civ 31211 - HIST 1700 - 02
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Date Created: 12/18/15
g American Music Therapy Association quot9 w 8455 Colesville Rd Ste 1000 0 Silver Spring Maryland 20910 V Tel 301 5893300 0 Fax 301 5895175 wwwmusictherapyorg Special Education Music Therapy Research and EvidenceBased Practice Support STATEMENT OF PURPOSE Music therapy is a wellestablished professional health discipline that uses music as the therapeutic stimulus to achieve nonmusical treatment goals In special education and settings serving persons with special needs music therapists utilize music as an educational related service to promote learning and skill acquisition Research supports connections between speech and singing rhythm and motor behavior memory for song and memory for academic material and overall ability of preferred music to enhance mood attention and behavior to optimize the student s ability to learn and interact Rhythmic movement helps develop gross motor skills mobility agility balance coordination as well as respiration patterns and muscular relaxation Because music is reinforcing it can be used to motivate movements or structure exercises that are prescribed in physical rehabilitation Involvement in music may provide a distraction from the pain discomfort and anxiety often associated with some physical disabilities Music is processed by a different area of the brain than speech and language hence a child may be able to more easily absorb information and skills presented with music Therefore one of the purposes of music therapy for persons with special needs is to provide the student with an initial assist using melodic and rhythmic strategies followed by fading of musical cues to aid in generalization and transfer to other learning environments Recognized as a related service music therapy serves as an integral component in helping the child with special needs attain educational goals identified by hisher IEP team either through direct or consultant services STANDARDIZATION Music therapy sessions are documented in a treatment plan and delivered in accordance with standards of practice Music selections and certain active music making activities are modified for client preferences and individualized needs Toolkits are available via AMTA and publications REPLICATION Yes has also been used with different providers and populations The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA 20 USC 1400 provides that eligible children and youth with disabilities shall receive special education and related services The law includes a definition of related services that the US Department of Education notes is not exhaustive In addition in June 2010 the US Department of Education issued a Questions and Answers document on Individualized Education Programs IEPs Evaluations and Reevaluations This document provides guidance representing the interpretation of the Department and clarifies the recognition of music therapy as a related service under IDEA American Music Therapy Association 1 OUTCOMES Increased attention Decreased selfstimulation Improved cognitive functioning Increased socialization Successful and safe selfexpression O 0 Improved behavior Enhanced auditory processing Decreased agitation Improved receptiveexpressive language Enhanced sensorymotor skills OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH Music therapy clients significantly improved on the AggressionHostility scale of Achenbach s Teacher s Report Form suggesting that group music therapy can facilitate selfexpression and provide a channel for transforming frustration anger and aggression into the experience of creativity and selfmastery Depressed youth listening to music experienced a signi cant decrease in stress hormone cortisol levels and most adolescents shifted toward left frontal EEG activation associated with positive affect 0 Field T Martinez A Nawrocki T Pickens J Fox N A amp Schanberg S 1998 Music shifts frontal EEG in depressed adolescents Adolescence 33 129 109 116 0 Krakouer L Houghton 8 Douglas G amp West J 2001 The efficacy of music therapy in effecting behaviour change in persons with Cerebral Palsy International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation 6 29 37 0 Montello L M amp Coons E E 1998 Effect of active versus passive group music therapy on preadolescents with emotional learning and behavioral disorders Journal of Music Therapy 35 49 67 Trends regarding evidencebased review and recommendations regarding assessment and referral criteria based on current research and clinical evidence are emerging Music therapy is a particularly important intervention for children with special needs to engage and foster their capacity for exibility creativity variability and tolerance of change in order to balance the more structured and behaviorally driven education required in school settings One forthcoming clinical trial by the University of Rochester is promising in the area of music therapy for procedural support among children with CP 0 Sahler O J et al Music therapy during botulinum injections 2002 2006 wwwClinicalTrials gov Identifier NCT00178217 Report forthcoming 0 Wigram T 2002 Indications in music therapy British Journal of Music Therapy 161 11 28 An overall positive direction is noted in metaanalytic reviews of the literature on the subject of music therapy and learning among special needs children This effect is positive in terms of an array of outcomes related to both therapeutic and speci c educational goals Variations for effect size occur within the broad category of the special education disorders and tend to re ect the idiosyncratic nature of the disorders among individuals This is typical across allied health disciplines 0 Standley J M 1996 A metaanalysis on the effects of music as reinforcement for educationtherapy objectives Journal of Research in Music Education 442 105 133 American Music Therapy Association 2 339 Recent research explored the effect of different levels of preintentional and intentional communication development on musical interaction with children with severe and multiple disabilities This work confirmed that children with cerebral palsy at different levels of communication development varied in their abilities to initiate anticipate and sustain participation in turn taking and to maintain attention to and engagement in the interaction 0 Rainey Perry M M 2003 Relating improvisational music therapy with severely and multiply disabled children to communication development Journal of Music Therapy 403 227 246 v Physical functioning and the use of music therapy is frequently paired with other allied health interventions Some newer trends include the use of vibroacoustic therapy techniques with children with physical disabilities Findings reveal some individuals demonstrate shortterm improvement however further study is needed 0 Kvam M H 1997 The effect of vibroacoustic therapy Physiotherapy 836 290 295 0 Thaut M H Hurt C P Dragan D amp McIntosh G C 1998 Rhythmic entrainment of gait patterns in children with cerebral palsy Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 4078 15 v Preschool children in an early intervention music therapy program show high ontask behavior during sessions and a high success rate in language development social skills cognitive concepts motor skills and music knowledge 0 Standley J M amp J E Hughes 1996 Documenting developmentally appropriate objectives and benefits of a music therapy program for early intervention A behavioral analysis Music Therapy Perspectives 142 87 94 v Research demonstrates the efficacy of music used in the curriculum to enhance literacy skills Musical cueing is effective to improve word recognition logo identification print concepts and prewriting skills of children in early intervention programs Shared reading paired with song rehearsal of text facilitates greater text accuracy than spoken rehearsal with kindergarten students 0 Colwell C M 1994 Therapeutic applications of music in the whole language kindergarten Journal of Music Therapy 314 238 247 0 Register D 2001 The effects of an early intervention music curriculum on prereading writing Journal of Music Therapy 383 239 248 0 Standley J amp Hughes J 1997 Evaluation of an early intervention music curriculum for enhancing prereadingwriting skills Music Therapy Perspectives 15 79 86 v Selected verbal language and speech skills are enhanced through music activities in special education populations Musical presentation of new vocabulary words results in an increased number of words learned and transferred in elementary schoolage children Music is effective as a prompt and reinforcer to increase verbal response in preschoolage children with limited verbal communication American Music Therapy Association 3 o Braithwaite M amp J Sigafoos 1998 Effects of social versus musical antecedents on communication responsiveness in five children with developmental disabilities Journal of Music Therapy 352 88 104 3 Research supports the use of music to structure and organize information in order to increase learning and retention of number concepts Sequential verbal information such as telephone numbers and multiplication tables set to melodic and rhythmic patterns are more effectively memorized and recalled than through nonmusic presentation 0 Claussen D amp Thaut M 1997 Music as a mnemonic device for children with learning disabilities Canadian Journal of Music Therapy 5 55 66 0 Peterson D A Thaut M H Sena K M O Shea G amp McIntosh G C 2005 Music modulates neural network synchronizations in verbal learning Proceedings Society for Neuroscience 19220 0 Thaut M H Peterson D A amp McIntosh G C 2005 Temporal entrainment of cognitive function Musical mnemonics induce brain plasticity and oscillatory synchrony in neural networks underlying memory Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1060 243 254 0 Wolfe D amp Hom C 1993 Use of melodies as structural prompts for learning and retention of sequential verbal information by preschool students Journal of Music Therapy 302 100 118 v Musicfacilitated interactions and structured instrument playing are effective to improve social skills in schoolage populations Social problem solving skills in 5year old students are increased on a longterm basis through creative musical activities Positive affect induced by music helps to improve social problem solving skills in middle school students 0 Bryan T SullivanBurstein K amp Mathur S 1998 The in uence of affect on social information processing Journal of Learning Disabilities 315 418 426 0 Ulfarsdottir L amp Erwin P 1999 The in uence of music on social cognitive skills The Arts in Psychotherapy 262 81 84 v Supporting and foundational references on the effectiveness of music therapy among children with special needs are numerous and important in demonstrating the commitment to ongoing research to serve children with disabilities 0 Berel M 1993 Music therapy and music education for the handicapped St Louis MO MMB Music 0 BirdenshawFleming L 1993 Music for all Toronto Gordon V Thompson 0 Bixler J W 1968 Music therapy practices for the child with cerebral palsy In E T Gaston Ed Music therapy New York Macmillan o Herman F 1985 Music therapy for the young child with cerebral palsy who uses Blissymbolics Music Therapy 5 28 36 0 Herron C J 1975 Some effects of instrumental music training on cerebral palsied children Journal of Music Therapy 7 55 58 American Music Therapy Association 4 0 Ford S C 1984 Music therapy for cerebral palsied children Music Therapy Perspectives 1 8 13 0 James M R 1986 Neurophysical treatment of cerebral palsy Music Therapy Perspectives 3 5 8 0 Palmer M F amp Zerbe L E 1954 Control of athetotic tremors by sound control In E Podolsky Ed Music therapy New York Philosophical Library 0 Rudenberg M 1982 Music therapy for handicapped children Orthopedically handicapped Washington DC National Association for Music Therapy 0 Scartelli J P 1982 The effect of sedative music on electromyography biofeedback assisted relaxation training of spastic cerebral palsied adults Journal of Music Therapy 1 9 210 218 0 Schnieder E H 1968 Music therapy for the cerebral palsied In E T Gaston Ed Music therapy New York Macmillan o Thaut M H 1985 The use of auditory rhythm and rhythmic speech to aid temporal muscular control in children With gross motor dysfunction Journal of Music Therapy 22 108 128 0 Thaut M H DeMartin M amp Sanes J N 2005 Brain networks for integrative rhythm formation during symmetric and asymmetric acoustically paced movements Experimental Brain Research 0 Walmsley R P Crichton L amp Droog D 1981 Music as a feedback mechanism for teaching head control to severely handicapped children A pilot study Developmental Medicine amp Child Neurology 236 739 746 0 Wigram T 1997 The effect of vibro acoustic therapy on multiply handicapped adults With high muscle tone and spasticity In T Wigram amp C Dileo Eds Music vibration and health Cherry Hill NJ Jeffrey Books 0 Wolfe D E 1980 The effect of automated interrupted music on head positioning of cerebral palsied individuals Journal of Music Therapy 17 184 206 American Music Therapy Association 5
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