skin enables water to escape through Sweat Glands    Sweat Glands:  ­ Eccrine gland: not associated with hair  ­ Apocrine gland: associated with hair  Sebaceous Glands:  ­ Lubricate, keep hair moist  ­ Associated with hair shaft  Scent Glands:  ­ Modified sebaceous  ­ Recently with protective properties  Mammary Glands:  ­ Bring nutrients, water, protein to offspring  ­ Variable throughout mammalian diversity  ­ Monotremes secrete onto hair  ­ Number associates with the number of offspring  Structure and Function of Hood Ornaments  ­ Horns  ­ Pronghorn  ­ Ossicones  ­ Rhino horns → no bony core  ­ Antlers  Functions:   ­ Sexual selection: male competition, female choice  ­ Defense  ­ Foraging  ­ Scent marking: sex/reproductive status  ­ Hierarchy  Locomotion:  ­ Resource availability, avoiding predators, climate change, migration patterns,  reproductive opportunities, dispersal  Specialization:  ­ Walk, scurry, run  ­ Walk and scurry are usually associated with plantigrade foot posture for more surface  areas on the ground which means more friction for stability/traction   ­ Running is associated with digitigrade = less foot on ground, heel lifted up and off  ground, decreases surface area and reduces friction  ­ Reduction in weight at bottom so limbs are long and reduced often fused.  Increase strength and ability to move long distances and decrease weight of  limbs  ­ Speed = stride length x stride rate  ­ Swimmers: reduction of limbs, robust  ­ Climbers: long limbs, flexible wrists  2 Components of Speed:  1. Stride length  2. Stride rate  Muscle Attachment:  ­ Muscles inserted close to joints move the joint through a wider angle (increases stride  length)  Swimming:  ­ Front limbs of seals/whale as indicative of what they are doing  Locomotion and Hydrodynamics    4 types of drag in aquatic mammals: (environment can steal energy from forward motion)  1. Viscous  a. Boundary layer increases when viscous drag decreases  2. Pressure  a. Associated with body shape  3. Induced  a. Physically moving through environment  4. Wave  a. Closer to surface of water the more drag forces in place; deeper = less drag  forces  Reduction of Drag:  1. Skin friction  a. Smooth body surfaces  2. Fusiform shape, reduced surface area  3. Reduced and modified appendages decrease drag.  a. Energy lost reduced due to appendage adaptations  4. Wave drag reduction  a. Costs a lot of energy to swim at surface than under surface    Fineness Ratio  = body length/body diameter    Modes of Locomotion in Marine Mammals    Cetaceans and Sirenians:  Axial musculoskeletal system = alternating contraction of epaxial and hypaxial muscles    Mechanics:  ­ Propulsion moves from anterior to posterior  ­ Thrust  ­ Dog paddle  ­ Pushing or pulling    Swimming submerged = avoid weight drag    Integument Effects on Locomotion  ­ Hypodermis effects pressure drag by skulpting body thereby reducing drag  ­ Viscous drag reduces boundary layer    Subdermal sheet under dermis, when propels energy is conserved and released  Doesn’t play as big a role in locomotion for terrestrial mammals    Metabolism:    What is the Metabolic Equation?    Food, water, air = CO2 and waste    C6H12O6 + O2 = CO2 + H2O    ATP (energy) is used     Cost of Transport = cost of maintenance + cost of locomotion    Higher in semi aquatic    ­ Less efficient due to drag which makes COT higher, it costs more fuel to move forward  ­ Lot of energy spent in endothermic and homeothermic because of cold water    Mammalian Gut:  Foregut = low quality food  Hindgut = high quality food    Reproduction***** mostly covered in book******    Environmental Adaptations    Ectothermy = behavioral    Endothermy = physiological mechanisms    Homeothermic: maintain relatively constant body temperature    Fluctuation of internal body temperature in mammals  ­ Ability to regulate body temperature regardless of ambient temperature  ­ Different species react differently    Thermoneutral Zone  ­ Range of temps in environment  ­ Animal doesn’t spend a lot of energy   ­ Minimal metabolic rate    Hypothermia vs Hyperthermia    Rate of Conductive Heat Loss:  ­ Measure enables to see rate of heat being lost  H = SA x C(Tb­Ta)    H: rate of conductive heat loss  SA: surface area to volume ratio  C: conductance  Tb: body temperature  Ta: ambient temperature    Body size Graph:  ­ As animal gets bigger use more energy   Bergman’s Rule and Allen’s Rule    Reducing heat loss in colder areas = lower SA:V ratio    Natural Selection = differential reproductive success of an individual in nature based on  heritable characters    Thermal Neutral Zone = range of ambient temperature at which metabolic rate is  constant/neutral    (Tb­Ta): Goal is to be neutral    Countercurrent heat exchange enables hot blood from core to be maintained as cold blood is  next to it  ­ Heat can travel up or down gradient    Dolphins:  ­ Flippers, flukes, fins don’t have very much fat  ­ Have superficial vein that close to surface so can dump heat  ­ Different than rete → animals not hot here    Balance body/ambient temperature by generating heat:  1. Shivering increases internal body heat enabling to stay warmer  2. Brown fat with lots of mitochondria that create energy     Do marine mammals have elevated metabolic rate?  ­ As you get bigger = higher M.R.  ­ Per unit body weight it's more expensive to run a smaller than larger mammal  ­ Resting M.R. higher than terrestrial which enables to survive cold temperatures    Torpor ­ body temperature able to go down to about ambient temperature. Bod temperature and  metabolic rate go significantly low  ­ Usually happens in very short time period  ­ Alternative of this is migrating  Hypernation ­ longer period of time with lower body temperature and lower metabolic rate  ­ If tissue and blood freeze the tissue degrades  ­ Animals come in and out to get warm enough and quickly go back  2 ways conserving energy expenditure  ­ Shivering and brown fat  Adaptations to heat:  ­ Temperature and water regulations  ­ Metabolism increase if too hot so losing water    How is water balanced?  ­ Respiration, sweat, urination, lactation…  ­ Balanced by conserving what have or acquire more  Increasing Heat Loss:  ­ Hot environment = high SA:V  ­ Ambient temp. High animals have hard time dumping heat  ­ Evaporative cooling increases heat loss but loose a lot of water  ­ Sweating and panting­ epocrine and apocrine glands    ­ After run, brain temp. Goes up  ­ Carotid spikes more extremely  ­ Estivation kind of opposite of hibernation because it enables to conserve resources     


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.