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Final Exam Notes! (1/2)

by: Aisha Notetaker

Final Exam Notes! (1/2) BISC 1007

Aisha Notetaker

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Part 1 of 2. Everything from class, the ppts, review sessions, and the book! I added graphics and charts too so hopefully those will help put a picture to terms. Good luck! 2nd part here: https...
Food, Nutrition, and Service
Scully, T
bisc 1007, Bio, gwu, Scully, nutrition bio
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This 20 page Bundle was uploaded by Aisha Notetaker on Friday December 11, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BISC 1007 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Food, Nutrition, and Service in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 12/11/15
Moving Substances & Obesity Thursday, October 15, 2015 Leptin - controls appetite  Doesn't work in obese ppl  Scientists are working on fixing that Body Physics:  Its not just your genetics!!  Your behavior determines what genes are turned on/off  Environment: past, present and future  Stress  How you think about and treat your body  What and when you eat  Exercise and activity Too Much of a Good thing is BAD  Fortification : adding nutrients o Vitamins o Fats – even the good ones! Unsaturated o Minerals o Sugar from fruits/fruit juices o It's FDA illegal to fortify candy/snacks!!! o ^^^they don't do shit to enforce tho…  Know your baseline! o What you need to sustain your current body weight o weight gain over the long term  Optimize activity every day o College - helluva lot of walking around campus n stuff o Work world (cubicle life?) - walking limited  Things will change! o @ 25, you're at optimum health  Best metabolism o Lifestyle changes  New partner  New job  Kids?  Health probs  Fam probs o You can't sustain the " extreme "  Fad diets  Cross fit/crazy exercise regimens  Life happens, so you need to do stuff you'll stick to! o Tools for the future How food moves into your bod Tuesday, October 20, 2015 Lecture summary:  Decoding food labels (they're simplified now! To a 4th grade reading level)  Intro to how we move food/nutrients from digestive tube >>> all over our bodies Cell Membrane - gatekeeper!  "Fluid mosaic model" o Mobile o It's peppered w/ diff substances o Oily - keeps membrane fluid so things can move easy  Made up of: o Phospholipid bilayer  Selectively permeable!  Bouncer for club "cell," not everyone gets in) o Cholesterol  Maintains barrier of cell o Proteins  Turns genes on & off  Unique ones for each cell type!  We produce lots of proteins to protect against microbes from getting in! o Glycolipids  energy Sugar (glucose) makes ! (stored short term > glycogen)  Sugary lipids - make cells stic! o Glycoproteins  Sugary proteins - make cells stic! TRANSPORT PASSIVE TRANSPORT ACTIVE TRANSPORT Membrane Involved Transport GOALS - substance wants to spread out and GOALS - Higher > lower Exocytosis - When your cells thirsty, reach equilibrium concentration (against the they drink:  Like rolling a ball down a hill - concentration gradient!)  Little bubbles (vesicles) lets stuff in  NO ADDED ENERGY needed! looks @ moving minerals and activates signals telling you to Move from high > low eat, produce hormones!  Carrier proteins move stuff Diffusion…  Based on shape of cell  What can diffuse?  Use energy in the process o Small stuff  Substances go from low > high o Fatty stuff concentration o Small gas o Water Compartmentalizing is crucial for Concentration # of solute/solvent excretory system!! 10% salt solution  Kidneys - filter blood, sugar 90% water o You can diagnose diabetes  Passive carrier proteins help diffusion! from insufficient blood Endocytosis (3 types)= o GLUT is a v important passive sugar levels!  Pinocytosis carrier for glucose. It lets us store o Get damaged if there's too Cell drinking and use glucose in form of much sugar! In harsh environments – glycogen  Large intestine -has to do w/ digestive & blood cells water & mineral reabsorption Osmosis….  Keeping all the good stuff in the ^ They’re under a lot of stress so  important af bc cells can die!! : water blood they lose water! balance is too high/low)  Getting rid of the bad  "TONIC" is the ending for To fix this, water is broken up & concentration taken to organelles via vesicles in  Isotonic is = equal solute concentration on both sides cells are happy here! the membrane Hypo is low solute concentration   Hyper is high solute concentration Concentration gradient = diff in concentration btw 2 areas separated by a membrane  Phagocytosis  IRL as you consume food, they have to Digestive strategy go somewhere! We do this for immune cells!  ^ highly concentrated aminos > Bad cells are wrapped up & digestive tube > digestive cells eaten/killed! Facilitated Passive = help hydrophilic stuff get across the hydrophobic membrane  Carrier proteins get it from compartment A (digestive tube) > B (cells) > C (stored or used)  Receptor mediated endocytosis LDL + HDL are too big to pass across the cell membrane  They're packaged into a complex & released into blood!  Green receptor thingys turn on genes for LDL or HDL Set Points= for blood sugar  Then the cute vesicle Once you reach it, excess glucose is bubbles bring them inside! stored in the form of glycogen When glycogen reaches set pt, stored as V IMPORTANT bc too much fat! LDL leads to <3 disease Solution = solute + solvent  Solute = any substance that can dissolve in the solvent o Amino acids o Monosacs o Ions minerals o Water based vitamins  Liquid = solvent = water based = aqueous solution o Hydrophillic stuff can move chamber > chamber easy!  Fats, cholesterol, fat-soluble vitamins o Hydrophobic stuff need help moving chambers Concentration  Amount of solute in a solution  Ex: "there's a 10% salt solution" o The concentration of salt 10% o ^ Tells you 90% of the solution is water! o Important when we compare compartments! o In passive transport, things wanna move from high > low concentration FOUR Major Compartments to break food down 1. Digestive tube - Compartment A 2. Digestive cells - Compartment B 3. Bloodstream - Compartment C 4. Storage or Use - Compartment D Transport cont'd Thursday, October 22, 2015 5:02 PM General Processes explained: Facilitated transport  Sugar (glucose) can’t cross the membrane by itself  It needs help - facilitated transport helps it get >> other side!  Channels Absorption= 80% happens in small intestine bc most enzymes are here & it's has room to pass it thru Signaling pathways=  Dictate levels of glucose in the bloodstream  Blood sugar has a set point!(insulin/glucagon for low/high levels)  Our bods keep that level in check ^ WHAT HAPPENS TO SUGAR WHEN THEY GET IN?  You need a carrier protein to move sugar from digestive tube >>> part B o ^facilitated diffusion! o High concentration > low concentration o Sugar gets carried into each compartment (A > B > C)  All cells need glucose! Amount depends on cell activity  Sugar >>>converted >>> insulin/glycogen  When it reaches the set level, you get a signal to store the extra stuff o Stored in muscle/liver  All organic substances can be converted back and forth! WHAT HAPPENS TO AMINO ACIDS, MINERALS & WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS?  Aren't digested, released + absorbed!  Amino acids - digested in stomach >> facilitated diffusion o Can move freely from compartment A > B > C > D as long as carrier proteins are there! o EXCEPTION is amino a's  Active transport: SEE LAST LECTURE PAGE Concentration Gradient = when there's a difference btw amount of solute in one area compared to another  Higher concentration gradient = substance moves faster! Nutrients Where are they How? Anything unique? absorbed? Proteins Amino acids are Passive facilitatedCan move freely w/ absorbed in stomach, diffusion carrier proteins small & large intestine Minerals Small intestine Active transport Go against the concentration gradient! (low > high) Water soluble Small intestine Passive transport vitamins Amino acids Small & large Passive facilitated diffusion Monosacs (Glucose) in small & Facilitated large diffusion Active Transport Fats Small intestine Receptor mediated transport Fat Soluble Small & large Passive You need a protein to Vitamins package it! Cholesterol Small & large Diffusion! Crosses Needs a proteeeen intestine into digestive cells Water Breaks the rules Osmosis You can absorb H20 Facilitated anywhere from diffusion mouth > anus Active transport Can enter cells by pinocytosis Gases Oxygen from lungs is Diffusion! expelled thru lungs Energy, Metabolism and Fooooood 5:07 PM, October 27, 2015 Label me: Food substance Caloric content/g Fat ***Hydrogenated oils (trans fats) 9 Mixed msgs - Even if the label says no trans, partially hydrogenated oils count! Protein 4 Carbohydrate 4 Added sugar are empty calories! Alcohol 7 Making Energy (ATP) Your bod breaks down food and turns it into energy! Depending on how you exercise, you use one over another Anaerobic - no oxygen Aerobic - oxygen *Goals: receive, store & deliver ener*Goals: big bang for your buck! Series of Phosphocreatine (quick and easy!) rxns that extract as much energy as possible  For bursts of energy from sugar!  Adds phospho onto ADP → ATP!!  If you're vegetarian & don't have that reserve of protein, it limits ATP and ur organ functions Where in your bod?  (things that function all the time!)  Brain -eeds 20% of your cals  Heart -pumps nutrients all over via bloodstream  Liver - regulates blood sugar, appetite +Key Players fat  Electricity! - move energy chem >  Skeletal muscles - contractions electrical > chem Set point = Sugar production on 1 end, oxygen  Excess is broken down and peed production on other end out  ^too much puts strain on your Producers = absorb water from their kidneys :/ environment Glycolysis = fermentation (that burn  Facilitated transport you feel when you exercise is lactic  Receptor mediated acid!)  Ripping glucose apart to >>> ATP Consumers: absorb from producers and electron carriers (NADPH) Gases = always on the move  Splitting 6 Carbon Glucose in half  Move from areas of high concentration  You end up with >> 2 ATP!  Useless to us if it keeps electrons, >> low  CO2 removed via bloodstream > lungs gotta recycle energy!  O2 into lungs > bloodstream >carried o ^ you can either ferment = to cells recycling so glycolysis can keep making ATP (pyruvate, alcohol) o ^ or you can do aerobic ---- Anabolic v catabolic rxns  A - building up something big  C - break up sugar to release energy  Whether you're making sugar or ATP, you're loading up/dropping off electrons Transferring energy  Photosynthesis = o Light > electrical > chemical energy o Producing sugar!  Cellular respiration = o Takes the sugar > rips it up > generating electricity > ATP  ^ One builds up, one stores energy  ^ The reactants of one become the product of the other! Energy from FOOOOOD Thursday, October 29, 2015 Food = organic substance + nutrients (carbs, fats, protein & alcohol) ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ End result: Production of ATP/energy  We need energy to sustain our organization & maintain our bods  [the universe wants us to break apart, we constantly have to stay together..]  How do we make ATP? - RESPIRATION Anaerobic respiration Aerobic respiration Aka no oxygen Using oxygen - 3 step process 1. Phosphocreatine >> ATP 1. Glycolysis  Donates phospho group to make Glucose >>> pyruvate ATP  Important af to high 2. Prep/Kreb's cycle maintenance orgs: Pyruvate >>> 6 CO2  Liver  Brain You also end up with:  Heart o 4 ATP & electron carriers  Skeletal muscles (NADPH and NADH NADH2) o Vegetarians need to eat so much o Oxidative phosphorylation protein to make creatine! Anytime you see "phospho" it 2. Glycolysis + fermentation = 2 ATP means you can make ATP! Glucose >> pyruvate >> lactic acid o In this case, you make ATP o Glucose breaks down into using Oxygen pyruvate o Oxygen accepts electrons to o We're just taking apart the 6 make water carbon molecule into two o Electrons have to go o Fermentation keeps glycolysis somewhere so they combo w/ going oxygens to make WATER  Recycles back NADH o We take energy from electrons  Empties electron taxi cab ^ to fuel rxn of = o Alcohol fermentation takes Pyruvate > ethanol & CO2 gas, Electrons > ADP > ATP  Pulls off one of the carbons e- + O2 = H2O to produce CO2 gas  Bread, dough & wines are Water is broken down to make made from this process ATP! o The buck stops here for 30ATP are produced y'all!! prokaryotes (no mitochondria)  They can't produce any Electrons that travel down the ETC more energy! (electron transport chain) are o We take pyruvate and break it turned into water down > CO2 (inorganic) o Slow twitch muscles need tons  Cycle of taking food and of energy too convert it back to inorganic o Rxns are powered by adding a substances phospho group (phosphorylation does that) BOTTOM LINE - plants DO need oxygen  They use it to make energy (thru oxidative phosphorylation) o Mitochondria & chloroplasts are found in plants o You're not much different than a plant! Lol Exercise & Energy Resources  Thinking is a form of exercise yooooooo (tapping into your brain reqs neural connections!)  Phosphocreatine & glycolysis are the initial pump for most activities  Any exercise that lasts longer than 2 mins taps into aerobic o Aerobic is v important bc it breaks down stored stuff (fat, glycogen) Nutrient Distribution - Sugar Absorption (glucose)  You need it glucose bc = o Fuel for aerobic respiration o Production of ATP in fermentation  Keeps your blood sugar steady  Once it reaches its set point, excess glucose is >>> fat  Ketosis: fats broken down to restore blood sugar level o Ketones are acidic o Blood cells lose water over time o Leads to >> fatigue, vomiting, mental disease! Metabolism & Exercise Tuesday, November 3, 2015 5:05 PM BMR = basal metabolic rate  What you need in terms of cellular function  Just to LIVE (w/o even getting out of bed) o Women need ~ 1400 Calories o Men need ~ 1800 bmr? ^ higher than women's bc more muscle Need ~400 more cals to fuel energy for those muscles! Bc women store more fat (bear kids) Evolutionarily, men are hunters (ones w/ more endurance were selected for mating)  BMR varies a lot, depending on o Activity  Affected by= o Weight o Height o Age - system wears out  You can trigger metabolism  When you're sick, you feel weak bc energy doesn't go to the normal places (muscles) o It goes >>> immune system to fight off disease o Everything you eat tells your body what genes to turn on/off! ( epigenetics)  Fruits and veggies trigger metabolism , arecancer fighting, provide antioxidantsand get rid of free radicals.  BPA (harmful chemicals) can leech into your food and get you sick! Nutrition & First Law of Thermodynamics  1st law = energy can't be created or destroyed  Caloric intake= what you eat o Most of the cals we consume come from carbs, protein & fat  TEE - (total energy expenditure) o This is how you burn off cals o RMR - most is burned here o Physical activity- your energy output is measured by heart rate! o TEF  Thermal Effect of Feeding o You don't spend any energy chewing coca cola  Nothing nutritious inside smh o Eating an apple requires energy:  Chewing  Move thru digestive tract  Produce enzymes to break it down  Absorb monomers, vitamins & minerals  More energy spent = more cals you can consume!  Eat whole foods, that resemble the organism. That influences your caloric burning!!!!!!!  Eliminate processed foods  Energy & Food o log burning example = you need oxygen to rip apart substances > harness flame's energy! o Nonliving = quick o Living = slow Fitness Apps  There's a direct correlation btw heart rate <3 and exercise Resting Needs = MY HEART  Feeds itself first - energy sucking  Blockage = o Over 80% of heart attacks happen in the coronary artery!  IMPORTANT = In order to extract energy, you need oxygen!! (Via the lungs) o Normal breathing correlates with BMR  Resting heart rate = beats per minute doing nothing o any increase in heart r8 is considered "activity" o Max is 220 heart beats/min o You don't wanna tax your bod too much or your blood system is under pressure, dun dun dun da da dun dun o Target = 50-85% of highest heart r8 o Over time, max heart rate (BMR/RMR) goes down, less efficient! Werk - Physical Activity  Is based on your heart rate!  Energy required by muscles  Balancing game fat & glycogen stores  BMR/RMR tap into sugar & fats o Longer duration taps into fat stores! Aerobic Exercise Anaerobic Exercise o Types o Types  Intense yoga  Short burst energy  Low pace swimming  Strength training for short  Cardio is best! duration + tennis  more calories burnt because of more energy demand  50/50 ratio fat/glycogen o Recs from Mayo Clinic =  At least 150 mins of low impact o Most cals from glycogen (sugar) activity or 1 hr of intense  Tap into those stores via  Bone health degrades over time so phosphocreatine + fermentation you need to strengthen/use them! Muscle Types = your bod has a combo of both! Depending on the type of activity you do, you can have more of one or other White meat Dark meat o More fast muscle fibers o Aerobic respiration o anaerobic o Energy from sources! Spectrum o Quick source of ATP o More mitochondria! o All or nothing response (like a o "Myoglobin " makes it look dark (extra light switch) oxygen)  Doesn't just get oxygen from bloodstream, has a reserve!  Changes colors bc it's a pigment ! Used constantly so it uses multiple sources! Efficient af  Your bod only sends oxygen to places that need it!  Oxygen naturally diffuses into cells that are working  If CO2 is present, you know you're putting in workk POISON dun dun dunnnnn  Poisons disrupt your production of ATP energy  Stop a series of rxns that require the substrate >>> prevents the end result >> ATP! Measuring Energy from FOOD Thursday, November 5, 2015  It's easier to measure heat energy than chemical  Glycogen (carb storage) >> excess glucose >> muscle/liver cells >> generate>> energy  In any type of energy transfer, you end up w/ ATP  Anaerobic energy metabolism o Phosphocreatine o Glycolysis coupled to fermentation  Aerobic energy metabolism o Aerobic cellular respiration How do we measure food energy?  Heat!  Calorimeter - removes water from foods and measures the heat energy inside it. o A thermometer tells you initial and ending temp. o We look @ change in temp o Used for proteins, carbs & fats o Temperature tells you amount of energy (calories) the food has!  Calorie or calorie?  calorie : not applicable to us o "Amount of heat needed to change the temperature of water by 1 degree celsius" o We're big af so we need a lot more energy!!  Calorie : dis what we use o Kilo calories o 1000x more powerful than little "c" calories o Food label doesn't distinguish btw em  @ the end of the day, it doesn't matter, it's all energy Fat Cals  You should be taking in NO MORE THAN 30% of total cals/day  Limit saturated fats  Never eat trans  Poly+mono unsaturated are amaze Exercise determines if you bod taps into fat stores (long term) or glucose stores (short term) cardio level demands more energy!  Cardio burns fat GENDER DIFFS  Men need more protein bc they have more muscle mass! Managing Nutrients Tuesday, November 10, 2015 5:04 PM What do you mean? There's too a ton of contradictory info out there on nutrition  "Eggs are bad for u" "eggs are good for u"  Correlations are skewed af BOTTOM LINE you should eat stuff that looks like the organism it came from!  Indulging in bad foods won't kill you, but it can lead to problems down the road (ie heart disease) Placebo effect: being told you're gonna drink energy drinks cause you to produce hormones!  Tbh, energy drinks don't have (what we classify as) energy o It doesn't give your bod calories (carbs, fats or proteins) o It only has weird stimulating plant based shi o ^ makes your bod stress out and energize o ^so it's indirectly making you hyper! Review Q = oxidative phosphorylation needs oxygen to work! Electrons are dropped off here by NADH/FADH 2 carriers! Glycolysis in the kreb's cycle funnels in oxygen so your bod can make ATP Managing Nutrients = major nutrients you tap into  We'll look @ glucose from perspective of disease! o ..proportion determines if you develop heart disease…build up plaque  Homeostasis is related to set points o Set points can be adjusted o Predetermined by genes o Based on BMI! o Energy demands diff based on how much fat/muscle you got  Body detects this by o Kidney o Heart o Digestive tract o Storage cells  Signals sent out via brain - sends out more! o Signal = hormones = proteins o In order to receive the msg, protein receptors need to be there o Signal producer >> protein receptor >> target cell >> change happens! o Proteins love water!  Hydrophillic  Can't cross the phobic membrane of target cells  ^ they use surface receptors for protein to dock onto  Hydrophobic  Can move around the fatty membrane & come inside  ^they use intercellular receptors to dock onto!  Signal Molecules & Hormones oAutocrine : hormone  Self regulating!  Secretes substance on the cell that produced it! oParacrine : signaling cells affect neighboring ones (immune response!)  Tells cells around it "there's a guy here who says he knows you…"  Warns nearby cells that something's up! (infection etc) oEndocrine :  Long distance comm - go into bloodstream & target tissues everywhere!  Large scale regulation!  Plants do this too via circulatory  Common thread = targeting genes . They're either turned on or off in receiving cell! You either make or stop making hormones! Affects appetite etc oLeptin lady - her leptin signal was off so her body never told her it's full! oAll are connected thru knowing what's going on in the body, producing hormones and signals o^if any of that is off, whole body off whack! oSet points are keyyy oBlame it on the maaalfunctioning receptors Food Related Illness  Sensitivit: food you eat constantly causes you an unpleasant rxn o Not immune o Not diagnosable - psychosomatic (might be all in your head) o Unless it affects you nutritionally, take it out of your diet!  Intolerance: problems digesting o Can't produce the digestive enzyme to break down a food o Microbes are working against you! o Lactose intolerance: don't produce "lactase"  The lactase gene is turned off!  Microbes produce gases (CO2 + methane) this is why you get white chicks style diarrhea  Evolution : milk producing animals weren't around so ppl stopped drinking milk after their mom breastfed o Ppl with that mutation were naturally selected to survive!  Allergy: immune reaction o No one is born w/ an allergy! o Your bod becomes sensitizedaka it:  Produce immunoglobulin E to recognize the specific allergen  ^after that first time, you know the allergen is bad and your bod reacts  Anaphylactic shock = you can't take in oxygen! oEpinephrine lets you breathe again!  Common ones - oAvocado could mean you have a latex allergy o MSG - not sure if this is an allergy or nah Allergy Treatment! Anti-IgE therapy Compounds that prevent the rxn from occurring! Oral Tricking the system into thinking the allergen isn't immunotherapy bad anymore.  Gives you low doses over time  Opposite of sensitizing! FAT - again  triglycerides We store it in the form of o Adipose & brown tissue Hormones, Appetite & Blood Sugar Thursday, November 12, 2015 RECAP LAST WEEK'S EPISODE: Sensitivities =  Psychosomatic  No doctor involved  Anecdotal  You SEE the rxn!  Correlation NOT causation  You should eliminate that problem food from your diet! When docs get involved (diagnose you)  Intolerance - when you don't produce a digestive enzyme to break down the food o Lactose intolerance is v common  Allergy - v specific immune rxn >>> system makes antibody immunoglobulin E o You aren't born w/ allergies, you become sensitized to them o Sensitized: when your immune system produces that antibody! Bc it sees the food as a threat smh o ^ The next time you encounter the allergen, you'll have a histamine rxn  The severity depends on a lot of factors  Anaphylactic shock - can lead to death bc you can't breathe Food Related Diseases  Celiac = autoimmune response (happens on its own) o The presence of gluten makes your immune cells produce IGA antibody, not IGE  Microvilliand villare destroyed >>> you can't absorb nutrients you digested  ^ this is why you get diarrhea issues o You become malnourished bc microvilli can't absorb what you need! o As soon as you take gluten out of diet, symptoms go away Gene signals  Need a receptor!  ^ that changes something in the cell no matter hydrophob/phillic I'm Hungry af  Leptin… o Fat cells trigger demand for appetite o Say "I need more" or "I'm full"  Ghrelin … (think stomach growlin) o Signals your bod needs food o Made by stomach o ^ Appetite o Stops burning off stored energy (fat) smh  Insulin o Related to consuming carbs! o Protein hormone o Made by pancreas Scenario A - when blood sugar increases above the set point (100-140mL/dL) your bod reacts! Why? >>> Bc you ate food w/ carbs in it and you need to absorb that (starches break down into glucose, disaccs into monosacs etc…) Signal >>> insulin is produced! Result >>> bloodstream: sugar from blood moves into liver/muscle cells. Glucose is combo'd via dehydration synthesis to make glycogen (short term energy) Scenario B - blood sugar dips below the set point Why? >>> bc of fasting (@ night, btw meals…) Signal >>> glucagon (protein hormone made by pancreas!) Result >>> liver/muscle cells: glycogen broken down via hydrolysis into glucose. Bloodstream - glucose moves into blood to restore blood sugar levels!


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