lecture exam ZOO 356
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by . on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ZOO 356 at Humboldt State University taught by Patricia Goley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Mammalogy in Animal Science and Zoology at Humboldt State University.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
Form and Function Teeth and Integument Teeth masticate food to aid in digestion Defense Communication Modify environment Grooming Navigate Movement of Teeth: Digastric: open jaw Temporalis: closing mouth and chewing Masseter: closes jaw in chewing Pterygoidus Zygomasseteric Process: IOF enables parts of masseter to get a foothold by increasing the surface area Hair Erector Pili Muscle: increases insulation by making hair stand up and increase area Used for communication to make the animal look bigger Defense, thermoregulation, camouflage Molt Patterns: Adapt to different seasons Replace damaged hair Juvenile to adult What is the adaptive significance of hair? Hair retains body heat by increasing insulative area Protection from UV and abrasions What is the adaptive significance of not having fur? Decreases drag and increases reproductive success Why would hair be maladaptive? It causes drag for oceanic mammals What are functions of Hair? Concealment: having different patterns allows for camouflage in different areas Social Signals: e.g. silverback gorillas → hierarchy, mating, warning of predation Deer, white sided dolphin Skin enables water to escape through Sweat Glands Sweat Glands: Eccrine gland: not associated with hair Apocrine gland: associated with hair Sebaceous Glands: Lubricate, keep hair moist Associated with hair shaft Scent Glands: Modified sebaceous Recently with protective properties Mammary Glands: Bring nutrients, water, protein to offspring Variable throughout mammalian diversity Monotremes secrete onto hair Number associates with the number of offspring Structure and Function of Hood Ornaments Horns Pronghorn Ossicones Rhino horns → no bony core Antlers Functions: Sexual selection: male competition, female choice Defense Foraging Scent marking: sex/reproductive status Hierarchy Locomotion: Resource availability, avoiding predators, climate change, migration patterns, reproductive opportunities, dispersal Specialization: Walk, scurry, run Walk and scurry are usually associated with plantigrade foot posture for more surface areas on the ground which means more friction for stability/traction Running is associated with digitigrade = less foot on ground, heel lifted up and off ground, decreases surface area and reduces friction Reduction in weight at bottom so limbs are long and reduced often fused. Increase strength and ability to move long distances and decrease weight of limbs Speed = stride length x stride rate Swimmers: reduction of limbs, robust Climbers: long limbs, flexible wrists 2 Components of Speed: 1. Stride length 2. Stride rate Muscle Attachment: Muscles inserted close to joints move the joint through a wider angle (increases stride length) Swimming: Front limbs of seals/whale as indicative of what they are doing Locomotion and Hydrodynamics 4 types of drag in aquatic mammals: (environment can steal energy from forward motion) 1. Viscous a. Boundary layer increases when viscous drag decreases 2. Pressure a. Associated with body shape 3. Induced a. Physically moving through environment 4. Wave a. Closer to surface of water the more drag forces in place; deeper = less drag forces Reduction of Drag: 1. Skin friction a. Smooth body surfaces 2. Fusiform shape, reduced surface area 3. Reduced and modified appendages decrease drag. a. Energy lost reduced due to appendage adaptations 4. Wave drag reduction a. Costs a lot of energy to swim at surface than under surface Fineness Ratio = body length/body diameter Modes of Locomotion in Marine Mammals Cetaceans and Sirenians: Axial musculoskeletal system = alternating contraction of epaxial and hypaxial muscles Mechanics: Propulsion moves from anterior to posterior Thrust Dog paddle Pushing or pulling Swimming submerged = avoid weight drag Integument Effects on Locomotion Hypodermis effects pressure drag by skulpting body thereby reducing drag Viscous drag reduces boundary layer Subdermal sheet under dermis, when propels energy is conserved and released Doesn’t play as big a role in locomotion for terrestrial mammals Metabolism: What is the Metabolic Equation? Food, water, air = CO2 and waste C6H12O6 + O2 = CO2 + H2O ATP (energy) is used Cost of Transport = cost of maintenance + cost of locomotion Higher in semi aquatic Less efficient due to drag which makes COT higher, it costs more fuel to move forward Lot of energy spent in endothermic and homeothermic because of cold water Mammalian Gut: Foregut = low quality food Hindgut = high quality food Reproduction***** mostly covered in book****** Environmental Adaptations Ectothermy = behavioral Endothermy = physiological mechanisms Homeothermic: maintain relatively constant body temperature Fluctuation of internal body temperature in mammals Ability to regulate body temperature regardless of ambient temperature Different species react differently Thermoneutral Zone Range of temps in environment Animal doesn’t spend a lot of energy Minimal metabolic rate Hypothermia vs Hyperthermia Rate of Conductive Heat Loss: Measure enables to see rate of heat being lost H = SA x C(TbTa) H: rate of conductive heat loss SA: surface area to volume ratio C: conductance Tb: body temperature Ta: ambient temperature Body size Graph: As animal gets bigger use more energy Bergman’s Rule and Allen’s Rule Reducing heat loss in colder areas = lower SA:V ratio Natural Selection = differential reproductive success of an individual in nature based on heritable characters Thermal Neutral Zone = range of ambient temperature at which metabolic rate is constant/neutral (TbTa): Goal is to be neutral Countercurrent heat exchange enables hot blood from core to be maintained as cold blood is next to it Heat can travel up or down gradient Dolphins: Flippers, flukes, fins don’t have very much fat Have superficial vein that close to surface so can dump heat Different than rete → animals not hot here Balance body/ambient temperature by generating heat: 1. Shivering increases internal body heat enabling to stay warmer 2. Brown fat with lots of mitochondria that create energy Do marine mammals have elevated metabolic rate? As you get bigger = higher M.R. Per unit body weight it's more expensive to run a smaller than larger mammal Resting M.R. higher than terrestrial which enables to survive cold temperatures Torpor body temperature able to go down to about ambient temperature. Bod temperature and metabolic rate go significantly low Usually happens in very short time period Alternative of this is migrating Hypernation longer period of time with lower body temperature and lower metabolic rate If tissue and blood freeze the tissue degrades Animals come in and out to get warm enough and quickly go back 2 ways conserving energy expenditure Shivering and brown fat Adaptations to heat: Temperature and water regulations Metabolism increase if too hot so losing water How is water balanced? Respiration, sweat, urination, lactation… Balanced by conserving what have or acquire more Increasing Heat Loss: Hot environment = high SA:V Ambient temp. High animals have hard time dumping heat Evaporative cooling increases heat loss but loose a lot of water Sweating and panting epocrine and apocrine glands After run, brain temp. Goes up Carotid spikes more extremely Estivation kind of opposite of hibernation because it enables to conserve resources
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