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by: Nia Notetaker


Nia Notetaker
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Nia Notetaker on Thursday December 17, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PHIL 230E at Ohio Dominican University taught by MELISSA A BRISTOW in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 347 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS in PHIL-Philosophy at Ohio Dominican University.


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Date Created: 12/17/15
Ethical Relativism Quiz A 1 The strengths of moral nihilism moral skepticism and moral subjectivism is their ability to solve conflicts Ethical 2 Relativism can solve conflicts 3 Which of the moral theories below are most often supported in ethical theories 4 Which of the theories below would be considered a descriptive theory 5 With respect to the example given about the Kwakiutl Indians of the Pacific Northwest what did the chief do that made him feel he had avenged the death of his sister and niece 6 A true ethical relativist would hold that we had and have no right to criticize what went on in Nazi Germany 7 What happened to Amina Lawal Check your understanding Part 2 Midterm 1 2 True or False The statement below is a proper application of Plato39s Chariot Analogy quotSince it is a Friday night and the car next to him dared him to race he gunned it at the green light I mean it39s the weekend right Time to let loose a bit lfwe use Plato39s chariot analogy what part of the mind is quotdrivingquot the chariot when our mind is impaired by alcohol drugs or other factors that cloud our ability to reason True or False The statement below is a proper application of Aristotle39s Golden Mean theory quotWhen he saw the man had a gun and was clearly agitated he decided it was best to lie and tell him what he wanted to hear so he could try to safely get out of the situationquot 4 According to Plato39s chariot analogy what is the most powerful force of our mind 5 TF Socrates Plato and Aristotle argue that when we are using our reason properly we will cause less harm to ourselves and others According to Aristotle how does a person become virtuous TFBefore there was television the impact of stories on the mind was not a major concern The growth of media and technology make this a new ethical issue The following statement reflects which philosopher39s views on the psychological impact of violence in stories quotSometimes it is fun to watch dark stories and live vicariously through the character It can help get in touch with and release certain pentup negative emotions by only mentally imagining carrying out some of the actions that the character does without ever actually acting that way in reality It can be a healthy release of emotions for the mindquot TFAccording to Aristotle being virtuous makes humans happier 10 TFAristotle39s Golden Mean theory argues that we should always behave and act in a way that lies exactly between two extremes Check You Understanding Part 1 Mid Term 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 TF The law is always an accurate reflection of what a society has agreed is morally correct TF Parables are allegorical stories primarily designed for children Which of the moral theories below claims that there is no such thing as moral truth TF Plato39s allegory suggests that there are varying levels of moral accountability based on the level of knowledge and understanding a person has What theory would someone endorse if they believed that that there are some things that are relative but also some things that are universally morally right or wrong TF The intention of ethical relativism is to celebrate the individual39s right to define morality for his or herself We often unfairly judge other people based on What fallacy is the statement below committing quotEveryone 39Googles39 their homework answers todayquot According to both Socrates and Plato the key to virtue is When a judge andorjury is trying to decide what an appropriate punishment or fair compensation may be for a legal crime they often are also trying to determine the level of moral accountability What was the prevailing moral attitude during Socrates39 time Socrates claim that quotEvil is ignorancequot is an attempt to justify and forgive when people cause harm What fallacy is the statement below committing quotPolitician X had an affair on his wife so how can we trust him to deal properly with international relationsquot The quotFaustian Themequot is related to what archetypal story theme TFSickness and death are always considered natural evils False TFArchetypal symbols images and themes are said to apply to all of humanity When we gain moral insight from a direct experience we have gained wisdom Originating from the Greek definition a philosopher is a quotlover of Whenever we say someone is or behaving quotgoodquot or quotbadquot we are always referring to their moral character TFSomeone can commit a moral crime and not a legal crime and vice versa 21 Is the following statement an example of what is reflected in descriptive or normative ethics TF quotIn traditional Native American culture hunting an animal is done with a certain level of respect towards the animal and gratitude for its sacrificequot From the perspective of philosophy views are a matter of 22 23 TFBased on Plato39s allegory once a person is unshackled obtaining freedom is easy TFPeople with the same religious belief systems always agree 100 on the moral status of an issue TFSymbolic stories such as cartoons fantasy or science fiction are too farfetched and unrealistic for us to gain insight about the real world The main debate with ethical relativism is with regards to 24 25 26 27 Egoism Quiz A F thDN Some scholars hold that proper moral conduct consists of quotlooking out for number onequot According to psychological egoism self sacrifice is selfish andor selfinterested Psychological egoism is a normative theory Gyges chose to keep and use the ring that granted him invisibility According to Glaucon who will be happier the unjust person who schemes and gets away with everything or the just person who never tries to get away with anything Philosopher Thomas Hobbes rejected Glaucon39s theory of selfinterest In the description given to clarify terms the term refers to thinking about what is best for us A dog waking up his owners during a house fire would fit into the Selfish Gene Theory argument Utilitarianism Quiz A NA 0quot Utilitarianism is a form of During Jeremy Bentham39s time conditions for the lower classes were significantly improving Contemporary utilitarian Peter Singer is a central figure in According to John Stuart Mill who is to say which pleasures are higher vs lower If something is considered to have value for its own sake rather than what purpose it serves its value is considered In the excerpt A Convenient Truth what would be the purpose of Ashley39s surgery and hormone treatment In the short story The Blacksmith and the Baker who committed a murder Ch 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 8 In the excerpt from The Brothers Karamozov an 8yearold threw a stone that hurt the paw of the king39s favorite hound 9 In the summary from Extreme Measures the first moral dilemma Guy is presented with leads him to choose to perform surgery on whom 10 In the summary of The Invention of Lying where was Mark when he realized he could get away with a lie and use it to his advantage eck your understanding Final Exam Part 1 TFAccording to psychological egoism we are always fully aware and conscious of our motives TFWhen applying calculations and principle utilitarians will always reach the same moral conclusions lf psychological egoism is true then why do some parents care for their children while others neglect them For utilitarians actions have TF Ethical egoism is a descriptive theory Stanley Milgram was interested in studying human nature as provoked by the horrors of what TFEthical egoism is a consequentialist theory TFquotOught implies canquot implies that I am still morally obligated to do certain actions even if I am not physically andor psychologically capable of doing them What theory holds that there is something good and caring deep down in every human being Consequentiialist theories are primarily focused on the shortterm consequence How long did Zimbardo39s prison experiment last showing how quickly abuse can escalate TFEthical egoism holds that it is not morally wrong to look out for your own self andor group before others Glaucon39s arguments represented the position of TFln his final analysis Richard Dawkins does not believe we should be altruistic towards strangers Psychological egoism states that it is themselves in some way or another Glaucon believed what Gyges did with the ring was Psychological and ethical egoism are For consequentialist theories moral status of an action TFAn animal39s welfare would be considered in utilitarian moral calculations TFStanley Milgram39s conclusion from his obedience experiment was that people who already had bad moralsvalues were more likely to fall victim to following authority value O 1 2 3 4 5 for humans to not think of 6 7 8 theones are central to determining the 9 0 Checking your undersatnding part 2 Final Exam 901999 4900051 14 15 16 17 18 Immanuel Kant was indirectly attempting to defend the principles of Christianity by appeaHngto A Convenient Truth by Peter Singer Lawyer Z The main issue is if we allow this surgery for Ashley to take place what could the longterm consequences be Setting aside the benefits gained by Ashley and her family what will consenting to this procedure in the courts mean for the future of disabled children Where will the line be drawn Should the courts grant that all disabled children if hormones and surgeries allow can make caring for them easier on their parents then that right shall be granted Who will fall below the bar Granting the parents this right may lead to even more requests for surgeries of this nature endangering all children with even mild disabilities with potentially unwarranted medical interventions The above argument reflects According to Frans de Waal what is more fundamental TF Modern Philosophy refers to the most contemporary era in philosophy A Convenient Truth by Peter Singer Lawyer Q While certain disabilities may leave select humans with a lower capacity for rational thought than the average member of the human race they are still a member of our species and should be treated with the same level of respect and dignity that we expect to be afforded to us all as human beings Is this how we want to consent to treat each other when we become a burden to our families Allowing this surgery reduces human beings with disabilities to being treated as mere objects who are able to be adjusted by science to the needs of others for the sake of sheer convenience The above argument reflects According to deontology actions have TFEthical altruism is a consequentialist theory Which moral theory may justify some cases of slavery child labor and human sacrifice value TFAccording to JeanJacques Rousseau civilization has helped humans feel more connected TFFor Kant all you need are good intentions to make an action morally right 12 13 TFThe issue of abortion relates to defining a being39s status of personhood A human being may be robbed of their moral andor legal rights because their status of personhood is challenged based on their For utilitarians actions have TFDeontology is a form of consequentialism Lawyer X Ashley and her family already live a very stressful existence due to her unfortunate disability Not only will Ashley never enjoy the life of a normal little girl nor woman we at least have the opportunity to relieve her of the unnecessary suffering that puberty will add to her current comfort level In addition Ashley s parents will be caring for her into their elder years and will not always be strong enough to care for her as they are able to now There is no practical need for Ashley to reach full development but there are countless practical reasons for the sake of her parents as well as for her own that she should receive the hormone treatments and surgery The above argument reflects TFLuckily in the 21st century humans are no longer robbed of their status of personhood According to Frans de Waal warfare has made humans evolve towards being more selfish value 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 TFSince there are so many possible calculations based on a number of variables utilitarianism is a form of relativism TFln utilitarian calculations people have value for their own sake regardless of the function or purpose they serve TFThe issue of personhood can relate to nonhumans Which theory may agree that it is morally justified to be friends with someone solely for the purpose of personal benefit TFJeremy Bentham constructed utilitarianism in hopes it would increase equality and reduce suffering TFAccording to Richard Taylor reason has no valid role in moral decisionmaking Traditionally has been seen by philosophers as the key to discovering truth TFThe theory of emotionalism argues that human ability for sympathy and compassion is a learned trait


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