Final Exam Notes! (1/2)
Final Exam Notes! (1/2) BISC 1007
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MAT 122 - M100
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This 20 page Bundle was uploaded by Aisha Notetaker on Friday December 11, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BISC 1007 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Food, Nutrition, and Service in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 12/11/15
Moving Substances & Obesity Thursday, October 15, 2015 Leptin - controls appetite Doesn't work in obese ppl Scientists are working on fixing that Body Physics: Its not just your genetics!! Your behavior determines what genes are turned on/off Environment: past, present and future Stress How you think about and treat your body What and when you eat Exercise and activity Too Much of a Good thing is BAD Fortification : adding nutrients o Vitamins o Fats – even the good ones! Unsaturated o Minerals o Sugar from fruits/fruit juices o It's FDA illegal to fortify candy/snacks!!! o ^^^they don't do shit to enforce tho… Know your baseline! o What you need to sustain your current body weight o weight gain over the long term Optimize activity every day o College - helluva lot of walking around campus n stuff o Work world (cubicle life?) - walking limited Things will change! o @ 25, you're at optimum health Best metabolism o Lifestyle changes New partner New job Kids? Health probs Fam probs o You can't sustain the " extreme " Fad diets Cross fit/crazy exercise regimens Life happens, so you need to do stuff you'll stick to! o Tools for the future How food moves into your bod Tuesday, October 20, 2015 Lecture summary: Decoding food labels (they're simplified now! To a 4th grade reading level) Intro to how we move food/nutrients from digestive tube >>> all over our bodies Cell Membrane - gatekeeper! "Fluid mosaic model" o Mobile o It's peppered w/ diff substances o Oily - keeps membrane fluid so things can move easy Made up of: o Phospholipid bilayer Selectively permeable! Bouncer for club "cell," not everyone gets in) o Cholesterol Maintains barrier of cell o Proteins Turns genes on & off Unique ones for each cell type! We produce lots of proteins to protect against microbes from getting in! o Glycolipids energy Sugar (glucose) makes ! (stored short term > glycogen) Sugary lipids - make cells stic! o Glycoproteins Sugary proteins - make cells stic! TRANSPORT PASSIVE TRANSPORT ACTIVE TRANSPORT Membrane Involved Transport GOALS - substance wants to spread out and GOALS - Higher > lower Exocytosis - When your cells thirsty, reach equilibrium concentration (against the they drink: Like rolling a ball down a hill - concentration gradient!) Little bubbles (vesicles) lets stuff in NO ADDED ENERGY needed! looks @ moving minerals and activates signals telling you to Move from high > low eat, produce hormones! Carrier proteins move stuff Diffusion… Based on shape of cell What can diffuse? Use energy in the process o Small stuff Substances go from low > high o Fatty stuff concentration o Small gas o Water Compartmentalizing is crucial for Concentration # of solute/solvent excretory system!! 10% salt solution Kidneys - filter blood, sugar 90% water o You can diagnose diabetes Passive carrier proteins help diffusion! from insufficient blood Endocytosis (3 types)= o GLUT is a v important passive sugar levels! Pinocytosis carrier for glucose. It lets us store o Get damaged if there's too Cell drinking and use glucose in form of much sugar! In harsh environments – glycogen Large intestine -has to do w/ digestive & blood cells water & mineral reabsorption Osmosis…. Keeping all the good stuff in the ^ They’re under a lot of stress so important af bc cells can die!! : water blood they lose water! balance is too high/low) Getting rid of the bad "TONIC" is the ending for To fix this, water is broken up & concentration taken to organelles via vesicles in Isotonic is = equal solute concentration on both sides cells are happy here! the membrane Hypo is low solute concentration Hyper is high solute concentration Concentration gradient = diff in concentration btw 2 areas separated by a membrane Phagocytosis IRL as you consume food, they have to Digestive strategy go somewhere! We do this for immune cells! ^ highly concentrated aminos > Bad cells are wrapped up & digestive tube > digestive cells eaten/killed! Facilitated Passive = help hydrophilic stuff get across the hydrophobic membrane Carrier proteins get it from compartment A (digestive tube) > B (cells) > C (stored or used) Receptor mediated endocytosis LDL + HDL are too big to pass across the cell membrane They're packaged into a complex & released into blood! Green receptor thingys turn on genes for LDL or HDL Set Points= for blood sugar Then the cute vesicle Once you reach it, excess glucose is bubbles bring them inside! stored in the form of glycogen When glycogen reaches set pt, stored as V IMPORTANT bc too much fat! LDL leads to <3 disease Solution = solute + solvent Solute = any substance that can dissolve in the solvent o Amino acids o Monosacs o Ions minerals o Water based vitamins Liquid = solvent = water based = aqueous solution o Hydrophillic stuff can move chamber > chamber easy! Fats, cholesterol, fat-soluble vitamins o Hydrophobic stuff need help moving chambers Concentration Amount of solute in a solution Ex: "there's a 10% salt solution" o The concentration of salt 10% o ^ Tells you 90% of the solution is water! o Important when we compare compartments! o In passive transport, things wanna move from high > low concentration FOUR Major Compartments to break food down 1. Digestive tube - Compartment A 2. Digestive cells - Compartment B 3. Bloodstream - Compartment C 4. Storage or Use - Compartment D Transport cont'd Thursday, October 22, 2015 5:02 PM General Processes explained: Facilitated transport Sugar (glucose) can’t cross the membrane by itself It needs help - facilitated transport helps it get >> other side! Channels Absorption= 80% happens in small intestine bc most enzymes are here & it's has room to pass it thru Signaling pathways= Dictate levels of glucose in the bloodstream Blood sugar has a set point!(insulin/glucagon for low/high levels) Our bods keep that level in check ^ WHAT HAPPENS TO SUGAR WHEN THEY GET IN? You need a carrier protein to move sugar from digestive tube >>> part B o ^facilitated diffusion! o High concentration > low concentration o Sugar gets carried into each compartment (A > B > C) All cells need glucose! Amount depends on cell activity Sugar >>>converted >>> insulin/glycogen When it reaches the set level, you get a signal to store the extra stuff o Stored in muscle/liver All organic substances can be converted back and forth! WHAT HAPPENS TO AMINO ACIDS, MINERALS & WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS? Aren't digested, released + absorbed! Amino acids - digested in stomach >> facilitated diffusion o Can move freely from compartment A > B > C > D as long as carrier proteins are there! o EXCEPTION is amino a's Active transport: SEE LAST LECTURE PAGE Concentration Gradient = when there's a difference btw amount of solute in one area compared to another Higher concentration gradient = substance moves faster! Nutrients Where are they How? Anything unique? absorbed? Proteins Amino acids are Passive facilitatedCan move freely w/ absorbed in stomach, diffusion carrier proteins small & large intestine Minerals Small intestine Active transport Go against the concentration gradient! (low > high) Water soluble Small intestine Passive transport vitamins Amino acids Small & large Passive facilitated diffusion Monosacs (Glucose) in small & Facilitated large diffusion Active Transport Fats Small intestine Receptor mediated transport Fat Soluble Small & large Passive You need a protein to Vitamins package it! Cholesterol Small & large Diffusion! Crosses Needs a proteeeen intestine into digestive cells Water Breaks the rules Osmosis You can absorb H20 Facilitated anywhere from diffusion mouth > anus Active transport Can enter cells by pinocytosis Gases Oxygen from lungs is Diffusion! expelled thru lungs Energy, Metabolism and Fooooood 5:07 PM, October 27, 2015 Label me: Food substance Caloric content/g Fat ***Hydrogenated oils (trans fats) 9 Mixed msgs - Even if the label says no trans, partially hydrogenated oils count! Protein 4 Carbohydrate 4 Added sugar are empty calories! Alcohol 7 Making Energy (ATP) Your bod breaks down food and turns it into energy! Depending on how you exercise, you use one over another Anaerobic - no oxygen Aerobic - oxygen *Goals: receive, store & deliver ener*Goals: big bang for your buck! Series of Phosphocreatine (quick and easy!) rxns that extract as much energy as possible For bursts of energy from sugar! Adds phospho onto ADP → ATP!! If you're vegetarian & don't have that reserve of protein, it limits ATP and ur organ functions Where in your bod? (things that function all the time!) Brain -eeds 20% of your cals Heart -pumps nutrients all over via bloodstream Liver - regulates blood sugar, appetite +Key Players fat Electricity! - move energy chem > Skeletal muscles - contractions electrical > chem Set point = Sugar production on 1 end, oxygen Excess is broken down and peed production on other end out ^too much puts strain on your Producers = absorb water from their kidneys :/ environment Glycolysis = fermentation (that burn Facilitated transport you feel when you exercise is lactic Receptor mediated acid!) Ripping glucose apart to >>> ATP Consumers: absorb from producers and electron carriers (NADPH) Gases = always on the move Splitting 6 Carbon Glucose in half Move from areas of high concentration You end up with >> 2 ATP! Useless to us if it keeps electrons, >> low CO2 removed via bloodstream > lungs gotta recycle energy! O2 into lungs > bloodstream >carried o ^ you can either ferment = to cells recycling so glycolysis can keep making ATP (pyruvate, alcohol) o ^ or you can do aerobic ---- Anabolic v catabolic rxns A - building up something big C - break up sugar to release energy Whether you're making sugar or ATP, you're loading up/dropping off electrons Transferring energy Photosynthesis = o Light > electrical > chemical energy o Producing sugar! Cellular respiration = o Takes the sugar > rips it up > generating electricity > ATP ^ One builds up, one stores energy ^ The reactants of one become the product of the other! Energy from FOOOOOD Thursday, October 29, 2015 Food = organic substance + nutrients (carbs, fats, protein & alcohol) ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ End result: Production of ATP/energy We need energy to sustain our organization & maintain our bods [the universe wants us to break apart, we constantly have to stay together..] How do we make ATP? - RESPIRATION Anaerobic respiration Aerobic respiration Aka no oxygen Using oxygen - 3 step process 1. Phosphocreatine >> ATP 1. Glycolysis Donates phospho group to make Glucose >>> pyruvate ATP Important af to high 2. Prep/Kreb's cycle maintenance orgs: Pyruvate >>> 6 CO2 Liver Brain You also end up with: Heart o 4 ATP & electron carriers Skeletal muscles (NADPH and NADH NADH2) o Vegetarians need to eat so much o Oxidative phosphorylation protein to make creatine! Anytime you see "phospho" it 2. Glycolysis + fermentation = 2 ATP means you can make ATP! Glucose >> pyruvate >> lactic acid o In this case, you make ATP o Glucose breaks down into using Oxygen pyruvate o Oxygen accepts electrons to o We're just taking apart the 6 make water carbon molecule into two o Electrons have to go o Fermentation keeps glycolysis somewhere so they combo w/ going oxygens to make WATER Recycles back NADH o We take energy from electrons Empties electron taxi cab ^ to fuel rxn of = o Alcohol fermentation takes Pyruvate > ethanol & CO2 gas, Electrons > ADP > ATP Pulls off one of the carbons e- + O2 = H2O to produce CO2 gas Bread, dough & wines are Water is broken down to make made from this process ATP! o The buck stops here for 30ATP are produced y'all!! prokaryotes (no mitochondria) They can't produce any Electrons that travel down the ETC more energy! (electron transport chain) are o We take pyruvate and break it turned into water down > CO2 (inorganic) o Slow twitch muscles need tons Cycle of taking food and of energy too convert it back to inorganic o Rxns are powered by adding a substances phospho group (phosphorylation does that) BOTTOM LINE - plants DO need oxygen They use it to make energy (thru oxidative phosphorylation) o Mitochondria & chloroplasts are found in plants o You're not much different than a plant! Lol Exercise & Energy Resources Thinking is a form of exercise yooooooo (tapping into your brain reqs neural connections!) Phosphocreatine & glycolysis are the initial pump for most activities Any exercise that lasts longer than 2 mins taps into aerobic o Aerobic is v important bc it breaks down stored stuff (fat, glycogen) Nutrient Distribution - Sugar Absorption (glucose) You need it glucose bc = o Fuel for aerobic respiration o Production of ATP in fermentation Keeps your blood sugar steady Once it reaches its set point, excess glucose is >>> fat Ketosis: fats broken down to restore blood sugar level o Ketones are acidic o Blood cells lose water over time o Leads to >> fatigue, vomiting, mental disease! Metabolism & Exercise Tuesday, November 3, 2015 5:05 PM BMR = basal metabolic rate What you need in terms of cellular function Just to LIVE (w/o even getting out of bed) o Women need ~ 1400 Calories o Men need ~ 1800 bmr? ^ higher than women's bc more muscle Need ~400 more cals to fuel energy for those muscles! Bc women store more fat (bear kids) Evolutionarily, men are hunters (ones w/ more endurance were selected for mating) BMR varies a lot, depending on o Activity Affected by= o Weight o Height o Age - system wears out You can trigger metabolism When you're sick, you feel weak bc energy doesn't go to the normal places (muscles) o It goes >>> immune system to fight off disease o Everything you eat tells your body what genes to turn on/off! ( epigenetics) Fruits and veggies trigger metabolism , arecancer fighting, provide antioxidantsand get rid of free radicals. BPA (harmful chemicals) can leech into your food and get you sick! Nutrition & First Law of Thermodynamics 1st law = energy can't be created or destroyed Caloric intake= what you eat o Most of the cals we consume come from carbs, protein & fat TEE - (total energy expenditure) o This is how you burn off cals o RMR - most is burned here o Physical activity- your energy output is measured by heart rate! o TEF Thermal Effect of Feeding o You don't spend any energy chewing coca cola Nothing nutritious inside smh o Eating an apple requires energy: Chewing Move thru digestive tract Produce enzymes to break it down Absorb monomers, vitamins & minerals More energy spent = more cals you can consume! Eat whole foods, that resemble the organism. That influences your caloric burning!!!!!!! Eliminate processed foods Energy & Food o log burning example = you need oxygen to rip apart substances > harness flame's energy! o Nonliving = quick o Living = slow Fitness Apps There's a direct correlation btw heart rate <3 and exercise Resting Needs = MY HEART Feeds itself first - energy sucking Blockage = o Over 80% of heart attacks happen in the coronary artery! IMPORTANT = In order to extract energy, you need oxygen!! (Via the lungs) o Normal breathing correlates with BMR Resting heart rate = beats per minute doing nothing o any increase in heart r8 is considered "activity" o Max is 220 heart beats/min o You don't wanna tax your bod too much or your blood system is under pressure, dun dun dun da da dun dun o Target = 50-85% of highest heart r8 o Over time, max heart rate (BMR/RMR) goes down, less efficient! Werk - Physical Activity Is based on your heart rate! Energy required by muscles Balancing game fat & glycogen stores BMR/RMR tap into sugar & fats o Longer duration taps into fat stores! Aerobic Exercise Anaerobic Exercise o Types o Types Intense yoga Short burst energy Low pace swimming Strength training for short Cardio is best! duration + tennis more calories burnt because of more energy demand 50/50 ratio fat/glycogen o Recs from Mayo Clinic = At least 150 mins of low impact o Most cals from glycogen (sugar) activity or 1 hr of intense Tap into those stores via Bone health degrades over time so phosphocreatine + fermentation you need to strengthen/use them! Muscle Types = your bod has a combo of both! Depending on the type of activity you do, you can have more of one or other White meat Dark meat o More fast muscle fibers o Aerobic respiration o anaerobic o Energy from sources! Spectrum o Quick source of ATP o More mitochondria! o All or nothing response (like a o "Myoglobin " makes it look dark (extra light switch) oxygen) Doesn't just get oxygen from bloodstream, has a reserve! Changes colors bc it's a pigment ! Used constantly so it uses multiple sources! Efficient af Your bod only sends oxygen to places that need it! Oxygen naturally diffuses into cells that are working If CO2 is present, you know you're putting in workk POISON dun dun dunnnnn Poisons disrupt your production of ATP energy Stop a series of rxns that require the substrate >>> prevents the end result >> ATP! Measuring Energy from FOOD Thursday, November 5, 2015 It's easier to measure heat energy than chemical Glycogen (carb storage) >> excess glucose >> muscle/liver cells >> generate>> energy In any type of energy transfer, you end up w/ ATP Anaerobic energy metabolism o Phosphocreatine o Glycolysis coupled to fermentation Aerobic energy metabolism o Aerobic cellular respiration How do we measure food energy? Heat! Calorimeter - removes water from foods and measures the heat energy inside it. o A thermometer tells you initial and ending temp. o We look @ change in temp o Used for proteins, carbs & fats o Temperature tells you amount of energy (calories) the food has! Calorie or calorie? calorie : not applicable to us o "Amount of heat needed to change the temperature of water by 1 degree celsius" o We're big af so we need a lot more energy!! Calorie : dis what we use o Kilo calories o 1000x more powerful than little "c" calories o Food label doesn't distinguish btw em @ the end of the day, it doesn't matter, it's all energy Fat Cals You should be taking in NO MORE THAN 30% of total cals/day Limit saturated fats Never eat trans Poly+mono unsaturated are amaze Exercise determines if you bod taps into fat stores (long term) or glucose stores (short term) cardio level demands more energy! Cardio burns fat GENDER DIFFS Men need more protein bc they have more muscle mass! Managing Nutrients Tuesday, November 10, 2015 5:04 PM What do you mean? There's too a ton of contradictory info out there on nutrition "Eggs are bad for u" "eggs are good for u" Correlations are skewed af BOTTOM LINE you should eat stuff that looks like the organism it came from! Indulging in bad foods won't kill you, but it can lead to problems down the road (ie heart disease) Placebo effect: being told you're gonna drink energy drinks cause you to produce hormones! Tbh, energy drinks don't have (what we classify as) energy o It doesn't give your bod calories (carbs, fats or proteins) o It only has weird stimulating plant based shi o ^ makes your bod stress out and energize o ^so it's indirectly making you hyper! Review Q = oxidative phosphorylation needs oxygen to work! Electrons are dropped off here by NADH/FADH 2 carriers! Glycolysis in the kreb's cycle funnels in oxygen so your bod can make ATP Managing Nutrients = major nutrients you tap into We'll look @ glucose from perspective of disease! o ..proportion determines if you develop heart disease…build up plaque Homeostasis is related to set points o Set points can be adjusted o Predetermined by genes o Based on BMI! o Energy demands diff based on how much fat/muscle you got Body detects this by o Kidney o Heart o Digestive tract o Storage cells Signals sent out via brain - sends out more! o Signal = hormones = proteins o In order to receive the msg, protein receptors need to be there o Signal producer >> protein receptor >> target cell >> change happens! o Proteins love water! Hydrophillic Can't cross the phobic membrane of target cells ^ they use surface receptors for protein to dock onto Hydrophobic Can move around the fatty membrane & come inside ^they use intercellular receptors to dock onto! Signal Molecules & Hormones oAutocrine : hormone Self regulating! Secretes substance on the cell that produced it! oParacrine : signaling cells affect neighboring ones (immune response!) Tells cells around it "there's a guy here who says he knows you…" Warns nearby cells that something's up! (infection etc) oEndocrine : Long distance comm - go into bloodstream & target tissues everywhere! Large scale regulation! Plants do this too via circulatory Common thread = targeting genes . They're either turned on or off in receiving cell! You either make or stop making hormones! Affects appetite etc oLeptin lady - her leptin signal was off so her body never told her it's full! oAll are connected thru knowing what's going on in the body, producing hormones and signals o^if any of that is off, whole body off whack! oSet points are keyyy oBlame it on the maaalfunctioning receptors https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Pvi6GoY1-c Food Related Illness Sensitivit: food you eat constantly causes you an unpleasant rxn o Not immune o Not diagnosable - psychosomatic (might be all in your head) o Unless it affects you nutritionally, take it out of your diet! Intolerance: problems digesting o Can't produce the digestive enzyme to break down a food o Microbes are working against you! o Lactose intolerance: don't produce "lactase" The lactase gene is turned off! Microbes produce gases (CO2 + methane) this is why you get white chicks style diarrhea Evolution : milk producing animals weren't around so ppl stopped drinking milk after their mom breastfed o Ppl with that mutation were naturally selected to survive! Allergy: immune reaction o No one is born w/ an allergy! o Your bod becomes sensitizedaka it: Produce immunoglobulin E to recognize the specific allergen ^after that first time, you know the allergen is bad and your bod reacts Anaphylactic shock = you can't take in oxygen! oEpinephrine lets you breathe again! Common ones - oAvocado could mean you have a latex allergy o MSG - not sure if this is an allergy or nah Allergy Treatment! Anti-IgE therapy Compounds that prevent the rxn from occurring! Oral Tricking the system into thinking the allergen isn't immunotherapy bad anymore. Gives you low doses over time Opposite of sensitizing! FAT - again triglycerides We store it in the form of o Adipose & brown tissue Hormones, Appetite & Blood Sugar Thursday, November 12, 2015 RECAP LAST WEEK'S EPISODE: Sensitivities = Psychosomatic No doctor involved Anecdotal You SEE the rxn! Correlation NOT causation You should eliminate that problem food from your diet! When docs get involved (diagnose you) Intolerance - when you don't produce a digestive enzyme to break down the food o Lactose intolerance is v common Allergy - v specific immune rxn >>> system makes antibody immunoglobulin E o You aren't born w/ allergies, you become sensitized to them o Sensitized: when your immune system produces that antibody! Bc it sees the food as a threat smh o ^ The next time you encounter the allergen, you'll have a histamine rxn The severity depends on a lot of factors Anaphylactic shock - can lead to death bc you can't breathe Food Related Diseases Celiac = autoimmune response (happens on its own) o The presence of gluten makes your immune cells produce IGA antibody, not IGE Microvilliand villare destroyed >>> you can't absorb nutrients you digested ^ this is why you get diarrhea issues o You become malnourished bc microvilli can't absorb what you need! o As soon as you take gluten out of diet, symptoms go away Gene signals Need a receptor! ^ that changes something in the cell no matter hydrophob/phillic I'm Hungry af Leptin… o Fat cells trigger demand for appetite o Say "I need more" or "I'm full" Ghrelin … (think stomach growlin) o Signals your bod needs food o Made by stomach o ^ Appetite o Stops burning off stored energy (fat) smh Insulin o Related to consuming carbs! o Protein hormone o Made by pancreas Scenario A - when blood sugar increases above the set point (100-140mL/dL) your bod reacts! Why? >>> Bc you ate food w/ carbs in it and you need to absorb that (starches break down into glucose, disaccs into monosacs etc…) Signal >>> insulin is produced! Result >>> bloodstream: sugar from blood moves into liver/muscle cells. Glucose is combo'd via dehydration synthesis to make glycogen (short term energy) Scenario B - blood sugar dips below the set point Why? >>> bc of fasting (@ night, btw meals…) Signal >>> glucagon (protein hormone made by pancreas!) Result >>> liver/muscle cells: glycogen broken down via hydrolysis into glucose. Bloodstream - glucose moves into blood to restore blood sugar levels!
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