HRTM 270-class notes
HRTM 270-class notes HRTM 270 001
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HRTM 270 001
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This 29 page Bundle was uploaded by Briana Coleman on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HRTM 270 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Chef Knapp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Quantity Food Production in Hospitality at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
HRTM 270 01/27/2016 ServSafe ▯ ▯ Chapter 2 ▯ General Information About Bacteria Detection: o Cant be seen, smelled, or tasted Growth: o Will grow rapidly if conditions are correct o Some can change into spores to keep from dying when they don’t have enough food o Some make toxins in food as they grow and die Prevention o Control time and temperature What bacteria needs to grow o Food- high in starch or proteins o Acidity o Temperature- between 41 degrees and 135 degrees(danger zone) 70 degrees is super danger zone o Time o Oxygen o Moisture ▯ Bacillus Cereus Cooked vegetables o Watery diarrhea ▯ Listeria Monocytogenes Ready to eat meats o Miscarriages in pregnant women o Pneumonia, meningitis in newborns ▯ Enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin- producing E. coli Ground beef (raw and undercooked) Contaminated produce o Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and kidney failure ▯ Campylobacter jejuni Poultry o Diarrhea Contaminated water o Abdominal cramps Meat o Fever Stews/gravies o Vomiting o Headaches ▯ Clostridium perfringens Meat o Diarrhea Poultry o Severe stomach pains Stews/gravies ▯ Clostridium botulinum Incorrectly canned food o Nausea and vomiting ▯ Salmonella Chicken and eggs o Diarrhea ▯ Shigella spp Salads containing TCS food o Potato salad, etc. ▯ Staphyloccus Salads ▯ Vibrio Oysters from contaminated water ▯ ▯ Viruses ▯ Hepatits A Ready to eat food and shellfish o Jaundice o Fever o Nausea ▯ Norovirus Ready to eat food shellfish o Vomiting o Diarrhea o Nausea o Stomach cramps Major illnesses caused by parasites ▯ Anisakis simplex Raw and undercooked fish ▯ Cryptosporidium parvum Contaminated water Produce o Diarrhea o Stomach cramps o Nausea o Weight loss ▯ Giardia duodenalis Produce Incorrectly treated water o Fever o Diarrhea o Nausea ▯ Cyclospora cayetanensis Produce such as berries, lettuce, or basil washed with incorrectly treated water o Nausea o Diarrhea alternating with constipation ▯ Fungi ▯ Mold Spoil food and sometimes cause illness Some produce toxins Grows well in almost any condition ▯ Yeast Can spoil food quickly May produce a smell or taste of alcohol as it spoils food May look like a white or pink discoloration or slime and may bubble Grow well in acidic food with little moisture ▯ Biological Toxins Naturally occur in certain plants, mushrooms ▯ Major fish toxins Histamine o Scombroid poisoning Tuna Bonitio Mackerel Mahimahi Ciguatoxin o Ciguatera Fish poisoning Grouper Saxitoxin o Shellfish poisoning ▯ ▯ Chapter 3 ▯ Contaminants: Kitchenware made from pewter, copper MSDS --> Material Safety Data Sheets Available for every chemical in restaurant Soap, cleaners, any chemical ▯ Prevention: Only use chemicals approved for use in foodservice operations Purchase chemicals from approved, reputable suppliers Store chemicals away from prep areas, food storage areas, and service areas Chemicals must be separated from food and food contact surfaces by spacing and partitioning Chemicals must NEVER be stored above food or food-contact surfaces Use chemicals for their intended use and follow manufacturer’s directions ▯ The Deliberate Contamination of Food ▯ Groups who may attempt to contaminate food: Terrorists or activists Disgruntled current or former staf Vendors Competitors ▯ FDA defense tool A.L.E.R.T. ▯ Food Allergens A protein in a food or ingredient some people are sensitive to These proteins occur naturally When an enough of an allergen is eaten, an allergic reaction can occur ▯ Allergy Symptoms Nausea Wheezing Hives Swelling of the body Vomiting Abdominal pain Allergic Reactions ▯ Symptoms can become serious quickly A severe reaction, called anaphylaxis, can lead to death ▯ Common food allergies Milk Eggs Fish Shellfish Gluten ▯ ▯ Chapter 8 ▯ ▯ Partial Cooking during Prepping if partially cooking meat, seafood, poultry, or eggs or dishes containing these items: o never cook the food longer than 60 mins during initial cooking o cool the food immediately after initial cooking o freeze or refrigerate the food after cooling it o heat the food to at least 165 degrees for 15 seconds before selling or serving it o cool the food if it will not be served immediately or held for service ▯ Temperature Requirements for Cooling Food If you want to cool food from 135 to 70 in less then two hours o Use the remaining time to cool it to 41 degrees or lower o The total cooling time cannot be longer than 6 hours o Example: If you cool food from 135 to 70 in one hour Then you have five hours to get the food to 41 degrees or lower ▯ Methods for cooling food Cut into smaller pieces Ice bath Loosely cover food container before storing it Food can be left uncovered if safe from contaminants ▯ Reheating Must be reheated to an internal temperature of 165 for 15 seconds within 2 hours ▯ ▯ Chapter 9: The Flow of Food- Service ▯ ▯ General Rules for Holding Foods Hold TCS foods at the correct temperature o Hot food: 135 or higher o Cold food: 41 or lower Check temperatures at least every 4 hours o Throw out food not at 41 degrees or lower o Check temperatures every 2 hours to leave time for corrective action Temperature: o Never use hot holding equipment to reheat food unless it is designed for it Reheat food correctly then move it to storage Cold food can be held without temperature control for up to 6 hours IF: o It was held at 41 degrees or lower before removing it from refrigeration o It does not exceed 70 degrees during service Throw out food that exceeds this temperature o It has label specifying when the item must be thrown out Hot food can be held without temperature control for up to 4 hours IF: o It was held at 135 or higher before removing it from temp control o It has a label specifying when the item must be thrown out o It is sold, served, or thrown out within four hours ▯ ▯ Equipment Standards Look for the NFS mark when purchasing equipment: o Ensures food equipment surfaces are Nonabsorbant Smooth Corrosion resistant Easy to clean ▯ Dishwasher must be installed: So they are reachable and conveniently located In a way that keeps utensils, equip., and other food Make sure o Detergents and sanitizers used are approved by local regulatory authority o Have the ability to measure water, temp, water pressure, and cleaning and sanitizing chemical concentration o Info about the correct settings is posted on the machine ▯ Three Compartment Sinks Purchase sinks large enough to accommodate large equipment and utensils ▯ Installing and maintaining equipment Floor mounted equipment must be: o Mounted on legs at least six inches high o Sealed to a masonry base o Must be maintained regularly ▯ Water Supply Approved water mains Regularly tested Closed, portable water containers Plumbing Cross Connection o Physical link between safe water and dirty water from Drains Sewers Other water sources Backflow Backsiphonage Vacuum Breaker ▯ Sewage If there is a backup of sewage in the operation: o The afected area should be closed right away o Problem must be corrected o Thoroughly cleaned If a backup is a significant risk to food safety o Service must be stopped o Local regulatory authority must be notified ▯ Lighting Diferent areas of the facility have diferent lighting intensity requirements Local jurisdictions usually require prep areas to be brighter than others Shatter resistant light bulbs or protective covers Replace burnt out bulbs with correct size bulbs ▯ Ventilation Must be cleaned on a regular basis ▯ Garbage Remove from prep areas as quickly as possible Clean the inside and outside of containers frequently ▯ ▯ Cleaning Cleaners must be noncorrosive Safe to use Follow manufactures instructions General purpose detergents o Dirt from floors Heavy duty detergents ▯ Delimers Used on mineral deposits and other dirt that other cleaners cant remove ▯ Sanitizers Heat o Water must be at least 171 degrees o Immerse items for 30 seconds Chemicals o Chlorine o Iodine Chemical sanitizers o Food contact surfaces can be sanitized by either Soaking them in a sanitizing solution o Blend can be used Concentration o Sanitizers should be mixed with water to the correct concentration ▯ How to know when to clean and sanitize Clean in place equipment o Equipment holding and dispensing TCS food must be cleaned and sanitized everyday unless otherwise indicated by the manufacturer Final sanitizing rinse must be at least 180 degrees for high temperature machines o 165 degrees for stationary rack, single temperature machines Chemical sanitizing machines o Clean and sanitize at much lower temperatures o Follow the temperature guidelines Don’t overload dishwashers Chapter 13: Integrated Pest Management Integrated pest management (IPM) Program uses prevention measures to keep pests from entering the operation uses control measures to eliminate any pests that get inside will be successful if you work closely with a licensed pest control operator (PCO) o deny them access to the operation o deny pests food and shelter o work with a licensed PCO to eliminate pests that do enter Use approved reputable suppliers Check deliveries before they enter the operation o Refuse shipments that have pests or signs of pests (egg cases, body parts such as legs or wings) Screen windows and vetns Install self-closing devices, door sweeps, and air curtains on doors Fill holes around pipes Cover drains with grates Dispose of garbage as quickly as possible Store food and supplies quickly and correctly Clean the facility thoroughly ▯ Cockroaches Carry pathogens If you see them in daylight you may have a major infestation Strong oily odor ▯ Mice Gnaw marks Droppings Dirt tracks along walls Nests o Cloth, hair, feathers, grass, scraps of paper o In quiet places o Near food and water o Next to buildings ▯ Before choosing a PCO Check references ▯ Using and Storing Pesticides Wait until you are closed for business and staf not on site Keep them away from food and equipment ▯ ▯ Chapter 14 ▯ ▯ Government Agencies Food and drug association (FDA) USDA CDC PHS State and local regulatory authorities ▯ FDA Food Code Outlines federal recommendations for food safety regulations for the foodservice industry Created for city, county, state and tribal agencies Although FDA recommends adoption by each state it cannot require it ▯ State and Local Control: Regulatory authorities write or adopt food codes that regulate retail and foodservice operations Food codes difer widely by state or locality In large cities the local regulatory authority will probably be responsible for enforcing requirements In smaller cities or rural areas a county or state regulatory authority may be responsible for enforcement State and local health inspectors conduct food service inspections in most states ▯ Risk designations for evaluating facilities: Priority items o Prevent, eliminate, or reduce hazards o E.g. hand washing Priority foundation items o E.g. soap at hand washing station Core items o E.g. keeping equipment repaired ▯ ▯ Chapter 15 Staff food and Safety Training Gap between what staf needs to know to do their job and what they actually know Good personal hygiene ▯ ▯ Review for Exam: Cause of a foodborne illness Contaminates 5 ways food becomes unsafe time temperature abuse danger zone cross contamination characteristics of TCS foods garlic and oil mixture illness diseases o fish toxins o the big 5 prevention foods associated with Hepatitis-Jaundice FAT TOM Acidity Range-page 24 Physical vs chemical contaminants Common food allergens How to wash your hand o Identify steps Glove use DANGER ZONE Thermometers o Calibration 41 or lower if its cod 135 or higher for hot foods modified atmosphere packaging ice crystals on frozen food o thawed out then refrozen 45 degrees for live slimey or bubbly…? 6 inches of the floor equipment on tables is 4 inches how to store things in a walk in o higher the internal temperature it has to cook to, the lower it is on shelving diferent ways to thaw food minimum temperatures o poultry-165 o microwave-165 o reheating-165 o ground/injected-155 o whole chops-145 o fruits/vegetables-135 two stage cooling o 2 hours to get it down to 70 4 hours to ? service o hold food without temperature controls o cold food cant get above 70 o hot food can sit out for four hours then thrown out management systems o Enrico? Crisis team Excuse a person from working or restrict their food interaction Safe operations Floors are nonporous (don’t soak up liquid) Three compartment sink o Scrape food, wash, rinse, sanitize, air dry Plumbing o Back flow o Vacuum breaker o Air gap o Cross connection Cleaning and sanitizing o Heat or chemical sanitizing o Heat-171 degrees o Chemical-concentrations are correct o High heat dishwasher-180 cools down as it rinses MSDS o Material safety data sheets o OSHA Shellstock Pest management o Strong oily smell o Droppings o Nesting Regulations and standards o FDA- only one who inspects across state lines HASA vs traditional inspection What is the best method for training? ▯ Soups Afordable Efficient Preservation Easy ▯ Soup categories Thin/clear (consommé) Thick (bisque) ▯ Raft- used in making of consommé Used for clarification and flavor of the consommé Two proteins- egg whites and ground meat Egg white pulls impurities out of stock and meat adds flavor ▯ Bisque Has to have shellfish to be a real bisque ▯ Chowder Usually has potatoes Not as creamy as bisque ▯ Regional/National Soups ▯ ▯ Salads Tossed o Mixed base, garnish and dressing all together Composed o Base with an arranged garnish (cucumber, tomato, cheese…) Bound o Use dressing to hold all ingredients together Ex: Chicken Salad Vinaigrette- emuision of oil and vinegar o Ratio- 3:1 oil to vinegar o Honey and mustard keep emulsion together ▯ Poultry Chicken Turkey Duck Squab (pigeon) Quail Capon (castrated rooster) WOGS- whole chicken without giblets 8 cut chicken- two breasts, two thighs, two drumsticks, two wings o thigh and drum are dark meat o breast and wing are white meat has less fat and less cartilage Free Range Chicken- chicken has access to the outside Chickens who are raised in close quarters are given antibiotics to reduce the chance of the bird getting sick and infecting the other chickens in their flock o Non-antibiotic chicken are most likely not raised in close quarters Poulet Rouge- red label for chicken: non caged, allowed to roam on their own (real free range) 165 Degrees! ▯ ▯ Vegetables Blanching-cooking something quickly Shocking- stop the cooking process by putting them in cold water Al Dente- still a bit hard, not cooked completely, still has crispness to it ▯ How to break down tissue: Marinades o Acidity makes the meat tougher Flank steak Ribs Back/belly of beef is tougher Braising o Cooking for a long time on low temperature Breaks down connective tissue ▯ Inner Muscle Fat in beef High Marbling o What we base our grade on o Higher fat in muscle=higher grade beef Ribeye has the most fat No rule grade= not graded meat o Not much marbling ▯ Top three grades based on muscle fat: Prime Choice Select ▯ Aging Beef Two methods o Wet age-most common method o Dry age Green beef- when it comes out of slaughter Wrap in vacuum pack Stays in fridge for a minimum of 14 days o 28 days is more optimal ▯ ▯ Starches Potatoes o New potatoes- lower starch content o Russets-higher starch content Higher starch content is better for mashed potatoes and French fries Short grain rice-higher starch content (sticky rice) Long grain rice ▯ Two categories Round (most fish) Flat- flounder, sole, halibut, turbot ▯ Cuts of Fish Whole/ drawn Dressed (head, tail, and fin removed) Steaks Filet ▯ Shellfish Shrimp o Buy according to a count (how many shrimp per pound) Lower the count the bigger the product o Green shrimp: hasn’t been processed (still has head and shell) normally larger shrimp o PUD: peeled un-deveined (typically smaller shrimp) almost always farm raised o P/D: peeled and de-veined typically IQF(individual quick frozen) usually larger shrimp Scallops o Bay: more tender, smaller o Sea: Dry or Wet. Dry is more expensive but the better product ▯ ▯ Knife Construction Tip Cutting edge Spine Bolster Heel Tang Rivets The Blades: o Carbon steel o Stainless steel o High carbon stainless steel o Ceramic Chef’s knife or French knife Boning knife Paring knife Cleaver Slicer Serrated slicer Butcher knife or scimitar Oyster and clam knife ▯ Measuring and Portioning Devices Scales o Are necessary to determine the weight of an ingredient or portion of food Volume measures o Ladles o Portioning scoops o Measuring cups o Measuring scoops ▯ Types of Menus Static o Infrequent change A La Carte o Everything is individually sold Prix-Fixe o Select the full dinner Table D Hote o Price is based on the entrée Du Jour o Changes daily Cycle o Repeats after a full run Tasting/Flight o Theme based ▯ ▯ How menus promote Efficiency Cross utilization of product Outlets for leftovers or scrap Labor intensity Ability to change or stay current ▯ ▯ Menu Pricing Individual items have diferent food cost percetages Most food is priced on raw cost Wine menus may be based on cost plus Enlisting perceived value Keeping your range or scale tight Staying in line with the service or theme Contribution margins ▯ Menu Marketing Servers are most important marketers Descriptions Font: Type and size Color: background, foreground, photos Feel: jacket, paper, sleeves End pricing Host pricing Branding Truth in menus Nutritional information Wine pairing
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