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Review 4

by: jlvidro

Review 4 BIOL 01104

Biology I: Diversity, Evolution, and Adaptation
Professo Malcolm

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Here is a review of everything that will be on exam 4
Biology I: Diversity, Evolution, and Adaptation
Professo Malcolm
exam review
75 ?




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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by jlvidro on Sunday December 13, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 01104 at Rowan University taught by Professo Malcolm in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Biology I: Diversity, Evolution, and Adaptation in Biological Sciences at Rowan University.

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Date Created: 12/13/15
Exam 4 Review gt Scientific Method 0 Observation Test 0 Question Analyze o Hypothesis Conclusion And REPEAT Alternate and null hypotheses Experimental v Comparative Observational design Testable and falsifiable won t 100 prove any hypothesis BUT by gaining more evidence and disproving the other prior hypotheses you d gain more support for yours gt Evidence for Evolution 0 Micro vs Macroevolution gt Populations o Exponential v Logistic Growth I Kcapacity resources that can be sustained by a species andor population at a given time I May change as the environment changes 0 Exponential growth cannot be sustained forever gt Five Theories of Evolution 0 Evolution as such I The world and organisms change overtime 0 Common Descent I All of life shares a common ancestor o Multiplication of Species I Speciation yields more species 0 Gradualism I Gradual change of population 0 Natural Selection I Organisms with favorable traits leave more offspring genetic variation gt Variation and heritability 0 Individuals vary in a population 0 Traits influenced by environment genetics or both 0 Heritability 01 where Ono correlation and 1 very heritable gt Natural Selection 0 Mechanism of evolution I Individuals in a population differ I Some differences andor traits will be heritable I Some will survive and reproduce I Survival and reproduction is nonrandom o Adaptations enhance chances of survival and reproduction 0 Natural v Artificial v Sexual Selection I More than one type of selection can be acting at the same time I Depends on which selection has more pressure 0 Types Directional selection Selection againat an extreme Population after selection Griginal I lDLII alum Stabilizing Selection Stabilizing Selection Most Common Average survives 3 DOM exlrern ES Selectton agas Popu alaon after seieciion Origsnal population Disruptive Selection Selection against the mean QJUIEIJU l39E39m EJHQLT E lg m m rig Elna Disrm I iim 0 Sexual selection Differences in mating success Biological differences 0 Sexual dimorphism 0 Male to male competition 0 Female choice 0 Runaway preferred trait 0 Gene quality when a trait is environmentally beneficial Population Genetics 0 HardyWeinburg Equilibrium and Chisquared statistic o Assumptions of HardyWeinburg I No selection No genetic drift I No mutation Mating is Random I No migration Genetic Drift o Chance event that influences evolution I Large effect on small population I Less effects on large population 0 Loss of variation 0 Alleles can become fixed I Founder effect and Bottleneck effect Migration 0 Gene flow movement of alleles into or out of a population 0 Homogenizes populations Mutations I Random changes in DNA not directed I In gametes can be passed to next generation I Increases genetic variation 0 Gene part of the genetic code 0 Allele a variant of a g I Genotype v Phenotype Dominant v Recessive and Codominance I Selection for dominant allele will not result in fixation Species and Speciation 0 Biological Morphological o Ecological Phylogenetic o Evolutional Genetic Multiplication of species Isolation reduces gene flow Vicariance and Dispersal Reproductive Isolation Divergence New Species Allopatric vs Sympatric Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium vs Saltation Neither gradualism nor punctuated equilibrium are saltations Niche o Niche overlap 0 Competitive exclusion o Coexistence character displacement niche partitioning I Competition 0 Interference and exploitative 0 Direct and indirect gt Phylogenetics 0 000 O Monoplyletic groups and cladograms Derived traits Cladograms are hypotheses Homology and homoplasy I Homology are same or similar traits are due to common ancestry I Homoplasy are same or similar traits formed independently due to the environment Building cladograms based on data matrix Maximum Parsimony fewest number of evolutionary steps I Monophyletic polyphyletic and paraphyletic groups Consensus trees gt Classification and Taxonomy 0 O O Nested hierchary Binomial nomenclature Genus species Homology v Homoplasy gt Biogeography 0 Distribution of species through time and space 0 Vicariance such as plate tectonics vs Dispersal 0 Island Biogeography and theory I Number of species that an island can maintain I Endemic species restricted or found only in that location 0 Ex Lemurs in Madagascar gt Determine evolutionary history 0 Data in agreement from many areas I Phylogenetics biogeography ecology classification etc


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