Emotions COM 250 Imbody
Emotions COM 250 Imbody COM 250
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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Meagan Mowery on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to COM 250 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Imbody in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Nonverbal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Arousal & Anxiety 10/22/2015 Emotions What are emotions? ▯ There are several components to emotions. ▯ ▯ Physiological Changes ▯ Internal reactions ▯ Your body actually changes ▯ Heart rate, blood pressure, pupil dilation ▯ (More light to the eye, more image to the brain) ▯ ▯ Nonverbal Reactions ▯ These are the external responses to emotions: Blushing, sweating ▯ Some behaviors also change: Facial expressions, posture, gestures, vocal tone and rate. ▯ ▯ Cognitive Interpretations ▯ The truth is that these physical and nonverbal reactions can and are associated with a number of different emotions. ▯ Increased heart rate can be excitement or fear. ▯ ▯ Verbal Expression ▯ We have to tell people how we feel. ▯ Emotional Intelligence- The ability to express emotions clearly. ▯ ▯ Basic Characteristics of Emotions ▯ 1. Emotions involve subjective experiences or feelings. ▯ 2. Emotions are inherently valenced affectively. They produce positive or negative feelings, no neutral emotions. ▯ 3. Emotions involve physiological arousal. ▯ 4. Most emotions interrupt our thoughts. We have to stop what we are doing and evaluate the emotions. ▯ 5. Emotions are expressed behaviorally. We change and then express our emotions to others. ▯ 6. Emotions are adaptive. They are innate and help us to adapt to our worlds. ▯ ▯ What influences our emotional expressiveness? ▯ ▯ Culture- Individualism vs. Collectivism ▯ Collectivism seeks harmony in the group with no negative emotion that might upset the group. ▯ Individualism says that we are find with people expressing emotions, good and bad. ▯ ▯ Social Conventions ▯ Societal Rules for emotional output ▯ ▯ Fear of Self Disclosure ▯ Sharing makes us vulnerable. ▯ ▯ Emotional Contagion ▯ The process by which emotions are transferred from one person to another. ▯ ▯ 10/6/2015 ▯ ▯ Emotional Intelligence ▯ A set of abilities vital to effective functioning in interpersonal relationships and career. ▯ ▯ Step 1: Recognizing Emotions People’s own and those of others. ▯ Step 2: Emotions as Data Important insight into others and ourselves. ▯ Step 3: Thinking about Emotions Not reacting, but processing. ▯ Step 4: Managing Emotions Not displaying all of our emotions at once. ▯ ▯ Types of Emotions ▯ Primary and Mixed ▯ ▯ Many feelings need to be described in more than a single term. There can also be differing levels of intensity associated with emotions. ▯ ▯ >>>Chart<<< ▯ ▯ Nonverbal Channels of Emotion ▯ The Face ▯ Emotional display is almost always associated with facial expression. ▯ Socially stimulated and designed for viewing by others. ▯ The Voice Cues that allow us to receive information even when it is the only nonverbal cue. The Body Posture, bodily shapes, touch, and immediacy cues communicate emotions. Guidelines for Expressing Emotions We need this to be healthy: (why we communicate, we need to for good health) ▯ Recognizing your feelings Be aware of the things you feel. Monitor your thoughts and nonverbal behaviors ▯ Think about how to describe feelings Expand your vocabulary It’s like trying to describe colors with only a few words ▯ Share Multiple Feelings Our messages become more clear and accurate ▯ Accept Responsibility for your feelings I language instead of you language ▯ Thoughts cause feelings, not the people around you We like to say things, like, “My boss makes me feel disappointed.” When it is really the things we think that make us that way. It’s not the event, but the beliefs we hold about those events. Arousal & Anxiety ▯ Communication Apprehension ▯ ▯ State and Trait apprehension ▯ State: The apprehension takes place depending on the situation. (more common) ▯ Trait: This apprehension takes place across the board in all communication situations. (more rare) ▯ ▯ Three patterns experienced by those feeling CA Withdrawal: emotionally (avoid thinking about it), physically (leave situation) Reduced awareness: On the world around you. Shut out your surrounding. Become to self-aware. Focus inward. Tension: literal tension (in your muscles) ▯ ▯ Coping with CA ▯ First, maybe you haven’t felt this much, or you think you don’t, but we all get nervous in social and communication situations. ▯ ▯ But sometimes it’s a bit more than nerves ▯ How do we cope? ▯ ▯ 1. Reduce self-awareness: don’t think about the performance, think of it as a task to make it through, focus on the topic. ▯ 2. Breathe: Really. If you can focus on your breath, from your diaphragm, not your chest, you will feel better and your words will have more power. ▯ 3. Relax: Easier said than done. Warm-up for speaking like you would for exercise. ▯ 4. Be Prepared: If you are not confident in what you are about to say, it will start a snowball effect that will lead to greater anxiety. ▯ ▯ Immediacy ▯ Immediacy: Messages that signal feelings of warmth, closeness, and involvement with other people. ▯ ▯ Have to have it before you have intimacy. ▯ ▯ Four Functions of immediacy behaviors ▯ 1. Signal availability and inclusion. ▯ 2. Communicate approach and involvement. ▯ 3. Increase sensory stimulation. ▯ 4. Communicate warmth and positive affect. ▯ ▯ Components of NV Immediacy ▯ Usually, immediacy is encoded and decoded as a set of redundant and interrelated (see things that maybe that aren’t really there) behaviors. ▯ ▯ We see it as a gestalt, a combination of things even if we don’t see the entire picture. ▯ ▯ Antecedents (something that comes before) of Immediacy ▯ What causes a person to communicate immediacy? ▯ ▯ 1. The relationship- we are more likely to give immediacy cues to those with which we have a positive relationship. ▯ ▯ The behaviors increase as the relationship becomes closer but then diminishes as the relationship enters the bonding stage (marriage). ▯ ▯ 2. Individual Differences- biological and cultural differences in individuals play a role in how much or how little the individual displays immediacy behaviors. ▯ ▯ 3. The Situation- Context, baby! ▯ ▯ 4. Temporary States- the mood we are in effects the amount and quality of immediacy behaviors we exhibit. ▯ ▯ The Direct Effects Model ▯ The direct effects model suggests that in most circumstances, immediate interactants are perceived as warmer, friendlier, more intimate, and more attractive. This happens regardless of the status of the communication partner, friend or foe. ▯ ▯ This happens, as the social effects model states, because many nonverbal behaviors have such a clear social meaning that most interactants react in the same way across relationships. ▯ ▯ Example: Georgia Clooney Movie (Out of Sight) ▯ Chatting with someone you’ve only met from class. A Road Trip with someone for 8 hours (not knowing someone in the car) ▯ Intimacy ▯ ▯ Intimacy and Affection ▯ ▯ Human beings have an innate need for closeness with others. ▯ ▯ Some Dimensions of Intimacy ▯ Physical (Hug when you see a friend) ▯ Intellectual sharing (from classroom to classroom) ▯ Emotional (share with people who we are) ▯ Shared activities ▯ ▯ Gender and Culture play a role in how we share intimacy. ▯ ▯ Intimacy and Affection start with Immediacy ▯ In terms of intimacy, verbal (digital) messages are almost meaningless. ▯ The nonverbal codes are more important than verbal ones. ▯ ▯ Intimacy as affection ▯ Tactile behavior is central to the expression of affection. Facial behavior sends messages through smile, eye contact. Vocal affection is conveyed via low tones of voice and local variation. Intimacy as Contact To be intimate is to be close, to have bodily contact. Intimacy as interaction The actions begin slowly, in a mutual way. Those acting unilaterally may be perceived as negative, intrusive. Actions are synchronous and have reciprocity. It exists in the minds of the individuals and therefore may be viewed differently from partners in the same interaction. Intimacy as an Ideology The philosophy that life without intimacy is incomplete. We tend to like this ideology and come by it because we don’t want to lose feeling or a sense of community in modern life. Even though we are met with more and more people than at any point in history, we are losing more and more of the intimate behaviors that we strive for. Intimacy as Emotion We have a feeling when communicating nonverbal intimacy. The best way to describe intimacy as an emotion is the word warmth. 10/15/2015 Verbal and Nonverbal Intimacy Positive interaction patterns Both parties symmetrical or complementary. Verbal immediacy behaviors First person plural pronouns (we vs. you and me) Self Disclosure This is a barometer for the strength of a relationship. Self Disclosure- the process of deliberately reveling information about oneself that is significant and that would not normally be known by others. There are three parts of Self-Disclosure: It must be deliberate- it can not be an accident, or something mentioned in passing It must be significant- these are not trivial facts about you, like, “I like to roller skate.” It must not be known by others- there’s nothing notable about telling people if you are happy if they can clearly see it. Cognitive Valence Theory The process of intimacy exchange across a variety of relationships. Relationships don’t just happen; they develop from numerous positive interactions. All relationships begin with increased nonverbal immediacy. Cognitive Schemata 1. Cultural Schemata- Culturally inappropriate immediacy behaviors are negatively valenced by interactions partners. 2. Self Schemata- Personality, personal communication style. 3. Interpersonal Schemata- the evaluation of another person’s qualities. 4. Relational Schemata- the shift from you and me to US. Relational type and relational trajectory. 5. Situational Schemata- Context 6. State Schemata- Moods Relational Outcomes Positive valence towards interactants. Positive actions will be reciprocated. Positive actions create closeness with partner. Dialectical Perspectives Dialectical Tensions: conflicts that arise when two opposing or incompatible forces exist simultaneously. Connection vs. Autonomy We want to be a part of a unit, but at the same time we want to be our selves. Predictability vs. Novelty Stability is important but at the same time we don’t want to be in a rut or stale. Openness vs. Privacy We want to share, but at the same time keep something to ourselves. Risk vs. Reward Although trust must be earned, all relationships require a leap of faith. Managing Dialectal Tensions Tannen says to Reframe in order to deal with tensions. Most of these exist in a false dichotomy.
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