reproductive system study guide
reproductive system study guide MPP 3202 - 01
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This 0 page Bundle was uploaded by Mary Hanrahan on Monday December 14, 2015. The Bundle belongs to MPP 3202 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Alan Parrish in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Elements of Physiology in Medical Technician at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 12/14/15
God Goddesses and Demons Agni god of fire converts sacrificial offerings Indra god of thunderwarking of vedic gods Vac goddess speech sanskrit language personified Usas goddess of dawn Ratri goddess of night Niritti deathdestructionprecursor to Kali Trimurti 3 main gods Brahma creator of deities Visnu balances dharma Siva great asceticyogi can destroy earth through dance Saraswati river goddess Ganga Ma great river goddess Sita Wife of Rama Cares only of Rama Born from the ground Represents idealdevote wife Not trusted during her time of kidnap by rama and kingdom vanished Rama wants her back realizing he was wrong sita says too bad and returns to earth Avatara of Vishnu Defeats Ravana who kidnaps his wife Dashara occurs immediately after nivratri 0 Celebration of the triumph of King Rama over the demon Ravana 0 It marks the victory of good over evil 0 Burn ravana statues Diwalifestival of lights marks Rama s triumphant return to capital where is pronounced king Clay lamps lit to show victory of good over evil Ravana demon faced by Rama Hanuman monkey god to save sita sita declines Laksmi Sri Consort to vishnu Goddess of wealth and prosperity Objects associated lotus and elephantroyal authority Diwala is also time to worship laksmi and thank her for all the wealth prosperity and pray goodbetter wealth next business season Sati selfimmolation consort of shiva commits selfimmolation out of protecting shiva s reputation and hers as well A dutiful wife sacrifices herself if necessary for sake of husband typically out of sudeen death or actions to protect is karma Daksa Sati s father disrespected shiva by not inviting him and sati to party Parvaticonsort shiva out yogis shiva Wants to marry him to be his wife and domesticate him Dharmas do not match up Kartikeya defeats tarakaonly defeated by offspring of shiva Shivaparvati son Ganesa elephant face Created out of bath water Son of shivaparvati Father to Satoshi Ma Radha krsna favorite gopi goddess Krsna avatara of Vishnu protectorcow herder attracts gopis Kamsa wicked uncledemon Durga warrior goddess Beautfil warrior No consort Puja Navratri nine nights of worship 0 Marks victory of Durga over Mahisa Mahisabuffalo demonkilled by durga No man can defeat me Madhu and Kaitabha 2 demons created from vishnu s earwax Threat brahma defeated by Vishnu and durga Shumbha and Nisumbha 2 demon brothers who hear about Durga beautyallure Canda and Munda Kali Uma Matrikas of durga Powerful dangerous goddess sometimes kali is associated with durga and also with Matrikas 7 mothers Often seen as personification of Durga s anger Associated with battlefieldscremation ground Consort shiva Approached through tantra as she is not a typical god and represents all tantric worships Calmest version of shiva s consort most domesticated consort Raktabija blood seed a powerful demon killed by kali Matrikas Known as 7 mothers dangerous goddesses sometimes seen emerging from Durga s forehead on the battle eld as helpersrepresent rage and anger Mariamman Sitala Ma Goddess of smallpox and other diseases originally goddess of south india Rides a donkeysitala Rides a tigermariamman Fever represents goddess anger Goddess possessed the poor out of love and protection possessed rich out of testing 0 Poor were possessed the most due to living conditions AIDS Amma Invented by science teacher in 1997 to bring awareness about the disease Invented on world aids day Does not proclaim to protect or cureonly awareness Santoshi Ma Created through the media of film Worshippers usually offer chickpeas raw sugar as an offering Vrat consists of 16 day fast of sugar and sweets and a final offering feeding 8 boys no sour or sweet Rahka bandhan siblings or friends tie bracelets raki on brother or male friends wrist representing family bond Women seeking satisfaction worship satoshi ma return of husband find husband pregnancy movement out of poverty Texts and Related ConceDtS Vedas ancient hindu texts Upanishadsbooks following Vedas into new time Epics Mahabharata and Ramayana Mahabharata stories of Vishnu Ramayana discusses the defeat of Ravana Puranas Stories of the gods and goddesses Devi Mahatmya the glory of the goddess famous goddess text that proclaims the great quality and power of the goddesses Devi Bhagavatam Sruti Smriti Term nd Concepts Yajna worship a ritual sacrifice Rta cosmic order of the world Dharma actions jobs of caste members Atman Brahman cosmic principle Karma goodbad it is the energy obtained from previous actions viewed as deciding fate of individual Samsara cycle of death and rebirth Bhakti devotion Shaivites worshippers of Shiva Vaishnavites worshippers of Vishnu Saktas worshippers of Goddesssakti Sakti Shakti woman s energypower associated to her karma and vrats Devi goddess Devagod Varna caste Brahman or Brahmino priest Ksatriya warriorking Vaisyabusinessman Sudra laborer Dalit untouchable outcastes Asrama stages of life Studentlearner Householderdomestic lifestyleraise children etc Forest Dweller AsceticRenouncerSamnyasin Term nd Concepts contjnued Purusarta goals of life Artha wealth prosperity Kamalove Dharma responsibilities of caste members Moksha ultimate salvation of life obtained through release of circle of lifesamsara Margas ie action knowledge devotion Karmaaction J nana knowledge Bhaktiworship Puj a worship performed for wishdeity Prasadoffering to the god goddess that is then blessed and returned as prasad Darsan a dynamic vision to gain access to the godsgoddess Murtia shrinerepresentation of a deity used for worship Arati light the act of circling of light in front of a murti to announce to the presence of a worshipperhelps to open the channel for darsan to occur Tirthareligious place of worship Avatara reincamationsversions of deities Vrata a vow Austerity sternness asceticism usually applied to practice or worship Fast not eat speci c foods Vrata Katha Tapas heat spiritual energy obtained through the performance of austerities Boon a wish granted fulfillment pf a desire acquired from completing puja for a deity Apsaras diVine female temptress often sent to reduce tapas and tej as spiritual power of a practitionerusually a man Asura a demon becomes a demon through abusing a powerful boon or wish granted by gods becomes threat to dharmarta Darsan literally Vision or sight more so auspicious sight or Visual transaction between a worshipper and deity Prana breathlife essence Lila divine play play drama entertainment the deities are said to be playing among earthly humans in a form of frolic or spirited play Kama love Prema sel ess love for the beloveddevotional love Virahalonging created by seperation Ananda blissjoy Darsan literally Vision or sight it is a dynamic sighttransaction between worshipperdeity Puja worship of the dovome Murti Iconic Aniconic Mudra an auspicious hand posture Nyasa the placing or marking the consencration of a deity image through touch in conjuction with sanskrit Pranaliterally breathe life essence Prana Pratishta putting life into the an imagemurti Yuga Kali Yuga Unity in Diversity way of exploring and understanding hindu outlook and orientation varnadharma variety of deities bhakti Sivaparvati relationship A symbolic expression of the tension between the ideal asceticsamnyas and ideal householder Dharmas do not meshdifferent life goals Does not complement siva rather rivalstricks him and lures him away from ascetic practices Represents polarity between dharma and moksha of the 2 Tantra worship Tantras series of secretive hindu ritual texts developing a different system non conventional to obtain moksha O Unites opposite requires the reversal of rules 0 Sadhaka one who practices tantrism Right handed associated with kundalinisnakes represent shaktis movement through chakrasspecia1 energy points in the bodythrough meditative practice that manipulates the subtle energies of the body most famous uses energy points in body to achieve moksha Left handed uses the 5 forbidden things5 M s ritually to achieve moksha more radical tantra 0 Meat 0 Fish 0 Wine 0 Parched graindrugs 0 Sexual intercourse Study Guide Ch 18 Digestive Physiology 1 What are the major functions of the gastrointestinal system What is the distinction between the quotdigestive systemquot and the quotdigestive tractquot a Process of ingesting food and delivery of nutrients to the body b Storage and elimination of unneeded food c Digestive system GI tract accessory organs needed for digestion d Digestive tract GI tract mouth esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine rectum anus 2 What are the overall actions and roles of the individual organs which comprise the digestive system and how those are integrated into ful lling the goal of delivering nutrition to the body a Mouth mastication chewing with the use of saliva which contains mucus to begin digestion of starches b Esophagus the process of swallowing and relaxing in areas as the food enters those areas to allow for transport to the stomach c Stomach stores food and breaks down into smaller pieces churns food and mixes with gastric secretions ie chime Begins protein diegestion and kills bacteria on food d Small intestine in charge of most digestioncarbs proteins fats absorption of nutrients processes bile salts vitamins electrolytes e Large intestine absorption of water elctrolytes vitamin K and B production of vitamin K and B storageprocess of feces f Rectumanus excretion of feces and waste 3 Understand the functional anatomy of the gut wall know what goes on in the mucosa submucosa muscle layers and understand the overall role played by the enteric nervous system two separate but interconnected nerve plexes within the gut wall a Mucosa single later of epithelial cells endocrine cells goblet cells secretion absorption b Submucosa connective tissue layer containing larger blood vessels lyph ducts and submucosal plexus meissner39s plexus of nerves from ENS c Muscularis propiainner layer of circular muscle affect lumen diameter Outer layer of longitudinal muscle affects length myenteric plexus lies between muscle layer controls gut motility via contractionrelaxation of layers d Serosa outer covering connective tissue membrane continuous with peritoneal membrane 4 Be familiar with the two major modes of regulatory signals controlling gut function GI hormones and neural control via both central and enteric nervous systems What are the general effects of sympathetic vs parasympathetic signals What are the two major plexuses of the enteric nervous system where are they located in the gut wall which one controls mainly secretory functions of the mucosa and which one controls muscular movements ie motility KNOW the roles of the following 3 major gut hormones gastrin secretin and cholecystokinin Where are they producedreleased What stimulates their secretion What are their major actions physiological effects a Parasympatheticcentral stimulates digestions absorptions contractionrelaxationsubmucosal b Sympatheticcentral inhibits peristalsis and secretion stimulate contraction of sphincters to prevent movement c Hormones causes different actions of hormone to cause digestion or inhibit digestion d Enteric nervous system able to generate re exes independently from the CNS if cut neural connections to cns gut can still engage in regulated function located in wall of digestive tract Understand how the intestinal epithelium renews itself and be familiar with the different types of epithelial cells and their respective roles a Rapid epithelial mitosis slowly dividingrenewa rapidrepacement b Proliferation pushes cells upmigrate up c Enterocytes enteroendocrine cells and goblet cells i Once they reach the top cells she ad are replaced d Paneth cells move downwardlive for 20 days and the phagocytosis occurs Understand the different phases of a meal ie cephalic gastric intestinal Familiarize yourself with the neural and hormonal signaling involved in each what stimulates those signals how they are mediated eg long re ex involving the brain vs local re ex mediated by the enteric nervous system vs hormone what effects are triggered by those signals and how they t into the overall control of digestionabsorption a Cephalicswallowingmastication i mucus b Gastric stomach digestion and breakdown of proteins and starch absorption of alcohol and aspirin i Pepsin gastrin and HCL helps to digest proteins c Intestinalmain place of absorption and digestion of all foods and intake of vitamins salt water etc i Pancreatic intestinal enzymes What is the route taken by a piece of food through the GI tract a Mouthgtesophagusgtstomachgtsmal intestinegt large intestine gtrectumanus What is the function of the esophagus a Transport food from the mouth to stomach b Soften food What are the functions of the stomach How does the role of the fundus differ from those of the body corpus antrum and pylorus a Cardiacfood deliverd to cardial region for esophagus b Fundusstorage expands to accommodate load receptive relaxation limited motility c Bodyhigh motility breaks large molicules into smaller particles mixed foods with secreted acid enzyme and uid chime d Pyloruslimits amount emptied restricts size of emptied particles in chyme 10What is the mixture of incoming food and gastric sections called a chyme 11Why is the grinding and mixing actions of the stomach important for later enzymatic digestion a It kills bacteria in the food and allows for nutrients to be absorbed 12What are the major secretions added to food in the stomach a Pepsin gastrin HCI mucus 13What digestive activity goes on in the stomach a digestive 14Why is acid secretion important how is it stimulated from what cells is it secreted and why doesn39t it digest the organ a Acid is secreted from parietal cells it helps to break soften the food in the stomach the organ has layers of cells and layer of protective mucus b Started by the release of other hormones 15What is also secreted in the stomach by acidsecreting cells and how is it important for the absorption of a key vitamin a HCI parietal cells b Serves as the optimal pH starter 12 pH and for pepsin activity 16What are the three major types of movements motility involved in both the absorptive and postabsorptive states Which occur between meals ie in the postabsorptive state and which occur during the digestive process a Migrating myoelectric motor complex sweeps gut clear and occurs in postabsorptive state b Peristalsis net forward movement by muscular contraction and relaxation behindahead of bolus digestive stage c Segmentation mixing by simultaneously contracting both behind and ahead of bolus digestive stage 17Where does most digestionabsorption take place a Small intestine 18Where are digestive secretions from the pancreas and gallbladder delivered What turns on these secretions during a meal see role of gut hormones secretin amp CCK as speci ed in Q4 above a Small intestine duodenum hormones from the parasympathetic system turn on these secretions such as secretin CCK GIP 19Understand the anatomy of the intestinal epithelium How is the absorptive surface organized how is it renewed and what speci c cell types comprise the epithelial layer What is the crypt What is the villus What is the brush border a Duodenumgtjejunmgtilium b Mucosa folded into villi epithelial membrane folded into microvilli c Stems cells layer 45 cells from bottom of crypt bottom orpit beneath the villi d 2 types of stem cells slow dividing stem renewal cells rapidly dividing epithelial replacement cells i Continuous proliferation pushes cells up the vilus e As cells migrate differ into enterocytes enteroendocrine cells goblet cells transition time is 35 days f Paneth cells are at the niche of the bottom of crypt g Villi consist of capillaryEpithelial cells grown out of the intestinal lining h Brush bordermicrovilli foldings on epithelial cells and act as enzymes and help break substances apart 20What are the main functions of the large intestine a Absorbs water electrolytes vitamins k and b b Production of vitamin k and b via microbial organisms c Storageprocess feces 21Understand the sources and fate of uid entering the GI tract a Either absorbed or carried to renal system 22Understand the essentials of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates protein fat and vitamins a Carbohydrates fats proteins digestion breaks polymers into monomer building blocks via hydrolysis reactions b Absorption takes theses monomers into the blood stream to be used by cells c Vitamins are enzymatically split into their component molecules by hydrolysis 23What are the digestion products of protein starch and fat What are the major enzymes involved and where do they come from a Protein start as polypeptide chaingt amino acids dipeptides and tripeptides b Carbohydrates maltose sucrose lactose to simple sugar glucose c Fat emulsi ed and lipasepancreas break down fat into glycerol phospholipase digests phospholipids into fatty acids 24ln what form are digestive enzymes secreted from the pancreas and how are they activated in the lumen of the intestine a Enzymes are secreted as inactive zymogens until they reach the small intestine and activated by trypsin 25Why is chyme entering the intestine from the stomach inhibitory to pancreatic digestive enzyme function and how is this inhibition overcome so that digestion can occur How is that achieved a Liquid to dense chyme enters at different rates to prevent digestive enzymes to break apart the wrong material b Also controlled by hormones 26How is glucose absorbed How are amino acids absorbed Why is the digestionabsorptiontransport of fat unique what is the role of emulsifying agents phospholipids bile salts in assisting with handling of these hydrophobic molecules a Glucose is absorbed by facilitated diffusion through glut carriers into interstitial uid and then cap Blood of the villus 27What are the events during the cephalic gastric and intestinal phases of a meal How are these events controlled a Cephalic prepares stomach for arrival of food re ex signals from medulla via vegal bers to stimulate submucosal plexus vegus stimulates acid secretion w3 mechanisms direct signal via arch indirect via histamine indirect via gastrin b Gastric enhances secretion mix acidify and increase surface area of chyme break down proteins 3 mechanisms neural re exes triggered by stretching and rise in pH gastrin release triggered by vagal signals local release of histaminestimulates acid secretion c Intestinal acts to control gastric emptying rate limit acid secretion and optimize conditions for enzymatic digestion 2 re exesneural short re ex triggered by distention of duodenum hormonal stimulation of secretin CCK GIP and presence of hydrogen 28Understand the importance of control of gastric emptying rate in the overall process of digestionabsorption What factors limit this rate a Regulated by intestinal signals to prevent complete emptying b Liquids empty rst solids slowest also nutrientspeci c controlsense physiochemicals 29What are chylomicrons Why are they important for transport of fat form the gut into the body and what route do they take to get in How does this differ from the route taken by carbohydrates and protein a 30What is the overall role of physical barriers lumensecreted antimicrobial agents and the mucosal immune system in protecting from invasion by pathogens a Mucosal barrier prevents bacterial from entering cells and being absorbed into blood stream b Defensins ght against the antigens that try to enter barrier 31Know the following terms digestion absorption motility peristalsis segmentation migrating myoelectric complex duodenum jejunum ileum mucosa submucosa muscularis propria enteric nervous system ENS submucosal plexus myenteric plexus gallbladder acinar cells exocrine secretion chyme pepsinogenpepsin intrinsic factor enterochromaf nlike cells histamine parietal cells chief cells G cells gastrin villus crypt microvilli enterocyte goblet cell paneth cell enteroendocrine cell brush border lamina propria peristalsis migrating myoelectric complex segmentation zymogen amylase trypsin trypsinogen CCK secretin emulsi cation bile acid salt enterohepatic circulation lipase enteropeptidase disaccharidase triglyceride fatty acid chylomicron defensin secondary active transport intrinsic factor cephalic pahse gastric phase intestinal phase gastrocolic re ex Peyer39s parches follicular associated epithelium FAE M cells cytokines Study Guide Chapter 20 Reproduction amp Development Lect 1 Fri 1242015 1 What are germ cells What are somatic cells Which of these are involved in reproduction a Germ cells ova and spermreporductive b Somatic every other kind of cells What is gametogenesis How does it differ between males and females What is the timeline of gametogenesis in males and females eg when does it begin Does it continue throughout life or are there any pauses If the latter when do those pauses occur What occurs in utero and what occurs upon onset of puberty males vs females a Gametogenesis development of gametes in reproductive organs from germ cells b Male large number of gametes produced continuously from stem cells beginning at puberty and extending until senescence i Decreases when testosterone production decreases c Females release only one gamete at a time from a limited pool of preformed gametes in a process that is repeated at regular monthly interveals i Pauses during birth What determines the genetic sex in an embryo What is the result of X chromosome inactivation a Whether a males releases an x or y chromosome b Xinactivation early in development after ovaries are developed affects different cells randomly What key gene is carried on the Ychromosome which determines the genetic sex of the resulting zygote What is the critical organ whose development is dependent upon that gene39s presence a The y chromosome is for males and indicates the development of testes and a penis What two hormones do the testis produce What are these hormones39 effects a Testosterone and antimullerian hormone b Testosteronemasculinization What are the Wol an and Mullerian ducts Which one is lost in genetic males vs females a Wol an ducts the duct of mesonephros that persists in females as part of the vestigial organ and in males as duct system leaving the testis b Mullerian ducts ducts that give rise in the female as fallopian tubes uterus cervix and upper portion of vagina What is the role of dihydrotestosterone a Development of male external genitalia What is puberty and what triggers its onset a Puberty is development into adult of sex organs and what not b Secretion of LH results in increase of testosterone and estradiol i Produce secondary sex characteristics 9 What is GnRH From where is it released on what target gland does it act and what trophic hormones does it stimulate How is its release from the hypothalamus in uenced by factors from the pituitary and gonads a GNRH gonadotropin releasing hormone produced in the hypothalamus to stimulate the pituitary to secrete LH and FSH 10ln males when FSH and LH are released from the pituitary what cells do they act on in the testis In response what do those cells do a Leydig cells secrete testosterone b Sertoli cells regulate sperm development secrete proteins need for sperm development 11What happens in the epididydimis What happens in the seminiferous tubules a Epididymis site of maturation and storage of sperm b Seminiferous tubules site of sperm production 12Where does a fertilized egg implant What is the anatomical relationship between the ovaries fallopian tubes and the uterus Where is the cervix and what major role does it play What is the endometrium a Uterus normal site of implantation and development of fertilized egg b Ovarieseggs are produced fallopian tube move egg toward uterus uterus is where egg is fertilized and develops c Cervix is a canal with mucussecreting cells which forms a protective barrier between vagina and uterus d Endometrium the inner most layer of the uterus 13What are the three phases of the ovarian cycle How do those phases coincide with the uterine cycle and what major hormonal changes are associated with these events a Menses estrogen and progesterone are low FSH has peaks preovulatory phase b Proliferative estrogen is at peak LH is at peak ovulation c Secretory progesterone peak and estrogen is peaking down FSH LH are ultimate lows postovulation 14What event marks the start of a new cycle If that start marks Day 1 of a new cycle then on what day does ovulation occur a New cycle starts when FSH LH increase b Ovulation occurs 14days later 15What is the corpus luteum CL and what function does it serve a Cl remnants of ruptured folliclesecretes hormones which help prepare for pregnancy 16What happens to the CL if the ovulated egg is not fertilized How does that affect ovarian hormone estrogen progesterone secretion and what is the result a If no pregnancy CL degenerates and cycle resumes estrogen and progesterone decrease endometrium is compromised and surface epithelium begins to die 17What causes ovulation a Estrogen levels peak and induce a surge of LH 18Expain how the effect of estrogen on release of GnRH LH and FSH changes during the menstrual cycle and why that is signi cant a Peaks of estrogen during menses and proliferative phase cause hormones to decline rise of LH during ovulation and small peak of FSH during ovulation all hormones decrease during secretion phase 19How does the endometrium change throughout the menstrual cycle What function does it have a Endometrium rst swells during follicle phase then during luteal phase it begins to shed b Function develop egg if not essentially clean and renew the uterus Lect 2 Mon 1272015 20What is the one constant regarding the human sexual response a Procreation sexual response varies upon gender and individual 21What type of neural signal stimulates penile erection What type inhibits erection Which of these two would you expect to be dominant during a high stress situation eg if a huge elephant suddenly crashes through the ceiling of the bedroom a Stimuli olfactory visuaauditory b Inhibition sympathetic inhibits sexual response sympathetic would be dominant during high stress 22What is the effect of the gas nitric oxide on guanylate cyclase activity in vascular smooth muscle In turn what does guanylate cyclase do and what effect does that have on intracellular calcium and therefore muscle contraction How does Viagra help that a Gases stimulate vascular smooth muscle b Guanylate cyclase stimulates vasoconstriction produces calcium that stimulate contraction and vasoconstriction c Viagra helps to block ca2 entry and promotes relaxation and vasodilation and erection 23How long do eggs and sperm survive in the female reproductive tract a 12 days 24What is capacitation Why is it important a Capacitation is a functional maturation of spermatozoon pH increases and hyperactivity of agellum in order to make to egg 25Where in the tract does fertilization usually take place a Distal part of fallopian tube 26What is the acrosomal reaction What is the cortical reaction and how does it prevent more than one sperm from fertilizing the egg a Acrosomal reaction sperm penetrate outer layers and the sperm enzymes digest the egg39s jelly coat b Cortical reaction a fertilization membrane forms preventing other sperm to attach to the egg Ca2 is released to prevent entry of other sperm and activates oocyte to nish meiosis 27Mitochondria have a genome that is separate from our nuclear genome Why do we inherit our mitochondrial genome only from our mothers a Autophagy is the breakdown of work out cellsproteins b When sperm fertilize the egg mitophagy breakdown sperms mitochondria while females survive 28At what stage of development does the new zygote implant within the uterus a Zygote implants in uterus as a blastocyst 7 to 10 days post fertilization 29What is the chorion What does it become a Chorion portion of trophoblast layer which becomes embryonic portion of placenta 30What is hCG Where does it come from What does it do and for how long during pregnancy does it do it Once it stops being secreted near the end of the rst trimester how does that alter the source for estrogen and progesterone Explain why its detectionmeasurement is the basis for modern pregnancy tests a HCGhuman chorionic gonadotropin secreted from chorionic villi and placenta b Maintains viability of CL which continues to produce progesterone does this for 23 months during pregnancy c 2nCI trimester placenta takes over production of progesterone and estrogen 31What is hPL Where does it come from What does it do and for how long during pregnancy does it do it a hPL human placenta actogen secreted from placenta to induce metabolic shit in favor of fetus lasts about 40 weeks 32What is the role of oxytocin during labor a Oxytocin produces contractions of uterus 33What two major hormones are involved in lactation how are they triggered and what are their respective major effects a Prolactin milk production b Oxytocinmilk ejection c Triggered by sucking on nipple 34What may explain the trend of lowering age of onset of menstruation in girls a 35What is thought to explain the gradual onset of menopause in women a Lack of sensitivity to FSH LH and decrease in estradio
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