Remaining Class Notes
Remaining Class Notes Hist 101
Popular in World History to 1500
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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Jeri Horner on Saturday December 12, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Hist 101 at Radford University taught by Mary C Ferrari in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see World History to 1500 in History at Radford University.
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Date Created: 12/12/15
11/20 Notes Monas in Greek means ‘alone’. Starting around 300-500, monasteries begin developing in Western Europe. They get structure from Benedict who had a twin sister who was a nun. -he expects monks to do manual labor- Monks and Priests take three vows: celibacy, obedience, and poverty. They were very popular in Northern Europe. The Monks cleared land and swamps, had crop rotation, copied books (written by hand), and ran schools. The monasteries doubles as inns and hospitals for travelers. People donated money to them thinking it was the ticket to heaven and as the result, monasteries became very wealthy over time. Almost everyone in Medieval Europe were illiterate except for the monks. Monasteries were bigger than the villages they were in. Frankish King- Clovis- 481-511 -unites all of Christian territory -with support of the church, he has legitimacy to attack people and turn them into Christians. Next period of unity is under Charlemagne in 800. -he was a warrior king- every year, had about 50 campaigns. -Carolingian Empire -divides territories into 600 different entities with the person in charge called a Count and they were appointed for life. So these were like modern day counties which is where the word comes from. -tried to push literacy and language. -made money by selling slaves which were a key export. Slaves were mostly other Europeans and Slavic people. Vikings -warrior like people who came from Norway -wanted to be the dominant warriors -key to their success is their boats. -They can fit 40-60 people inside the boats and with that many people, they could take out a whole monastery. -the boats were light enough to pick up and carry from river to river because they had a really low draft (the amount of boat that is under the water) -The Vikings made it to Northern Canada in 860 and settled in the areas they conquered and intermingled with the local women. 11/30 Notes Middle Ages Europe Year 1000, Europe had about 36 million people -key thing to remember is everything is local and everything involves land. -there were three types of people: those who pray, those who rule, and those who work. Lords need people to fight for them and they were called Retainers/Vassals (someone who owes allegiance to the lord) -in exchange for fighting, the Retainers have access to things like land. Their land was called a fief. The Lord owns a manor; fighter owns a fief; workers work the land and they were mostly peasants/serfs. There was no huge government in place, it was all local stuff. Military technology- -had long bows and cross bows and catapult type mechanisms to attack castles. -the castles were there for defense of the manors. -the lords don’t do anythingretainers/vassals did it all. Agriculture- Had crop rotation- 1/3 fallow land; 1/3 fall crops; 1/3 spring crops New invention- horse collar so the horses could pull the plows and they were most likely wooden plows so they weren’t that heavy. With this, they were well on their way to deforesting themselves. Everything produced, a percentage goes back to the lord. Peasants are not slaves but they can’t leave their jobs so even though they are free, they aren’t really free. If they want to move manors, they have to get permission from the lord. They had a labor obligation- 3 days per week, they had to do whatever the lord told them to do. Nobles didn’t have to pay taxes. Knights have code of conduct called Chivalry had to be brave and generous as part of the code. Usually born into a lordship. Peasants paid all taxes straight to the lord. The Parish Church is important to the people- wherever they lived defined which parish they belonged to. Local priests ran the parishes and they answered to the Bishop. The Peasants embraced the Catholic religion because it meant not working on holy days. They were forced to go to church on those days but to them, anything was better than having to work. Saints were also big in the Catholic Church. -the worshipping of saints and relics was also big in the Catholic Church. They didn’t have big cities in Medieval Europe because they couldn’t farm but the cities they did have were small, probably with populations of around 5,000. They were walled cities with mostly merchants and craftsmen living there. They had laws and rules and craft guilds- like, if you were a blacksmith, then you belonged to the Blacksmith Guild etc. There were rules on prices, training processes, and social organization. -they had funds -were not allowed to undermine the guild. Dominicans and Franciscans were in cities and they were very serious about their vow of poverty, sometimes begging for food. The cities had cathedrals- the biggest of which is the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris which was the tallest building in Europe at the time. The cathedrals had flying buttresses which were supports that held up the roof. France had 80 cathedrals and 500 monasteries and these were sort of the conspicuous consumption of the time. Venice- The more cities, the more wealth, the more the peasants would move off the land to the cities which would eventually undermine the whole concept of feudalism. There were big universities that had guilds for the students as well as the faculty. The AMA (American Medical Association) is a modern version of a medical guild and one of the reasons there is a shortage of doctors right now. (The AMA wants it that way) The universities like Cambridge, Oxford still in existence today -rich people supported peasant kids so they could go to school -they didn’t take tests very often but when they did, they were often oral- like modern day oral components of Master’s Degrees and Doctorates. One of the outcomes of all this was the Lords had huge egos so they got together with other lords and went on Crusades against the Islamic World. -goal of the Crusades was to take Jerusalem… period. -Reconquista 722-1492 (that date is not a coincidence) and the goal during this time was to take Spain. 12/02 Notes Quiz Friday- the quiz will cover up to the last Inca question on the study guide. Crusades 1096-1270 -consisted of Europeans who had blessing from Pope Urban II- 60,000 people went to Mediterranean to Crusade. -goal was to get holy land (Jerusalem) out of Islamic hands. -altogether, there were eight crusades; first one took Jerusalem in 1099, 4 one took Constantinople. Impact- Positive- moved a bunch of people down to Mediterranean, enlightened Europe, and exposed them to goods and people they’d never seen before. Negative- turned Europe anti-Jewish. After Crusades, started seeing religious restrictions on Jews, and also caused Christian and Islamic animosity all of which was bad for inter religious cohabitation. Going across Atlantic to the Aztecs (Mexico) who were referred to as ‘the new kids on the block’ -they were bullies who came from Texas and they were late to the party so they had trouble finding places to stay. -the only place was a little island in the middle of Lake Texcoco -they have a written language and a blood thirsty God. -their language was called Nahautl -built their capitol city on Tenochtitlan which is that island. -they had farming on the island and floating gardens beds called chinampa. -only had three causeways which made them very defensible because that’s all they had to defend. -city holds about 250,000 people and they were very good merchants. They killed people for their god main god is the hummingbird who they believed brought them the sun and warmed the Earth and in exchange for such kindness, Hummingbird needed human blood. The concept of human sacrifice is not new, however there was a lot more of it in Central Europe. Who are the people being killed? Prisoners of war. In order to get these POW’s, they would create and schedule wars. These were called flower wars because dead people smell bad so they had tons of flowers to hide the smell. Aztecs began to conquer areas around them and in that process, they leave local government and religion in place but if you were conquered, you had to pay tribute via manufactured goods, labor, and farm goods. Aztecs were very cruel. They were basically ranked from military leaders, to priests, to merchants, to craftsmen, to everyday people who were the workers, and the bottom, lowest class were the slaves. This is called a capulli which is just like a caste- they owned land communally and they all worked the land and the Aztecs summoned them to pay their tributes and if they couldn’t pay, they would sell people into slavery. Sometimes people would sell themselves into slavery just to get out of debt to the Aztecs. Gender Roles. Men did all the agriculture and crafts; women did the spinning, weaving, and keeping house. Their marriages were arranged. Incas- were also new kids on the block. Had quite a large empire- 16 million people here whereas the Aztecs only had about 12 million. There is very weird geography in this area of Peru. At the highest elevations, they had livestock but couldn’t farm. Farming could only be done at low elevations. The Ruler was Inca (that was his name and thus the name of the empire) he is believed to have been descended from the God Inti. Inca no worthy of talking directly to Inti so they built houses for their dead ancestors and spoke to Inti through them (ancestor worship) -they used mummification -began to conquer all the people around them. Capitol of the Inca Empire is Cuzco -language is Quecha which is a little like Spanish and there are people in Peru right here today who speak this language. -they would absorb conquered people into their armies which helped with spreading culture. -they would colonize people by moving people around and insisting they speak that language. -had 25,000 miles of roads throughout the empire which helps with communication and movement of goods. -they had runners who could run 175 miles per day and they evolved to have bigger lungs and shorter legs to make this so. There were supply posts every 15 miles along the roads. How do you keep track of 16 million people? With knotted strings called quipu (I swiped this part from Nat. geo channel The quipu is a series of colored, knotted strings. The type of knot indicated a number, and the knot's placement signified units of 1, 10, 100, or more. All the cords hung from a main string, and their positions and colors likely signaled what was being counted— gold, corn, or other goodThey were also were tracked by groups and communal property called Ayllu Economy- -very good at farming and use of terracing -had beasts of burden and used seagull poop (guano) and other animal poop for fertilizer. -chewed on cacao plants for energy (this plant is the basis for cocaine and probably how they managed to run 175 miles every day) -Aztecs don’t have cities or worship ancestors, don’t have knowledge base of engineering or math whereas Incas do and where Aztecs were out of control with their blood sacrificing, not so much of this went on in the Inca empire. 12/04 Notes Africa in 1000 -SubSaharan (below Sahara) Africa population was about 20 million -very diverse, hundreds of languages, very isolated political units -new crop -society is organized around clan or kinship groups -government structures were mostly village chiefs -leadership based on natural abilities Gender Roles -women worked fields along with men -had stronger political roles, could be chiefs and join military -men do more specialized skill based jobs. They start to develop great kingdoms along the coast of East Africa and over to the west below the Sahara. -trade inspires development -camels transport goods over land; can carry 500 lbs of goods and could travel about 20-25 miles per days. The whole route took about 70-90 days to complete. -they are importing gold from the north and enslaved Africans this is the Islamic slave trade and the enslaved ones were POWs. -up to about 1500 AD, they moved about 10 million people. -most of the gold ended up in Egypt or shipped to India which made trade a very profitable profession to be in. Three Major Trade Cities- Jenne, Timbuktu, Gao First kingdom was Ghana (translates to chief) and sustained about 200k population. Many rulers became Islamic but most of the people had traditional African religions. Kingdom of Mali was formed- founder Sundiatta about 1200 AD -the kingdom itself was very wealthy -most famous Mali leader was Mansamusa made pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca in 1324 -went to Cairo to show off his wealth, brought so much gold back to Egypt, it lowered the price of gold by 25% Timbuktu was sort of the highlight of Mali. Axum- Eastern Africa- founded 400 AD- Christian nation. -Monks converted them to Christianity -Swahili (means coasters = living on the coast) -not as many slaves in East Coast trade - had ivory and leopards and imported textile goods from China. -there were no great kingdoms on East Coast but they had city/states. 12/07 Notes – Back to Europe and Asia Mongol Conquest -good news/bad news 14 century problems -Little Ice Age -Black Death -100 Years War Impact of a bad century -higher wages; higher taxes -mobility; rebellions Rebuilding China & Europe Intro -Ming Dynasty- Hongwu Mongols- moved people around to do their trade -large area safe to trade in & people moving helped with spread of ideas, goods, and people. That’s the good news. -India was very new to Islam; not many people knew about Sharia law and the only place to learn was Saudi Arabia. -two new crops introduced to Africa -rice, citrus crops like oranges and lemons, and also they had cotton. The Bad News- disease was also moving around. Crusades went to the Mediterranean and discovered crystallized sugar. (So, sugar and rice were the two new crops) 14 century is the 1300s Three Major Problems: Little Ice Age- temps colder, Earth colder global freezing, colder temps lead to shorter growing periods. Famine came to Europe inspired by weather. Those who didn’t starve to death were malnourished as agriculture suffered as the result. Black Death (Bubonic Plague) comes mid-14 century and starts in China. Came to Italy via sea and land trade routes. Symptoms: effects lymph nodes which would swell so there were boils on the skin that would turn black and break open. Hence the name. Fleas bit rats and then would bite humans which is how it would get into the blood stream. 60-70% of the people who got it, died from it. Any place the plague went, the population would drop at least 25%. China dropped from 120 million to about 80 million. Europe lost 2/3 of her population and they thought Jewish people were poisoning the wells. As the result, thousands of Jews were forced out. Scandinavia was not hard hit because it is cold there and fleas don’t survive in cold. India didn’t get it either but no one knows why because it’s not cold there. 100 Years War (1337-1453) England and France. England was winning at first but there was a young teenage girl by the name of Joan who had visions and lead France into battle. Joan of Arc. She was captured by the British and put on trial for heresy and subsequently burned at the stake. Nationalism- -gunpowder introduced into war; very expensive so the war was expensive, so they raised taxes. -King of England had to call Parliament to get money which made them more powerful. -war also kills people so the population dropped again. Impact- -fewer people meant wages would go up because there was no one to work the jobs. -people were living as serfs and they started moving around to get better wages. -all that moving around obliterates feudalism -taxes go up on the poor -poor people start getting frustrated and hungry and so they rise up. France’s Rebellion -1358; England’s Rebellion- 1380 The Come Back -people get wealthier; fewer people – supply & demand -feudalism is dead -centralized power in form of nation states ruled by hereditary kings. -China reconstructs itself into hereditary rulers who believed in the mandate of Heaven. -territory expansion Ming Dynasty- very good at collecting taxes because big militaries are very expensive. -Mongols just gave up and left -out of chaos, Hongwu establishes Ming Dynasty where there was more use of Eunuchs, Confucian school system with the test, and the mandate of Heaven. th -they have centralized large governments lasts until 17 century. -reinvest in silk industry, dishes factories, water control projects -Mings did not like foreigners but they liked trade so they limited foreign activity -Zheng He’s Navy- created the navy to show how strong China was and strengthens overseas commerce. The Navy is huge. -boats could hold 500 people had 62 ships (flotilla) and went to S.E. Asia, India, Persian Gulf, and to the East Coast of Africa. -didn’t go to North America -1433- couldn’t control invaders from the North so they stopped investing in the Navy; then they forgot how to make ships. -they created huge encyclopedias of Chinese history and culture. 12/09 Notes France-Charles VII England War of the Roses- Richard III 1455-1471 Tudors- Henry VII Spain- Ferdinand and Isabella Castile & Aragon 1492- Defeated Granada- sent Columbus Renaissance- Florence Italy- Medici Humanists- Francesco Petrarca Reasons for Exploration Portuguese- Discoveries- Bartholomew Diaz, Vasco da Gama Spain- Columbus Amerigo Vespucci Treaty of Tordesillas- 1494 Columbian Exchange- things New World; things Europe Europe recovered via creating nation states -Monarchs are getting more powerful -in France, it is Charles VII- gave the middle class breaks and wanted to reduce power to nobles. -they grow by making things artisans and merchants make up the middle class. -became more efficient at collecting taxes -first French king to get a permanent army -they marry off their kids to gain alliances which would move their families and monarchy forward. England had two ruling families- York & Lancaster War of the Roses 1455-1471 – Richard III, Shakespearean play about the War of the Roses -they both lose; taken over by the Tudors. -Henry VII- encourages middles class, has strong navy, and pushes mass production of woolen textiles. -marries off his daughter to the Scottish King. -marries off his son to the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. Spain had multiple kingdoms -largest was Castile where Isabella was the Queen. Then there was Aragon where Ferdinand was the king- they marry and create Spain. Granada- Muslim- last part of Iberian Peninsula in Islamic hands. -Ferdinand and Isabella defeated Granada in 1492 and they were looking for some place to conquer so they paid Columbus to go to India. Intellectual Renaissance- starts in Florence Italy -rediscovers knowledge base of Ancient Greece & Rome. -very high intellectual level; Europe forgot all the stuff they learned but it was all still happening in the Islamic World & Constantinople the people there were conquered so they left, went to Italy, and began Renaissance. Italy was home to a very rich banking family called Medici. -invested heavily in the arts all the Ninja turtle names- Raphael, Donatello, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci- they were the top four most famous. -focus of art is human body and what it is capable of doing. -harkens back to ancient Greece & Rome -the thinkers and writers of word were called Humanists focus of what humans can do and Francesco Petrarca was the most famous. Reasons for Exploration: -Europeans were more curious about far away places -they wanted luxury items that China and India produced -they are used to conquering and ran out of stuff to conquer so they want to conquest and get new lands -monarchs can afford overseas exploration because it takes very deep pockets to pay for it -rise of technology made ships better. Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal developed a better, faster ship called a caravel- it was more sturdy, had a better rudder, better sail, lateen sail, and an astrolabe which tells latitude (north and south) but not longitude (east and west) Portugal -discovered Azores and Madeira Islands -grew sugar plantations labor source was African Slaves -they are first to start the Atlantic slave trade Bartholomew Diaz- first one to go around bottom of Africa and then went back to Portugal. Vasco da Gama- went around bottom of Africa and then went to India Ferdinand and Isabella hire Columbus who did not own a globe in 1492. He sailed west; made four voyages but would never admit he never got to India Amerigo Vespucci mapped it out and knew there was a new place but he didn’t sail, he just mapped it so he got the honor of naming it. Pope got involved in 1494 and he drew a line (basically) Spain got half, Portugal got half which is why people in Portugal do not speak Spanish but Portuguese. The goods exchanged from Europe to the New World were: Animals: horses, goats, cattle, and sheep Food: wheat, grapes, and olives They also brought their diseases with them which decimated the population of the Americas The goods going back to Europe were: potatoes, corn, tomatoes, and peppers. Exam topics: 20 multiple choice = 20 x 2 for 40 points and a choice of two essays to write on one worth 60 points Topic one: discuss lifestyle, politics, religion, culture of Europe during middle ages Topic two: discuss lifestyle, politics, religion culture of Aztecs & Incas Topic three: What were the problems of the 14 century and what were the solutions. You’ll also get to pick which type of test you want to take- either all multiple choice or the test with 20 multiple choice and one essay. Good Luck!
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