Last Unit Notes
Last Unit Notes FOR 332
Popular in Forest Ecosystem Ecology
Popular in Agriculture and Forestry
This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Solimar Garcia on Sunday December 13, 2015. The Bundle belongs to FOR 332 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by James Cook in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Forest Ecosystem Ecology in Agriculture and Forestry at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 12/13/15
Final Unit Forest Ecosystem Ecology Dr Cook 20th Century changes I Ecosystem disturbances amp processes A Logging effects nutrient availability and loss 1 Direct loss from whatever wood products were removed Put into context relative to needs to primary producers impact on system is relatively low 2 Possible additional loss a Skid trails and logging roads created by logging mean exposed mineral soil and runoff and deposited soils in the aquatic system i Soil is kept bare heavy rainfall and a steep slope can lead to additional loss bSome wholetree harvesting not just bole harvesting means lots more nutrients per unit biomass in leaves lost i Harvesting losses are 25 times more of whole tree compared to conventional harvest ii Amount remaining in the system upper few inches of absolute loss in the system is between O19 of total system c No clear proof that logging degrades sites Remember always small steady addition every year from small herbaceous plants B Changes from human activity 1 Human activities include grazing fire exclusion fragmentation cutting introduction of exotics a Importance varies among forest land types 2 Outcomes for drymesic forests a Oak savanna structure i Changes that have occurred symptomatic ii Were speckled diverse maintained by fire open 30 canopy cover iii Dominant change in structure 95 canopy closer due to lack of fire iv Change in composition and structure 3 Ponderosa pine preEuropean structure a Widely spaced open area grass dominated oor fire maintained ecosystem bHeavy grazing means low fuel for forest and less fire frequency means huge increase in density and crown cover which excludes many understory species Huge increase in fuel loads 4 Community type abundance a More than 98 loss of oak savanna from pre settlement to now bNo loss in abundance in ponderosa pine increase actually C Outcomes that in uence ecosystem processes 1 Forest oor more shading less radiation decrease of temperature 2 Litter more woody less herbaceous higher lignin 3 Transpiration increase less soil moisture the opposite of disturbance D Outcomes of ecosystem processes 1 Aboveground litterfall rate and quality goes down less moisture less ground 2 Slow decomposition b c of shorter growing season less moisture lower temps and higher lignin 3 Immobilization decomposers have low quality organic matter so they take out more nutrients out of solution and increase immobilization 4 Total NPPGPP increased density and canopy cover so GPP goes up Understory species GPPNPP goes down 6 Leaching minor change b c more nutrients being taken out of solution demand increases 5 Ecosystem Management I Ecological Basis 1960s it was relatively new at the time the policy concept includes more than just ecosystem science 11 Why did chief of the forest service choose to manage via ecosystem management practices A During the 70s80s in the Pacific NW scientists looking at old growth forests and studying and comparing to second growth forests 1Established old growth trees are unique 2Number of animals that rely on old growth forests especially in the northern spotted owl B Greater values and societal values for old growth forests 1980s1990s 1Management in separate communities all accumulate in greater picture not just the stand level synergistic effect actually change in thinking about landscape scale biological diversity C Forest Products was for community sustainability way of life that did not want to change Management for conservation timber company vs conservation 1Cumulative effect for both sides timber reduced about 7080 D Societal value of biodiversity 1Loss of biological diversity 2Conservationists not obligated to appease forest timber products but it is obligated to consider it spotted owl endangered a A speciesbyspecies approach from Endangered Species Act 1973 have not been effective i Methods not effective because species number on list is very high ii A TAKE habitat violation is poaching so habitat protection III Outcome 1 1989 Proposed new forestry but gave impression old way was behind the times therefore not good practice anymore IV Outcome 2 1992 Chief of USFS adopted ecosystem management P090 Ecological approach to achieve multiple use Represent diverse productive and sustainable ecosystem Ecological approach because forests are dynamic and complex Guidelines and goals 1994 1Hierarchical approach 2Think about population community watersheds and landscape level 3Ecological boundaries not administrative or political boundaries 4Preserverestore all functional and evolutionary processes like fire or predator control 5Maintain viable populations 6Protect all community types and variation 7Long time frame and large scale 8Could be important for fire return forests close to 200 years If we understand long term perspective for what landscape looks like to help it approach more natural perspective V Outcome 3 1994 approximately 235million acres were set aside for one species A B The Northern spotted owl range was the land that was set aside In applying broader principles it was the first steps toward ecosystem management VI Where do we stand now with ecosystem management A Applied to many landscapes applied by the Bureau of Land Management USFWS etc 10ther concepts Integrity health and resilience for lands Ecological principals of the Chequamegon Nicolet National Forest In 2004 revised forest plans applied to more than a million acres major issues in the plan that were to be addressed were eco restoration old growth landscape patterns special land allocations I Eco rest Reestablished structure composition in the northern hardwood forest type with very new procedures techniques in silviculture A B C D Extend rotation in even aged mgmt much larger trees larger coarse woody debris and snags Minimize aspen in NHW because previously it was not as widespread on the landscape Keep large HW patches and restore them Restrict logging to only frozen ground areas to reduce compaction and composition diversity of understory species 11 Old growth A B In the mid1800s about 68 closed canopy in the Lake States was old growth hemlock reserve today it is closer to 05 of forests that are about 120 yo Want to accelerate growth to old growth structure age not consequential but structure is III Landscape pattern A By extending rotation it encourages old growth characteristics and more extraction B Hierarchical ecological boundaries 1Functional and evolutionary process 2Viable populations 3All community types and variations 4Time frame and spatial scales C Arrangement location 1Range of stand ages reduced IV Special Land allocation A Land management categories B Ecological reference areas 1Example native species survival increases seral stages across natural range of variation C Alternative management areas AMAs new silviculture 10bjective to provide refuge for rare species 2Learn a lot by doing D Hemlock Reserve amp Surrogate Pine Barrens 1Fire dependent community exclusion from 1930 so many are gone more severe fire than savannas 2Prescribe large clearcuts to open system 3Low intensity prescribed burns 4Mimic pine barrens landscape and patch structure a Provides base for natural regeneration E New issue exotic earthworms 1Native biota under glaciation do not have native earthworms 2Earthworms have been introduced via composting angers etc 3Worms greatly reduce litter layer changes recycling of nutrients and decomposition alters micro 4Problem in broadleaf forests mainly not much in conifer forests F SW Ponderosa Pine Forest Type article 1Set out to restore function of presettlement a Previously 23 TPA hand increased 6 fold b Canopy reduction by thinning 2Litter layer in absence of fire just increases so fire will be HOT will kill tree because of long duration of ame a Litter raked away to remedy b Put back in grass dominant understory spp 3Hypothesis a Partial restoration will produce lower rates of decomposition nutrient cycling and NPP b Soil temperature i By opening canopy decreasing densityimportant for decomposition and nutrient cycling c Production of understory i Positive effect in their treatments to how forest is supposed to behave Landscape Ecology I What is it Essential merger of geography and ecology has strong spatial foundation and consideration of spatial in uence on ecological processes and attributes II Ecological basis from conservation approach goals and guidelines A Hierarchical approach 1Accumulative effects watershed example with what happens along streams contributing to sediment runoff what 2What happens at a small scale impacts what happens at the larger scale 3Biological attributes may accumulate a Diversity across land scape gamma may be low if same forest type dominates the landscape i Though community diversity may be high B Ecological boundaries C Preserve restore all functional and evolutionary processes III Components of Landscape Ecology as a function of structure and dynamics of a forest A Patch characteristics 1Size shape and other physical features like habitat suitability 2Define Layers like how we use GIS characteristics depend on mgmt objectives So no one single mutual consistent characteristic Lay layers on top of layers as per suitability and what we try to manage for 3What causes landscape patterns a Depends on time frame large scale disturbance and weather b Geologic processes and parent material like WIs lobes of glacial advance soils that result from them c Past land use what we have done the last 100150 years and secondary growth forests 7090 years old in WI d Human activity like fragmentation change and breaking up canopy cover usually by agriculture i Core habitat edge Habitat species Interactions nest predationparasitism Compositional differences changes in moisture The more irregular and elongate the shape the more quotedge effect will havequot B Matrix 1With dominant patch type a Established overall characteristics ecological of that landscape b Common biotic conditions 2Characteristics of effect a Feasibility of dispersal b Occurrence of some interactions i Herbivory pollination etc c Landscape diversity d Dominant species hence habitat 3Role of matrix consider 2 landscapes a Small patches of oldgrowth in a matrix of i Agriculture ii 2nd growth forest b In which landscape is old growth patch to old growth patch dispersal most likely i Species migrate from patch to patch more naturally C Corridors 1Qualitatively narrow elongated patch but perform different functions so they are distinct from patches a Fence rows in grassland matrix b Stream river in upland forest or grassland matrix 2Can be tool to help species move but can also be a barrier a Floodplain corridor i Aids and prevents dispersal important for maintenance of those species that exist along riparian zone ii May prevent dispersal for small mammals iii Create and edge iv Function Sediment loading Organism dispersal Habitat needs 2 or more different patch types for some animals b Flood plains differ from surrounding uplands i Composition ii Site conditions iii Structure iv Wildlife assemblages
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