Module 5: Chapters 14, 15, + 16
Module 5: Chapters 14, 15, + 16 Nursing 200
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Adolescence: Biosocial Development Puberty Begins: ● Menarche: ○ Girl’s first menstrual period, signaling that she has begun ovulation. ○ Pregnancy is biologically possible, but ovulation and menstruation are often irregular for years after menarche. ● Spermarche: ○ Boy’s first ejaculation of sperm. ○ Erections can occur as early as infancy, but ejaculation signals sperm production. Puberty: Unseen Beginnings: ● Hormone: ○ Organic chemical substance that is produced by one body tissue and conveyed via the bloodstream to another to affect some physiological function. ● Pituitar : ○ Gland in the brain that responds to a signal from that hypothalamus by producing many hormones, including those that regulate growth and control other glands, among them the adrenal and sex glands. Biological Sequence Of Puberty: ● Puberty ○ Begins with a hormonal signal from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland. The pituitary, in turn, signals the adrenal glands and the ovaries or testes to produces more of their hormones. ● Adrenal Glands: ○ Two glands, located above the kidneys, that produce hormones including the “stress hormones” epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine. Puberty Unseen Beginnings: ● HPA (hypothalamuspituitaryadrenal) Axis: ○ Sequence of a chain reaction of hormone production, originating in the hypothalamus and moving to the pituitary and then to the adrenal glands. ● HPG (hypothalamuspituitarygonad) Axis: ○ Sequence of hormone production that originates in the hypothalamus, moves to the pituitary, and then to the gonads. Puberty Begins Sex Hormones: ● A surge of hormones affects bodies, brains, and behavior before any visible sign of puberty appear. ● Gonads: ○ Paired sex glands (ovaries in females, testicles in males). ○ Gonads produce hormones and gametes. ● Estradio ○ Sex hormone, considered the chief estrogen. ○ Females produce more estradiol than males do. ● Testosterone: ○ Sex hormone, the best known of the androgens (male hormones). ○ Secreted in far greater amounts by males than by females. Sleepyheads: ● Three of every four high school seniors are sleep deprived. Even if they go to sleep at midnight, as many do, they must get up before 8, as almost all do. Then all day, they are tired. Puberty Begins: ● Age Of Puberty: ○ Age 11 0r 12 is the most likely age of visible onset. ○ The rise in hormone levels that signals puberty is considered normal in those as young as age 8 or as old as age 14. ○ Precocious puberty (sexual development before age 8) occurs about once in 5,000 children, for unknown reasons ● Secular Trend: ○ Data on puberty over the centuries that reveals a dramatic example of a longterm statistical increase or decrease. ○ Each generation has experiences puberty a few weeks earlier, and has grown a centimeter or so taller, than did the preceding one. ○ Secular trend has stopped in developed nations. ● Body Fat: ○ Body fat influence onset of puberty. ○ Most girls must weigh at least 100 pounds before experiencing first period. ○ Globally, urban children are more often overfed and under exercised than rural children. ● Leptin: ○ Affects appetite and is believed to be involved in the onset of puberty. ○ Increases during childhood and peaks at around age 12. ○ Evokes uncertainty about its effects. ● Stress: ○ Arrives earlier. ■ Child’s parents are sick, addicted or divorced. ■ Neighborhood is violent are impoverished. ○ Affects children who are genetically sensitive to context. ■ For girls who are genetically sensitive, puberty comes early if their family interaction is stressful but late if their family is supportive. ■ Several longitudinal studies show a direct link between stress and early puberty. ○ Makes reproduction more difficult in adulthood and hastens hormonal onset of puberty. ○ Not all scientists agree that stress causes early puberty. Too Early, Too Late: ● Girls: ○ Earlymaturing girls tend to have lower selfesteem, more depression, and poorer body image than latermaturing girls. ○ Earlymaturing girls may be attracted to older boyfriends and enter into abusive relationships more often than other girls. ● Boys: ○ Earlymaturing boys are more aggressive, lawbreaking, and alcoholabusing than latermaturing boys. ○ Slow developing boys tend to be more anxious, depressed, and afraid of sex. ○ Size and maturation are important for many adolescents in every nation. The Transformations Of Puberty: ● Big Difference: ○ All children experience an increase in muscles during puberty, but gender differences are much more apparent in some gross motor skills. Nutrition ● Diet Deficiencies: ○ Many adolescents are deficient in their intake of necessary vitamins or minerals. ○ Deficiencies include iron, calcium, zinc, and other minerals, since these are needed for bone and muscle growth. ○ Nutritional deficiencies result from the food choices that young adolescents are allowed, even enticed, to make. ● Body Image: ○ Person’s idea of how his or her body looks. ○ Girls diet partly because boys tend to prefer to date thin girls. ○ Boys want to look taller and stronger partly because girls value welldeveloped muscles in males. Puberty Eating Disorders: ● Anorexia Nervosa: ○ Eating disorder characterized by selfstarvation. ○ Affected individuals voluntarily under eat and often over exercise, depriving their vital organs of nutrition. ○ Anorexia can be fatal. ● Bulimia Nervosa (bingepurge syndrome): ○ Eating disorder characterized by binge eating and subsequent purging, usually by induced vomiting and/or use of laxatives. ● Origins Of Disordered Eating: ○ Cultural image. ○ Stress. ○ Puberty. ○ Hormones. ○ Childhood patterns. ● Family patterns and eating disorder reduction. ○ Healthy eating in childhood. ○ Eating together during childhood. Neurological Development: ● Different parts of the brain grow at different rates. ○ Myelination and maturation occur in sequence, proceeding from the inner brain to the cortex and from back to front. ○ Limbic system (fear, emotional impulses) matures before the prefrontal cortex (planning ahead, emotional regulation). ● Instinctual and emotional areas develop before the reflective ones do. ○ When emotions are intense, especially when one is with peers, the logical part of the brain shuts down. ○ When stress, arousal, passion, sensory bombardment, drug intoxication, or deprivation is extreme, the adolescent brain is overtaken by impulses that might shame adults. Benefits Of Adolescent Brain Development: ● Several aspects of adolescent brain development are positive. ○ Increased myelination, which decreases reaction time. ○ Enhances dopamine activity, promoting pleasurable experiences. ○ Synaptic growth enhances moral development and openness to new experiences and ideas. Cognitive Development: ● Risk And Reward: ○ Neurological research finds that the reward parts of adolescents’ brains are far stronger than inhibition parts. ○ Slowermaturing prefrontal cortex makes powerful sensations desirableloud music, speeding cars, strong drugscompelling. ○ Teens seek excitement and pleasure, especially the social pleasure of a peer’s admiration. ○ Many types of psychopathology increase at pubertyespecially early puberty. Sexual Maturation: ● Primary Sex Characteristics: ○ Parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction, including the vaginam uterus, ovaries, testicles, and penis. ● Secondary Sex Characteristics: ○ Physical traits that are not directly involved in reproduction but that indicate sexual maturity. ■ Shape. ■ Hair patterns. ■ Breasts. ● Sexual Activity: ○ Boys are more influenced by hormones and girls by culture. ○ Both are influenced by hormones, society, biology, and culture. ● Problems less problematic than in earlier decades. ○ Decreased teen births in every nation. ○ Rise in use of protection. ○ Decrease in teen abortion rate. ● Hazards related to adolescent sexual activity. ○ Earlier puberty and weaker social taboos encourage sex at earlier age. ○ Early sex correlates with depression and drug abuse. ○ Increased complexity and expense are related to parenting. ○ More common and dangerous STIs. Seuxal Abuse: ● Child Sexual Abuse: ○ Definition. ○ Most common time. ○ International and national rates. ● Characteristics: ○ Family members most likely to abuse. ○ VIctims often isolated and uninformed. ○ Impact of abuse often continues into adulthood. The Transformations Of Puberty: ● Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI): ○ Disease spread by sexual contact, including syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, chlamydia, and HIV. ○ Worldwide, sexually active teenagers have higher rates of most common STIs. ○ Early age of first intercourse, failure to use condoms, and hesitancy to report infection contribute to high U.S. infection rate. Condom Use Among 15YearOlds (Tenth Grade): ● France: ○ Sexually active 20%. ○ Used condom at last intercourse 84%. ● Israe: ○ Sexually active 14%. ○ Used condom at last intercourse 72%. ● Canada: ○ Sexually active 23%. ○ Used condom at last intercourse 78%. ● United tates: ○ Sexually active 41%. ○ Used condom at last intercourse 68%. ● England: ○ Sexually active 29%. ○ Used condom at last intercourse 83%. ● Russia: ○ Sexually active 33%. ○ Used condom at last intercourse 75%. Adolescence Cognitive Development: Logic And Self: ● Egocentrism to abstract logic occurs between ages 11 and 18. ○ Brain maturation. ○ Intense conversations. ○ Schooling. ○ Moral challenges. ○ Increased independence. ● Adolescent Egocentrism: ○ Characteristic of adolescent thinking. ○ Involves thinking intensely about themselves and about what other people think of them. ■ Involved thinking about themselves as much more unique, special, and admired or disliked that they actually are. ■ Leads to interpretation of everyone else’s behavior as a personal judgement. ■ Was first described by David Elkind. ● Fables: ○ Personal Fable: ■ Aspect of adolescent egocentrism characterized by an adolescent’s belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, or experiences are unique, more wonderful or awful than anyone else’s. ○ Invincibility Fable: ■ Adolescent’s egocentric conviction that her or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as unprotected sexx, drug abuse, or highspeed driving. ● Egocentrism Reassessed: ○ Previous research suggests egocentrism fosters adolescent risktaking. ○ Current perspectives propose egocentrism may be protective. ○ Adolescents who feel psychologically invincible tend to be resilient. Formal Operational Thought: ● Piaget Formal Operational Thought: ○ Fourth and final stage of cognitive development. ■ Characterized by more systematic logic and the ability to think about abstract ideas. ■ Examples seen in comparison between primary school and high school. Inductive Reasoning: ● General Conclusion: ○ Observation. ○ Past experiences. ○ Ideas from authority. Deductive Reasoning: ● General Principle: ○ Application. ○ Example. ○ Hypothetical case. ○ Extension. ○ Test case. Formal Operational Thought: ● Logical Fallacies In Adolescence: ○ Sunk Cost Fallacy: mistaken belief that if money, time, or effort that cannot be recovered has already been invested in some endeavor, then more should be invested in an effort to reach the goal. ○ Base Rate Neglect: person ignores the overall frequency of some behavior or characteristic (called the base rate) in making a decision. ■ Egocentrism makes base rate neglect more likely and more personal. Two Modes Of Thinking Intuition Versus Analysis: ● Intuitive Thought: ○ Thought that arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation, and is influenced by past experiences and cultural assumptions. ● Analytic Thought: ○ Thought that results from analysis, such as a systematic ranking of pros and cons, risks and consequences, possibilities and facts. ○ Analytic thought depends on logic and rationality. Inductive Vs. Deductive Reasoning: ● We are able to think both intuitively and analytically, but adolescents tend to rely more on intuitive thinking than do adults. As we age, we move toward more analytical processing. Changes In Age: ● As people age, their thinking tends to move from intuitive processing to more analytical processing. ○ Kahneman’s System 1 → Kahneman’s System 2. ○ Piaget’s Concrete Operational → Formal Operational. Two Modes Of Thinking: ● Preferring Emotions: ○ Rational judgement is difficult when egocentric emotions dominate. ○ Experience in decisionmaking and thinking facilitates more accurate use of analysis. ● Better Thinking: ○ Intuitive decisions are not always best. ○ With maturity, adolescents gradually balance formal analytic thinking and emotional, experiential thinking. Formal Operational Thought: ● Dual Processing And The Brain: ○ Limbic system activated by puberty; prefrontal cortex matures more gradually. ○ Cortical regions involving impulse control continue to develop through early adulthood. ○ Adolescent brain give less signals of caution/inhibition than adult brain. ○ Subcortical regions involving sensation seeking develop rapidly after puberty. Look Before You Leap: ● Burst of sensation seeking at puberty and the slow decline of impulsivity over the years of adolescence were the general trends in this study. ● Trajectories varied individually: decline in sensation seeking did not correlate with the decline in impulsivity. Digital Natives: ● Today’s teenagers are digital natives who take technology for granted. ○ Many have been networking since childhood. ○ Within nations, the digital divide is shrinking, though digital differences remain. ■ Lowincome families continue to be less likely to have highspeed Internet at home. ■ Adolescents from lowSES neighborhoods are less likely to use the Internet, ○ The most notable digital divide is age. Technology And Cognition: ● Learning Via Electronic Technology: ○ Before Technology Explosion: egocentric thought decreases with education, conversation, and experience. ● Technology: ○ Encourages rapid shifts of attention, multitasking without reflection, visual learning instead of invisible analysis. Is It An Addiction?: ● Research Findings: ○ Average person played video games two hours a day. ○ Some play much more, and only 3% of the boys and 21% of the girls never played. ○ Almost onethird of all high school students use technology more than 3 hours a day; onefourth used video games to escape from problems, and onefifth had “done poorly on a school assignment or test” because of spending too much time on video games. Technology And Cognition: ● Cyber Danger: ○ Adolescent cognitive growth benefits from shared experiences and opinions. ○ Often, communication via the Internet bolsters fragile selfesteem. ○ Adolescents sometimes share personal information online without thinking about the possible consequences. ● Cyberbullying: ○ Bullying that occurs via Internet insults and rumors, texting, anonymous phone calls, and video embarrassment. ○ Anonymity provided by electronic technology often brings out the worst in people. ○ Cyberbullying may contribute to dangerous, selfdestructive behavior of victim. Worse In Adolescence: ● Adolescent imaginary audience can go viral. ○ Texting: ■ Texts and emailed rumors and insults can reach thousands. ■ Cyberbullying is particularly prevalent between ages 1114. ■ It may be worst when the imaginary audience is strong, the identity is forming, and impulsive thoughts precede analytic ones. ■ Adolescent victims are likely to suffer from depression and may commit suicide. ● Sexting contains trouble for many adolescents. ○ Sexting: ■ Involves sending sexual photographs. ■ Includes reported incidence as high as 30% of adolescents; varies by school, gender, and ethnicity. ■ Is rarely known by adults. ○ Dangers: ■ Pictures are often forwarded without the naked person’s knowledge, and senders risk serious depression if the reaction is not what they wished. Teaching And Learning Definitions And Facts: ● Secondary Education: ○ Period after primary education (elementary or grade school) and before tertiary education (college). ○ Usually occurs from about age 12 to age 18, although the age range varies somewhat by school and by nation. ● Middle School: ○ School for children in the grades between elementary and high school. ○ Usually begins with grade 5 or 6 and ends with grade 8. ● Middle School: ○ Increasing behavioral problems; many students dislike middle school. ■ Studentteacher relationships undercut. ■ Exposure to more teachers and peers; often impersonal and distant. ■ Less learning and more risk. ■ Less parental help. ● Middle School: ○ Finding Acclaim: ■ Public acclaim difficult and many students seek peer acceptance. ○ Coping With Middle School: ■ Blaming others. ■ Entity approach to intelligence. ■ Incremental approach to intelligence. ● Entity Approach To Intelligence: ○ Sees ability as innate, a fixed quantity present at birth. ○ Rejects idea that effort enhances achievement. ● Incremental Approach To Intelligence: ○ Poses intelligence can be directly increased by effort. ○ Suggests children can master whatever they seek to learn if they pay attention, participate in class, study, and complete their homework. School Transitions: ● Entering A New School: ○ Transition from one school to another often affects ability to function and learn. ○ Changing schools just when the growth spurt is bound to create stress. ○ The first year in any new school (middle school, high school, or college) correlates with increases bullying, decreased achievement, depression, and eating disorders. High School: ● CollegeBound: ○ Teachers assume students have mastered formal thinking, instead of teaching how to do it. ○ Increased classes assessed by externally scored exams do not assure college readiness. ● HighStakes Test: ○ Involved evaluation that is critical in determining success or failure. ○ Determines if a student will graduate or be promoted. Those Who Do Not Go To College: ● 70% of high school graduates enter college. ○ This number that does not include students who never graduate from high school. Choosing Vocations: ● “What do you want to be when you grow up?” ○ Students that develop a vision of their future and select courses that will help them achieve their goal. ○ Students need to know college is not only optionbut additional training is most often necessary. Measuring Practical Cognition: ● PISA (Programme For International Student Assessment): ○ International test taken by 15year olds in 50 nations that is designed to measure problem solving and cognition in daily life. ○ Overall, the U.S. students did worse on the PISA than on the PIRLS or TIMSS. Measuring Practical Cognition: ● PISA correlates that which contributes to high achievement. ○ Overall, all stakeholders value education and individualized learning approaches are used. ○ Standards are high and clear. ○ Teachers and administrators are valued. ○ Learning is prioritized across the entire system. Adolescence Psychosocial Development: Identit ● Erikson ○ Identity ■ Consistent definition of one’s self as a unique individual, in terms of roles attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations. ● Erikson ○ Identity Versus Role Confusion: ■ Erikson’s term for the fifth stage of development in which the person tries to figure out “Who am I?” But is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt. ○ Identity Achievement: ■ Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual, in accord with past experiences and future plans. Not Yet Achieved: ● Role Confusion (Identity Diffusion): ○ A situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is. ● Foreclosure: ○ Erikson’s term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values wholesale, without questioning or analysis. ● Moratorium: ○ An adolescent’s choice of a socially acceptable way to postpone making identityachievement decisions. Going to college is a common example. Identity: Not Yet Achieved: ● Marcia described and measured four specific ways young people cope with adolescence. ○ Role confusion (identity diffusion). ○ Foreclosure. ○ Moratorium. ○ Identity achievement. Four Areas of Adolescent Identity Formation: ● Religious Identity: ○ Most adolescents accept broad outlines of parental and cultural religious identity. ○ Specific religious beliefs may be questioned. ● Political Identity: ○ Most adolescents follow parental political traditions. ○ A political identity may emerge with weakening parental party identity. ○ Fanatical political religious movement participation rare. ○ Most adolescents identify with their ethnicity. ● Vocational Identity: ○ Vocational identity takes years to establish. ○ Early vocational identity is no longer relevant. ○ Parttime work during high school is often related to negative outcomes. ● Sexual Identity: ○ Erikson’s gender intensification no longer fits adolescent development. ■ Now called gender identity that begins with the person’s biological sex and leads to a gender role. ○ Adolescents experience a strong sexual drive as hormone levels increase. ○ Some adolescents foreclose by exaggerating male or female roles; others seek a moratorium by avoiding all sexual contact. Relationships With Adults: ● Conflicts With Parents: ○ Parentadolescent conflict typically peaks in early adolescence and is more a sign of attachment than of distance. ● Bickering ○ Bickering involves petty, peevish arguing, usually repeated and ongoing. ● Uninvolved Parenting: ○ Although teenagers may act as if they no longer need their parents, neglect can be very destructive. Cultural Differences: ● Cultural Differences: ○ In cultures that value harmony above all else, adolescent contradiction are not apparent. Relationship Within The Family: ● Closeness Within The Family: ○ Communication: Do parents and teens talk openly with one another? ○ Support: Do they rely on one another? ○ Connectedness: How emotionally close are they? ○ Control: Do parents encourage or limit adolescent autonomy? ● Emotional Dependency: ○ Adolescents are more dependent on their parents if they are female and/or from a minority ethnic group. ○ This can be either repressive or healthy, depending on the culture and the specific circumstances. ○ Overall, parental reactions are crucial: Too much criticism and control might stop dialogue, not improve communication and behavior. Relationships With Parents: ● Do You Know Where Your Teenager Is? ○ Parental Monitoring: Parents’ ongoing awareness of what their children are doing, where, and with whom. ■ Positive: Part of a warm, supportive relationship. ■ Negative: When overly restrictive and controlling. ■ Worse/Psychological: Parents make a child feel guilty and impose gratefulness by threatening to withdraw love and support. Parents, Genes, and Risks: ● African American parents and their 11yearolds participated in a parenting intervention. ● Three years later, researchers found little evidence of program success. ● However, when DNA was collected and analyzed when participants turned age 16, major impact of training was related to the presence of the long allele of the 5HTTLPR gene. Peer Pressure: ● Social Networking: ○ Technology usually brings friends together in adolescence. ○ Most social networking is between friends, but the Internet may be a lifeline for some. ○ Online resources may be helpful for struggling teens because these are often anonymous. ○ Some teens use technology to meet crucial health needs. Romance : ● Sequence of malefemale relationships during childhood and adolescence (Dunphy, 1963): ○ Groups of friends, exclusively one sex or the other. ○ A loose association of girls and boys, with public interactions within a crowd. ○ Small mixedsex groups of the advanced members of the crowd. ○ Formation of couples, with private intimacies. ● First Love: ○ First romances appear in high school and rarely last more than a year. ○ Girls claim a steady partner more often than boys do. ○ Breakups and unreciprocated crushes are common. ○ Adolescents are crushed by rejection and sometimes contemplate revenge or suicide. ● SameSex Romances: ○ Currently in North American and Western Europe, not just two but many gender roles and sexual orientations are evident. ○ Variants (via research) reflect culture, cohort, and survey construction. ● Sexual Orientation: ○ Refers to whether a person is sexually and romantically attracted to others of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both sexes; a person’s erotic desires. ○ Currently in North American and Western Europe, not just two discrete orientations (homosexual and heterosexual) but a range of orientationsincluding bisexual, asexual, most;y homosexual, adamantly heterosexual, and transgender are possible. Gender Dysphoria: ● An increasing number of adolescents feel that they do not identify with their biological sex. ● Some children suffer from feeling they do not match their biological sex. ● These children may be diagnosed with gender dysphoria, a new DSM5 diagnosis that describes the distress individuals may feel as a consequence of feeling that they are in “the wrong body.” Sex Education: ● From The Media: ○ Correlation between exposure to media sex and adolescent sexual initiation. ● From Parents: ○ Many parents wait too long, avoid specifics, and are uninformed about adolescent’s relationships. ○ Warm, open communication is effective. ● From Peers: ○ Adolescent sexual behavior is strongly influenced by peers, especially when parents are silent, forbidding, or vague. ○ Specifics of peer education depend on the group: All members of a clique may be virgins, or all may be sexually active. ○ Only about half of U.S. adolescent couples discuss issues such as pregnancy and STIs and many are unable to come to a shared conclusion based on accurate information. Sex Educations In School: ● From Educators: ○ U.S. parents want uptodate sex education for their adolescents. ○ Timing and content vary by state and community. ○ Sex education varies by nations. ○ Abstinenceonly programs were not successful. Sadness And Anger: ● Depression: ○ Selfesteem for boys and girls dips at puberty. ○ Signs of depression are common. ○ Level of family and peer support is influential. ○ Cultural contexts are influential; familism. ● Clinical Depression: ○ Feelings of hopelessness, lethargy, and worthlessness that last two weeks or more. ○ Varied causal factors: Biological and psychological stress; genes; rumination with peers. Suicide: ● Statistic : ○ The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. ○ More than onethird (36%) of U.S. high school girls felt so hopeless that they stopped doing some usual activities for two weeks or more in the previous year. ○ Over nineteen percent (onefifth) seriously thought about suicide. ○ Corresponding rates for boys were 22% and 12.5%. ● Gender Differences In Suicide: ○ Suicide rate among male teenagers in the U.S. is four times higher than the rate for female teenagers. ● Reasons For This Difference: ○ Male culture that shame those who attempt suicide but fail. ○ Methods: males tend to shoot themselves; females swallow pills or hang themselves. ○ Girls tend to ruminate while boys withdraw. Hope And Anger: ● Adolescents and young adults everywhere demonstrate against adult authority, with varied strategies and results. Delinquency And Disobedience: ● Behaviors ○ Externalizing and internalizing behavior are more closely connected in adolescence than at any other age. ● Breaking The Law: ○ Prevalence and incidence of criminal activities more common in adolescence. ○ About onefourth of young lawbreakers caught. ○ Most adolescents obey the law. ● Increased anger during puberty is normal but most adolescents express their anger in acceptable ways. ○ LifeCoursePersistent Offender: ■ A person whose criminal activity typically begins in early adolescence and continues throughout life; a career criminal. ○ AdolescenceLimited Offender: ■ A person whose criminal activity stops by age 21. ● Predicting Delinquency: ○ Pathways To Adolescent Crime: ■ Stubbornness → Defiance. ■ Shoplifting → Arson And Burglary. ■ Bullying → Assault, Rape, And Murder. Drug Use And Abuse Variations In Drug Use: ● Age Trends: ○ Drug use becomes widespread from age 10 to 25 and then decreases. ○ Drug use before age 18 is the best predictor of later drug use. ● Variations By Place: ○ Nations have markedly different rates of adolescent drug use, even nations with common boundaries. ○ These variations are partly due to differing laws around the world. ● Variations By Generation: ○ Adolescent culture may have a greater effect on drug taking behavior than laws do. ○ Most adolescents in the U.S. have experimented with drug use and say that they could find illegal drugs if they tried. ○ Most U.S. adolescents are not regular drug users and about 20% never use any drugs. ○ Rate vary from state to state. ● Variations By Gender: ○ Adolescent boys generally use more drugs and use them more often. ○ Gender differences are reinforced by social construction about proper male and female behavior. Harm From Drugs: ● Tobacco: ○ Slows down growth (impairs digestion, nutrition, and appetite). ○ Reduced the appetite. ○ Causes protein and vitamin deficiencies caused. ○ Can damage developing hearts, lungs, brains, and reproductive systems. ● Alcohol: ○ Most frequently abused drugs among North American teenagers. ○ Heavily drinking may permanently impair memory and selfcontrol by damaging the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. ○ Alcohol allows momentary denial of problems → when problems get worse because they have been ignored, more alcohol is needed. ○ Denial can have serious consequences. ● Marijuana: ○ Adolescents who regularly smoke marijuana are more likely to drop out of school, become teenage parents, and be unemployed. ○ Marijuana affects memory, language proficiency, and motivation. Preventing Drug Abuse What Works? ● Scare Tactics May Increase Drug Use: ○ The advertisements make drugs seem exciting. ○ Adolescents recognize the exaggeration. ○ The ads give some teenagers ideas about way to show defiance. ● Advertising Campaigns Against Teen Smoking: ○ Antismoking announcements produced by cigarette companies increase use. ● Generational Forgetting: ○ The idea that each new generation forgets what the previous generation learned. As used here, the term refers to knowledge about the harm drugs can do. ● Massive Ad Campaigns: ○ Have worked in FL and CA where teen smoking was cut by almost 50%. ● Changing The Social Context: ○ Higher prices, targeted warning, better law enforcement has cut down smoking. ● Drug use is progressive and first use is usually social. ● Few adolescent drug users are addicts but occasional use can lead to addiction. ● The younger a person is when beginning drug use, the more likely addiction will occur. ● Occasional drug use excited the limbic system and interferes with the prefrontal cortex → drug users are more emotional and less reflective.
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